The Endocrine System

L in k B a r 0

Introduction to the Endocrine System
The endocrine system refers to the hormone system of the body.

Hormones are

chemicals produced by living cells in very very small amounts. They are transported around the body in the blood. Hormones regulate and co-ordinate different organs in the body. Click on the picture for a large detailed image of the endocrine system. Hormones are classified into two groups Peptides • • • • Made of proteins Fast acting Short – lived E.g. Insulin and ADH

2. Steroids
• • • • Slow acting Long lasting Usually end in “one” E.g. Testosterone and Progesterone.

Hormones control themselves by a means of feedback control.

. the gland stops making it. ADH and Oxytocin. These glands include: Pituitary Gland • Thyroid Glands • Parathyroid Glands • Thymus • Pancreas • Adrenal Glands • Gonads Pituitary Glands The Pituitary gland is located in the hypothalamus (front of the brain) and is the most important part of the endocrine system. the anterior and posterior.Feedback control basically means that when the hormone is in large supply. When the level of hormone is low. The Structure of the Endocrine system The endocrine system is made up with a series of glands located around the body. ADH is involved in water level control in the blood. the gland secretes the hormone until the level rises again. The Anterior part produces two hormones. The Pituitary gland has two parts. .

. The glands swell if not enough hormone is produced – this is called goitre in humans. They produce two hormones: Parathormone and Calcitonin. The Posterior part of the Pituitary produces a number of important hormones. These include FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone). The main hormone produced is called thyroxin.Oxytocin controls lactation and is released from the pituitary when an animal is suckled. Parathyroid Glands These are located on either side of the thyroid. This hormone controls the growth and development of animals. The Pituitary also releases hormones which control the Adrenal and Thyroid glands. Iodine is required for its production. Lack of thyroxin causes deformation and retardation. LH (Luteinizing Hormone). Thyroid Glands The thyroid glands are found on the trachea. magnesium and phosphate in the body. These hormones control the level of calcium. Prolactin and Growth Hormones.

It is produced in the pancreas in the Islets of Langerhans. Pancreas The Pancreas produces insulin. Insulin is required for the intake of glucose in cells and prevents the excess breakdown of glycogen. .Thymus A very small gland located on the neck. Has some involvement in the production of lymphocytes. which are involved in immune response.

Adrenalin is secreted from the adrenal glands during stress. This can cause coma because the brain needs glucose. This is called diabetes mellitus. . It redirects blood to the head and increases the heartbeat. turns off the effects of adrenalin. They produce over fifty different hormones which are vital for life.. It is usually secreted when frightened. Synthetic Insulin is now available for diabetics. Adrenal Glands The adrenal glands are found near the kidney. Another hormone called non-adrenalin. It makes the individual more acute to their surroundings. Hydrocortisone is produced in the adrenal glands and is required to control blood pressure and controls the loss of blood. It must be injected because if it was eaten it would be digested.

These include testosterone. . oestrogen and progesterone. These hormones will be looked at in more detail in Animal Reproduction. The hormones produced are involved in the reproductive systems of the animal.Gonads The gonads are the testes and ovaries.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful