Introduction ............................................3 Product Profiles.......................................4 Ethylenediamine (EDA).........................4 Diethylenetriamine (DETA) ..................4 Triethylenetetramine (TETA) ................4 Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) ..........4 Heavy Polyamine (HPA) ........................5 Piperazine (PIP)......................................5 Aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) ................5 Aminoethylethanolamine (AEEA) ........5 Typical Physical Properties ....................6 Ethyleneamines Vapor Pressure vs. Temperature ........8 Viscosity vs. Temperature...................9 Specific Gravity vs. Temperature .....10 Ethylenediamine Aqueous Solutions Freezing Point vs. Composition.......11 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria at 760 mm Hg ................................12 Heat of Solution at 22°C ...................13 Specific Gravity vs. Temperature .....14 Piperazine Aqueous Solutions Freezing Point vs. Composition.......15 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria at 760 mm Hg ................................16 Reactions of Ethyleneamines...............17 Reaction Notes ......................................18 Ethyleneamines Applications ..............20 Major End-Uses....................................21 Lubricant and Fuel Additives..............22 Polyamide Resins .................................23 Asphalt Additives and Emulsifiers.......24 Petroleum Production and Refining....24 Resins and Additives for Pulp and Paper .....................................25 Epoxy Curing Agents............................26 Bleach Activators..................................26 Chelates and Chelating Agents...........27 Metal Ore Processing ...........................27 Surfactants and Emulsifiers ................28 Anthelmintics (Dewormers) ...............28 Fabric Softeners....................................29 Fungicides.............................................30 Textiles...................................................31 Polymers and Elastomers....................31 Other Applications ...............................31 Shipping Data........................................32 Product Specifications..........................32 Product Availability...............................33 Storage and Handling ...........................34 Health Effects ........................................35 Ecological Fate and Effects...................36 Product Safety .......................................37 FDA Status .............................................38 References .............................................40 Emergency Service................................47


he Dow Chemical Company, pioneered ethyleneamines development in 1935, when the company was the first to commercialize production, and has been the acknowledged world leader in the business ever since. Today, Dow manufactures ethyleneamines in two world-scale facilities at its Taft, Louisiana, petrochemicals complex. We are the only producer to use both the ethylene dichloride and reductive amination catalytic processes, thus providing unparalleled flexibility in meeting customer needs. Unexcelled quality – in product, technology, and services – is the byword of Dow’s ethyleneamines business. Another first for the company was receipt of ISO 9002 registration in 1990 for the Taft quality systems. Since then, registrations have been received for raw material quality systems, including those for ethylene, ethylene oxide, and ethanolamines, as well as for domestic and international distribution systems. In 1994, our ethyleneamines business won the Shingo Prize for Excellence in Manufacturing. The award recognizes outstanding achievements in manufacturing processes, quality enhancement, productivity improvement, and customer satisfaction. Helping to drive these evergreen quality programs is Dow’s technology leadership. Dedicated research and development focused on the ethyleneamines production processes has constantly improved product quality. Manufacturing technicians employ advanced statistical process control and zone charting for continuous improvement and reduced variability. Backing them is the in-plant laboratory with dedicated equipment for each of the ethyleneamines covered in this publication. And our applications scientists, unsurpassed in their knowledge of ethyl-eneamine end uses, are always ready to assist customers with their needs. Dow’s worldwide distribution network assures you of a readily available source of ethyleneamines.



Product Profiles
Ethylenediamine (EDA) (1,2-diaminoethane) is the lowest molecular weight
member of the ethyleneamines family. It contains two primary amine groups and forms a maximum boiling azeotrope with water. H2NCH2CH2NH2 EDA is used primarily as an intermediate in the production of bleach activators, fungicides, chelating agents, plastic lubricants, textile resins, polyamides, and fuel additives.

Diethylenetriamine (DETA) is the second linear member of the ethyleneamines
family. It contains two primary and one secondary amine groups. Compared to ethylenediamine, DETA exhibits a broad liquid range: 207°C (405°F) boiling point at 760 mm Hg and -39°C (-38°F) freezing point. H2NCH2CH2NHCH2CH2NH2 DETA is used primarily as an intermediate to manufacture wet-strength paper resins, chelating agents, ion exchange resins, ore processing aids, textile softeners, fuel additives, and corrosion inhibitors.

Triethylenetetramine (TETA) is a liquid containing linear, branched, and cyclic
molecules. The principal tetramine structures are: H2NC2H4NHC2H4NHC2H4NH2 (H2NC2H4)3N HN NC2H4NHC2H4NH2 H2NC2H4N NC2H4NH2 Linear TETA Tris-aminoethylamine (TAEA) Piperazinoethylethylenediamine (PEEDA) Diaminoethylpiperazine (DAEP) (Bis-aminoethylpiperazine)

The major applications of TETA include epoxy curing agents, and the production of polyamides and oil and fuel additives.

Tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) is a mixture containing linear, branched, and cyclic molecules. The structures of the major TEPA components are:
H2NC2H4NHC2H4NHC2H4NHC2H4NH2 H2NC2H4NHC2H4N(C2H4NH2)2 H2NC2H4NHC2H4N NC2H4NH2 HN NC2H4NHC2H4NHC2H4NH2 Linear TEPA Aminoethyltris-aminoethylamine (AE-TAEA) Aminoethyldiaminoethylpiperazine (AE-DAEP) Aminoethylpiperazinoethylethylenediamine (AE-PEEDA)

Among the major end-uses for TEPA are the preparation of oil and fuel additives, reactive polyamides, epoxy curing agents, and corrosion inhibitors.


fuel additives.4 °F). Aminoethylethanolamine (AEEA) is an organic base with unique properties that make it an invaluable intermediate. corrosion inhibitors. together with the hydroxyl group. and one tertiary nitrogen atom. The major end-use applications for HPA include oil and fuel additives. Aminoethylpiperazine (AEP) is unique among the ethyleneamines: it contains one primary. In addition. fabric softeners. and coatings. HN NC2H4NH2 Major end-uses for AEP include the production of urethane catalysts. Anhydrous PIP has a fairly high freezing point of 110°C (230°F) and a boiling point of 146°C (295°F) at 760 mm Hg. one secondary. H2NC2H4NHC2H4OH Principal end-uses include surfactants. branched. Note: “mlm” or “mlm” = –CH 2 CH 2 – 5 . an anhydrous piperazine is available in flake form. Since this narrow liquid range makes it difficult to handle. Piperazine (PIP) is the simplest cyclic member of the ethyleneamines family. combine the features of an ethyleneamine and an ethanolamine. and as an intermediate for the production of triethylenediamine polyurethane catalyst. epoxy curing agents. AEP has a broad liquid range: boiling point of 222°C (432°F) at 760 mm Hg and a freezing point of -17°C (1. commercial piperazine is often sold in aqueous solutions to facilitate handling and storage.Heavy Polyamine (HPA) is a complex mixture of linear. The product has two secondary amine groups. the structures of which can be deduced from the chemistry of manufacture and a knowledge of the structures present in TETA and TEPA. The primary and secondary amine groups. The structures of the principal components contain six or more nitrogen atoms per molecule. and asphalt additives. and cyclic ethyleneamines. HN NH Among the major applications for PIP are anthelmintics. chelates. and asphalt additives. polyamides. pharmaceutical preparations.

