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S h e f f i e l d Polytechnic
S h e f f i e l d , England
U n i v e r s i t y o f Arizona
Tucson, Arizona



For permission to copy or republish. contact the American Instituti: o f Aeronautics and Astronautics,
1290Avenueof the Americas. New York, N.Y. 10019.
David R. Croft*
Sheffield Polytechnic, Sheffield, h g l a n d
David G. Lilley**
.1 university of Arizona. TWSM. Arizona
Abstract a Prandtl-Schidt n h r
T turbulent stress tensor
The design of jet punps is normally bawd on
w r h t rather than theory, and, what theory
depndent variable
'Rctor d i f f e r e n t i a l o w r a t o r
there is, has been developed from smle energy
and m t w n balances. This paper presents a mre mrscripts
exhaustive analysis, based on a new primitive
variable f i n i t e difference procedure, n d f i e d to * preliminary u,v and p f i e l d
predict two-dixensional axisymretric j e t pmp based on e s t i m t e d pressure
flcws. The n w e r i c a l techniqce inmlves a stag- f i e l d p*
gfred grid system f o r axial a d r a d i a l v e l o c i t i e s , mrrection value t o u*,v*,p* to
a line relaxation procedure for e f f i c i e n t solution get U,V,P
of the equations a i d a two-equation k--E turbulence
d e l . The analysis panits the investigation of Subscripts .
jet prmp paramters and t h e i r e f f e c t on the over-
a l l perfomawe of the device, and i n so doing D position a t exit from diffuser
eqlains the ncchanism of mixing bfedeen the J r e l a t i n g t o pr+ jet
prirrary and s e a n d a r y f l u i d s . Conputed values f o r m maximum value a t a particular
both tk intexial flow characteristics and the axial s t a t i o n
ovcrall p z r f o m c e of various jet pmp configura- n ,s ,e ,w north, south, east, west faces
tions are presented together w i t h eqxrirrental of cell
data which validates tk a c m a c y of the m u t e r 0 value a t primary nozzle exit
rrpdel . P,N,S,E.W p i n t , north, south, e a s t ,
west neightors
NcmnclatuR S r e l a t i n g to semndary flod
Ll r e l a t i n g to turbulent v i s m s i t y
C omstant f o d a
D mixer tube d i m t e r
d prirnvy j e t nozzle d i m t e r 1. Introduction
H f l u i d head
I,J m s h point ?he Phenmnon
. turbulent flux vector
k k i n e t i c energy of turbulence Ejector jet p q s are widely used i n thr process
L mixer tube length industries. Thfy provide a mans whereby fluids
e turbulence length scale my be plmpea without any rmving p a r t s , d?d are
used with awbard f l u i d s (e.g. slurry) and/or in
es primary nozzle to mixsr tube
length spacing s i t u a t i o n s where mnmntional ptn'ivs are d i f f i c u l t
M entraimmt ratio t o place, as w e l l as to p r i m other p m s . Cpera-
N head r a t i o t i o n of a j e t p~ng3is by the 'primary' f l u i d en-
tiE-man pressure t r a i n i n g the 'secondary' f l u i d through mixing with
P it: t h a t is, by energy transfer between the fluids.
Q flcw r a t e
R area r a t i o c l e a r l y the pcrfomkmcc of such a p q is therrfore
S source term d e p x d e n t on t b manner of mi;cing of the two fluids,
u,v tim-nran velocity cOmpOnents i n which i s inflilfnced by the geowtry of the surfaces
z , r directions over which the fluids flcw, as w e l l as the p e s -
axial, radial coordinates sures, v e l o c i t i e s , and o t k r properties of t k
turbulent eXd...anqe a f f i c i m t fluids.
a man-flau r a t e of s t r a i n tensor Perfonnance Prediction
E turbulence energy dissipation
rate = k3I2/2 In the p a s t , j e t p m design has been largely
il efficiency based on empirical forrrrulas and constants, n o d i -
6 diffuser half-angle f i e d with appmpriate coffficients, w h i c h r e l a t e
11 turbulent viscosity the gxxEtric and i l a i d properties to Lk pres-
P tkremean d a i s i t y sures and v e l o c i t i e s of t h e fluids'-'.

The authors acknmledge w i t h muiy tk&s the helpful assistance of Nan Cliarles~orth
i n discussions and preliminary xork w i t h the c q u t e r proc&xn as reported i n Ref. 18.
*Principal Lecturer, k p a r t n r n t of ~b%?chanical
and Prcduction Engineering. ..
**Visiting Associate Profcssor, k p a r t n r n t of Chcmical Engineering. Wxrber hvIA.

&-tl~'-~mre advanced approaches, including thruu+ the prinury nozzle and entrains the
one- and t w o - k n s i o n a l computer nodels have been s m d a r y (entrained) f l u i d , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y low
developed for use i n j e t p w prediction, giving velocity and pressure, so as to fonn the output.
guides to p i r f o n m c e but with a limitcd range of Flow rate quantities QJ, Cr, and 4 = Qs + QJ and
application. heads F ~ J ,tIS and Hg are s t m i n the figure, to-
gether with prinury nozzle d i w t e r d , mxer tube

- The technique discussed here simulates two-

dirrcnsional d s y r m t r i c j e t p q s clirect1.y i n
terms of a t ~ - ~ q u a t i ok-En turbulence m d e l , in-
diaeter D, d i f f s e r angle 0 , nozzle to mixfr
tube spacing & and mixer tube lenqth L.

Design P a r m e t e r s
mrporated in the governing e l l i p t i c p a r t i a l dif-
f e r e n t i a l equations, and solution is d i r e c t l y by a
f i n i t e difference relaxation techniqm. Its ir-r The mjor p a r m t e r s of interest i n the p i r f o r
prowxent and use w i l l S i F i f i c a n t P y reduce the m c e and therefore d e s i 9 of j e t p w s are:
cost and t h required for j e t p m design. Solu- (i) the r a t i o of entrained f l u i d r a t e to pri-
t i o n m y be via the s t r e a n function-vorticity o r m r y f l u i d rate, knm as the entrairmat
primitive pressure-velocity approach. Whereas the r a t i o M,
f o m r approach, used i n the 1968 computer program (ii) the r a t i o of pressure head gained by the
from Infxrial College for exanpie', reduces by one e n t r d n e d f l u i d t o t h e pressure head l o s t
the nmher of equations t o be solved and e1imi.- by the prirmry f l u i d , hm as the head
nates the troublesOP(e presswe ( a t the e q x n s e of r a t i o N.
trouble with the v o r t i c i t y equation), the pre-
ferred approach n m is S1MTI.E (mxnonic for zemi-
*licit ~ ~ f o r3gressue
d liked -qtions)
&ich focuses attention d i r e c t l y on the latter
variables'o. I t p s s e s e s many advantaFs and the
m r k here is developd irurediately on this new
technique, the basic ideas of which had been e m
bodied i n t o the 1974 I w r i a l College TFAC€l
(reaching e l l i p t i c -&synmttric characteristics
heuristically) c w u t e r program'".

