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Quigg, Gauge Theories of the Strong, Weak, and Electromagnetic Interactions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1983). Recommended: I. J. R. Aitchison and A. J. G. Hey, Gauge Theories in Particle Physics: A Practical Introduction second edition (Adam Hilger, Bristol, 1989). L. B. Okun, Particle Physics: The Quest for the Substance of Substance (Harwood Academic Press, New York, 1985). Field Theory Basics: F. Mandl and G. Shaw, Quantum Field Theory (Wiley, New York, 1984). ***** Recommended Reading: Okun, Chapter 1. Gauge Theories, Chapters 1 and 2. E. L. Hill, Rev. Mod. Phys. 23, 253 (1953). Cultural Reading: C. Quigg, “Elementary Particles and Forces,” Sci. Am. 252, (April, 1985), p. 84. H. Harari, “The Structure of Quarks and Leptons,” Sci. Am. 248, (April, 1983), p. 56. J. R. Rees, “The Stanford Linear Collider,” Sci. Am. 261, (October, 1989), p. 58. S. Myers and E. Picasso, “The LEP Collider,” Sci. Am. 263, (July, 1990), p. 54. L. M. Lederman, “The Tevatron,” Sci. Am. 264, (March, 1991), p. 48. J. Huth, “High Energy Physics — The Road Ahead,” Am. Sci. 82, 326 (1994) B. Carithers and P. Grannis, “Discovery of the Top Quark,” SLAC Beam Line 25, No. 3, p. 4 (Fall 1995). The entire issue is available in pdf format at http://www.slac.stanford.edu/publications/beamline/95iii.pdf. ***** If you do not already own the 1996 Review of Particle Physics [Phys. Rev. D54, 1 (1996)] and the Particle Physics Booklet, send an e-mail request to email@example.com. You may instead write to Particle Data Group, MS 50-308, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, to request a copy. There is no charge. The PDG’s WWW server is at http://www-pdg.lbl.gov. ***** Course information, including class schedules and assignments, will be available on the World Wide Web. Point your web client to http://lutece.fnal.gov/Princeton/. Problems (due February 13, 1997) 1. Consider bound states composed of a b-quark and a ¯ b-antiquark. For (b¯ composites, b) (a) Show that a bound state with orbital angular momentum L must have quantum numbers C = (−1)L+S P = (−1)L+1 , Chris Quigg
where S is the spin of the composite system. (b) Allowing for both orbital and radial excitations, construct a schematic mass spectrum of (b¯ bound states. Label each state with its quantum numbers J P C . b)
2 2. Consider bound states composed of color-triplet scalars, or squarks (denoted ˜ and antib) squarks. ¯ (a) Show that a (˜˜ bound state with angular momentum L (i.e., an orbital excitation) must bb) have quantum numbers C = (−1)L ; P = (−1)L . (b) Allowing for both orbital and radial excitations, construct a schematic mass spectrum of (˜¯ bound states. Label each state with its quantum numbers J P C . How does the spectrum b˜ b) of squarkonium diﬀer from that of quarkonium? 3. (a) Using the Feynman rules given in Appendix B.5 of Gauge Theories, compute the diﬀerential cross section dσ/dΩ and the total (integrated) cross section σ ≡ dΩ(dσ/dΩ) for the reaction e+ e− → µ+ µ− . Work in the center of momentum frame, and in the high-energy limit (where all the masses may be neglected). Assume that the colliding beams are unpolarized, and sum over the spins of the produced muons. (b) Look up the original evidence for quark–antiquark jets in the inclusive reaction e+ e− → hadrons [G. J. Hanson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1609 (1975)]. Now recompute the differential cross section for the reaction e+ e− → µ+ µ− , assuming the initial beams to be transversely polarized. See also R. F. Schwitters et al., ibid. 35, 1320 (1975). 4. Deﬁne the requirements for an experiment to measure the gyromagnetic ratio of the tau lepton, taking into account the τ -lifetime and the anticipated result gτ ≈ 2. For background, become acquainted with the methods used to measure the magnetic anomalies of the electron [A. Rich and J. Wesley, Rev. Mod. Phys. 44, 250 (1972); R. S. Van Dyck, Jr., P. B. Schwinberg, and H. G. Dehmelt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 93 (1977); R. S. Van Dyck, Jr., “Anomalous Magnetic Moment of Single Electrons and Positrons: Experiment,” in Quantum Electrodynamics, edited by T. Kinoshita (World Scientiﬁc, SIngapore, 1990), p. 322.] and muon [F. Combley, F. J. M. Farley, and E. Picasso, Phys. Rep. 68, 93 (1981); F. J. M. Farley, and E. Picasso, “The Muon g − 2 Experiments,” in Kinoshita’s QED, p. 479], and the magnetic dipole moments of the nucleons [N. F. Ramsey, Molecular Beams, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1956] and unstable hyperons [L. Schachinger et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 1348 (1978); L. G. Pondrom, Phys. Rep. 122, 57 (1985). For an interesting new technique, see D. Chen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3286 (1992), and V. V. Baublis, et al., Nucl. Inst. Meth. B90, 150 (1994)]. Indirect determinations of (g −2)τ are discussed by R. Escribano and E. Mass´, “Improved Bounds on o the Electromagnetic Dipole Moments of the Tau Lepton,” (bulletin board: hep–ph/9609423); G. K¨pp, D. Schaile, M. Spira, and P. Zerwas, Z. Phys. C65, 545 (1995); M. A. Samuel and o G. Li, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 33, 1471 (1994). ˙ 5. For a free particle moving in one dimension, the Lagrangian is L = 1 mx2 . Show that the 2 action S corresponding to the classical motion of a free particle from position x1 = x(t1 ) to position x2 = x(t2 ) is m(x2 − x1 )2 S= . 2(t2 − t1 ) m 6. For a harmonic oscillator with Lagrangian L = (x2 − ω2 x2 ), show that the classical action ˙ 2 for a particle that moves from position x1 at initial time t1 to position x2 at ﬁnal time t2 is S= where T ≡ t2 − t1 . mω (x2 + x2 ) cos ωT − 2x1 x2 , 1 2 2 sin ωT
Chapter 2. Proceedings of the International Conference on Fundamental Aspects of Quantum Theory to Celebrate Thirty Years of the Aharonov–Bohm Eﬀect. 1990). Nat. Quantum Coherence.” Am. (iii) spatial rotations implies conservation of (i) momentum. Deep Background: T. Phys. Singapore. Weak Interactions and Modern Particle Theory. 1989). Schwinger. 1984). ¯ where σµν ≡ (i/2) [γµ . Today 43.” Am. Cultural Reading: Akira Tonomura. (ii) energy. M. “Electron Holography: A New View of the Microscopic. Today 43. ∂ µ Jµ = 0? 9. 22 (April. Making use of the Dirac equation. (Springer-Verlag. (iii) angular momentum. 493 (1989). Robert Mills. Cheng and L. a Dirac particle). 1990). (ii) translations in time. On geometrical phases: M. (Benjamin. Problems (due February 20. “Berry’s Phase. V. Phys. Pines. if the wave Chris Quigg .” On the continuation to imaginary time: J. “Gauge Fields. Calculate the diﬀerential cross section in the laboratory frame for elastic electron-proton scattering (a) for a structureless proton (i. show that the most general parity-conserving form for the electromagnetic current of the proton is Jµ ∼ u(p )[Γ1 (q 2 )γµ + Γ2 (q 2 )iσµν q ν + Γ3 (q 2 )qµ ]u(p). (a) Consider a nonrelativistic particle with charge q moving along the axis of a cylindrical Faraday cage connected to an external generator. P. S. Menlo Park. Alfred Shapere and Frank Wilczek. 34 (December. Singapore. 8. 57. 586 (1988). Gauge Theories. New York. (World Scientiﬁc.-F.e. 1997) 7. “Anticipations of the Geometric Phase. Show that invariance under (i) translations in space. 1997 Recommended Reading: Okun. 44. and A. Zwanzinger. 41. Chem. 601 (1990). 56. Murray Peshkin and Akira Tonomura. which causes the potential V (t) on the cage to vary with time only when the particle is well within the cage. The Aharonov-Bohm Eﬀect. Use the requirement that the Lagrangian be invariant under a continuous symmetry to deduce the conserved quantity that corresponds to a particular transformation.. Show that. J. 1989). Anandan (World Scientiﬁc. (b) for a real proton (using the results of Problem 8). California. Berry.Gauge Theories & Particle Physics Physics 539 Spring Semester 1997 February 13. Chapter 3. Chapter 1: “Symmetries in Field Theory. W. Acad. J.” Phys. Phys. Li. 956 (1958). Rev. Proc. γν ] and q ≡ p−p . Sci. What are the consequences of current conservation.” Ann. Howard Georgi. 1990). “Resource Letter: GI-1 Gauge Invariance.” Phys. J. Koenig. edited by J. Geometrical Phases in Physics. 10.
Phys. Inc. Okun. Phys. [Reference: Y.fnal. D. allow for the possibility that γB has a nonzero mass. Roll. e B. 10. and R. the solution when o t h the generator is operating will be ψ(x. 98. Rev. 10. 3122 (1995).] For another recent examination of the possibility that a light U (1) gauge boson is coupled to baryon number. 533.fnal. b [Reference: D. Blinnikov. reprinted in Rev. et al. Aharonov and D. Murayama. See also the Nobel Lectures of “Murder. H. Danby. [For background. The potentials on the two cages vary independently. 52 (1996). 527. Rev. A. On emerging from the Faraday cages the beams are recombined and the resulting interference pattern is observed. B. and M. 485 (1959). Describe how the interference pattern depends upon the applied voltages. see C. Phys. 115.] What would provide a copious source of ντ ? What energy would be advantageous for the detection of the produced τ ? What characteristics would be required of the detector? What are the important backgrounds. but are nonzero only when a bunch is well within the tubes. 206 (1969)]. J.” (as they called themselves). The beam is chopped into bunches that are long compared with the wavelength of an individual particle but short compared with the Faraday cages. If baryon number is absolutely conserved. Phys. B458. Rev. Mod. penetrating beam of ντ materializes into τ upon interacting in matter. D. 61. what can be said about the strength of a hypothetical gauge interaction coupled to the baryon current? [Reference: T. Outline a “three-neutrino experiment” to establish that a neutral. Lee and C. t) is a solution of the Schr¨dinger equation for V (t) ≡ 0. Lederman. Phys. 358 (1969) [English translation: Sov. 36 (1962).. each of which is allowed to pass through its own long cylindrical cage of the kind just described. Dolgov. Phys. (NY) 26. t) = ψ0 (x.. 12. Fiz. B. Lett. see L. see S. Carone and H.] 11. Phys. For a critical re¨xamination of the limits. Krotkov. . Okun. Dicke. with the electric charge replaced by baryon number. G. and Leon M.] (c) How would a gauge boson γB coupled to baryon number aﬀect the properties of the b¯ resonances? For part (c) only. Phys. Bohm. Steinberger. B348. Mel Schwartz. ***** Course information. Rev. 547 (1989). Yang. Davidson. and how would you handle them? Some information about a three-neutrino experiment in preparation at Fermilab can be found at http://fn872. Yad. is available on World Wide Web. I. Point your web client to http://lutece. (a) How would Newton’s law of gravitation be modiﬁed if the baryonic phase symmetry were a local gauge invariance? (b) In view of the close equality of inertial and gravitational masses imposed by the E¨tv¨s o o experiment [P. look at the ﬁrst two-neutrino experiment. t)eiS/¯ .gov/Princeton/. including class schedules and assignments. 74. On the possibility of a massless gauge boson coupled to lepton number. where S = − dt qV (t ). 9. 442 (1967)]. Nucl. L. Voloshin. This ensures that the beam traverses a time-varying potential without experiencing electric or magnetic forces. R. Bailey and S.2 function ψ0 (x. 185 (1995). 150 (1955). D. J. N. Phys. (b) Now suppose that a single coherent beam of charged particles is split into two parts. the conservation law may be a consequence of a global phase symmetry like that of electromagnetism. Lett.gov. J. Ann. Lett. Nucl.
Fischbach. On prospects for improving the bound on Mγ by an order of magnetude: V.. Chapter 4. Relativistic Quantum Mechanics. New York. Apply the analysis of nucleon-nucleon forces of Gauge Theories. Sakurai. . Bjorken and S. §4. For a limit on Mγ based on Earth’s magnetic ﬁeld: E. On (unsuccessful) gauge theories of the strong interaction: J. “Past. McGraw-Hill. D.3. Phys. “Bounding the Photon Mass with Solar Probes.m. Ann. “New Light on Heavy Light. under successive transformations on the matter ﬁeld given by ψ → ψ = G1 ψ → ψ = G2 ψ the transformation of the gauge ﬁeld is characterized by G = G2 G1 . Aitchison and Hey. (b) Now compute the diﬀerential cross section dσ/dΩ and the total (integrated) cross section σ ≡ dΩ(dσ/dΩ) for the reaction e+ e− → V + V − .Gauge Theories & Particle Physics Physics 539 Spring Semester 1997 February 18. Work in the c. The free-particle Lagrangian is L = 1 [(∂µ φ)2 − m2 φ2 ]. Kosteleck´ y and M. D. 1964. M. Show that the transformations i i Bµ = GBµ G−1 + (∂µ G)G−1 = G Bµ + G−1 (∂µ G) G−1 g g of the gauge ﬁelds form a group—that is. Present. frame.] 15. Problems (due February 27. On limits to the photon mass: J. Nieto. and in the high-energy limit (where all the masses may be neglected). construct a theory of the electrodynamics of a massive spin-one boson V ± and deduce the Feynman rules for the theory. et al. Chapter 8. and Possible Future Limits on the Photon Rest Mass” (bulletin board: hep–ph/9212283). to the nucleon-antinucleon case. φ3 Chris Quigg 14. 1997 Recommended Reading: Gauge Theories. B317. A. R. (a) By making the minimal substitution ∂µ → Dµ in the free-particle Lagrangian. D. Rev. for various helicities of the produced particles. 16. Okun. 1997) 13. Appendix B. 73. Nieto. 14 (1984). J. Drell. Compare the results with the cross sections for e+ e− → µ+ µ− derived in Problem 3. Derive the Yang-Mills Lagrangian for a scalar ﬁeld theory in which the three real scalar ﬁelds correspond to the triplet representation of SU (2). (NY) 11. pp. Compare the Yang-Mills “predictions” with the spectrum of nonstrange mesons.” Nature (London) 307. 223 (1993) (bulletin board: hep–ph/9304250). Burman.” Phys. 514 (1994). [Reference for Feynman rules: J. 1 (1960). Phys. 19–34. Lett. Lett. Cultural Reading: M. M. 2 with φ1 φ = φ2 . Barrow and R. Assume the colliding beams are unpolarized.
