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The following is the graph of the transmissibility for a onedimension spring isolation mounting.
The vertical axis shows the ratio of the transmitted force to the driving force. Transmissibilities greater
than 1.0 indicate amplification: the transmitted force is greater than the driving force. Transmissibilities
less than 1.0 indicate effective isolation: the transmitted force is less than the driving force.
The horizontal axis shows the ratio of the driving, or forcing, frequency to the natural frequency of the
springmass system. A frequency ratio greater than 1.0 indicates that the forcing frequency is higher than
the natural frequency; less than 1.0 indicates that the forcing frequency is lower than the natural
frequency. Where the frequency ratio is 1.0 is sometimes referred to as resonance.
Transmissibility curves and vibration isolation page 1 of 4.
AMPLIFICATION
_____________
ISOLATION
70%
90%
80%
Damping
Damping is the process of removing energy from an oscillating system. Car suspension systems have coil
springs, which act as the vibration isolators, and they also have dampers (misnamed shock absorbers –
usually a sealed tube containing oil and a piston) which prevent any up and down oscillations of the car
body continuing unchecked.
The graph on the previous page shows the effect of adding damping to a spring isolation system. The
transmissibility is considerably reduced at resonance but there is also a raising of the transmissibility (i.e.
worse isolation) at frequency ratios greater than 1.414.
Practical isolation
Practical isolation designs use zero damping and a natural frequency (arrived at by the choice of spring
stiffness) which is a third or quarter of the driving frequency (giving a frequency ratio of 3 or 4
respectively.
Forcing frequency
The forcing frequency is usually due to something rotating (e.g. fan or rotating drum which is not in
perfect balance) or reciprocating (e.g. pistons in a compressor).
Rotation rates in rev/min can be expressed in hertz. E.g. 600 rev/minute = 10 rev/second = 10 Hz
Natural frequency
The natural frequency of oscillation of a spring of stiffness k when loaded with a mass m is given by:
m
k
f
π 2
1
0
·
If the static deflection is x
s
, millimetre, when the spring is loaded, then
s
x
f
1
8 . 15
0
·
Transmissibility
The full equation for the transmissibility of a mass spring system is given by:
2
0
2
2
2
0
2
0
2
4 1
4 1
,
`
.

+
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

−
,
`
.

+
·
f
f
f
f
f
f
T
ξ
ξ
where ξ is the damping ratio (see the numbers ranging from 0 to 1 on the curves on page 1)
For an undamped system ξ = 0 and the above expression then becomes:
2
2
0
1
1
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

−
·
f
f
T
Transmissibility curves and vibration isolation page 2 of 4.
Isolation
In practical terms, interest centres on the isolation provided by the spring mass system.
If the transmissibility is 0.2, the isolation is 1 – 0.2 = 0.8. Another way is to quote the 0.2 transmissibility
as 20%, therefore the isolation is 80%.
Example
An isolation of 90% is required. Therefore the transmissibility is 10% or T = 0.1
So a frequency ratio of 3.32 will give 90% isolation
If the driving force is due to a rotating machine running at 900 r.p.m. = 15 Hz
Hz 52 . 4 giving
15
32 . 3
0
0 0
· · ·
,
`
.

f
f f
f
The static deflection of the mounted system can be derived from:
s
x
f
1
8 . 15
0
·
mm 2 . 12 giving
1
8 . 15 52 . 4 · ·
s
s
x
x
Transmissibility curves and vibration isolation page 3 of 4.
32 . 3 11
ignored is value minus the
11 or 9 10 1
rearrange
1 10
so
1
1
10
sides both invert
1
1
1 . 0
side right the root square
1
1
1 . 0
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
2
0
· ·
,
`
.

+ − · ·
,
`
.

,
`
.

− · t
t
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

−
·
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

−
t
·
]
]
]
]
,
`
.