outline of the paper

The paper presents recent work i n the f i n i t e
differenoe solution, via a new primitive pressure-
w l o c i ~ t yvariable f i n i t e difference code, of two-
dirrensional axisimr;etric j e t p q s . An associated
exp?rinmtal study is touched on only obliquely
and describfd b r i e f l y i n section 2 .
,- 1. PriFaty driving flmid.
Theoretical mdeling and solution technique 2. Sernndaq entrained f l u i d .
are based on the s a m system: basic equations are 3. Nozzle.
presented and mulded into a ccmnn f o m i n 4. S u c t i o n c h x k r .
section 3, but the simulation of turbulence, 5. Mixer tube.
which has been discussed a t lenqth quite re- 6. Diffuser.
c e n t l ~ ~ ' - ' takes
~, a minor role here. Governing
general flags, the equations are e l l i p t i c i n Fig. 1. The single nozzle j e t p q
character and together with t h i s simulation prcb-
la is the necessity t o solve the equations: a
lenqthy n m r i c a l r r l a x t i o n r r e t h d is a w m (iii) the area r a t i o R , w h i c h is the r a t i o be-
priate. tween the driving nozzle and mixer tube
The pr&iction precedure is d e a l t w i t h b r i e f l y (iv) the efficiency n, which is the r a t i o h-
in section 4 , w i t h the details 1-eleqated to the tween enerqy t r a n s f e r t o the entrained
references. l%e mnputer program solves d i r e d l y f l u i d and the enerq-y t r a n s f e r to the
for the primitive pressure ard w l o c i t y variables, driving fluid.
unlike previous mthods" "' which obtain these by
way of stream function and v o r t i c i t y . In ad- For t h e system j u s t descriked these quantities are:
d i t i o n , the u and v velocities x e p s i t i o n e d M = Qs/QJ
betwem the mdes where p and oLher variables are
stored and tk &ination of staggered grid and a N = (HD - H~)/(HJ - HD)
l i n e relaxation nethod leads to rapid solution. R = d'/D2 (1)
S q l e carputations are discussed i n section 5 ;
the f i n a l conclusions slmPnarize the a c h i e m t s . n = MN = (Hg - Hs) (Ib - HD) 1
%er gccnrtric ciita affecting pzrfommce +e tho
2. The S y s E e r (L/D) , thc nozzle
mlxcir tube l e n g t i i / ~ ~ ~ . ~ r!a~t ti o
to mixer tubc spacing (Cs) and t k i n c l d e d angle
The Sincjle Nozzle Jet P q of the d i f f u s e r 0 . Typical pcrfommce curves of
f o r exarrple n against N and 1," against M for
A single nozzle j e t pump is mnsidered, as d i f f e r e n t d/D values m y be fomd h tk litera-
s h i n Fig. 1. The primary (driving) f l u i d ture'.
flms, w i t h relatively high w l o c i t y and pressure,
Expcrinmtal work where is the turbulent viscosity and b is the
tinr-man flow rate of s t r a i n tensor.
To -1-t the available e q e r h t a l mrk,
an expfrinrntal j e t pwp r i g using water f o r both ?he exchange coefficients il and r$ are connected
driving and entrained f l u i d has been constructed as t o the other f l u i d properties svch as dcnsity and
shum in Fig. 1. P r a c t i c a l results obtained f r m turbulence characteristics by a variety of al-
this provide mqxirisons w i t h the mnputer mde.1 gEbraic r e l a t i o n s , and Prandtl-Schmidt n h r s re-
predictions given later. late other exchange coefficients t o the turbulent
v i s m s i t y u: these are defined by
Thc pimp is a single central nozzle type, w i t h
a mixer tube dimter D of 0.0254 m and a suction u+ = P f l $ (4)
ch& dimter of 0.1016 m. These parts are made
of pe~spexso that the mixing p m s s can be o b and often given valua near unity. To describe
s e m d , particularly a t the onset of cavitation. the turbulent transport the two-equation k--E tu?
The nozzles are interchangeable and the Kozzle to bulence mxfl’ I ’’
is used, wherrby the t u h u l e n t
mixer tubf spacing can be varied. For the re- viscosity is calculated from
corded tests, the p r k y f l u i d was delivered by a
7.5 kW centrifuged pmp t o a nozzle of diamter 11 = c pk2/E (5)
0.0127 rn. Thearea r a t i o R w a s therefore 0.25. P
and two d i f f e r e n t i a l equations are solved for the
I n s t m t a t i o n on the m i r r e n t a l r i g permits turbulence quantities k (kinetic energy of tur-
the r e a s u r m t of pressure and velocity p r o f i l e s bulence) and i (turbulenco energy dissipation
a t s t a t i o n s from the nozzle to the end o f the dif-
fuser. Further i n s t m e n t a t i o n is being developed r a t e ) . I t m y be noted t h a t turbulence length
scale is r e l a t e d to these via E = k 3 ” / e . Con-
to enable nrasuremznts to be made using laser stants appe‘aring here and i n Table 1 are given
ibppler anemmetry,
v a l ~ reconmended
s in Ref. 10: c - 0 09, cD =
1.00, C I = 1.44, c 2 = 1.92, uk = Y.oO,’and gE =
3. Analysis 1.21.
Gomming EQua tions camrian Form of the Governing F e t i o n s
The turbulent flux (Reynolds) equations of mn- A l l these linkages provide a high degree of non-
servation of mss, m m t m , tuxtmlence energy and l i n e a r i t y and simultaneity in the problem. Mdi-
turbulence dissipatia? rate cpvem the two-diren- tional i n f o m t i o n about boundary wndiitions needs
sional steady t u b u l e n t fl5.4. These transport to be supplied and i n m q o r a t e d . H e r e i t is nrrely
equations are a l l similar and mntain terms f o r t h e noted t h a t the s i m i l a r i t v between the differential
convection and diffusion (via t u h u l e n t flux terms) ~