including class schedules and assignments.fnal.20) Imn = (2π)−4 d4 k (k 2 )m−2 B(m.12) Course information. is available on the World Wide Web. Point your browser to http://lutece.2 ***** Typographical errors in the ﬁfth paperbound printing of Gauge Theories (identiﬁed at the bottom of p.3.gov/Princeton/. .4.4. n − m) = (k 2 − a2 )n 16π 2 i(a2 )n−m ***** (B. vi by EFGHIJ-MA-89): √ uλ (p) = E + m χλ λ |p| χλ E +m √ (A.15) 1 2 (1 ± γ5 )uλ (p) = 1 2 1± λ |p| E +m E +m χλ ±χλ (A.
kuamp. Massachusetts.Gauge Theories & Particle Physics Physics 539 Spring Semester 1997 February 27. 2 where as usual V (φ · φ) = 1 µ2 φ · φ + 1 |λ| (φ · φ)2 . Conceptual Foundations of Modern Particle Physics (World Scientiﬁc. S. For this exercise.html. take advantage of Kenji Harada’s java applet at http://fndsys. which constitute an SU (2) triplet. M. On the analogy between the Ginzburg-Landau picture of the superconducting phase transition and the Higgs mechanism: Robert E. the bubbles expand and merge.4407. 1997 Recommended Reading: Gauge Theories. Consider the case of three real scalar ﬁelds φ1 . (a) Heat the system above the critical temperature and observe the disordered state. Repeat the experiments enough times to develop some intuition about the occurrence of conﬁgurations far from the average. Peskin and D.1 and §20. and φ3 . (d) Beginning from a zero-temperature (ordered) conﬁguration. T.bnl. Einstein’s Dreams (Pantheon. 2 4 Chris Quigg .] 18. Chapter 5. [The original paper is E.1. The two-dimensional Ising model is an instructive cartoon model of a ferromagnet that displays a second-order phase transition—spontaneous magnetization—at a critical (inverse) temperature βc = 0. φ2 . When the temperature exceeds the critical temperature. (b) Cool the system just below the critical temperature to see the formation of domains. Aitchison and Hey. §4. E. Wu. 1973).phy. 1993).kyoto-u.4.html or the Ising simulation XIsing in Mike Creutz’s collection of Xtoys at http://penguin. 19. It is easily studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Weinberg. An Introduction to Quantum Field Theory (AddisonWesley. M. denoted φ1 φ = φ2 .1.1. Cambridge. 1997) 17. Marshak. Chapter 5. Chapter 13. Cambridge. The Quantum Theory of Fields. Singapore. For more than you want to know. McCoy and T.gov/www/xtoys/xtoys. Problems (due March 4. heat the system and observe the formation of small bubbles of ﬂipped spins. 253 (1925). Schroeder.2. The Two-Dimensional Ising Model (Harvard University Press. Analyze the spontaneous breakdown of a global SU (2) symmetry. Cultural Reading: Alan Lightman. Z. 1993). §11. φ3 The Lagrangian density is L = 1 (∂µ φ) · (∂ µ φ) − V (φ · φ). vol. 21.ac. “Modern Applications” (Cambridge University Press. Okun. 31. see B. 2. and up-down symmetry is restored. Reading. (c) Cool the system further and watch the evolution of the spontaneous magnetization. 1995).jp/˜harada/ Monte-eg. §19. 1996). Phys. V. New York. Ising.
(b) the particles associated with T1 and T2 become massless (Goldstone) particles. Landau. Show that in the weak-ﬁeld approximation (∇ψ ≈ 0. (b) In the presence of an external magnetic ﬁeld B.6 of Weinberg. Point your browser to http://lutece. Pergamon.3. edited by D.2) . because |ψ| represents the density of Cooper pairs. English translation: see Men of Physics: Landau. show that the vacuum is invariant under the group O(n − 1). (c) the particle associated with T3 acquires a mass = −2µ2 .2. In the absence of an impressed magnetic ﬁeld. Zh. 20. L.gov/Princeton/.4) φ0= 0 φ1 + iφ2 √ 2 ***** Course information.fnal. such that |ψ|2 is related to the density of superconducting electrons. + Gsuper (B) = Gsuper (0) + 2 2m∗ (The eﬀective charge e∗ turns out to be 2e. the value at which Gsuper (0) is minimized. [Reference: V. (a) Minimize Gsuper (0) with respect to the order parameter and discuss the circumstances 2 under which spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs. Ginzburg and Landau introduce an “order parameter” ψ. expand the free energy of the superconductor as Gsuper (0) = Gnormal (0) + α |ψ| + β |ψ| . 20.] 2 2 4 ***** Typographical errors in the ﬁfth paperbound printing of Gauge Theories (identiﬁed at the bottom of p. see §21. Fiz.2 Assume that for µ2 < 0 the potential has a minimum at 0 φ 0 = 0 .. where α and β are phenomenological parameters. The Ginzburg–Landau theory of superconductivity provides a phenomenological understanding of the Meissner eﬀect: the observation that an external magnetic ﬁeld does not penetrate the superconductor. Generalize the preceding example to a Lagrangian that describes the interactions of n scalar ﬁelds and is invariant under global transformations under the group O(n). Teor. 19. is available on the World Wide Web.) Derive the ﬁeld equations that follow from minimizing Gsuper (B) with respect to ψ and A. Eksp. but not under T1 or T2 . Verify that the number of Goldstone bosons corresponds to the number of broken generators of the original symmetry group—i. ter Haar. Ginzburg and L. Vol. After spontaneous symmetry breaking and the choice of a vacuum state. to the diﬀerence between the number of generators of O(n) and O(n − 1). v Then show that (a) the vacuum remains invariant under the action of the generator T3 . vi by EFGHIJ-MA-89): 0 (5. For further information. D. New York. 1965.e. Compute |ψ| 0 . ψ ≈ ψ 0 ) the photon acquires a mass within the superconductor. II. including class schedules and assignments. φ= (5. a gauge-invariant expression for the free energy is B2 1 ∗ ψ (−i∇ − e∗ A)2 ψ. 1064 (1950).