14 129.007 0.63 10-4 10-4 7.15 Freezing Point. micromhos/cm Ethylenediamine Diethylenetriamine Triethylenetetramine Tetraethylenepentamine UHP Heavy Polyamine X Piperazine.21 104. ˚C 11 .31 x (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) 0.29 12.10(7) < 0.986 1.01 Electrical Conductivity at 25°C.45(6) Vapor Pressure at 20°C. Anhydrous Aminoethylpiperazine Aminoethylethanolamine Molecular Weight 60.28 0. Anhydrous Aminoethylpiperazine Aminoethylethanolamine (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Linear component only Typical molecular weight For Piperazine.32(6) 41 110 .73 x 10-4 0.877(5) 0.52 0.10 103.43 x 10-4 0.01 < 0.46(6) . at 25°C in Water 0.30(1) 275(2) 86.63 x 10-4 10-4 (2) Dielectric Constant at 23°C 13.17 .32 8.036(4) 0.40 0.980 0.01 < 0.Typical Physical Properties Apparent Specific Gravity at 20/20°C 0.24(1) 189.4(10) — (9) 0.22 10.39 .43 x 10-4 (3) 0.994 1.86 0. Anhydrous At 42°C/42°C At 130°C/20°C Pour point Ionization Constant.35 .17 146. mm Hg 10.72 — — (9) (9) Solubility in Water at 20°C.14(3) 86.952 0.72 x 10-4 (2) 0. 65% Piperazine. with decomposition Solid at this condition At 42°C At 130°C Forms hydrate with time 6 .01 6.13 19.091 0. K1.95 x 10-4 (2) 0. 65% Piperazine.01 < 0.13 Vapor pressure of the solid Extrapolated.40 x 0.24 9.08 < 0.24 0.898 0.015 1.092 49.030 Ethyleneamine Ethylenediamine Diethylenetriamine Triethylenetetramine Tetraethylenepentamine UHP Heavy Polyamine X Piperazine. % by wt 100 100 100(12) 100(12) 100(12) 100(10) 14 100 100 7.65 x 0.

0 242.9 144 184 236 27 — (9) ∆ Boiling Point/∆p. BTU/lb(15) 270 197 162 162 99 528 250 152 237 Heat of Combustion at 25°C. 750-770 mm. BTU/lb(16) .14643 .14696 .513 — — (9) (9) Specific Heat at 20°C.139(1) — — .403 . melting point 109.501 1.13910 .52 0.9 277(8) 288(8) — 116 146.499 1.14487 .3 161.162(1) .13251 .73(11) 15.14744 .056 0.058 0.9261 .63 0.505 1.045 — 0. nD20°C 1.037 0. °C per mm Hg 0.9 127.64 Heat of Vaporization at 760 mm Hg.0 206.6°C.12395 Heat of Formation at 25°C.63(14) 0. cal/g•°C 0.3 183 215 279(8) 54 — (9) 10 mm Hg 19.8 50 mm Hg 47.6 134.457 1.256 .61 0. °C 760 mm Hg 117.5(10) 0.1 221.4 88.4 140.Boiling Point.65 0.1 460.83 cal/g Estimated from vapor pressure using Clausius-Clapeyron equation Calculated from gross heat of combustion 7 . cP 1.16 26.3 100.14353 .304 .8 123.74 cal/g At 130°C.80 7.483 1. heat of fusion 50. melting point 36°C.0 83.052 0.049 Absolute Viscosity at 20°C. heat of fusion 72.7 22.036 0.1193 1.486 (13) (14) (15) (16) At 42°C.0 Refractive Index.569 .68 0.58 0.78(13) 0.043 0. BTU/lb .

mm Hg 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 EDA 65% PIP DETA AEP AEEA TETA TEPA UHP HPA X 1 -20 0 20 40 80 120 160 240 320 Temperature.Figure 1: Ethyleneamines. Temperature Temperature. ˚F 0 1000 800 600 500 400 300 PIP 200 20 40 80 120 160 200 240 320 400 480 560 Vapor Pressure. ˚C 8 . Vapor Pressure vs.

Temperature 10000.0 65% PIP PIP 0. Viscosity vs.0 EDA 1. ˚C 150 200 250 9 .Figure 2: Ethyleneamines.1 -50 0 50 100 Temperature.0 AEEA TEPA UHP 100. cP TETA AEP DETA 10.0 HPA X 1000.0 Viscosity.

75 -20 20 60 100 140 180 220 260 Temperature.10 1. Temperature 1.05 AEEA 65% PIP HPA X 1. t˚C/20˚C 0. Specific Gravity vs.85 0.Figure 3: Ethyleneamines.00 AEP TETA DETA Specific Gravity.95 EDA 0.80 0.90 TEPA UHP PIP 0. ˚C 10 .

Freezing Point vs.8˚C -5 Temperature.Figure 4: Ethylenediamine Aqueous Solutions. Composition 15 5 Eutectic -0.0˚C -55 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Composition. ˚C -15 -25 -35 -45 Eutectic -53. Weight % Ethylenediamine 11 Composition of Monohydrate Composition of Dihydrate .

˚C 112 108 104 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Composition. Vapor-Liquid Equilibria at 760 mm Hg 120 Vapor Phase 116 Liquid Phase Temperature.Figure 5: Ethylenediamine Aqueous Solutions. Mole % Ethylenediamine 12 .

cal/gm of Solution 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Composition. Weight % Water 13 .Figure 6: Ethylenediamine Aqueous Solutions. Heat of Solution at 22˚C 50 45 40 35 -∆ Hm.

Temperature 1.96 Specific Gravity at 20/20˚C 0.98 0.92 0.90 0. Weight % Ethylenediamine 14 .88 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Composition.Figure 7: Ethylenediamine Aqueous Solutions. Specific Gravity vs.94 0.00 0.

Figure 8: Piperazine Aqueous Solutions.2˚C 20 0 Eutectic -1˚C -20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Composition. Composition 120 100 80 Temperature. Weight % Piperazine Studies show evidence of a metastable freezing point in the region of 20 wt.% piperazine Composition of Hexahydrate 15 . Freezing Point vs. ˚C 60 40 Eutectic 33.

