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Submitted To: Prof. Daniel Solomon

Submitted By: Sabeel Salim
Reg No.A8517609
Submitted On: 09/1/2011
Chapter 1

Q 1 ) Define tourism?

In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined

tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken
outside the home.

Q 2 ) What are the most visited countries in the world?

The 10 most visited countries in the world are given below in order :-

1. France
2. United States

3. Spain

4. China

5. Italy

6. United Kingdom

7. Turkey

8. Germany

9. Malaysia

10. Mexico

Q 3 ) What do you mean by leisure tourism?

Leisure travel was associated with the Industrial Revolution in the United
Kingdom – the first European country to promote leisure time to the
increasing industrial population. Initially, this applied to the owners of the
machinery of production, the economic oligarchy, the factory owners and the
traders. These comprised the new middle class. Cox & Kings was the first
official travel company to be formed in 1758.

Q 4 ) What are different types of tourism ?

The different types of tourism are :-

• Leisure Tourism

• Winter tourism
• Mass Tourism

• Adjectival Tourism

• Sustainable Tourism

• Ecotourism

• Pro-poor Tourism

• Recession Tourism

• Medical Tourism

• Educational Tourism

• Creative Tourism

• Dark Tourism

• Sports Tourism

Q 5 ) Explain Ecotourism.

Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is responsible travel to fragile,

pristine, and usually protected areas that strives to be low impact and (often)
small scale. It helps educate the traveler; provides funds for conservation;
directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of
local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human

Q 6 ) Tourism is a human right . Discuss about it .

On the 15th of April 2010, European Commissioner Antonio Tajani attracted

attention and criticism after the British newspaper, The Sunday Times,
reported he had unveiled a plan declaring tourism as a human right.
According to the article, pensioners, youths and those too poor to afford it
should have their travel subsidised by the taxpayer. Tajani's program will be
piloted until 2013 and then put into full operation. In introducing his plan,
Tajani stated, "Travelling for tourism today is a right. The way we spend our
holidays is a formidable indicator of our quality of life." His spokesman
added, "Why should someone from the Mediterranean not be able to travel
to Edinburgh in summer for a breath of cool, fresh air; why should someone
from Edinburgh not be able to travel to Greece in winter?" EurActiv, an
independent media portal, criticized the article by The Sunday Times as an
example of misleading information about the EU to appear in the British
press and then picked up by other Anglo-Saxon media and blogs,
and Erective stated that "the article on The Sunday Times never quotes the
commissioner as having made such a statement. Nevertheless, it pursues
the argument under the headline "Brussels decrees holidays as a human
right," underlining the alleged "hundreds of millions of pounds" that pursuing
the idea would cost taxpayers." Wikipedia was criticized by EurActiv
regarding the difficulty that Commissioner Tajani's team had with changing
the wrong information on the encyclopedia, and echoed European
Commission spokesperson Pia Ahrenkilde Hansen's statement that "ethics in
digital communications is definitely a subject which deserves to be

Chapter 2

Q 1 ) Discuss about any five states important tourist spots.


Goa is noted for its resorts and beaches. Goa is famous for its excellent
beaches, Portuguese churches,Hindu temples, and wildlife sanctuaries.
The Basilica of Bom Jesus, Mangueshi Temple, Dudhsagar Falls,
and Shantadurga are famous attractions in Goa. Recently a Wax Museum
(Wax World) has also opened in Old Goa housing a number of wax
personalities of Indian history, culture and heritage.


Kerala is famous especially for its ecotourism initiatives. Its unique culture
and traditions, coupled with its varied demography, has made it one of the
most popular tourist destinations in India. Growing at a rate of 13.31%, the
tourism industry significantly contributes to the state's economy.

Kerala is known for its tropical backwaters and pristine beaches such
as Kovalam.


Ajanta Caves, Ellora Caves and Victoria Terminus are 3 main tourist spots in

Mumbai is known for its architecture, from the ancient Elephanta Caves, to
the Islamic Haji Ali Mosque, to the colonial architecture of Bombay High
Court and Victoria Terminus.