(a) Compute the cross section for the reaction ¯ e+ e− → H → f f . Cambridge. Derive the equation of motion for the photon ﬁeld Aν in the Abelian Higgs model and show that it amounts to a relativistic generalization of the Ginzburg–Landau description of a superconductor. 59. Aitchison and Hey. Phys. Donoghue. 491-496). 22. F. and b¯ pairs? e µ ¯ u ¯ s c b . Concepts of Particle Physics vol. read the articles by Abraham Pais.edu/pubs/beamline/97i. 25 (1991). dd. (b) How would the rate change if.] (b) Without calculating the cross section.stanford. K. (Cambridge University Press. and Chris Quigg in the Spring 1997 issue of the SLAC Beam Line. Cambridge and New York. if the only decay products are e¯. Weisskopf. Dynamics of the Standard Model. Steven Weinberg. 10–12.1 – 6. c¯.” Am. Gottfried and V. 509-516). s¯. R. New York.4 of Gauge Theories.4. II (Oxford University Press. 24. neglecting ¯ the electron mass. 1997) 21.slac. Phys.2 (pp. 195 (1971).C. Holstein. “The environmental impact of vacuum decay. ντ ≡ νe ? ¯ 23. available in pdf format at http://www.1 (pp. where f is a massive fermion. F. 1989). §14-1 – 14-5. 1986): on the choice of the electroweak gauge group. Lett. [Reference: G. (b) How does the result diﬀer for leptons and quarks? (c) Write the cross section for the reaction e+ e− → all σ(e+ e− → H) = + − Chris Quigg in the form 4πΓ(H → e e )Γ(H → all) . rather than electrons? (d) What integrated luminosity would be required to discover a 120-GeV Higgs boson in the reaction µ+ µ− → H. §6. and neglect the electron mass with respect to large energies. The computation is done most gracefully by Fierz reordering one of the graphs. µ¯ . 37B. 1997 Recommended Reading: Gauge Theories. §VI. (a) Compute the decay rate for the disintegration of the tau lepton. and B. τ τ . u¯. 21–22. The Experimental Foundations of Particle Physics (Cambridge University Press. (a) Compute the diﬀerential and total cross sections for νe e and νe e elastic scattering in the ¯ Weinberg–Salam model.B. Golowich.pdf. on the analogy with superconductivity. Cahn and Gerson Goldhaber. Work in the limit of large MW and MZ . On the σ Model: J. ’t Hooft. compute the νe energy for which W − is formed as ¯ an s-channel resonance. J. by virtue of an unconventional lepton number assignment. Crone and Marc Sher. τ − → e− νe ντ . §VI. Cultural Reading: To celebrate the hundredth anniversary of the discovery of the electron (and the beginning of particle physics). and compare with the familiar rate for muon decay. Robert N. 1992). as indicated in §6. pp. E. Problems (due March 13. On spontaneous symmetry breaking: Mary M.Gauge Theories & Particle Physics Physics 539 Spring Semester 1997 March 4. 2 2 (s − MH )2 + MH Γ(H → all)2 How does the result change if the colliding particles are muons. chapter 12.
2 25. G´mez-Cadenas. including a three-neutrino experiment.gov/Princeton/. including class schedules and assignments. Problem 6-3. ***** Course information. the continuous ﬂuxes of neutrinos may be high enough to allow very high-energy neutrino experiments. Phys. although the quantities k1ν Aµν . Nucl. in QED. Fern´ndez. where i is the 1ν 2µ µν ˜µν polarization vector of a photon and A (A ) corresponds to the ﬁrst (second) diagram.4. De R´jula. Point your browser to http://lutece. ˜ and k2µ Aµν are all diﬀerent from zero. (b) Show that gauge invariance requires that ˜ ˜ k1ν (Aµν + Aµν ) = 0 = k2µ(Aµν + Aµν ). ***** I strongly recommend that you work through the calculations in §6. is available on the World Wide Web. k2µAµν .1 of Gauge Theories. . J. k1ν Aµν . I will not do all of these calculations in class. E. γµ . σµν . It might also be a useful experience to try doing the calculations at the blackboard. which is described. iγµ γ5 .29): . The calculations are done very explicitly in the book. B405. explaining steps to classmates who are free to object. by the two Feynman diagrams ˜ and for which the amplitude may be written M = ∗ ∗ (Aµν + Aµν ). or peek at the answer. . 80 (1993). u a o ***** Typographical errors in the ﬁfth paperbound printing of Gauge Theories (identiﬁed at the bottom of p. so you should have no trouble in reproducing them. where Γi = (1. vi by EFGHIJ-MA-89): p. oﬀer advice. below (A. The possibilities are worked out in some detail by A. So that we may cover many topics during the semester. . ˜ (a) Calculate the tensors Aµν and Aµν . Consider the process e+ e− → γγ. 140.fnal. γ5 ) . and J. ***** Comment on Problem 12: Because the interaction rate must be very high in a multi-TeV hadron collider. . ˜ (c) Verify that these conditions are met. .