Mole % Piperazine 16 . ˚C 125 Liquid Phase 120 115 110 105 100 95 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Composition.Figure 9: Piperazine Aqueous Solutions. Vapor-Liquid Equilibria at 760 mm Hg 150 145 140 135 Vapor Phase 130 Temperature.

Reactions of Ethyleneamines† † Illustrated by reactions of ethylenediamine (EDA). depending upon structure. 17 . Other ethyleneamines react similarly.

RX 4.3). RX 6. .Ureas Ethyleneamines react with urea to form substituted ureas and ammonia (11). This can be done without isolating the monoamide (4-8). Product distribution is controlled by the amine-to-epoxide mole ratio. esters. RX 7. . acid anhydrides. Product distribution is controlled by the ethyleneamine-to-aziridine mole ratio. RX 2. Various diamides of EDA are prepared from the appropriate methyl ester or acid at moderate temperatures (2.Organic Acids Ethyleneamines react with acids. Either gas. RX 3. or acyl halides to form amidoamines and polyamides. . . Ethylenedinitramine. RX 5.Reaction Notes RX 1.Aziridines Aziridines react with ethyleneamines in an analogous fashion to epoxides (15-16).Inorganic Acids Ethyleneamines react vigorously with commonly available inorganic acids. water soluble salts.Nitriles Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and aliphatic nitriles (RCN) can be used to form imidazolines (9-10). forming crystalline. an explosive compound.Alcohols and Alkylene Glycols Simple aliphatic alcohols can be used to alkylate ethyleneamines with hydrogen in the presence of a reductive amination catalyst (17). Monoamides can be cyclized to form imidazolines. is made by reacting one mole of EDA with two moles of nitric acid and splitting two moles of water from the salt at elevated temperatures (1) . to form mixtures of hydroxyalkyl derivatives (12-14). 18 .or liquid-phase reactions of ethyleneamines with glycols in the presence of several different metal oxide catalysts lead to predominantly cyclic ethyleneamine products (18). . .Epoxides Ethyleneamines react readily with epoxides. .

Aldehydes Ethyleneamines react exothermically with aliphatic aldehydes.or disubstituted derivatives. water-soluble cationic products or higher ethyleneamine products. RX 11. NOx. to form nitrosamine derivatives (24). is prepared by reacting CS2 in aqueous EDA (22).Sulfur Compounds EDA reacts readily with two moles of carbon disulfide (CS2) in aqueous sodium hydroxide to form bis sodium dithiocarbamate.Environmental Reagents: CO2. in concentrated aqueous solutions. RX 10. Carbon dioxide reacts readily with EDA in methanol to form crystalline N-(2-aminoethyl)carbamate (23). or nitrous acid. a suspect human carcinogen. RX 9. Aliphatic dihalides. react with ethyleneamines to form mono. N-Alkyl-piperazines and piperazine can react with nitrosating agents. Product distribution is controlled by reactant ratio. trace levels of byproducts can form and increased color usually results. However. Mixing methylene chloride and EDA reportedly causes a runaway reaction (19). depending on the reactant ratio (20). reaction conditions. The hydrates of linear TETA and PIP melt around 50°C (25-26). O2 Under normal conditions ethyleneamines are considered to be thermally stable molecules. . metal complexation or choice of solvent. amine hydrates may form. the reaction being mildly exothermic. crosslinked. react with ethyleneamines to form various polymeric. The products depend on stoichiometry. . 19 . H2O. nitrogen oxides. .Halides Alkyl halides and aryl halides. Reactions of aldehydes with such ethyleneamines as EDA or DETA give mono. such as nitrogen oxides.and disubstituted imidazolidines via cyclization of the intermediate Schiff base (21). Ethyleneamines are soluble in water. such as ethylene dichloride. .RX 8. and structure of the ethyleneamine. However. they are sufficiently reactive that upon exposure to adventitious water. nitrites. and oxygen. activated by electron withdrawing groups. Ethylene thiourea. carbon dioxide. which can be reacted with zinc (or manganese) to give the appropriate dithiocarbamate salt.

basicity. The following table lists the major end-use applications for these versatile materials. and surface activity. They are predominantly used as intermediates in the production of functional products. .Ethyleneamines Applications Ethyleneamines are utilized in a wide variety of applications because of their unique combination of reactivity.

Major End-Uses for Ethyleneamines Application Lube Oil Additives Fuel Additives Polyamide Resins Asphalt Chemicals Corrosion Inhibitors Wet-Strength Paper Resins Epoxy Curing Agents Bleach Activators Chelating Agents Ore Flotation Agents Surfactants Fabric Softeners Fungicides Anthelmintics Spandex Fibers Urethanes Military Decontamination Agents Plastic Lubricants Ion Exchange Resins Coatings NOTE: The largest volume applications are indicated by ++ EDA DETA TETA TEPA Ethylenediamine Diethylenetriamine Triethylenetetramine Tetraethylenepentamine HPA PIP AEP AEEA Heavy Polyamine Piperazine Aminoethylpiperazine Aminoethylethanolamine EDA DETA + TETA + + ++ + + ++ TEPA ++ + ++ + + + ++ HPA ++ PIP AEP AEEA ++ ++ + + ++ ++ ++ + + ++ ++ + + ++ + + ++ ++ ++ + + ++ ++ ++ + + ++ + + + ++ ++ + + + ++ 21 .

and in certain dispersantdetergents for fuels. Post-treatments of the succinimides are commonly utilized for performance improvement in engine oils (4658). The ethyleneamine derivatives most commonly employed for these tasks are the mono. Besides the more common means of linking long-chain hydrophobic moieties to ethyleneamines via the succinimide linkage. normally prepared by the condensation reaction of polyisobutenyl-succinic anhydrides (PIBSAs) (1. The higher molecular weight ethyleneamines are most popular for these derivatives. all the ethyleneamines have been employed for various products (45). a different linkage is employed in another important class of ashless dispersants – the Mannich bases (60-70). and by neutralizing acidic species formed in the combustion process. 2) with ethyleneamines (3-44). Ethyleneamines are also used in dispersant- sludge and varnish deposits within internal combustion engines by inhibiting the aggregation of particles.and bis-polyisobutenyl-succinimides. 22 .Lubricant and Fuel Additives The largest application area for ethyleneamines is in ashless dispersants for engine oils and other lubricants. The lubricant additives function mainly to reduce the formation of however. by solubilizing oil-insoluble liquids. They are prepared on a commercial scale by reaction of an alkylphenol with formaldehyde and an ethyleneamine (71-76). varnish inhibitors for lubricating oils for twostroke engines (59). The alkyl and ethyleneamine moieties are similar to those used in the succinimide products.