s p a t i o n s and their d i f f k i o n r e l a t i o n s allows them

and source Sb of a general variable $ (which con- all t o be put in the wmmn form
tains t e r n describing the generation (creation)
. , and consmption (dissipation) of $ ) , Dfferring
their presentation u n t i l they are put in a ocnmon
form, FQ. (6), i f they are to be solved f o r tire-
man pressure p and velocity, then the turbulent
flux colknowns (turbulent S t T e s s tensor T and tur
bulence flux vectors J@ for $ equal to k and E )
must be specified p r i o r t o solution. I t is mn-
venient nmJ t o consider the problem of closure of
the equations.
Flux Iaws
for 0 = u,v,k and E . Thf f o r m f o r the source tflm
k b u l e n t flux wctors J f o r transported f l u i d (”) are gim in Table 1.
scalar properties @ m y be &scribed by the
foliaging diffusion-flux law:
Table 1. The form of the source tenn
i n the general equation for
J0 = - r v0 + (2)
$, E q . ( 6 )
where the direction of J$ is the exact o w s i t e of
t h a t of Q$. I f there is a diffusional comp3nent 0 S
llormal to this direction, it n u s t be expressed as

The turbulent transport of m t m is via the

turbulent stress tensor T which cannot he expcpmssed V
i n so sinple a m e r a3 the transport of C$ by dif-
fusion; or rather it can but f i r s t the whole e x
pression must be considered and only then transfer k
those unwant& m p e n t s , which do not vanish i n
view of the continuity equation, into the s o w e
tern. The approximte expression is E

where available f o r the calculation of the convective
fluxes across the koundaries of the olntrol
voluies surrounding the grid nodes where p, k and
E are stored.

+ (--a r +
av )
z I T
-7 1
4. Prediction Prccedun?

The Technique

I n t e r l i r k a F s beb!een t h e 0 ' s present d i f f i -

culties t o solution of the gowming equations.
%hosebetween the a x i a l and radial velocity caw
p n e n t s are of a peculiar kind, each containing an
unknown pressure gradient and the c m p n e n t s are
linked additionally by another equation, t h a t of
mss conservation, in which pressure does not Jf 1
5 3