Rubbia. Mod. van der Meer. 1984). 61. Experiments in Cesium and Implications.” Sci. Cultural Reading: D. Rubbia. p. p. Commins.. 689 (1985). “Atomic Parity Violation Experiments. E. M. If the eﬀective Lagrangian for nucleon β-decay can be written in the limit of zero momentum transfer as GF Lβ = − √ eγλ (1 − γ5 )ν pγ λ (1 − gA γ5 )n.” Am.5 – 7. W − . (June. M. M. J. 1982). Bouchiat. 57. van der Meer. 2 2 Chris Quigg Regard the nucleus as a noninteracting collection of Z protons and N neutrons. and Z 0 . 1994).” Rev. Pottier.v. Mod. 239. 246. S. Rep. §14-1 – 14-5. 100. for a heavy nucleus. and S. 1997 Recommended Reading: Gauge Theories. “Resource Letter ETDSTS-1: Experimental Tests of the Discrete SpaceTime Symmetries. et al. the nucleon appears elementary. as in atomic physics applications. ¯ ¯ 2 2 where gA = 1. “An Atomic Preference between Left and Right. 1 (1994).Gauge Theories & Particle Physics Physics 539 Spring Semester 1997 March 13. edited by U. Aitchison and Hey. J. Phys. 57. = − √ QW eρN (r)γ5 e. “Stochastic cooling and the accumulation of antiprotons. C. the dominant parity-violating contribution to the electron–nucleus amplitude will be of the form iGF Mp. On parity violation in atomic physics: E. Phys. “Experimental observation of the intermediate vector bosons W + .” Rev.” Physica Scripta 36. Am. Cline. At very low momentum transfers. Problems (due March 27. “The Search for Intermediate Vector Bosons. 699 (1985). Bouchiat and L.” Sci. show that the eN neutral-current interactions may be represented by GF ¯ Lep = √ eγλ (1 − 4xW − γ5 )e¯γ λ (1 − 4xW − gA γ5 )p p 2 2 and GF ¯ n Len = − √ eγλ (1 − 4xW − γ5 )e¯ γ λ (1 − gA γ5 )n. Phys. D. 48. B. 778 (1993). Musolf. Deep Background: M.0025 is the axial charge of the nucleon (renormalized from unity by the strong interactions).2. C. Now perform the nonrelativistic reduction of the implied nuclear matrix elements.-A. “Neutral Currents in Atoms. 247. Nguyen-Khac and A.” Phys.” in Neutral Currents: Twenty Years Later. ¯ 2 2 . 1997) 26. Commins. gives the nuclear-physicist’s perspective on characterizing the neutral current. §6. “Intermediate-energy semileptonic probes of the hadronic neutral current. (March. Lutz (World Scientiﬁc. D. p. 468 (1987). Am. 250. Singapore.2601 ± 0.-A. Show that.
29 MeV ) 83.0007 Let us confront these results with the lowest-order predictions of the Weinberg–Salam model. 28.23 MeV 83. By ¯ comparing with Γinvisible measured at LEP. P. (b) Using your value of xW . Rep. Using the ﬁrst-order expression derived in Problem 26.488 ± 0. Phys.1884 ± 0. Fortson. Vetter. K.85 ± 0. (a) Use the value of the Z 0 mass to determine xW ≡ sin2 θW .0032 GeV 1744. . The weak charge of 205 Tl has been measured by a group at the University of Washington 81 [P.0 MeV 41.4 . LEP measurements on the Z 0 were summarized by Joachim Mnich. predict the W ± mass and compare it with the current world average: MW = 80.5 MeV −0.078 nb 83.9 ± 2. 2658 (1995)] as QW = −114.3 ± 3. and E. Meekhof. 181 (1996).2 where ρN is the nucleon density as a function of the electron coordinate r. (c) Use the measured value of the Z 0 mass to predict the partial width Γ(Z → ν ν ).09 GeV/c2 . 271. deduce the weak mixing parameter sin2 θW and its uncertainties. 27. where the ﬁrst error is experimental and the second refers to the uncertainty in atomic theory.4963 ± 0. as follows: MZ ΓZ Γ(Z → hadrons) σhad (pole) Γ(Z → e+ e− ) Γ(Z → µ+ µ− ) Γ(Z → τ + τ − ) Γleptonic = Γ(Z → Γinvisible ae ve + − 91. Majumder.17 MeV 83. determine the number of light neutrino species. (d) Use your value of the weak mixing parameter xW to predict Γleptonic = Γ(Z → Γ(Z → hadrons). 74. and the weak charge is QW = Z(1 − 4xW ) − N.14 MeV 499. Phys.0380 ± 0.92 ± 0.0022 GeV/c2 2. Lamoreaux.93 ± 0. and ve . Neglect the masses of all fermions but the top quark. Rev.0004 −0.2 ± 1. M. A.38 ± 0. K.5011 ± 0. Lett. S. D. ***** + − ).92 ± 0. ae . N.8 ± 3.
fnal. 364B. March 24. ibid.8 GeV. D40. Z. Lett.. (CHARM Collaboration). H. Lett. Rev.) ± 0. (CHARM II Collaboration). Brookhaven experiment E-734. et al. Point your browser to http://lutece. p. Phys. A. Z. R. Phys. W.981 ± 0. et al. 1715E (1990). 121 (1995). ¶ P. Rev. Rev.. Phys. Phys. is available on the World Wide Web. Lett. . σ(νµ e → µ− νe )/σth = 0. ¶ L. J. Rev. Phys. σ(νµ e → µ− νe )/σth = 0. et al.3 Supplement to references on inverse muon decay. neutrino energies up to 150 GeV). Detection of νe e scattering: ¯ F. Additional references on νµ e neutral current reactions: ¶ N. ***** First class after spring break: Monday. 3297 (1990).030 (syst. 2753 (1989). Gurr. D41.. Lett.) ± 0. et al.929 ± 0. Mishra. Dorenbosch. et al. Phys. σ(νµ e → µ− νe )/σth = 1. S. Dorenbosch. 170 (1990). ***** Course information. et al. 567 (1989). Vilain. Baker. ¶ P. 11 (1993).049 (stat.) in the SPS wideband beam.08 (stat. et al. Vilain. C41. Allen.048 in the SPS wideband beam ( Eν = 23. D47.13 (syst. including class schedules and assignments. ¶ J. et al. Ahrens. Phys. 567 (1989).) for neutrino energies up to 600 GeV. 41. 252B. 315 (1976). C41. ¶ J..gov/Princeton/. Sobel. (CHARM II Collaboration). Phys. 95 of Gauge Theories: ¶ S. 37.10 ± 0. Phys. Reines. Detection of νe e scattering: R. C. and H.019 ± 0. 335B. 246 (1994). (CHARM Collaboration).