and heat-seal adhesives for leather. These additives are prepared from ethyleneamines by reaction with various viscosity index improvement polymers that have been modified. and metal. EDA is a principal amine reactant (1). EDA. Cetane improvement in diesel fuels has been reported for a mixture containing EDA (96). and paper. 78).and polybasic fatty acids. Dispersant-detergent additives useful in gasoline are prepared by the direct alkylation of ethyleneamines with chlorinated polybutenes (81-86). and. is that prepared generally by the condensation reaction of diamines with di. to plasticize nitrocellulose lacquers (6). They are also used to modify alkyd resins in certain thixotropic coating systems (5). in addition to the liquid resins used as epoxy hardeners. however. film. DETA. plastic. 4). to provide a reaction site. Anti-rust additives for lubricating oils have also been prepared by reacting ethyleneamines with fatty acids followed by reaction with polyalkylenesuccinic anhydrides (77. abrasionresistant. overprint varnishes. PIP and certain PIP derivatives are used with EDA in certain cases (3.and tetramines are sometimes used at low levels to achieve specific performance (2). Polyamide resins find wide use as binders in printing inks for flexogravure application on certain paper. via chlorination. Numerous similar products made generally by alkylating or acylating EDA or DETA (87-95) are also used as fuel detergent and deposit control additives. for example. Polyamide Resins The main polyamide resin type. and foil webs (8). and as corrosion inhibitors in alkyd paints (7). tri. polyester. Oil additives providing detergent properties have also been prepared from ethyleneamines (79. They are also used in preparing fatty acid/amine soaps and poly(urea) thickeners for lubricating greases. they are particularly suited to these applications. 80). 23 . cellophane. a number of antiwear/antiscuff additives for lube oils and greases also use ethyleneamines.Lubricant and Fuel Additives (cont’d) Additives for lubricating oils providing a combination of viscosity index improvement (VII) and dispersancy have also been reported. pressure-sensitive. Thermoplastic polyamides are similarly used in formulating glossy. and AEEA have found significant commercial application as dispersant detergent additives for gasoline when made by this route. paper. These polyamides are used in hot-melt. Being soluble in alcohol-based solvents and exhibiting outstanding adhesion to polyolefins.

patching. neutralizers. Petroleum Production and Refining A number of ethyleneamine derivatives are also employed in petroleum production and refining operations as corrosion inhibitors. and pH and increase resistance to hydrolysis (15). TEPA and other ethyleneamines combined with thickeners help stabilize viscosity. 12. Similar ethyleneamine derivatives are used to make stable asphalt-in-water emulsions (8-16). Corrosion inhibitor formulations for downhole petroleum production applications use a significant volume of ethyleneamines. 11. Antistrip additives promote adhesion between the mineral aggregate and the asphalt in mixtures for road paving.Asphalt Additives and Emulsifiers Mono. imidazolines. and surfacing. DETA. they are represented by the products made from DETA and fatty acids (1-7).. i. Typically. mono.e. as part of a system used to extract thiols from petroleum distillates (18). They generally utilize the condensation reaction products of higher ethyleneamines and fatty or dimer acids. and polyamides. as part of a composition used as an antioxidant to control fouling (19). Ethyleneamines are also employed in petroleum refining operations. Specific ethyleneamine derivatives can also be used for water clarification (16. and in the processing of certain catalysts (22-25). They are usually applied to the petroleum well by any of several methods designed to create a film of inhibitor on the surfaces of the steel structures in the petroleum well. These are generally used as their HCl or acetic acid salts. mobility. 24 . These films displace the corrosive production fluids and attract a film of petroleum which further isolates the steel from the fluid. In some secondary recovery operations.and bis-amidoamines. demulsifiers.and bis-amidoamines. and functional additives. and their mixtures are used in antistrip formulations and asphalt-in-water emulsions. 17). ethyleneamines can be used to decrease the migration of injected chemicals into the formation by adsorption and precipitation (14). 13). for example. The oil-water emulsions generated at times by petroleum wells can often be broken with certain ethyleneamine derivatives (8-10) (EDA. imidazolines. They are typically prepared from the higher molecular weight ethyleneamines and fatty acids (1-7). to separate alkenes from thermally-cracked petroleum products (20). to separate carbon disulfide from a pyrolysis fraction (21). and TETA.

is used as a defoamer in paper mill operations. The bis-amide made by reacting EDA with stearic acid. Polyamine wetstrength resins. 6. are also used. 27). TETA. packaging paper products. added to the beater stock to improve the wet strength of tissue. The sulfur-free delignification of wood chips with EDA-soda liquors has received some interest in the past few years (22-24). Numerous modifications of this resin type have been reported (4. The most popular paper wet strength resins are the modified polyamides typically made with DETA. The cationic formaldehyde resins. 2). incorporate ethyleneamines such as DETA. 11) and polyamines (12). toweling. these types of paper wetstrength resins have been decreasing in popularity due to the adverse health effects associated with formaldehyde. and/or TEPA in the resin backbone to provide substantivity to the cellulose fibers in paper. antistatic agents (17-20). both urea. adipic acid and epichlorohydrin (37). Improved rates of EDA recovery (25) have also been developed for EDA-sulfide pulping processes (26. rather than the Certain pigment retention and drainage additives made with ethyleneamines include various polyamides (10. represent a major end use for ethyleneamines. to make nonacidic papers. Cationic formaldehyde. and paper coatings (21).and melamine-formaldehyde types (1. made by the reaction of ethyleneamines with epichlorohydrin (9). Even though they tend to be less expensive. polyamide. 8). ethylenebis(stearamide). Ethyleneamines are also used in the preparation of certain flocculating agents (13). and acidic conditions required by modified formaldehyde resins. 25 . These resins can be used under less corrosive neutral or alkaline conditions.Resins and Additives for Pulp and Paper Ethyleneamine-based chemicals are used widely in the paper industry to impart specific functional characteristics to the finished paper. and polyamine resins. waterproofing and sizing compounds (14-16).