appear. Exarrples of research papers mst relevant

to t h e resent work are l i s t e d in the references.
10-15-1' The work here incorporates the following: zhree grids: fur p etc (0)
for u velocity (+)
(i) a f i n i t e difference procedure is used in for v vrlocity (1)
which the dependent variables are the velo-
c i t y mrrp0nent-s and pressure: Fig. 2 . Staggered grid and notation
(ii) the pressure correction p' is deduced f r m
an equation w h i c h is obtained by the com
bination of the continuity equation and the Thuse cwputer storage locations which appear
ucmnta equatiaqs (yielding a nfw f o m of to be external t o t h e d m i n and its boundary, see
what is !am in the l i t e r a t u r e as the Fig. 3 for a sohemtic of the qrid system used,,rpay
Poisson equation f o r pressure); he used to store t h e w a l l valws of the appropriate
variables. Boundaries are located midiay between
(iii) t h e idea is present a t each i t e r a t i o n of a
f i r s t approximation u:v:p* t o +,e solution the nrsh lines so that normal velocities are lo-
folla\'ed by a SucceeClFng correction cated d i r e c t l y on the bundaries; for exarrple u is
(FU* + u ', v=v* + v' and p=p*+ p 7 (u' located on a v e r t i c a l boundary, v on a horizontal
and v' are related t o p') ; one. N o t i c e t h a t there is no necessity fur the
distancf hetween successive grid p i n t s t o be uni-
( i v ) the prcedun? inmrporates displamd grids
f o r the a x i a l and r a d i a l velocities u and forn; f m p e n t l y a gradually eqanding r e c t a n g u h r
v, which arc placed beween the nodes here m s h system i s used on the grounds of accuracy
pressurr p and other variables are s t o r d ; and ooonony.
(v) an %licit line-by-line r e l a t i o n tech-
nique is fnployed i n the solution pmedure
(requiring a tricliagonal matrix to be in-
verted. in otder t o @ate a variable at a l l
pints along a cohmm) . NJ

here is qim only t o the main pints.
The Staqqered Grid and Nota- _.
Fig. 2 shajs sone of t h e rectangular computa- Is1 2 NI
t i o n a l rresh. W.e intersections of the s o l i d l i n e s ZIIl
m k the grid nodes where all variables except the
u and v velocity mmpanents are stored. The
latter are stored at points which are denoted by Fig. 3. Grid specification - an -le
the arrows and lccated midway between the grid
intersections, and the taonrrrlng-shapd envelopes _-
Solution P m d E
enclose a t r i a d of points denoted by a single
letter P = (1,J). Similar remarks apply a l s o t o rq the t e d m i q w descriw i n the
the four n e i y h r s N = ( I , J + l ) ,S = ( I , J - l ) , E =
"," thz cp+?minq p a r t i a l cliffercntiaL equations
( I + l , J ) and W = (1-1,J). Thus, for exmple, l i k e Pq. (GI ill13 r e d u a d t o a set of f i n i t e dif-
fenma apiti.ons for values of the variable @ , a t
UI,J = U ( I , J ) is the axial velocity a t refercmce
location (1,J) e m thou$i it actually rcpresfnts p i n t s OF the grid system covering the solution
t k velocity positioned a t (I-$,J). This grid damin. l?Iese, toqcther w i t h appropriate boundary
a x r a n m i i t has b+o special rrerits: f i r s t l y , it w n d i t i o n s , cunstitute a system of strongly-coupled
p1.aces the u and v vflcci.ties bctwcen the s i r u l t m e o u s a l + x x i c equations. Though they
p r e s s w s which driw than and it is oasy to cal- a p p f a r linear thcy are not since the coffficients
and sourm t c m s axe thcmsolvr?s functions of so1113
culate the pressure gradients which a f f e c t thm: of t i i e v&riables, cm.niithc w l c c i t y e q u t i o n s are
and secondly, these velocities are d i r e c t l y
s t m q 1 . y linked tiuowjh the pressure. The solution

proceeds by the c y c l i c repEtition of the f o l l m i n g
The ccnputer w k l predicts valu3s of axial and
Guess the valucs of all variables including radinl vfl.ocities u and v, turbulence k i n e t i c
p*. Hence calculate auxiliary variables energy k, t u b u l e n c e enerqy dissi[aLion i, turbu-
l i k e density, viscosity etc. lence l m i q t h scale and static press'xe p
Solve the axial and r a d i a l mxentum equa- throughout the f l a q f i e l d . Discdsscd f i r s t is a
tions to obtain f i r s t estimates u* and +. configuration with prinruy nozzle t o mixer tu&,
Solve the pressure correction equation to spacing &/o = 2.25 and i n l e t primary j e t velocity
obtain p'. = 22 m-1.
Calculate the pressure p ard the mrrected
velocities f m n u and u=u* + , u v=+ + v'
' Figure 4 shows the tu%ulence energy k and
and p=p* + p' (u- and v' are related t o p') . lenqth scale 2 distxibutions within the flow. The
%lve the equations f o r the other variables energy c o n t o w reveal that a t the p i n t of "im-
k and E successively. pact" of tAe primuy j e t on the entrained flow
T n a t the n m v a l l r s of the variables as there i s a high rate of energy generation. The
inproved g w s s e s and return to s t e p ( i ) . high valucs of lenqth scale i n this region quidcly
& p a t the process u n t i l mnvxqaice. dissipate the enerqy into t h e entrained flow. 'The
rapid decrease in the damstream level of lenqth
I n t h e solution p r o c e d m algebraic equations scale results in a v e q gradual reduction in
connecting a $-value w i t h its four nei-rinq energy l e v e l i n the mixing tube section. This in-
valws, are solved "any tixes, coefficient and dicates that the mixing ti& lenqth is p?rhaps tcc
source p 3 a t i n g being carried out p r i o r to each mat sin= minim1 mixinq is actually occurring,
occasion. The practice used hfre is to mke use a useful result i n usinq the c n q u t e r &el to
of the w e l l - W m +diagonal F t r i x &gorithm optimize a desicp.
(TDMA), whereby a set of equations, each w i t h
exactly three dcncxms in a p a r t i d a r order ex-
cept the f i r s t and l a s t w h i c h have exactly two un-
! a m s m y Se solved sequentially. I n the two-
dimnsional problem one considers the a t
grimints along a vertical gridline t o he vnknown
(valuss a t P, N and S for each p i n t P I , but take
as h m M , mSt recent valms being used, the
v a l m s a t each E and W neighbor. The 1Dt is t k n
applied t o this v e r t i c a l gridline. In t h i s m e r
one can traverse along a l l the l i n e s i n the ver-
tical diirebion seqyuentially from l e f t to r i g h t
of the integration &nuin.

A t each such i t e r a t i o n it i s necess- t o aw

.~loy s m deqree of m d e r r e l w a t i o n , f o r exaple
to take a wei&ted average of L'e n w l y calculated
v a l w and the previous v a l w a t each point. Final
convergence is decided by way of a residual-source
c r i t e r i o n , bhich nrasures the departure frcm
exactness f o r t h e variable Q a t the point P.
Fig. 4 . P r e d i c t e d turbulence
5. Results and Discussion energy and lenqth scale
conputer program has been set up to nuke D
/,(! = 2.25, % = 22 ms-')
predictions for the saw c o n f i w a t i o n as studied
e x p e r k t a l l y and shown i n Figs. 1 and 3. 'Ibe
predictions shavn relate t o an area r a t i o of 0.25
for d i f f e r e n t primary j e t velocities and nozzle
axial positirms.
As exanples of the currant predictive capabil-
a t y of the proqram, several sanple m r p u t a t i o n s
a m presented to illustrate:
(i) the i n t e r n a l behavior of the j e t p u p ,
W i c u l a r l y i n the region of mixing be-
tween the primuy and secondaq flcws, and
the e f f e c t of nozzle axial p s i t i o n ;
(ii) the preclicted overall prfonrance of the
jet p q and a canparison w i t h e2pxirmnt.d
conputations w e r e generally mde with a 15 x 1 5
variable s i z e grid, w h i c h alladed the solution of
a twical pr&lem t o be obtained in about 100-150
ite&ions; and taking the &valent of a'mut 1-2
m i n of ccC6600 6 tim. Fig. 5. Predicted a ~ . a velocity
l distributions i n
mixing region
(t& = 2.25, = 22 m-')

As a further i l l u s t r a t i o n of w h a t is actually predicted and exprimmtal values.
h a p w i n g i n the mixing region it i s revealing to
eMmine the axial and r a d i a l w l o c i t y p r o f i l e s .
Figure 5 shows the increase i n axial velocity as
the entrained f l u i d nears the p r i m q jet, and
Fig. 6 the variation of radial velocity, a t a s e e
t i a n j u s t d m s t r e a m of the nozzle exit. col-
l i s i o n between the radial and axial flows results
i n a violent mixiny p m e s s and the consequent
generation of turbulence energy. Figures 4.5 and
6 also show a rapid decay i n turbulence energy,
axial velocity and radial velocity away from the
i n i t i a l mixing region, particularly i n the r a d i a l
direction outwar& t a a r d the suction ch- wall:
a f a c t which suggests t h a t the suction chanber is
tm large, and that a similar p r f o m c e would Ir I
available w i t h W l e r equiprent.