−
· ·
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
f
T
If the mass of the motor etc is 80 kg, the weight is 80 9.81 = 784.8 N
For this to give a static deflection of 12.2 mm, the spring constant k must be:
N/mm 3 . 64
2 . 12
8 . 784
· · ·
x
F
k
If this stiffness is due to four springs supporting the platform carrying the motor, then the stiffness of each
spring is: 64.3 4 = 16.1 N/mm = 16.1 kN/m
Exercises
1. The total stiffness of the springs of a vibration isolation platform is 200 kN/m. Calculate the
natural frequency if the mass of the platform and load is:
(a) 20 kg (b) 50 kg (c) 100 kg
2. Calculate the static deflexion in each case in question 1 (assume g = 9.81 m/s
2
).
Verify your results against the formula
s
n
x
f
1
8 . 15 ·
where x
s
is in mm.
3. A vibration isolation platform has a transmissibility of 0.07.
(a) What is the percentage isolation.
(b) What ratio of forcing frequency to undamped natural frequency would give this isolation.
4. A vibration isolation platform has a percentage isolation of 87%.
(a) What is its transmissibility.
(b) What ratio of forcing frequency to undamped natural frequency would give this isolation.
5. A compressor and electric motor are mounted on an undamped vibration isolation platform and
produce a static deflexion of 10 mm. Calculate:
(a) the natural frequency of the assembly;
(b) (i) the transmissibilty; and
(ii) the percentage isolation
if the working compressor/motor produces a forcing frequency of 30 Hz.
(c) the lowest forcing frequency for which the isolation is 95%
6. An electric motor and rotary fluid pump are mounted on an undamped vibration isolation platform.
When running, the principle source of vibration is the pump which is turning at 900 r.p.m.
Calculate:
(a) The designed natural frequency of the platform in order to have 90% isolation.
(b) The designed static deflexion of the platform in order to have 90% isolation.
(c) The total stiffness of the platform springs, if the combined mass of the platform, motor and
pump is 200 kg (assume g = 9.81 m/s
2
).
(d) The stiffness of each spring if there are 4 springs supporting the platform.
Answers
1. (a) 15.9 Hz (b) 10.1 Hz (c) 7.1 Hz 2. (a) 0.98 mm (b) 2.5 mm (c) 4.9 mm
3. (a) I = 93% (b) ratio = 3.91 4. (a) T = 0.13 (b) ratio = 2.95
5. (a) 5.0 Hz (b) (i) 0.029 (ii) 97.1% (c) 22.9 Hz
6. (a) T = 0.10 , ratio = 3.32 , fn = 4.52 Hz (b) 12.2 mm (c) 161 kN/m (d) 40.3 kN/m
Transmissibility curves and vibration isolation page 4 of 4.
The transmissibility is considerably reduced at resonance but there is also a raising of the transmissibility (i.g.e.Damping Damping is the process of removing energy from an oscillating system.414. millimetre. worse isolation) at frequency ratios greater than 1.g.8 1 xs Transmissibility The full equation for the transmissibility of a mass spring system is given by: f 1 + 4ξ f 0 2 2 2 f 2 2 f 1 − + 4ξ f f0 0 where ξ is the damping ratio (see the numbers ranging from 0 to 1 on the curves on page 1) T= 2 For an undamped system ξ = 0 and the above expression then becomes: T= 1 f 2 1 − f0 2 Transmissibility curves and vibration isolation page 2 of 4. when the spring is loaded. Forcing frequency The forcing frequency is usually due to something rotating (e. Practical isolation Practical isolation designs use zero damping and a natural frequency (arrived at by the choice of spring stiffness) which is a third or quarter of the driving frequency (giving a frequency ratio of 3 or 4 respectively. E. which act as the vibration isolators. fan or rotating drum which is not in perfect balance) or reciprocating (e. Rotation rates in rev/min can be expressed in hertz. pistons in a compressor).g. and they also have dampers (misnamed shock absorbers – usually a sealed tube containing oil and a piston) which prevent any up and down oscillations of the car body continuing unchecked. The graph on the previous page shows the effect of adding damping to a spring isolation system. Car suspension systems have coil springs. . then f 0 = 15 . 600 rev/minute = 10 rev/second = 10 Hz Natural frequency The natural frequency of oscillation of a spring of stiffness k when loaded with a mass m is given by: f0 = 1 2π k m If the static deflection is xs .