Other modifications of the ethyleneamines include partial reaction with epoxy resin to form a prepolymer. etc. made by the reaction of EDA with acetone. respectively. and safety improveAmidoamines and reactive polyamides prepared by condensation of TETA or higher polyamines with fatty acids (3-5) and dimer acids (6. usually by reaction with acrylonitrile. to give derivatives providing longer pot life and better wetting of glass (14). (1). 7). such as ethylene oxide. and a variety of other ethyleneamine modifications (15-18). 26 . It is prepared by first reacting EDA with two moles of acetic acid to form the bis-amide. adhesives. patibility with liquid epoxy resins (9-13). handling. The presence of different polyamino functionalities in the higher ethyleneamines allows partial reaction with various modifiers while retaining sufficient primary and secondary amino functionality for reaction with the epoxy resin portion of the system. which is then reacted with two moles of acetic anhydride to form the tetra-amide. castings. to DETA (2) as shown above.Epoxy Curing Agents All the commercial ethyleneamines are used either neat or as derivatives for curing epoxy resin-based coatings. Although the ethyleneamines themselves are often used as the curing agent or part of a curing agent package. ketimines. formaldehyde. are widely used for longer pot life and better flexibility. they are commonly modified in various ways to achieve performance. adhesion. and solvent resistance (8). laminates. Most of the amidoamines and reactive polyamides contain significant levels of imidazoline structure. and a polyamine. a common modification is the addition of an alkylene oxide. cyanoethylation. Mannich bases prepared from a phenol. which provides improved com- ments. Bleach Activators Tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED) has been widely adopted for use in home laundry products as an activator for peroxygen bleaches. For example. grouts. and tertiary amino functionality to catalyze that reaction.

made from DETA. and nickel from their sulfide and oxide ores (4). These same kinds of derivatives can be used for beneficiation of niobium and tantalum ores (3). This property makes the ethyleneamines useful in specialized applications. separated. These compounds are produced on an industrial scale primarily through the reaction of the ethyleneamine. and the ethyleneamines themselves aid extraction of copper. and in lead ore processing and recovery operations (5-8). 2). and fibers (9) have also been developed. It should be pointed out that unmodified ethyleneamines also form stable complexes with certain metal ions. The most important commercial family of chelating agents is ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and its various sodium salts. 5).or polyvalent metals. chromium. such as electroplating and electroless metal coating with specific metals and many alloys. such as zinc and copper. made from EDA. The intermediate polynitrile may either be hydrolyzed in situ (3). Diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DETPA). concentrated. 27 . has found application recently in chlorine-free paper pulp bleaching to prevent iron from decreasing efficiency of the hydrogen peroxide (6). sodium or hydrogen cyanide.Chelates and Chelating Agents Polycarboxylic acids and their salts derived from ethyleneamines are used in a variety of applications where specific metal ions interfere with processing. or separated and hydrolyzed separately (4. Chelating resins. They may be made also by reaction of the ethyleneamine with sodium chloroacetate. 8). Metal Ore Processing Certain processes for enrichment of iron and phosphate ores use amidoamines and imidazolines made from ethyleneamines and fatty acids. called chelates. These derivatives selectively adhere to silica particles and permit their removal by flotation procedures (1. where their metal complexing properties are required. 2). or transported. AEEA and DETA are also used to make similar polyacetic acid or acetate products. and as ingredients in systems for etching and for stripping nickel and nickel alloy coatings. They operate by forming stoichiometric complexes. and formaldehyde in the presence of sodium hydroxide (1. with most di. or need to be buffered. polymers (7.

ethoxylated with an average of 17 moles of ethylene oxide. AEEA-based imidazolines are also important intermediates for surfactants used in shampoos by TETA.Surfactants and Emulsifiers To prepare surfactants derived from ethyleneamines. The PIP salts have long been the agents of choice for use against roundworms and pinworms (1). TEPA. Anthelmintics (Dewormers) Piperazine is the active ingredient in certain veterinary anthelmintic preparations – primarily for combating intestinal worms in poultry and swine. or TEPA and fatty acids also function as water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsifiers (12). 28 . and the imidazoline formed by the reaction under vacuum at virtue of their mildness and good foaming characteristics. amine salts or soaps obtained by simply mixing the amine with a fatty acid (1. 2). improves the soil antiredeposition and clay soil removal properties of certain liquid laundry detergents (13). The imidazolines are generally converted into amphoteric surfactants for this application by reaction with one or two moles of sodium chloroacetate (9-11). A variety of 2-alkylimidazolines and their salts prepared mainly from EDA or AEEA are reported to have good foaming properties (3-8). elevated temperature to remove two moles of water are all used. amidoamines derived by the non-cyclicizing reaction between amine and acid. The products of a reaction between DETA.

Softening agents based on DETA and TEPA are also used in industrial textile processing operations (1. Amino esters are made from acids and an amino alcohol. such as AEEA. and impart fluffiness. As a result. that are either cyclized to the corresponding imidazoline by further dehydration. are more subject to hydrolysis than the amidoamine and imidazoline compounds. as well as their quaternized derivatives. which gives amphoteric softeners (9). they have gained some popularity where environmental biodegradation concerns outweigh their The most common ethyleneamine-based fabric softeners are bis-amidoamines. The amino esters. or to the clothes dryer. or reacted with ethylene oxide (3) to convert the central secondary amine group to a tertiary amine. generally with dimethyl sulfate. 29 . Softeners also act as antistatic and antisoiling agents. Softeners based on bis-imidazoline compounds are also prepared by condensing TETA or TEPA with fatty acids (7) or triglycerides (8). “softer” or more pleasing to the touch. or sodium chloroacetate. decreased storage stability and performance. 2). followed by quaternization with dimethyl sulfate. made from DETA and fatty acids. to yield compounds that can be formulated into softener products for home laundry use (4-6). These intermediates are then quaternized. Softeners are added to the home washing machine during a rinse cycle or as part of a detergent/softener combination product.Fabric Softeners Softeners are commonly added to textile materials to make them less harsh.

scab. potato. The zinc (zineb) and manganese salts (maneb) are especially effective (1-7) and are today the azoline (9).Fungicides The ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) are a class of broad-spectrum. vegetable. it is stabilized by conversion to certain other divalent metal salts. The EBDCs are prepared by reacting EDA with carbon disulfide in the presence of an aqueous base. was found to be unstable. However. The ammonium (amobam) and mixed zinc and manganese (mancozeb) salts are also known. They are used on many fruit. 30 . and grain crops for prevention of mildew. It is used as the acetate salt for control of apple scab and cherry leaf spot. primary commercial products. A 2:1 EDA-copper sulfate complex has been suggested for control of aquatic fungi (10). rust. preventative. prepared from EDA and stearic acid. nabam. Zineb and maneb are normally formed by the addition of zinc or manganese salts to nabam solutions. Other materials based on EDA have also been suggested as fungicides. and blight. The most important of the imidazoline type (8) is 2-heptadecyl-2-imidS CH2–NH–C–S–Na H2C–CH2–CH2–NH2 + CS2 + 2NaOH CH2–NH–C–S–Na S + 2 H2O This sodium derivative. contact fungicides first used in the early 1940’s.