Maharashtra also has numerous adventure tourism destinations,

including paragliding, rock climbing, canoeing, kayaking, snorkeling,
and scuba diving in places like Kolad, Tarkarli, Koyna, Manor. Maharashtra
also has several pristine national parks and reserves, some of the best ones
are Tadoba with excellent accommodation and safari experiences besides
little known by amazing wildlife destinations like Koyna, Nagzira (very small
with incredible sightings), Melghat (disturbed with massive mining truck
movement), Dajipur, Radhanagari and of course the only national park within
metropolic city limits in the world - Sanjay Gandhi National Park.
The Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad the Mahalakshmi temple at Kolhapur,
the cities of Nashik, Trimbak famous for religious importance and the city
of Punethe seat of the Maratha Empire and the fantastic Ganesh
Chaturthi celebrations together contribute for the Tourism sector of


Meghalaya has 2 National Parks and 3 Wildlife Sanctuaries. Meghalaya also

offers many adventure tourism opportunities in the form of mountaineering,
rock climbing, trekking and hiking, water sports etc. The state offers several
trekking routes some of which also afford and opportunity to encounter some
rare animals such as the slow loris, assorted deer and bear. The Umiam
Lakehas a water sports complex with facilities such as rowboats,
paddleboats, sailing boats, cruise-boats, water-scooters and speedboats.
Cherrapunjee is one of the most popular tourist spots in North East of India.
It lies to the south of the capital Shillong. The town is very well known and
needs little publicity. A rather scenic, 50 kilometer long road, connects
Cherrapunjee with Shillong.

The popular waterfalls in the state are the Elephant Falls, Shadthum Falls,
Weinia falls, Bishop Falls, Nohkalikai Falls, Langshiang falls and Sweet Falls.
The hot springs at Jakrem near Mawsynram are believed to have curative
and medicinal properties.


The Union Territory of Pondicherry comprises four coastal regions via-

Pondicherry, Karakul, Maher and Yana. Pondicherry is the Capital of this
Union Territory and one of the most popular tourist destinations in South
India. Pondicherry has been described by National Geographic as "a glowing
highlight of subcontinental sojourn". The city has many beautiful colonial
buildings, churches, temples, and statues, which, combined with the
systematic town planning and the well planned French style avenues, still
preserve much of the colonial ambience.

Q 2 ) Give a brief on fauna in India.

India is home to several well known large mammals including the Asian
Elephant, Bengal Tiger, Asiatic Lion, Leopard and Indian Rhinoceros, often
engrained culturally and religiously often being associated with deities. Other
well known large Indian mammals include ungulates such as the domestic
Asian Water buffalo, wild Asian Water buffalo, Nilgai, Gaur and several
species of deer and antelope. Some members of the dog family such as
the Indian Wolf, Bengal Fox, Golden Jackal and the Dhole or Wild Dogs are
also widely distributed. It is also home to the Stripe
Hyaena, Macaques, Langurs and Mongoose species. India also has a large
variety of protected wildlife. The country's protected wilderness consists of
75 National parks of India and 421 Sanctuaries, of which 19 fall under the
purview of Project Tiger. Its climatic and geographic diversity makes it the
home of over 350 mammals and 1200 bird species, many of which are
unique to the subcontinent.

Some well known national wildlife sanctuaries include Bharatpur, Corbett,

Kahna, Karziranga, Periyar, Ranthambore and Sariska. The world's largest
mangrove forest Sundarbans is located in southern West Bengal.
The Sundarbans and Keoladev National Park in Rajasthan is UNESCO World
Heritage Site.

Q 3 ) Write an essay on adventure tourism.

The different oppurtunities for adventure tourism are :-

• River rafting and kayaking in Himalayas

• Mountain climbing in Himalayas

• Rock climbing in Madhya Pradesh

• Skiing in Gulmarg or Auli

• Boat racing in Bhopal

• Paragliding in Maharashtra

Q 4 ) Explain about tourist spots in hill stations and beaches in India .