The position of the nozzle r e l a t i v e to the

m u t h of the mixing tube is another design feature Fig. 7. Predicted tmbulence energy and length
which the d e l can e a s i l y simulat.e. Figures 4 scale distributions
and 7 portray t h e tuloulence energy k and length (&ID
' = 0.5, = 22 ms-')
scale 8 d i s t r i b u t i m s for two s y s t e m : both with
a primKy j e t velocity of 22 E-'but varying in
nozzle-mixing tube spacing !,/D. In the case
w h c r e the nozzle is adjacent to the nnuth of *de
midng tubs (Fig. 7 w i t h LJD = 0.5) the turbu-
lence energy mntours show t h a t there is less dis-
sipation into the secondary f l u i d and consequently
less entrainrent. The length scale distribution
i l l u s t r a t e s the intensive local mixing a c t i v i t y a t
the nozzle exit; the rapid decay i n the axial di-
rection minimizes the further decay of turbulence
i n the mixing tube and again revEals t h a t the
length of the miwing tube is excessive. In tams
Of predicted entraitwent r a t i o M, the configura-
tion i n Fig. 4 generates a d u e of 0.58 and f o r
that i n Fig. 7 a Value of 0.48. Inte-diate
values of t h nozzle to mixing tube spacing can be
t r i e d to optimize the entraitwent ratio. Fig. 8. Ccnpa+son of predicted and exprircntal
entrammnt ratios
@,/D = 2.25)

'-O 1 6. Crmclusions
. iI *--..-- '
. m *,.,.r ,,,*<
In the past jet pwp design has been based on
ewerimnt r a t h e r than theory, and, what theor1
thew is, has keen developed from s+le energy and
m t m balances. Here has ken presented a mre
exhaustive analysis, based on a new primitive
variable f i n i t e difference p r d ? l r e , which has
been d f i e d so as to predict the operating para-
net- of two-dinmsional axisyrmctric j e t pwp
f l m s . The n w f r i c a l technique involves a stag-
gered grid system for axial a?d r a d i a l velocities,
a l i n e relaration p m e k for e f f i c i e n t solution
of t k equations and a tm-eqmtion k - E turbu-
RADIAL VELOCITY (mS') lence d e l . Finite difference predictions are
ncw possible of these j e t p w flcws - the yeneral
Fig. 6 . Predicted r a d i a l velocity d i s t r i b u t i o n s nature of the internal f l m predictions and the
i n mixing region a x r e l a t i o n of the p d i c t e d and wasured flows
' = 2.25, umr, = 22 E-') suggests that a useful d e s i y tcol is n m becaning
available. The analysis ,-nits the investigation
Prediction of Ovcrall Perfon- of j e t pmp parmeters and t h e i r e f f e c t on the
overall p r f o m c e of the device, and i n doing so
As a further i l l u s t r a t i o n of the predictibv explains the n ~ c h a n i a nof mixing bctween t k pri-
mary and s e m n c b q fluids. Computed v a l e s f o r
capability of the d e l , the e n t r a h t ratios b t h t h e i n t e r n a l flui characteristics and the
derived from e p r i r c n t and theory for a n e of
prinury jet velacities are ampared i n Fig. 8. overall p r f o m n c f of various j e t punp configura-
Whilst the actual virlws (both expxinmt and tions w e r e presented t q e t h e r with exprimmtal
theory) are not as high as onmcrcially available data which validates the accuracy of thc coqmter
d c l . Further d e w l o p n t and application w i l l
p q s (kca.use of relatively 104 o p r a t i n g
pressures) there is good correlation between the provide a valuable supplfnurtary techniqw in
p r a c t i c a l d c s i c p situations.


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