ceramics. to reduce static in polystyrene foam. 2). and membranes. ion exchange resins. Other Applications Ethyleneamines find application in numerous other specific industries. DETA is a component of Nylon 6 (11). Acrylate and other monomer vapors can be efficiently removed from vent streams with scrubber solvents containing TETA. gas and water treating. and surface gloss enhancer. shrinkproofing wool (5). petroleum production. EDA specifically can be used as a stabilizer for certain urea resins. explosives. DETA. static prevention (6). 31 . They include coal-oil emulsification and coal extraction. preservative. stone and concrete coatings. TETA has been recommended as a curing agent for furfural resin binders in foundry molds and molded graphite. EDA reacted with stearic acid makes ethylene-bis(stearamide) (EBS) that is used as an external lubricant for ABS resin and PVC. and for etching polyimide films. and polyol starters. Ethyleneamines find application in vulcanization processes for certain rubbers (1-11). and mothproofing (7). in phenolic resin curing. industrial corrosion inhibition. Dye assist compounds for synthetic fibers have been derived from EDA. and as a parting material. pharmaceuticals. viscosity regulator. fire retardants. The bisamidoamine condensate made from TETA or TEPA and stearic acid is used as a defoamer in certain textile treatment baths. Urethane systems and processes employ certain ethyleneamines and their derivatives as curing agents. and they are used in styrene-butadiene latex processes to coagulate the low levels of finely-dispersed particles in the reaction medium (12-15). polymer concrete and concrete additives.Textiles Ethyleneamines are used in the textile-related industries for a variety of applications. TETA. to inhibit isoprene polymerization. EDA is used in preparing silane and silanol compounds that improve the adhesion between inorganic surfaces and polymer films. plaster systems. and TEPA (8-10). light stabilization of spandex fibers (4). catalysts (TEDA [triethylenediamine] is a significant example). as precursors for certain compounds providing durable press (3). including the treatment of a wide variety of natural and synthetic fibers for modification of certain properties (1. functional fluids. Polymers and Elastomers EDA is a key component of the polymer in spandex fiber.

011 1.92 8.56°C 0.51 7.977 0. kg Ethyleneamine Ethylenediamine Diethylenetriamine Triethylenetetramine Tetraethylenepentamine UHP Heavy Polyamine X Piperazine.95 8.953 0. additional information on shipping data.39 (1) — (2) 8. 32 .995 1.30 8. We will provide a technical contact to discuss specific questions you might have. Anhydrous Aminoethylpiperazine Aminoethylethanolamine (1) At 65°C (2) Solid at this condition (3) At 20°C to 30°C (4) At 45°C to 65°C at 20°C 7.56°C 7. Average Weight per gallon.44 8. Please contact Dow at the numbers on the back of this booklet.005 (1) — (2) 0.47 — (2) — (2) 8.896 0. Anhydrous Aminoethylpiperazine Aminoethylethanolamine (1) At 65°C (2) Solid at this condition (3) At 20°C to 30°C (4) At 45°C to 65°C at 20°C 0. lb Ethyleneamine Ethylenediamine Diethylenetriamine Triethylenetetramine Tetraethylenepentamine UHP Heavy Polyamine X Piperazine. labeling and container requirements may be obtained by contacting Dow at the numbers on the back of this booklet.987 1.24 8.015 — (2) — (2) 0.949 0. 65% Piperazine.21 8.991 1.27 8.984 1.48 7.Shipping Data Since governmental regulations are subject to change.57 (5) At 80 °C at 15.031 Product Specifications Product specifications and methods are available upon request.027 (5) At 80 °C at 15. 65% Piperazine.60 Metric Units Average Weight per liter.980 0.900 0.18 8.15 8.

00661 0. per °C 0.00077 at 55°C 0.00085 0.00081 0.00077 at 55°C 0. per °C 0.00092 0. rail car.00106 0. ASTM Method D 93 C = Cleveland Open Cup. ASTM Method D 92 TO = Tag Open Cup. per °C at 20°C 0.000769 (3) 0.000792 0.00081 0. ASTM Method D 56 P = Pensky-Martens Closed Cup.00680 (3) 0.000747 (3) 0.00085 0.00095 (5) — (2) 0.00089 0.00640 (3) Coefficient of Expansion. ASTM Method D 56 P = Pensky-Martens Closed Cup.00083 0. and nominal 55gallon drums. 33 .00086 0.00092 0. °F Closed Cup 110 T 208 P 300 P 340 P 345 P None T 130 P 215 P 260 P Open Cup 103 TO 225 C 310 C 360 C 445 C 205 C 215 C 250 C 310 C (6) T = Tag Closed Cup. ASTM Method D 1310 Product Availability Products are available in bulk ocean tanker.00076 — (2) — (2) 0.00077 Flash Point (6).00794 0. per °C at 20°C 0.000842 0.000943 (4) — (2) 0.00089 0.000815 (3) 0.00076 0.000951 0.00086 0.00106 0.00081 0.00076 — (2) — (2) 0. ASTM Method D 92 TO = Tag Open Cup.00081 0.00110 0.00623 (3) 0.000767 (3) Coefficient of Expansion. ASTM Method D 93 C = Cleveland Open Cup.00642 (3) 0.00083 0. °C Closed Cup 43 T 98 P 149 P 171 P 174 P None T 54 P 102 P 127 P Open Cup 39 TO 107 C 154 C 182 C 229 C 96 C 102 C 121 C 154 C (6) T = Tag Closed Cup.00080 0. ASTM Method D 1310 ∆kg/liter/∆t 10°C to 30°C.00095 (5) — (2) 0.00076 0.00080 0. tank truck.00703 0.00077 Flash Point (6).∆lb/gal/∆t 10°C to 30°C.00787 (4) — (2) 0.00110 0.