z 0 ) and one massive neutral scalar (h). (b) Deduce the Feynman rules for interactions and compute the lowest-order (tree diagram) amplitude for the reaction hz → hz. (c) Compute the J = 0 partial-wave amplitude √ the high-energy limit and show that it in 2 respects partial-wave unitarity only if MH < 8π 2/GF . §7. Phys. In the language of the full Weinberg–Salam theory.. 271. Phys. 1997) 29. In the σ model. Lee. D54. [Reference: B. Barger. Cultural Reading: For an excellent overview of the analysis of LEP data. Rev. Kleinknecht. 141 (1994). “The Cabibbo– Kobayashi–Maskawa Mixing Matrix. Verify the role of the Higgs boson in the cancellation of divergences. The correspondence is π ± ↔ w ± . (a) Choosing µ2 < 0. which interact according to Lint = − |λ| vh(2w + w − + z 2 + h2 ) −(|λ| /4)(2w + w − + z 2 + h2 )2 . J. and H. Close.5. (bulletin board: hep– ph/9604334). π 0 ↔ z 0 .” in Particle Data Group. 1 (1996). Sher. Renk.Gauge Theories & Particle Physics Physics 539 Spring Semester 1997 March 25. B. Carry out the computation of the amplitudes for the reaction e+ e− → W + W − described in §6. E. Background Reading: F. and B. Quigg. Lscalar = (∂ µ φ)† (∂µ φ) − µ2 (φ† φ) − |λ| (φ† φ)2 . Rev. Gilman. Chapters 9 and 11. Note the resemblance to the σ-model Lagrangian discussed in class on March 3 and 4. 1519 (1977). On the mixing of quark ﬂavors: F. 181 (1996). On lower bounds to the Higgs-boson mass deduced from the requirement of vacuum stability of electroweak potentials. Chapter 7. 1997 Recommended Reading: Gauge Theories. 179. Isidori. Rep. Mnich. Because the most serious high-energy divergences of a spontaneously broken gauge theory are associated with the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the gauge bosons. see J. w −. et al. see M. 30. o Problems (due April 3. Thacker. J. D16. 1/v2 = GF 2 √ 2 and λ = GF MH / 2. Phys. An Introduction to Quarks and Partons. investigate the eﬀect of spontaneous symmetry breaking. For useful updates in light of the large mass of the top quark (mt ≈ 175 GeV/c2 ). which arise from auxiliary scalars. Espinosa and M. Show that the theory describes three massless scalars (w + . Lett. see G.5 of Gauge Theories. Chris Quigg √ where v2 = −µ2 / |λ|.] .3 – 7. 273 (1989). see V. therefore. W. Rep. Phys. K. 257 (1995). Lett. see pp. Phys. h ↔ σ. Aitchison and Hey. C. On physics opportunities at µ+ µ− colliders. Altarelli and G. Consider. Phys. B337. v = Fπ 2 2 and |λ| = Mσ /2Fπ . it is instructive to study the Higgs sector in isolation. B353. the Lagrangian for the Higgs sector of the Weinberg–Salam model before the gauge couplings are turned on. retaining the electron mass. 94–97. Quir´s.
gov/Princeton/. is available on the World Wide Web. IG = 1 . including class schedules and assignments.ch/welcome. Q2) x can be expressed as 1 IG = 1 3 + 2 3 dx u(x. (New Muon Collaboration).cern. http://alephwww.] (d) What other experiments might be sensitive to a diﬀerence between the sea distributions of up and down quarks? ***** You can follow the progress of the LEP experiments on their Web pages. (a) Show that in the quark-parton model.fnal. 18. Arneodo.html • L3. from the assumption that the sea is up-down symmetric.0065? [See M. Point your browser to http://lutece. Nucl. • aleph. http://delinfo. 3 (c) How do you interpret the observation that IG(Q2 = 4 GeV/c2 ) = 0. Some of these are true quite generally (up to perturbative QCD corrections).cern. while some depend on additional assumptions. Phys. Rev.ch/Delphi/Welcome.html • opal.2 31. et al. http://www. the integral 1 IG = 0 dx µp µn F2 (x. 1174 (1967)]. .cern. Q2 ) − d(x. Phys. The parton model leads to many informative sum rules about structure functions. B487. 3 (1997).2281 ± 0. Gottfried. Lett.cern.ch/Opal/ ***** Course information. Q2) − F2 (x. Q2) 0 . http://hpl3sn02.ch • delphi. (b) Derive the Gottfried sum rule [K.
J. as well as an English translation. 341 (1983). Part. i. see T. Phys. M. Kuo and J. Kayser.] u . Phys. Zerwas. 1989). Quigg. Lint = 1/[σνN (Eν )NA ]. J. neglecting the mass of the b quark. Rev. second edition (Cambridge University Press. Problems (due April 10. Perrier. Khoze. Moe and P. 671 (1987). Compute the rate for the dominant decay rate of the top quark. Lett. Bigi. 1997) 32. M. and G. 1989). 59–63. see p. 117 (1993). Glashow. u R. F.” in the 1996 Review of Particle Physics [Particle Data Group.e. also in the 1996 RPP. Bilenky and S. see the minireviews. 1. Pantaleone. Sci. Show that it takes the form Γ(t → bW + ) = M2 GF m3 √ t |Vtb |2 1 − W m2 8π 2 t 2 Chris Quigg 1+ 2 2MW m2 t . Sci. 157 (1986). Cambridge. Phys. Rep. Escapist Literature for Those Aﬄicted by Generals: Ettore Majorana vanished without a trace from a ferry between Sicily and the Italian mainland. Boehm and P.82]. Cambridge. and I. C. L. Sarcevic. K. 99. Gibrat-D´bu. Rev. at what energy does the charged-current interaction length become smaller than one Earth diameter? How does the W -boson modify your conclusions? [A. Vogel.1 × 1010 cmwe (centimeters of water equivalent). Gavrin. Part. Yu. t → bW + . You will need to sum over the possible polarizations of the W -boson.” Ann. where Vtb measures the strength of the t → bW + coupling. Mod. If the diameter of the Earth is 11 kilotonnes/cm2 . Wilson. On neutrino mass and mixing. Gandhi. D45. “Double Beta Decay. Reno. which is in The Moro Aﬀair and the Mystery of Majorana. 247 (1994). Rev. S. “Massive neutrinos and neutrino oscillations. Rev. Rev. On neutrino oscillations in matter. R.” Rev. V. Dokshitzer. La Scomparsa di Majorana. 937 (1989). 1997 Recommended Reading: On tests of lepton-number conservation. H. Physics of Massive Neutrinos. “The Status of the Solar Neutrino Problem. 43.] 33. the Earth is opaque to ultrahigh-energy neutrinos. 275–280) and “Searches for Massive Neutrinos and Lepton Mixing” (pp. see the minireview. 81 (1996). where NA is Avogadro’s number. 287–301). 44. §8.” Ann. N. S.Gauge Theories & Particle Physics Physics 539 Spring Semester 1997 April 3. Because the neutrino-nucleon cross section increases with energy. and F. L. D54. DeR´ jula. Mod. Neutrino Astrophysics (Cambridge University Press. Singapore. Nucl. Astroparticle Physics 5. 1 (1996)]. 1992) B. J. Phys. S1 (1992). Bahcall. B181. “Tests of Conservation Laws. Charpak. From what you know of the measured cross section for chargedcurrent νN interactions [Particle Data Group. T. 61. 59. T. What fraction of the decays produce W -bosons with longitudinal polarization? [I. Phys. Bowles and V. Vogel. Firestone Library has the Italian original. M. Cultural Reading: F.. “Neutrinos” (pp. K¨hn. Leonardo Sciascia has written a ﬁctional account that Majorana’s colleagues denounced as scurrilous fantasy. Petcov. and P. pp. The Physics of Massive Neutrinos (World Sciene tiﬁc. compute the “water equivalent” interaction length. Nucl. Phys. III. R.