Most famous hill stations are:

• Mount Abu , Rajasthan

• Pachmarhi, Madhya Pradesh - It is also known as The Queen

of Satpura.

• Araku, Andhra Pradesh

• Gulmarg, Srinagar and Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir

• Darjeeling in West Bengal

• Munnar in Kerala

• Ooty and Kodaikanal in Tamil Nadu

• Shillong in Meghalaya

• Shimla, Kullu in Himachal Pradesh

• Nainital in Uttarakhand

• Gangtok in Sikkim

• Mussoorie in Uttarakhand

• Manali in Himachal Pradesh

• Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra

• Some of the famous tourist beaches are:

• Beaches of Vizag, Andhra Pradesh

• Beaches of Puri, Orissa

• Beaches of Digha, West Bengal

• Beaches of Goa

• Kovalam Beach, Kerala

• Marina Beach, Chennai

• Beaches of Mahabalipuram

• Beaches in Mumbai

• Beaches of Diu

• Beaches of Midnapore, West Bengal

• Andaman and Nicobar Islands

• Lakshadweep Islands

Q 5 ) Give details on the historical monuments.

The Taj Mahal is one of India's best-known sites and one of the best
architectural achievements in India. Located in Agra, it was built between
1631 and 1653 by Emperor Shah Jahan in honor of his wife, Arjumand Banu,
more popularly known as Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal serves as her tomb.

The Mahabodhi Temple A 2000 year old temple dedicated to Gautam

Buddha in Bodh Gaya. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Nalanda Vishvavidyalaya, located in the Indian State of Bihar, was

a Buddhist center of learning from 427 C.E to 1197 C.E partly under the Pala
Empire. It has been called "one of the first great universities in recorded
history”. According to historical studies the University of Nalanda was
established 450 C.E under the patronage of the Gupta emperors,
notably Kumaragupta.

The Brihadishwara Temple in Thanjavur, Tamil nadu built by the Cholas, this
temple is one of India's most prized architectural sites.

The Airavateswara temple located in the town of Darasuram,

near Kumbakonam, Tamil nadu.

The Shore Temple, along with the collection of other monuments

in Mahabalipuram, Tamil nadu have been declared as UNESCO World
Heritage Sites.

The Golden Temple is one of the most respected temples in India and the
most sacred place for Sikhs. The Golden Temple is located in Amritsar,
Punjab, India.
1. The Bahá'í temple in Delhi, was completed in 1986 and serves as the
Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. It has won numerous
architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and
magazine articles. (It is also known as the Lotus Temple.)

2. The Hawa Mahal in Jaipur also known as Palace of Winds is major

attraction in Jaipur.

3. The Taj Mahal Palace is an icon of Mumbai.

4. The Victoria Memorial in Kolkata

Chapter 3

Q 1 ) Define marketing.

According to Philip Kilter ,“Marketing is the analysis, planning,

implementation, and control of carefully formulated programs designed to
bring about voluntary exchanges of values with target markets for the
purpose of achieving organisational objectives. It relies heavily on designing
the organisation’s offering in terms of the target markets’ needs and desires,
and on using effective pricing, communication, and distribution to inform,
motivate, and service the markets”.

Q 2 ) What is the difference between selling and marketing ?

It was mentioned earlier that many persons confuse marketing with selling
whereas they are totally difference has been described by Levitt as , “Selling
focuses on the needs of the seller; marketing on the needs of the buyer.
Selling is preoccupied with the seller’s need to convert his product into cash;
marketing with the idea of satisfying the needs of the customer by means of
the product and the whole cluster of things associated with creating,
delivering and finally consuming it”.

