A future energy chain based on liquefied hydrogen

David Berstad, Jacob Stang, Petter Nekså SINTEF Energy Research Trondheim
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in the Nordic Countries, Oslo, 2009

SINTEF Energy Research

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Outline
Background: options for energy chains based on bulk transport and distribution of hydrogen Importance of making efficient, large-scale liquefiers in case of liquid hydrogen bulk distribution Our contribution: design of a large-scale hydrogen liquefier concept based on mixed-refrigerant (MR) technology to enhance liquefaction efficiency
Currently proven viable in LNG production Investigation of the application of MR technology in the field of hydrogen liquefaction

SINTEF Energy Research

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SINTEF Energy Research 3 2 . and Austgen D. Tzimas E. and Peteves S.M. Clean and green hydrogen. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy Volume 32(10–11). 2006.. 2007.P. 1369–1380. 16th World hydrogen energy conference.J.P. Huijsmans J.2 Options for bulk transportation: Compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) Very high pressure..Background Depending on degree of market penetration. central hydrogen production with bulk distribution to retail sites is a possible scenario for the early stages of the hydrogen economy1. ambient temperature Liquefied hydrogen (LH2) Saturated liquid at near-atmospheric pressure Liquefaction processes are very energy-intensive 1 Kramer G. Castello P. The evolution of size and cost of a hydrogen delivery infrastructure in Europe in the medium and long term.

Hydrogen energy chain options Retail sites Hydrogen liquefier LH2 storage LH2 transport truck Conversion from primary energy source: – Gasificaton (Coal. biomass) – Reforming (Natural gas) – Electrolysis (Electricity) Conditioning Retail sites CGH2 storage CGH2 transport truck Compression SINTEF Energy Research 4 .

3 bar CGH2 transport truck Capacity: 0.4–4 t Transport pressure: 1–1.Hydrogen transport – typical values LH2 transport truck Capacity: 0.3–0.6 t Transport pressure: 200–700 bar LH2 truck transport has typically 6–10 times the capacity of that of CGH2 CGH2 vessels are not emptied completely as a certain pressure level must be maintained in the vessels (”cushion” gas) SINTEF Energy Research 5 .

3% of total weight Pictures from: Wolf J.Hydrogen transport – typical values 8. SINTEF Energy Research 6 . LH2 makes you mobile. 2003. Linde – Reports on science and technology. 1.4% of total weight 1. 30–35.

Retail sites operations Flexibility – With close to equal overall cost. LH2-based distribution enables delivery of hydrogen in any form with low energy consumption at retail-side filling stations CGH2 does not offer this flexibility without on-site refrigeration Large scale centralized liquefaction with carbon capture and sequestration Liquid Hydrogen refueling station storage as LH2 Compressed (pressurized during gasification) Liquid HydrogenTrucked (or shipped in) Storage in structures (partly cooled and partly pressurized) SINTEF Energy Research 7 .

Clean and green hydrogen. 16th World hydrogen energy conference. CO2 capture and bulk transportation of hydrogen from production site to retail site Liquid hydrogen (LH2) vs.Previous Shell–Linde well-to-wheel study1 Early-phase scenario: reforming of methane.J.P. Huijsmans J. 2006 SINTEF Energy Research 8 .M.. compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) Assumed specific liquefaction power for LH2: 10 kWh/kgLH2 Average distribution distance: 75 km Production volume: 100 tonnes/day Number of retail sites: 100 LH2 transport capacity: 3500 kg/truck CGH2 transport capacity: 350 kg/truck 1 Kramer G. and Austgen D.P.

1992)1 5. Grosstechnische Wasserstoffverflüssigung in Leuna.4 tonnes/day (Ingolstadt. 1994. Int J Hydrogen Energy 19(1):53–59.9 kWh/kg (Leuna)2 (10 kWh/kg in Shell study) Flexible operation to adjust to demand (Leuna: 40–100% load range) LH2 as an energy commodity Significant scale-up in capacity (30–100 tonnes/day or more) Considerably lower due to higher emphasis on energy efficiency. 2007)2 13.Transition from current LH2 production Existing liquefiers Envisioned future liquefiers Market Plant capacity LH2 mainly for specific industrial purposes 4.6 kWh/kg (Ingolstadt)1 11. Deutsche Kälte-Klima-Tagung. Large-scale hydrogen liquefaction in Germany. SINTEF Energy Research 9 . Bracha M. scaling-up advantages and shifted cost structure Large base-load plants with high efficiency at full load Specific liquefaction power consumption Operation 1 2 Bracha M. and Decker L.0 tonnes/day (Leuna. et al. 2008.

2009 SINTEF Energy Research 10 .Efficiency of hydrogen liquefiers 18 16 Specific power [kWh/kgLH2] 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 Overall exergy efficiency [%] 50 55 60 Plants in Germany Recently proposed large-scale concepts Berstad D.. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34(3):1560–8. and Nekså P. Comparison criteria for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction processes. Stang J.