Lipkin. σ(γγ → hadrons) ∝ i e4 = i 2 below color threshold 4 above color threshold [References: F. Maskawa. 49. Discuss the implications of the phase δ for CP invariance. “Color and Experimental Physics. equations (7. 0 0 1 0 0 eiδ 0 −s2 c2 0 −s3 c3 where si = sin θi and ci = cos θi . 104 (1979). the ratio R ≡ σ(e+ e− → hadrons)/σ(e+ e− → µ+ µ− ) is R = 2. (Kyoto) 49. show that the amplitude is modiﬁed by a factor 1− αR q 2 + O(α2 ) .1. 1975). 149B. 652 (1973). [E. Serber.27–29) in Gauge Theories] can be parametrized in terms of n(n − 1)/2 real mixing angles and (n − 1)(n − 2)/2 complex phases. Nambu [Phys. (b) Consider the reaction γγ → hadrons.] . Theor. with charges assigned as Flavor d s −1 −1 0 0 0 0 Color Red Green Blue u 0 1 1 (a) Show that below the threshold for color liberation. 1006 (1965)] is an integer-charge alternative to the fractional-charge quark model. [M. as in the fractional-charge model. Chanowitz. 15 m2 and estimate the ﬁrst-order shift in the energy levels of the hydrogen atom. H. Rev. 55 (1935). 1979). edited by H. Mockett (University of Washington. p. For the speciﬁc case of three quark doublets (n = 3). A. Consider the one-loop modiﬁcations to Coulomb scattering in the limit of low momentum transfer −q 2 m2 . J. Show that the n×n unitary matrix U introduced to describe the mixing of quarks of diﬀerent ﬂavors [cf. Phys.2 34. The model of M. for an early application. M. p. S. R 15π m2 Show that this corresponds. Seattle. Prog. Kobayashi and T. viewed as γγ → q q . Beginning from Equation (8. M.. σ(γγ → hadrons) ∝ e4 = 2 .] 36. Phys. (Academic Press. Nucl. 448. ibid. B155. An Introduction to Quarks and Partons. show that U may be written in the form 1 0 0 1 0 0 c1 s1 0 1 0 0 U = 0 c2 s2 · −s1 c1 0 · 0 1 0 · 0 c3 s3 . Rev. to an additional interaction of the form 4 α2 3 R δ (x) . in position space. and that R = 4 if color can be liberated. Close.] 35. New York. E. J. after the freedom to redeﬁne quark ﬁelds has been taken into account. Han and Y.-Y. Show that with fraction¯ ally charged quarks. Uehling.” in Particles and Fields–1975. Lubatti and P.31) in Gauge Theories. 48. Phys. see R. Chapter 8.2. i 3 i and that in the Han-Nambu model.
The University of Oxford group [N. 1411 (1990)]. G. W. Wiemann.13).5 ± 3. Lett. ibid. atomic structure calculations revised by S.9 ± 3. The most incisive of the parity-violation experiments in atoms is the measurement of weak charge of 133 Cs by a group from the University of Colorado [M.04 ± 1. Johnson. .3 ***** Update on parity violation in atomic physics. Phipp. A.4 (my interpretation). Blundell. and 55 C. Rev. H. including class schedules and assignments. vi by EFGHIJ-MA-89): In equation (7. ***** Course information.58 ± 0. Baird. 2654 (1995)] report QW (205 Tl) = −121. and S. ***** Typographical errors in the ﬁfth paperbound printing of Gauge Theories (identiﬁed at the bottom of p. C.fnal. and J. Their value is QW (133 Cs) = 55 −71. 61. E. where the ﬁrst error is experimental and the second refers to the uncertainty in atomic theory. 74. 310 (1988). Rev. derived from measurements of the parity nonconserving optical 81 rotation near the 6P1/2 → 6P3/2 magnetic dipole transiton in atomic thallium. P. Point your browser to http://lutece. Phys. Lett. Edwards.1. the coeﬃcient of xW Q should be 4. 65. P. is available on the World Wide Web. not 2. R. Masterson. Phys. Nakayama. Noecker. I should have cited a second determination of the weak charge of 205 Tl. J. E. In Problem 27.88. Sapirstein. S. B. This appears twice.gov/Princeton/.
. Donoghue. K. A. N Use the method of Lagrange multipliers to impose the constraint. Sci. On QCD corrections to the reaction e+ e− → hadrons: L. Acta Physica Austriaca Suppl. 242. Eichten. Phys. Foundations of Quantum Chromodynamics (World Scientiﬁc. “Supercollider Physics”. . (Cambridge University Press. The evolution of a state that was initially a ﬂavor eigenstate can be written as |να t Chris Quigg = i Uαi exp (−iEi t)|νi . . Dynamics of the Standard Model. 104. Muta. Gell-Mann. 252.e. (a) Ignoring oscillatory terms. Hinchliﬀe. Holstein. 1992). Cambridge. Ann. 46. Rev. Lane. 773 (1972). (May. Cultural Reading: On the physics of a supernova: H.5. Consider neutrino oscillations in vacuum. 2 (b) By minimizing Pe←e subject to the constraint that i |Uei | = 1. Aitchison and Hey. Mod.Gauge Theories & Particle Physics Physics 539 Spring Semester 1997 April 8. H. Ann. Golowich. . Quigg. Surguladze and M. in a world with N ﬂavors of neutrinos. denoted by roman indices as |νi . (June. Simmons. 1997) 37. 255 (1995). Singapore.1 – 8. 1997 Recommended Reading: On the importance of the 1-TeV scale. Murayama and M. Samuel. Phys. p. . Am. providing that CP is conserved. 579 (1984). i. On Quantum Chromodynamics: Gauge Theories. Lett. The ﬂavor eigenstates νe . H. . G. §III–3. Sci. 66. M. Brown. Golden. Problems (due April 17. where U is a real unitary matrix. and E. . Dugan. Chivukula. Sci.. R. p. denoted by Greek labels as |να . Nucl. F. Peskin. Rev. Nucl. IV. 45. Bethe and G. 56. νN . 1987). and experimental approaches to it: E. 1985). νµ. Sci. when |Uei | = 2 1 . show that the probability that an electron neutrino remain an electron neutrino after a time t is Pe←e = | νe |νe |2 = i |Uei |4 . S. Part. Part. On gauge theories of the forces between elementary particles. show that the minimum 2 probability is attained when all of the |Uei | are equal. 1980). On the U (1) axial anomaly: J. Rev. ντ . Deep Background: T. can be expressed as linear combinations of the mass eigenstates ν1 . 560 (1991). J. and B. M. Rev. 533 (1996). and C.. §8. M. I. ’t Hooft. R. Am. ν2. 60. E. . Chapter 9.
where a and b are the SU (3) color indices of the two gluons. ˜ ˜ (a) Show that in QCD the quantities k1ν (Aµν +Aµν ) and k2µ (Aµν +Aµν ) are proportional a b to λ . What is the condition for asymptotic freedom in this theory? ***** Course information. By appropriately modifying the color factors entering Equation (8. Compute the one-loop charge renormalization in QED using the method of dimensional regularization. (b) What is the resolution of this nonivariance? (c) For the full gauge-invariant amplitude described by are the requirements k1ν T µν = 0 = k2µT µν fulﬁlled? ∗ ∗ µν . Point your browser to http://lutece.3. evaluate the running coupling constant in one-loop order. Modify the calculation (Problem 25) of the amplitude for the process e+ e− → γγ to describe the reaction q q → gg in quantum chromodynamics. .27) of Gauge Theories.2 38. in which both quarks and gluons are assigned to the adjoint representation.fnal. including class schedules and assignments. 1ν 2µT under what conditions 40. Consider a gauge theory of the strong interactions based on the color symmetry group SO(3). In this case. λ . is available on the World Wide Web.gov/Princeton/. the two diagrams shown in ¯ Problem 24 are not by themselves gauge invariant. 39.