Thus, according to the sales concept or sales orientation, an organisation

believes that the size of the market can be increased by the selling effort.
Such an organisation does not changes its product according to the
consumer needs but on the contrary increases its advertising, personnel
selling, sales promotion and other demand-creating activities for the product.
The aim is to achieve profits by increasing the volume of sales. According to

“A sales orientation holds that the main task of the organisation is to

stimulate the interest in potential consumers in the organisation existing
products and services”

Contrary to this, in the market concept or market orientation, the focus is on

customer needs, where marketing is utilised to gain profits through customer
satisfaction. According to Kolter:

“A marketing orientation holds that the main task of the organisation is to

determine the needs and wants of target markets and to satisfy them
through the design, communication, pricing, and delivery of appropriate and
competitively viable products and services”.

Many organisation in tourism go by the product orientation approach which

according Kotler means:

“That the major task of a services of products. This approach does not take
into account the consumers’ needs or attitudes etc. Similarly, the selling
orientation focuses on the needs of the seller and ignores the needs of the
tourists needs and want etc., taken care of. This has been described by some
as an exercise of “putting yourself in the tourist shoes”.

Q 3 ) What are the features of Tourism Marketing ?

The marketing of tourism is different from other products because tourism is

a service product where instead of selling physical goods an intangible
experience is sold. In Unit-4 of TS-3 you have already been acquainted with
the characteristics of the tourism services. However, very briefly we once
again mention certain aspects of the tourism product:

It is not possible to evaluate or demonstrate the tourism product in advance.

This is because the services are consumed and felt at the same time.

The tourist not only buys the product but also feels the product and is
involved in it.
The tourism products cannot be stored.

The tourist buys the experience and does not own the product.

The tourism product is a combination of several services.

In the designing and package of tourism product a number of intermediaries

are involved. Bad experience at one level can spoil the entire image of the
product or service.

The demand in tourism is highly elastic and seasonal in nature.

Some of the problems faced by the tourism industry for the purposes of
marketing are there because of its own lack of efforts in the area. For
example, few in the industry go for market research as the industry is
dominated by small business which lacks in both expertise as well as
resources for adopting a marketing approach. Most of the time a short term
outlook is adopted rather than a long term approach. The presence of too
many intermediaries affects the quality controls and leads to consumer
dissatisfaction. The resource crunch affects the marketing efforts,
particularly for making a presence in the international markets. The
approach adopted by the organisations is to deal through intermediaries
rather than approaching the market on their own. The consumer of the
tourism products and services in future is going to be different from that of
today. The emergence of specialised tourism is going to make more
demands on the industry in relation to the consumer needs. Competition is
already on the increase and hence more and more consumer satisfaction will
be the key to success. A major challenge for tourism marketing is coming in
the form of consumer protection laws and eco-friendly destinations. Time is
not far when in spite of the best marketing efforts if consumer protection and
unpolluted environment do not form a part of the marketing package, the
destination, product or service is bound to be adversely effected.

Q 4 ) What are the skills required to be a marketing manager ?

Marketing Manager must possess the following personal qualities to be a

successful practitioner:

He or she should be very energetic, active, competitive and aggressive by


He or she should be creative in terms of seeking new opportunities and to

exploit them for the organisation’s benefit.

He or she should have the skill and confidence to analyse, appreciate and
interpret the data in relation to marketing.
He or she should have the quality of judgement for taking marketing
decisions and evaluating risks, besides being a good administrator and

He or she must develop a marketing orientation along with sensitivity

towards consumer needs and attitudes.

Q 5 ) How would you make a marketing plan ?

Defining the marketing objectives and goals of the organisation along with
an executive summary of these.

It should take into account the situation analysis. This takes into account the
background, forecast, opportunities and threats and strengths and

Based on these aspects a marketing strategy is devised taking into account

the target markets, marketing mix and the levels of marketing expenditure,
i.e., the marketing budget.

Next step involves the action programme keeping in view a timeframe.

The marketing plan should also specify the methods of monitoring and
controls. This should take into account:

Sales analysis,

Market share,

Marketing expenses, and

Checking customer attitudes towards the organisations’ products and


Chapter 4

Q 1 ) What do you understand by market segmentation?