g. Water. certain grades of these materials may be acceptable in some storage applications. dumped filter cake. sometimes rapidly and usually exothermically. inert atmosphere (such as low CO2-containing nitrogen) will minimize this sort of degradation. in dedicated service. since TFE is not a true elastomer. porous insulation may introduce the hazard of spontaneous combustion if the insulation is saturated with ethyleneamines from a leak or external spill. or be thoroughly wetted with water and then disposed of in closed. for nonaqueous. self-heating of ethyleneamines may occur by slow oxidation in other absorbent or high-surface-area media. If this cannot be tolerated. Closed cellular glass insulation is normally resistant to insulation fires because it is difficult for the ethyleneamines to saturate these materials and also difficult for air to contact the product. No single elastomer is acceptable for the entire product line. Also. Proper selection of materials of construction for ethyleneamine service is essential to ensure the integrity of the handling system and to maintain product quality. TFE is an alternative to elastomers since it is resistant to ethyleneamines. e. Most commonly used industrial thermal insulating materials are acceptable for ethyleneamine service. this may lead to spontaneous combustion. carbon dioxide. and oxygen from the atmosphere may be absorbed by the amines. However. However. consistent with local and federal regulations.. dedicated processing equipment is recommended. Risk of insulation fires can be reduced by insisting on good housekeeping. Galvanized steel.001 in/yr) at typical storage temperatures. copper and copper-bearing alloys are unacceptable for all ethyleneamine service. This may lead to low levels of byproducts and increase the color of the product. Consequently. Recommended gaskets for ethyleneamine service are made of GRAFOIL™ flexible graphite or polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE). or AEEA storage tanks. maintenance of weather barriers. like many other combustible liquids. minimizing insulated flanges and fittings. Storage under a dry. Carbon steel is not recommended for EDA. In some cases. heavier ethyleneamines without noticeable impact on product quality.Storage and Handling Ethyleneamines react with many other chemicals. watersaturated containers. Corrosion is not extreme (<0. Nonmetallic equipment is not normally used for ethyleneamine service. However. Carbon steel with baked phenolic lining is acceptable for storage of many pure ethyleneamines. any of these media contaminated with ethyleneamines should be washed with water to remove the amines. nitrogen oxides. Ethyleneamines can permeate polyethylene and polypropylene. Modest storage temperature (less than 60°C) and nitrogen blankets will allow the use of carbon steel. even at ambient temperature. A 300 series stainless steel is often specified for pumps. it may not always prove suitable as a replacement material. and either smoldering or a flame may be observed. Carbon steel transfer lines or agitated equipment will suffer enhanced corrosion because of erosion of the passive film by the product velocity. but the products will pick up iron and discolor badly. and training personnel. then 300 series stainless steels are recommended for the storage tanks. 34 . valves. heating coils. transfer lines. spill absorbents and metal wire mesh (such as that used in vapor mist eliminators). and small agitated tanks. To avoid this situation. DETA. except EDA.

As commercially pure materials. contact Dow at the numbers on the back of this booklet and request our Ethyleneamines Storage and Handling Brochure and/or a technical contact who will discuss specific questions about acceptable materials of construction and storage practices. vent units and relief devices may be steam-traced to maintain 160°C. This information is of a general nature. contact Dow at the numbers on the back of this booklet.The amines do not present any unusual flammability problem at ordinary temperatures. even in areas where routine processing is nonaqueous. Hydrate problems are usually avoided by insulating and heat tracing equipment to maintain a temperature of at least 50°C. Tank vents and safety devices are also susceptible to fouling by solid amine carbamates formed by the reaction of the amines with carbon dioxide. At elevated temperatures some product breakdown may be observed in the form of ammonia and the formation of lower and higher molecular weight species. vent lines and safety devices. which causes the carbamates to decompose. ethyleneamines exhibit good temperature stability. which can be a nuisance in handling. All amine vents should be routed to a safe location and “smoking vents” routed to water scrubbers to capture the vapors. Vent fouling can be reduced by using nitrogen blankets on storage tanks to exclude atmospheric CO2. heavier ethyleneamines may be stored at elevated temperatures (40-60°C) to ease inplant handling by lowering the viscosity. This degradation increases in rate as the temperature and/or time increases. which are updated as new information becomes available. Also. contaminants can lower the onset of rapid exothermic thermal decomposition (for example. Ethyleneamines are typically maintained above their freezing points which may require storage above ambient temperatures (particularly EDA and PIP). although the amines are water-soluble. For the latest Material Safety Data Sheets on ethyleneamines. solid amine hydrates may form. Water cleanup of ethyleneamine equipment can result in hydrate problems. Testing for thermal stability is suggested whenever ethyleneamines are mixed with other materials. Warm water cleanup can reduce the extent of the problem. Vent units require periodic inspection to verify that fouling is not occurring and to ensure that seals are functioning properly to exclude air from the tank. in certain concentrations. Additionally. EDA has the lowest flash point (Tag Closed Cup): 43°C (110°F). For additional information. In addition. as well as recommended safety procedures. may be found in the Material Safety Data Sheets. Hydrates can plug processing equipment. Additionally. 35 . Health Effects Information on health effects and their management. Storage at elevated temperatures can cause vapors “breathing” from the tank to contain significant concentrations of product. mineral acids contamination).

(3) The measured biooxidation as a percent of the total carbonaceous and nitrogenous oxygen demand (sum of calculated carbonaceous and nitrogenous ThOD values) is presented for Days 5. (2) Measured in dilution bottle biochemical oxygen demand test published in Standard Methods. The impact of acclimation on the rate and extent of biodegradation is shown by the EDA and DETA acclimated seed data. TETA.88 1.84 1. Calculated value based on oxygen required to oxidize the chemical to carbon dioxide and water.68 1.75 — — 1.93 1. 36 . Ecological Fate and Effects of Ethyleneamines Theoretical Oxygen Demand. 10. DETA. (1989).86 1. and Standard Methods techniques. 1.Ecological Fate and Effects Dow has conducted a series of laboratory studies on the biodegradation and ecological effects of these amines.13 1. which rapidly biodegraded.64 1. The nitrogenous oxygen demand is calculated based on nitrogen being oxidized to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria. except for EDA and AEEA.33 1.86 1.94 1. while the nitrogen converts to and remains as ammonia. 65% Aminoethylpiperazine Aminoethylethanolamine Carbonaceous Meas. Aquatic toxicity measurements showed only moderate toxicity for most of the tested amines. Bacterial inhibition tests indicate that none of these amines tested should be inhibitory to conventional wastewater treatment processes at expected discharge levels of less than 500 mg/L. 17th ed. showed more toxicity to Daphnia magna with LC50 values ranging from 5 to 40 mg/L.63 Calc. 2. Several amines. (ThOD) mg/mg(1) Product Evaluated Ethylenediamine Diethylenetriamine Triethylenetetramine Tetraethylenepentamine UHP Heavy Polyamine X Piperazine. Biodegradation was measured by the riversimulating 20-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) test using nonacclimated microorganisms. ASTM. These studies were conducted by procedures which follow the EPA. The data presented in the following table show that the amines biodegrade slowly. Nonacclimated domestic sewage microorganisms used as seed. and 20. (COD) 1.69 — 1. and AEP.49 1.55 1.23 (1) Measured by Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) procedure published in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The biooxidation values are calculated as percentage ratio of BOD and ThOD (BOD/ThOD x 100). EDA.50 1.28 1.48 1.86 1. Natural acclimation in a wastewater treatment plant or in the general environment would be expected to increase the rate and extent of biodegradation for the related compounds.54 Nitrogenous Calc.. Public Health Assoc. with the exception of EDA/DETA studies which used acclimated seed.