301 (1991). where the ﬁrst error is experimental (greatly improved) and the second refers to the uncertainty in atomic theory (unchanged). Point your browser to http://lutece. is available on the World Wide Web. Chapter 10. (Cambridge University Press.27 ± 0. 1984). 200.11 ± 0. 109 (1996).fnal. for the elementary reaction ud → ud. Holstein. (Cambridge University Press.. .3 of Gauge Theories. 1990). K. Wood. 9s2 t2 where s. Rev. T. New York. Dixon. Chapters 1 – 3. Cambridge. Li. Cheng and L.88. Rep.e. Ann. 1759 (1997)] has published a new measurement of the weak charge of 133 Cs: QW (133 Cs) = 55 55 −72. Part. S. Gauge Theory of Elementary Particles (Oxford University Press. Compute the diﬀerential cross section dσ/dt for the scattering of unlike quarks in QCD. Science 275. On massive neutrinos: G. Cultural Reading: On precision electroweak measurements: J. W. i. L. Cambridge. QCD and Collider Physics. (a) Show that 4πα2 s2 + u2 s dσ(ud → ud)/dt = . M.1. Wu. L. G. Z. E. §II–2. 1997 Recommended Reading: Gauge Theories. Dynamics of the Standard Model.-P.. Aitchison and Hey. and B. Problems (due April 24. R. Raﬀelt. u are the usual Mandelstam invariants. Deep Background: T. The Ubiquitous Photon: the helicity method for QED and QCD. 1992). Golowich. Webber. Parke. L. t. 46. Oxford. (b) Compare with the cross section for µ− e− scattering in QED. “Neutrino Masses in Astrophysics and Cosmology” (electronic archive: hep–ph/9704315). Bern. J. §15.Gauge Theories & Particle Physics Physics 539 Spring Semester 1997 April 17. Rosner.gov/Princeton/.6 – 8. Chapters 1 and 2. Mangano and S. (Clarendon Press.” EFI-97-18 (electronic archive: hep–ph/9704331). J. 1997) 41. Donoghue. and B. Sci. ***** Course information. verify that the modiﬁcation to the gluon propagator due to one ghost loop as shown in Figure 8-16 is given by −ig2 acd bcd ¯µν Ighosts (q 2 ) = f f 16π 2 1 µ ν 6q q Chris Quigg + 1 2 µν 12 q g log −q 2 µ2 . §8. Stirling. Gastmans and T.-F. J. ***** Updated update on parity violation in atomic physics. 1996). Phys. (c) How would the result change if the quarks were color sextets. On new calculational techniques: R. instead of color triplets? 42. and D. R. et al. Kosower. Ellis. “New Developments in Precision Electroweak Physics. Using the Feynman rules for the Faddeev–Popov ghost given in Figure 8-15 and §8. F. A. including class schedules and assignments. The Boulder group [C. Nucl.8.
K. Tables of Dimensions. Massachusetts. is available on the World Wide Web. Nakamura. Cultural Reading: P. and identify the SU (5) gauge bosons among them. compute the weak mixing parameter xW ≡ sin2 θW at the Z 0 mass and compare with the value that you found in Problem 28 using the LEP data. Fritzsch and P. Chapter 9. (a) Using your favorite values of the ﬁne structure constant and the strong coupling 2 constant at the Z 0 mass [for example. W.1–15. Ann. 1984). Grand Uniﬁed Theories (Addison-Wesley. (c) Now examine the branching of SO(10) into SU (4) ⊗ SU (2) ⊗ SU (2). show that each fermion generation can be accommodated in an irreducible 16-dimensional representation. Problems (due May 6.003 from the 1996 Review of Particle Physics]. 398 (1995) or S. calculate the uniﬁcation energy u and the value 1/αu of the SU (5) coupling constant at the uniﬁcation scale.09 from H. Deep Background: G. and Branching Rules for Representations of Simple Algebras (Dekker.gov/Princeton/. “Note on Nucleon Decay. which also has a place for a left-handed antineutrino. Pietrzyk. Eidelman and F. Patera. (NY) 93. Let us investigate the coupling-constant uniﬁcation predicted by the SU (5) uniﬁed theory. Ross. Aitchison and Hey. (b) Using the value of the uniﬁcation scale you found in (a). Phys. 1/α1 (MZ ). Chris Quigg . 2 1585 (1995). 1673–1675. (b) Show that the adjoint 45 representation contains the gauge bosons of the SU (5) theory. Indices. and αs (MZ ) = 0. 1173 (1994). Evolve 1/α1 . and 1/α3 to high energies and test whether they meet at a single uniﬁcation point. Jegerlehner. “Proton Decay” (electronic archive: hep–ph/9210238). 1/α(MZ ) = 129. α2 . New York. Reading. (d) Give the transformation properties of the 45 gauge bosons under SU (3) ⊗ SU (2) ⊗ SU (2). Phys. 44. C67. 193 (1975). including class schedules and assignments. Z. B356.] ***** Course information. 1981).118±0. Use the SU (3) ⊗ SU (2) ⊗ SU (2) decomposition of the fermion representation to show that SO(10) contains the left-right-symmetric electroweak group as a subgroup. from it.2. (c) Now use the connection between the measured value of xW . 1/α2 . (a) By referring to the SU (5) ⊗ U (1) decomposition of the representations of SO(10). Point your browser to http://lutece. Langacker.fnal.” in 1994 Review of Particle Properties. Compute 1/αY (MZ ) and. 1997) 43. D50. Rev. Consider a uniﬁed theory based on the gauge group SO(10). 1997 Recommended Reading: Gauge Theories. Phys. and α to determine 2 2 2 1/α2(MZ ). Lett. and the subsequent branching of SU (4) into SU (3) ⊗ U (1). G. Minkowski. pp. [Reference: H.Gauge Theories & Particle Physics Physics 539 Spring Semester 1997 May 1. Burkhardt and B. Phys. §15.89 ± 0. McKay and J.
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