According to Victor TC Middleton “Market segmentation is the process

whereby producers organise their knowledge of customer groups and select
for particular attention, those whose needs and want they are best able to
supply with their products”.

Hence, Market segmentation involves a division of the prospective market

into identifiable groups. In simple words it can be defined as the division of a
market into groups of segments having similar wants.
Q 2 ) What type of questions should you ask before you group tourists ?


Factors influence the tourist demand?

Service do the tourist expect?

Is the basis for tourists comparing your product with other products?

Benefits do the tourists seek?

Risks do the tourists perceive?

Are the tastes of the tourists?

Do tourists buy?

Much are the tourists willing to spend?

Many vacations do the tourists take in a year?

Does promotion and advertising effect the tourists’ demand?

Does the product fit into the life styles tourists?


Is the decision made by tourists to buy?

Do the tourists seed information about the product?

Do the tourists buy the product?


Do the tourists take a vacation?

Do the tourists make a decision to buy the product?

Is the product repurchased?


Do the tourists buy your product?

Do the tourists choose one destination over the other?

Do the tourists to a particular destination?

Do the tourists prefer one type of service and not her other?
Do the tourists buy your competitors’ products?


Buys your product?

Buys your competitors products?

Are likely to buy your product?

May not be interested in your product?

Q 3 ) Using a formula explain your target for marketing

Target for marketing = characteristics + demographic profile

Q 4 ) Explain Segmentation theory .

Market segmentation involves a division of the prospective market into
identifiable groups. In simple words it can be defined as the division of a
market into groups of segments having similar wants. This theory is opposed
to a diluting of efforts by appealing to an entire market. It is based on a
realisation of the fact that a product can be sold more effectively if efforts
are concentrated towards those groups which are most potential. Phillip
Kotter is of the view that different “competitors will be in the best position to
go after particular segmentation of the market”. At the same time he
mentions that this is not always the practise. The organisations, in their
thinking about operating in a market have generally passed through the
following three stages:

Mass Marketing: This is a marketing style where the organisation makes

efforts to attract every eligible buyer to use its product which has been
mass-product and will be mass distributed. Here no attention is paid to
consumer preferences.

Product Differentiated Marketing: In this marketing style the

organisation produces two or more products for the entire market. These
products might have different characteristics but they are not designed for
any different group(s). Rather they only provide alternatives to every buyer
in the market.

Target Marketing: Here, the organisation:

Differentiate amongst varied market segments,

Focuses on one or more of these segments (target), and

Develops the product to meet the needs of the target market.

In tourism, the organisation practises each style of marketing though the
emphasis on target marketing is gaining ground. Let us take the example of
Indian Railways vis-a-viz the tourist market.

Under stage-1, trains are available for everyone to travel.

Under Stage-2, the railways offer Deluxe, Rajdhane or Shatabdi trains.

Under stage-3, trains like Palace on the Wheels or the Royal Orient are there
which have a set target of customer from among the up budget tourist

The shift of emphasis is because of the benefits in market segmentation.

By selection the market niches i.e. suitable markets, an organisation can

exploit the market much better,
An organisation can focus its strategies more appropriately on target groups,

Customer loyalties can be instituted through segmented marketing because

the product matches the needs of the segment.

Chapter 5

Q 1 ) Explain about demographic and life style trends?

Changing demographics and lifestyles are having a major impact on R/T

participation. An assessment of these trends is important to understand how
they will likely affect your business or community.

Some of the important trends that bear watching:

(1) population growth and movement;

(2) rural community growth compared to metropolitan areas;

(3) number of adult women employed outside the home;

(4) the number of households is growing, especially non family and single
parent households, but family size is decreasing;

(5) the impact of two wage earner households on real family income;

(6) the number of retired persons with the financial

ability to travel;
(7) better health to an older age; and

(8) continued aging of the population (we are becoming a middle aged

Q 2 ) What is business and community profiles?