Example An isolation of 90% is required.32 will give 90% isolation If the driving force is due to a rotating machine running at 900 r.2 transmissibility as 20%. . Another way is to quote the 0.2.1 = ±1 f 1 − f0 2 T = 0 . If the transmissibility is 0.8 1 xs giving x s = 12 .2 mm Transmissibility curves and vibration isolation page 3 of 4.8 xs 4.p.32 +11 So a frequency ratio of 3. therefore the isolation is 80%. interest centres on the isolation provided by the spring mass system.m.2 = 0.1 f 2 1 − f0 square root the right side 0 .1 = 1 2 invert both sides f 2 1 − f0 10 = ±1 so f ±10 = 1 − f 0 rearrange 2 2 f = 1 10 = − 9 or f 0 the minus value is ignored f f 0 = 11 = 3.32 = f f0 0 giving f 0 = 4.52 = 15 . the isolation is 1 – 0. Therefore the transmissibility is 10% or T = 0.8. = 15 Hz f 15 = 3.52 Hz The static deflection of the mounted system can be derived from: 1 f 0 = 15 .Isolation In practical terms.
98 mm (a) T = 0. 6.1 kN/m 4 Exercises 1.07.10 . 5. (b) What ratio of forcing frequency to undamped natural frequency would give this isolation. A vibration isolation platform has a transmissibility of 0.9 mm (a) T = 0.3 N/m m x 12 . 4.32 . 3. (a) What is its transmissibility.029 (ii) 97.81 = 784.p.95 (c) 4.81 m/s2 ). (c) 22.81 m/s2 ). 1 xs 2.9 Hz (c) 161 kN/m (d) 40. 6. the principle source of vibration is the pump which is turning at 900 r. and (ii) the percentage isolation if the working compressor/motor produces a forcing frequency of 30 Hz. A compressor and electric motor are mounted on an undamped vibration isolation platform and produce a static deflexion of 10 mm. A vibration isolation platform has a percentage isolation of 87%.1 Hz 2. then the stiffness of each spring is: 64.8 = = 64 .m. When running.2 mm. the spring constant k must be: k = F 784 . (a) 15. (c) The total stiffness of the platform springs.If the mass of the motor etc is 80 kg.8 3.8 N For this to give a static deflection of 12. . Verify your results against the formula f n = 15 . 5. where xs is in mm. the weight is 80 9. (d) The stiffness of each spring if there are 4 springs supporting the platform.52 Hz (b) 12. 4.5 mm (b) ratio = 2. (b) The designed static deflexion of the platform in order to have 90% isolation.9 Hz (b) 10. (a) What is the percentage isolation. fn = 4. Calculate: (a) The designed natural frequency of the platform in order to have 90% isolation.3 kN/m (a) 0. The total stiffness of the springs of a vibration isolation platform is 200 kN/m. Answers 1. ratio = 3. Calculate: (a) the natural frequency of the assembly. Calculate the natural frequency if the mass of the platform and load is: (a) 20 kg (b) 50 kg (c) 100 kg Calculate the static deflexion in each case in question 1 (assume g = 9.3 = 16.2 mm Transmissibility curves and vibration isolation page 4 of 4.91 (a) 5.1% (c) 7. if the combined mass of the platform.13 (b) 2.0 Hz (b) (i) 0.1 N/mm = 16.2 If this stiffness is due to four springs supporting the platform carrying the motor. motor and pump is 200 kg (assume g = 9. (b) (i) the transmissibilty. (b) What ratio of forcing frequency to undamped natural frequency would give this isolation.1 Hz (a) I = 93% (b) ratio = 3. (c) the lowest forcing frequency for which the isolation is 95% An electric motor and rotary fluid pump are mounted on an undamped vibration isolation platform.