you should review our latest Material Safety Data Sheets and ensure that the use you intend can be accomplished safely. No nitrification was measured in the acclimated systems. 37 . and request that t hey do the same. it is the user’s responsibility to determine that this information is appropriate and suitable under current. % biooxidation Total Carbonaceous(2) Days 5/10/20 68/100/100 A36(6)/A45(6)/A70(6) <5/<5/<5 A23(6)/A46(6)/A70(6) 3/4/9 4/7/12 <5/<5/<5 <10/<10/<10 2/4/7 2/64/90 —/—/— —/—/— —/—/— —/—/— —/—/— —/—/— 1/37/53 >5000 680 — — 4600 1400 >5000 25/37/78 1000 Nitrogenous(3) Days 5/10/20 Bacterial (4) Inhibition IC50. Biochemical Oxygen Demand(2). drug. Since government regulations and use conditions are subject to change. understand. mg/L 48-hour 96-hour Daphnia magna Fathead Minnow 5 (4-6) 17 (15-19) 40 (35-50) — — 90 (80-110) 36 (25-50) 110 (90-130) 210 (190-230) 260 (220-310) 330 (280-400) 310 — 720 (640-800) 560 (500-620) 515 (470-560) (4) Determined by turbidity/growth procedures where the median inhibition concentration (IC50) is measured after 16 hours of incubation with sewage microorganisms. or any other users of the product(s). For Material Safety Data Sheets and other product safety information. The 95% confidence limits (95% CL) are shown in parentheses. mg/L Aquatic Toxicity (5) LC50. Dow requests that the customer read. or cosmetic. or cosmetic until the user has determined the suitability and legality of the use. Before handling any other products mentioned in the text. medical device. contact Dow at the numbers on the back of this booklet.Product Safety When considering the use of any Dow products in a particular application. you should obtain available product safety information and take necessary steps to ensure safety of use. applicable laws and regulations. (6) Biooxidation values for EDA and DETA are taken from tests with acclimated microorganisms. contractors. and customers. (5) Fathead minnows and Daphnia magna bioassays were conducted using procedures published by EPA and ASTM. The customer should furnish the information in these publications to its employees. and comply with the information contained in this publication and the current Material Safety Data Sheet(s). or in a product or process in which it may contact a food. No chemical should be used as or in a food. drug. medical device.

Catalyst and crosslinking agent for epoxy resins used in resinous and polymeric coatings applied as a continuous film or enamel over a metal substrate or applied as a continuous film or enamel to any suitable substrate provided that the coating serves as a functional barrier between the food and the substrate and is intended for repeated food-contact use. aqueous. Crosslinker with epichlorohydrin to make ion-exchange resins used in the processing of food.300 175. and dry food. Modifier for urea-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde resins used as the basic polymer in resinous and polymeric coatings on a metal substrate. Modifier for urea-formaldehyde resins for use as the basic polymer in cellophane and as a resin to anchor coatings to substrate. Catalyst for epoxy resins and component of polyamides for use in zinc-silicon dioxide matrix coatings. Polyamides from vegetable oil acids and sebacic acid for use in side seam and can-end cements. Urea-formaldehyde resins chemically modified with polyamines made by reacting ethylenediamine with dichloroethane or dichloropropane for use as a component of the coated or uncoated food-contact surface of paper and paperboard in contact with dry food.1200 177. Modifier for urea-formaldehyde and melamine-formaldehyde resins for use as a component of the coated or uncoated food-contact surface of paper and paperboard in contact with fatty.170 176.20 173. Modifier for melamine-formaldehyde resins for use as the basic polymer in cellophane.4’-iso-propylidenediphenol epichlorohydrin epoxy resins.180 176.3120 38 .0 ppm based on the weight of raw cane or beets processed. Component of adhesives used in articles intended for packaging.170 176. Catalyst for epoxy resins and component of polyamides for use in xylene-formaldehyde resins condensed with 4. Component in an antimicrobial formulation used in cane sugar and beet sugar mills.180 176. crusher. Catalyst for epoxy resins used as the food contact surface of paper and paperboard in contact with fatty. Polyamide-epichlorohydrin resins prepared by reacting adipic acid or other acids with diethylenetriamine to form a basic polyamide and further reaction of the polyamide with other materials to form water-soluble thermosetting resins for use in the manufacture of paper and paperboard.170 176. Adjuvant in the preparation of slimicides used as antimicrobial agents to control slime in the manufacture of paper and paperboard. aqueous. and/or diffusor systems at a maximum level of 2. Component in an antimicrobial formulation used in cane sugar mills.180 176.180 176. Polyamines made by reacting ethylenediamine with dichloroethane or dichloropropane.1210 177.300 177. not to exceed 1. sulfanilic acid.320 173. and dry food. Modifier for amino resins used as a component of the coated and uncoated food-contact surface of paper and paperboard in contact with fatty.180 176. and/or diffusor systems at a maximum level of 1. applied to the sugar mill grinding.FDA Status Dow provides the following FDA Status Summary for the convenience of our customers.170 176. Catalyst for epoxy resins and component of polyamides for use in making closures with sealing gaskets.105 175. Accelerator in vulcanization of rubber articles intended for repeated use. However.380 175.320 175.2600 178. and as a resin to anchor coatings to substrate. Polyamides formed by reaction with dimerized vegetable oil acids for use as components of food-packaging adhesives.390 176. and other listed amines. transporting. Formulation of defoaming agents used in the manufacture of paper and paperboard prior to and during the sheet forming operation.0 ppm based on the weight of raw cane processed.5 wt% based on the monomers. Catalyst activator in semirigid and rigid acrylic and modified acrylic plastics. or holding food.5 wt% of the rubber product. applied to the sugar mill grinding.300 Preparation of ion-exchange membranes used in the processing of grapefruit juice. and dry food.25 173.1010 177. crusher. Component of the coated or uncoated food-contact surface of paper and paperboard in contact with dry food (as a crosslinking agent in polymerization). it is the responsibility of the user of an ethyleneamine as a Direct or Indirect Food Additive to read and understand any applicable FDA regulations in Title 21 of the Code of FDA Regulation Ethylenediamine 21 CFR Permitted Uses 173. Polyamides from dimerized vegetable oils for use as adjuncts for epoxy resins. 175.105 175.1200 177.1200 177. as a modifier for melamine-formaldehyde resins used in cellophane. aqueous. at a level not to exceed 0.210 176.1200 177. Additive in the production of animal glue.300 175.180 176.300 175. Polyamines made by reacting ethylenediamine with dichloroethane or dichloropropane for modifying urea-formaldehyde resins used as the basic polymer and as a resin to anchor coatings to the substrate in the manufacture of food-packaging cellophane.

Furthermore. safe. Diethylenetriamine (EDA) Triethylenetetramine (DETA) ✔ ✔ Tetraethylenepentamine (TETA) ✔ Aminoethylethanolamine (TEPA) ✔ (AEEA) ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ 39 . it is the responsibility of the user to determine that any such use is suitable.Federal Regulations (21 CFR) to determine any limitations or restrictions on the proposed use. and FDA-compliant.

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