Too many communities attempt to market themselves as tourist destinations

without accurate information about their resources (facilities, services, staff),
image (projected vs. actual), and how well their customers are satisfied.
Without this information, it is difficult to make other decisions in the planning
process. Included should be such things as recreational and entertainment
facilities, cultural and historic sites,
overnight accommodations, restaurants, shopping opportunities, special
events and activities, staff size, and transportation. Each item of the
"inventory" should also be assessed in terms of quality and availability.

Q 3 ) Explain market segmentation?

Marketing is strongly based on market segmentation and target marketing.

Market segmentation is the process of:
(1) taking existing and/or potential customers/visitors (market) and
categorizing them into groups with similar preferences referred to as
"market segments;"

(2) selecting the most promising segments as "target markets" and

(3) designing "marketing mixes," or strategies (combination of the 4 Ps),

which satisfy the special
needs, desires and behaviour of the target markets.

There is no unique or best way to segment markets, but ways in which

customers can be grouped are:

(1) location of residence---instate, out-of-state, local;

(2) demographics---age, income, family status, education;

(3) equipment ownership/use---RV's, sailboats, canoes,

tents, snowmobiles;

(4) important product attributes---price, quality,

quantity; and

(5) lifestyle attributes---activities, interests,

Q 4 ) Explain market strategy mix?

The marketing strategy, or mix, should be viewed as a package of offerings

designed to attract and serve the customer or visitor. Recreation and tourism
businesses and communities should develop both external and
internal marketing mixes for different target markets.

External Mix
The external marketing mix includes product/service, price, place/location,
and promotion.

Earlier we said the principal products that recreation and tourism businesses
provide are recreational
experiences and hospitality. The factors that create a quality recreational
experience often differ among people. A quality experience for one skier
might include an uncrowned, steep slope. To another it might be a
good restaurant and a chance to socialize. Decisions on what facilities,
programs and services to provide should be based on the needs and desires
of the target market(s). They should not be based on the preferences of the
owner/manager or necessarily on what the competition is providing.
Recognize that a recreational/tourism experience includes five elements: trip
planning and anticipation; travel to the site/area; the experience at the site;
travel back home; and recollection. Businesses should look for ways to
enhance the quality of the overall experience during all phases of the trip.
This could be accomplished by providing trip planning packages which
include maps, attractions en route and on site, and information regarding
lodging, food and quality souvenirs and mementos.
Recreation and tourism businesses should also view their service/product in
generic terms. Thinking of products/services in this manner helps focus
more attention on the experiences desired by customers and also the
facilities, programs and services that will produce those experiences. For
example, campgrounds are the business of providing recreational "lodging"
not just campsites to park an RV or set up a tent. Marinas should provide
recreational "boating" experiences, not just slippage.
Location and Accessibility---Place
Too many tourism businesses and communities fail to recognize their role in
improving travel to and from their areas. They focus instead on servicing the
customer once they arrive at the site/community. A bad experience getting
to or leaving an R/T site can adversely affect a person's travel experience.
Ways to help prevent this include:

(1) providing directions and maps;

(2) providing estimates of travel time and distances from different market

(3) recommending direct and scenic travel routes;

(4) identifying attractions and support facilities along different travel routes;

(5) informing potential customers of alternative travel methods to the area

such as airlines and railroads.

Potential businesses should also carefully assess alternative locations for:

(1) distance and accessibility to target markets;

(2) location of competitors with respect to target markets;

(3) modes of travel serving the area; and

(4) other attractions and activities that might induce travel to the area.

Price is one of the most important and visible elements of the marketing mix.
When setting prices it is important to take into consideration all of the
(1) business and target market objectives;

(2) the full cost of producing, delivering and promoting the product;

(3) the willingness of the target market to pay for the product or service you

(4) prices charged by competitors offering a similar product/service to the

same target market(s);

(5) the availability and prices of substitute products/services (for example,

campgrounds, motels, and
bed and breakfast are all substitutes for lodging);

(6) the economic climate (local and national); and

(7) The possibility of stimulating high profit products/services (such as boats)

by offering related
services (such as maintenance) at or below cost.