Stang J. Comparison criteria for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction processes. and Nekså P..Efficiency of hydrogen liquefiers 18 16 Specific power [kWh/kgLH2] 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 Overall exergy efficiency [%] 50 55 60 1b ar H 2 fee dp res su re fee dp res sur e 21 bar H 2 60 bar H 2 feed p ressur e Berstad D. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34(3):1560–8. 2009 SINTEF Energy Research 11 .

Comparison criteria for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction processes. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34(3):1560–8..Efficiency of hydrogen liquefiers 18 16 Specific power [kWh/kgLH2] 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 Overall exergy efficiency [%] 50 55 60 1b ar H 2 fee dp res su re fee dp res sur e Comparison of efficiency based on equal boundary conditions 21 bar H 2 60 bar H 2 feed p ressur e Berstad D. Stang J. 2009 SINTEF Energy Research 12 . and Nekså P.

Comparison criteria for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction processes. and Nekså P. Stang J. 2009 SINTEF Energy Research 13 . Int J Hydrogen Energy 34(3):1560–8..Efficiency of hydrogen liquefiers 18 16 Specific power [kWh/kgLH2] 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 20 25 30 35 40 45 Overall exergy efficiency [%] 50 55 60 1b ar H 2 fee dp res su re fee dp res sur e 21 bar H 2 60 bar H 2 feed p ressur e Berstad D.

Conceptual design of a high efficiency large capacity hydrogen liquefier. Quack1 (2001) is the most efficient concept published – we have therefore based our work on this concept and using it as reference process Changed assumptions of the reference process to be more conservative/realistic than in original configuration: Assumed 21 bar feed pressure instead of 1 bar Inter-cooler temperature in compressor trains: 310 K Implemented pressure drop in all heat exchangers and inter-coolers Minimum temperature approach (ΔTmin) in heat exchangers: Above 235 K: ΔTmin = 3 K Below 235 K: ΔTmin = 2 K Liquefaction capacity: 86 tonnes/day Resulting exergy efficiency: 45. 2001 SINTEF Energy Research 14 . Advances in Cryogenic Engineering 47:255–263.Creating a reference case for our work The concept by Prof.7% 1 Quack H.

Implementing mixed refrigerant precooling in the reference case Utilities in the different temperature intervals 310 K 235 K 220 K 75 K 26 K 20 K LH2 Process (H2) Pre-compression to 80 bar Expansion to 1 bar Original reference process 2-stage propane cycle 1-stage ethane cycle Reversed Helium/Neon Brayton cycle with internal recuperation Utilities Modified process with mixed refrigerant (MR) Mixed refrigerant pre-cooling cycle Reversed Helium/Neon Brayton cycle with internal recuperation SINTEF Energy Research 15 .

Liquefaction process modified with MR precooling SINTEF Energy Research 16 .

Power figures and overall results SINTEF Energy Research 17 .

6 kWh/kg (~49 MJ/kg) LH2: 33. Hammerfest conditions) LH2: 2.. LNG-14. and Tangvik K. Nordhasli S.17 kWh/kg Exergy efficiency: ~47% 1 Heiersted R.89 kWh/kg (21 bar feed pressure. 2004. Lillesund S. Quatar.. The Snohvit Design Reflects A Sustainable Environmental Strategy.23 kWh/kg1 Exergy efficiency: ~48% The best-performance LH2 process with MR pre-cooling: Specific design power consumption: 6. SINTEF Energy Research 18 .11 kWh/kg (Snøhvit gas. Conference paper. Owren G.4 kWh/kg (120 MJ/kg) Reversible liquefaction power (specific): LNG: 0. 300 K ambient temperature) The Snøhvit LNG plant: Specific design power consumption: 0..LH2 related to LNG Lower heating value: LNG: ~13.S.

Liquefaction power related to energy content 50 % Specific power consumption relative to LHV 45 % 40 % 35 % 30 % 25 % 20 % 15 % 10 % 5% 0% 20 % Existing H2 liquefiers in Germany LH2 in this work with MR pre-cooling Snøhvit LNG 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % 70 % 80 % Exergy efficiency of liquefaction SINTEF Energy Research 19 .

49 kWh/kg and exergy efficiency of 44.9% 40–50% reduction of power consumption. will represent a radical improvement within large-scale hydrogen liquefaction and contribute to further enhancement of the competitiveness of LH2 as energy carrier in an hydrogenbased energy chain As for LNG. MR pre-cooling may play an important role in the efforts towards efficient large-scale liquefaction processes High exergy efficiency is desired and may be obtainable for large-scale liquefiers with energy optimisation. down from 12 to 6–7 kWh/kg. extensive process integration and high-efficiency compressors and expanders SINTEF Energy Research 20 .6–46.Conclusion The LH2 processes employing MR pre-cooling show a specific power consumption of 6.17–6.

Further work: continuation project proposal SINTEF Energy Research 21 .

Hydrogen liquefier rig for experimental activities SINTEF Energy Research 22 .

Acknowledgements Financial support Scientific support SINTEF Energy Research 23 .

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