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Condensing Pot

s = 7.33 lb/ft3 Po = 2,425 psig

H = 33

C

L

amb = 105 °F (41°C)

w = 35.49 lb/ft3 o = 61.93 lb/ft3

hmin = 1.5 in.

V

Transmitter

level- drum

H L

differential pressure transmitter must take into

Steam Drum Level is both a critical and difficult account certain physical properties of the fluid.

measurement to make. Control of the water level in

the drum must be precise. A water level that is too • The Steam drum contains a two-phase

high can result in water carryover into the steam mixture of water and steam at saturation

piping. A level that is too low can expose the conditions.

generating tubes (down comers), preventing the • The densities of water and steam vary with

water in the drum from cooling the furnace tubes, saturation temperature or pressure.

possibly damaging them. • The density of saturated steam above water

Several factors make this measurement difficult to must be considered, as well as the density of

saturated water in the drum.

obtain. The steam drum itself may not be perfectly

level, and even at steady state conditions, This application data sheet offers a method for

considerable turbulence in the drum can cause the calibrating transmitters that takes into account

level to fluctuated. In addition, a changing rate of these factors.

water inflow and steam outflow adds to the

potential for measurement error.

Boiler Drum Level Transmitter Calibration

process variables (shown in Figure 1):

Figure 1 shows a simplified sketch of the process. Po = Static pressure in the steam drum at the top

Note that level, as we define it, is measured in units tap

of length—in this case, inches. Differential pressure,

on the other hand, is measured in inches of water Ph = Static pressure at the high side of the

column differential pressure. The two are transmitter

sometimes confused, but do not refer to the same Pl = Static pressure at the low side of the

thing transmitter

A column of water one inch high under one set of s = Density of saturated steam at operating

operating conditions dose not exert the same conditions

hydrostatic head pressure as a column of water of

the same height under another set of conditions. w = Density of saturate water at operating

Our objective is to measure differential pressure conditions

and “read” it as a unit of length. o = Density of water in the “wet” or reference leg

The steps necessary to define the transmitter H = Distance between the high and low drum

calibration use the thermodynamic operating taps

conditions of pressure and temperature, the

geometry of the steam drum, and the equation of h = Drum water level (measured from the bottom

continuity. Note that this calibration assumes only tap)

one set of operation conditions. In real practice, hmax = Maximum water level allowed (measured

operating parameters change with boiler load and from the bottom tap)

other factors, such as ambient temperature. For

that reason, three element feedwater control hmin =Minimum water level allowed (measured

systems often require that the drum level from the bottom tap)

measurement be compensated for deviations from C

design operating drum pressure. It is also L =Center line of the steam drum

convenient to know the drum level during start-up V =Vertical distance from the bottom tap to the

of the plant—that is, from 0 psig to full operating transmitter

pressure. This dynamic pressure and temperature

compensation would require a separate

computational device.

2 www.rosemount.com

www.rosemount.com

Rosemount Inc.

The specific volume of the saturated water at

From the equation of continuity: 2,425 psig is 0.02817 ft3/lb, w = 35.49 lb/ft3

Ph = Po +(H – h) (s) + h(w) + V(o)

The specific volume of the saturated steam at

Pl = Po + H( o) + V(o) 2,425 psig is 0.1364 ft3/lb, s = 7.33 lb/ft3

The specific volume of the saturated water at

Thus, P = H(s – o) + h(w – s) 105 °F is 0.01615, o = 61.93 lb/ft3.

This equation calculates the differential pressure on To convert all units to consistent inches of water

the transmitter. The differential pressure is highest column, correct the above formula to reference

when the drum water level is lowest, and the conditions. to do this, divide by o.

differential pressure is lowest when the level is At hmin the transmitter output will be 4mA dc.

highest. Therefore, the transmitter zero must be

elevated so that an increasing level results in an P = (H[s – o] + hmin [w – s]) ÷ o

increasing output signal. = [33(7.33 – 61.93) + 1.5(35.49 – 7.33)] ÷ 61.93

To perform the calibration, use a table of

thermodynamic properties of steam and the P = –28.41 inH2O

following steps:

This is the required zero elevation of the

1. Determine hmin and hmax. These are the transmitter.

minimum and maximum water levels allowed

for safe operation of the boiler. They are At hmax: (Transmitter output will be 20 mA dc)

measured from the bottom tap of the steam

P = [33(7.33 – 61.93) + 31.5(35.49 – 7.33)] ÷

drum. 61.93

2. Using the saturated steam tables, find the

P = –14.77 inH2O

values of w and s at the drum operating

pressure. For o use the value for compressed Therefore, the span of the transmitter:

water in the reference (wet) leg at the expected 28.41 – 14.77 = 13.64 inH2O Differential

ambient temperature and the drum operating Pressure

pressure. If the compressed water table is not

available use the reciprocal of the specific Finally check the zero elevation and span against

volume of saturated water at the ambient the transmitter specifications to ensure the chosen

temperature. Since water is nearly transmitter can be calibrated to the required values.

incompressible, this provides reasonable

accuracy for the drum measurement. SUMMARY

3. For this example assume: With the drum level transmitter properly

• The inside diameter of the steam drum is 60 calibrated, the midpoint of the actual readout range,

inches typically –15 to 15 inches, is zero, or mid-scale. This

• H = 33 inches (83.82 cm) generally corresponds to the desired set point for

the drum level controller. However, in some

• Po = 2,425 psig (design operating pressure) applications the set point may be less than zero and

• Tambient = 105 °F (41 °C) depends on the user’s experience with a particular

• hmin = 1.5 inches (3.81 cm) boiler.

• hmax = 31.5 inches (80.01 cm) If you have any questions about selecting

• The desired level readout is –15 to 15 inches transmitters for drum level or other applications,

(a standard indicator faceplate range) please contact your Rosemount representative.

REFERENCES

Part no. 00809-0100-4256/4257 Model 1151DP

Alphaline® Differential and High Differential

Pressure Transmitters

Part no. 00800-0100-3011 Level Measurement

www.rosemount.com

www.rosemount.com 3

Drum Level Worksheet

Ambient

temperature

(Reciprocal of specific volume of saturated water at drum pressure)

(Reciprocal of specific volume of saturated steam at drum pressure)

(At ambient temperature)

[H (s – o) + hmin (w – s)] ÷ o

Pmin = [ ( – )+ ( – )]÷

(Transmitter output will be 4 mA.)

Pmax = [ ( – )+ ( – )] ÷

Pmax =

(Transmitter output will be 20 mA.)

Rosemount and the Rosemount logotype are registerd trademarks of Rosemount Inc.

PlantWeb is a mark of one of the Emerson Process Management companies.

Rosemount Inc.

8200 Market Boulevard

Chanhassen, MN 55317

USA

Tel 1-800-999-9307

Fax (952) 949-7001

© June 13, 2001

Product documentation available at...

Rosemount, Inc.

www.rosemount.com

¢00800-0100-30557¤ INT

ED

PR

IN

U. S. A.

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