When establishing prices, R/T businesses should give attention to pricing

strategies which may encourage off season and non-peak period sales,
longer stays, group business, and the sale of package plans (combination
of room, meals, and recreational facilities). For additional information on
pricing, see Extension bulletin E-1999.

Promotion provides target audiences with accurate and timely information to
help them decide whether to visit your community or business. The
information should be of importance and practical use to the potential or
existing visitor and also accurate. Misrepresentation often leads to
dissatisfied customers and poor recommendations. Don't make claims you
cannot live up to.

Developing a promotional campaign is not a science with hard and fast rules.
Making decisions regarding which type or combination of promotion types to
use (personal selling, advertising, sales promotions, or publicity) is not
always easy. If, however, you follow a logical process and do the necessary
research, chances for success will be improved. It will be necessary to
make decisions regarding:

(1) Target audience---the group you are aiming at;

(2) Image---that which your community or business wants to create or


(3) Objectives---those of the promotional campaign;

(4) Budget---the amount of money available for your promotion;

(5) Timing---when and how often should your promotions appear;

(6) Media---which methods (television, radio, newspaper, magazine) will most

effectively and efficiently
communicate your message to the target audience; and

(7) Evaluation---how can the effectiveness of the promotional campaign be


Internal Mix
As stated, marketing services such as recreation and tourism differ from
marketing tangible products.
Recreation and tourism businesses must direct as much attention at
marketing to customers on site as they do to attracting them. In this respect,
internal marketing is important because dissatisfied customers can
effectively cancel out an otherwise effective marketing strategy.

The success of internal marketing is dependent on creating an atmosphere in

which employees desire to give good service and sell the
business/community to visitors. To create such an atmosphere requires the
following four
important elements:

(1) Hospitality and Guest Relations---An organization wide emphasis on

hospitality and guest relations,
including a customer oriented attitude on the part of the owners and
managers as well as the employees. If the owner/manager is not customer
sensitive, it is unlikely the lower paid employees will be.

(2) Quality Control---A program which focuses on improving both the

technical quality (the standards associated with what the customer receives)
and the functional quality (the standards associated with how the -customer
receives the service). All employees who come into contact with customers
should receive hospitality training.

(3) Personal Selling---Training the staff in the selling aspects of the property
(business) or community. This
also includes rewarding them for their efforts. By being informed about the
marketing objectives, and their role in accomplishing those objectives, they
can help increase sales.

(4) Employee Morale---Programs and incentives aimed at maintaining

employee morale. The incentives can be both monetary and non-monetary.

A customer oriented atmosphere usually results in customers that are more

satisfied, do less complaining and are more pleasant to serve. This helps
build employee morale, their desire to provide good service and
their efficiency.

Q 5 ) Write an essay on marketing budget?

Successful marketing requires that sufficient money and personnel time be

made available to implement activities comprising the marketing strategy. A
marketing budget is a financial plan which shows the total amount to be
spent on marketing during different times of the year and how it is to be
allocated among alternative activities.
Separate marketing budgets should be developed for each marketing mix
strategy. The separate budgets should then be aggregated to develop an
overall marketing budget. If the total amount is too great it will be necessary
to modify the overall objectives and the target market objectives, narrow
down or drop target markets, or adjust marketing mixes. The final budget
should be realistic given your objectives. When deciding on a
marketing budget, consideration should be given to the job that needs to be
done as defined by the objectives. Basing marketing budgets on some
percent of sales or what the competition spends usually leads to over
spending or under spending. Decisions should also be based on the costs,
projected revenues, and desired profitability of different activities, not just
costs alone. Successful marketing activities will generate additional
revenues which can be projected based on the marketing objectives (such as
increase off season stay by 5%).

Although budgets should be viewed as flexible plans, every effort should be

made to adhere to them. Revisions in the budget should only be made after
careful consideration of the likely impact of the change on the marketing mix
and accomplishment of your objectives.