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Common English Pronunciation Errors: Categories of Errors

Common Pronunciation Errors 1
Stops (Aspiration): /p/=sap; /t/=sat; /k/=sac
Fricatives (Voiced): /f/=fan /v/=van; /T/=this; /z/=zoo; /Z/=vision
Affricatives (Voiced): /tS/=chair; /dZ/=job
Approximants (Liquids): /l/=lad; /r/=rap;
/r/-colored vowel: /Ir/=here; /er/ or /Er/=hair; /Ar/=hard; /Œr/=hurt; /çr/=court; /aIr/=hire;
/aUr/=hour
Vowels: e.g., /I/-/i/=hid-heed; /E/-/æ /=bed-bad; /u/-/U/=pool-pull; /Λ/-/«/=putt-pot

Common Pronunciation Errors 2
First Language Interference (Assimilation):
/p/, /t/, /k/ before /m/ or /n/=pop-music, bookmark, nickname
/p/, /t/, /k/ before /l/ or /r/=uprising, not really, potluck
/p/, /t/, /k/ before /j/=leap year, not yet, thank you
/n/, /m/ before /l/ or /r/=comrade, homeroom, moonrise
/l/ before /r/=all right, double room, railroad

Common Pronunciation Errors 3
Word Endings (Aspiration): /s/=ace; /b/=nab; /d/=dad; /g/=gag
Past Tense (‘ed’ endings):
/d/=stayed, phoned, paged (‘ed’ before all voiced consonant other than /d/)
/t/=shocked, stopped, finished (‘ed’ before all voiceless sound other than /t/)
/Ed/ or /Id/=decided, waited, visited (‘ed’ before /d/ or /t/)
Plural Morphology (‘s’ or ‘es’ endings):
/s/=teams, hopes, games (‘s’ or ‘es’ before voiceless nonsibilant consonants,
e.g., /p/, /t/, /k/, /m/, /N/, /l/, etc.)
/z/=dogs, days, tours (‘s’ or ‘es’ before all vowels & voiced nonsibilant
consonants, e.g., /n/, /b/, /d/, /g/, etc.)
/Is/=judges, boxes, wishes (‘s’ or ‘es’ before /s/, /z/, /S/, /Z/, /dZ/, or /tS/)

Common Pronunciation Errors 4
Word Stress (Primary):
photographs - photography (/fo» toU grQf/ - /f√ tç» grQ fi/)
public - publicity (/p√b» lIk/ - /p√ blIs» I ti/)
minor - minority (/mI» n´r - mI nor» I ti/)
Intonation:
Question-Where are you going?; What are you doing?
Exclamation-Let’s go!; Charge!
Rhythm:
Nursery rhymes-Jack and Jill

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For example. The minimal pairs can appear in the initial. Fricatives (Voiceless-Voiced-Initial Position): /f/-/v/=few-view. Vowels: /I/(A)-/i/(B)=ship-sheep (A first). leap-reap /r/-colored vowel: /Ir/=fear. and ask if they are the same or different. /er/ or /Er/=fair. /Ar/=far. /Λ/-/«/=putt-pot Contrastive Method 2 Same or Different?: Present two words (minimal pairs with regards to the sound(s) being taught-either the same or different). ship-ship (same). providing a background to contrast the sounds that are being taught. /çr/=for. medial or final position in a word. /s/-/z/=sue-zoo Stops (Voiceless-Voiced-Initial Position): /p/-/b/=pan-ban. /k/-/g/=crow-grow Approximants (Liquids): /l/-/r/=lap-rap. Which is First?: Present the same minimal pairs. For example. /Œr/=fur. This provides an opportunity to contrast the sounds and practice in listening discrimination. lice-rice. /E/-/æ /=bed-bad. You can also have your students use this method with each other for practice in production of the sounds being taught. /u/-/U/=pool-pull. /t/-/d/-tan-Dan. sheep-ship (B first) . Vowels: /I/-/i/=ship-sheep (different). /aIr/=fire. sheep-sheep (same). and as which is spoken first. /aUr/=flour Vowels: /I/-/i/=hid-heed. etc. You would write the symbol (or words) on the board and ask which came first.Contrastive Methods to Practice English Pronunciation Contrastive Method 1 Minimal Pairs: Using minimal pairs (words that differ from one another by one phoneme or sound) to provide listening and speaking practice is idea. For example.

10. "Could you spare some change for some food and coffee?" he begged. 14. why not! Let’s go today. 21. 6. “Some change for food. A comrade came into the home-room soon after moonrise. Luke. and doves. Please sit on that seat. 18. Go and collect the light pink boots from next to the wall. “Let’s go to New York. “Today?” Peter said. 13. Let’s go!” 30. brother. and watch the ship with the sheep. The pop-music title was “Book-mark is my nick-name.” Jane asked. 25. “But today I bought a shovel and dug a ditch for my dog. Bob decided that he waited enough time and visited his stepmother. please pass the ball to home base. John was shocked to see his tape on TV. On the walls were several dull photographs of different animals like cats. “Yes. a beggar man in a torn suit entered and approached two women sitting near a heater atop two boxes. 5. “To New York?” Peter said. comrade?” Feeling dizzy the man pleaded. “Here you go. 28. The boy took the van. go and look at the boy pull out from the pool a gray suit caked with soot. Suddenly. The judges stood by the boxes while the people put many wishes into them. 24.” Jane asked. 11. 23. My dad was certain he had quite a bad boy. Jack and Jill went up the hill To fetch a pail of water Jack fell down and broke his crown And Jill came tumbling after . The minority group considered it a minor event. Much fat is in coffee and beef. and while driving he hit the dove. He was zipping at a dizzy pace through the maze. 27. Dogs barking and the horns of cars honking were all he heard for days. The cat in the hat took home a bat. 19. The photographs were shown in a photography contest. dogs.” 7. There is no correct way to write a story about going to war. 20. The uprising today was not really about the potluck dinner. 26.” the woman said as she gave the man two coins. The baseball teams had hopes of winning many games.” Jane asked.” 2. where is the double-room in the rail-road station?” 3. The women were shocked and one asked. His brother was an active member in the better businessmen club. please!” One of the women dug into her purse for some change. 4. Tim said. “Now?” Peter said. “What? What was that.” The man thanked the women again and made his way out into the cold winter evening. Thank you. 16. “Thank you!” said the man. Part B 1. so he stopped it before it finished. 17. “Hey ace. 8. while I sung a happy song. but it has not yet been what I can call a good year. Tom stayed at home and phoned Jane after she paged him. “All right. 9. 15. “I was a pilot in the war and my nick-name was ace. The men told a man that a pen and a pan must be set where he sat. Peter said to Jane. The public did not attend because the publicity was not good. The boy said. 22. and hit that switch for heat. 29. The other woman noticed that the man hadn’t bathed and was not really clean. “Lets go now! Right this moment. The Script Part A It was a quiet room in the rail-road station. 12. It is those who are worthy that bathe. “Yes.

Collect /light /wall 11. Judges /boxes /wishes 24. Teams /hopes /games 25. Thank you /not yet /good year Final Sounds: 6. Minority /minor Intonation: 29. Decided /waited /visited 22. Assessment Sheet Voice Code Date assessed 0. Comrade /home-room /moonrise 4. All right /double-room /rail-road 3. Pop-music /bookmark /nickname 2. Photographs /photography 27. Sit /seat hit /heat ship /sheep 17. Fat /coffee /beef 13. Dad /had /bad 8. Men /man pen /pan set /sat 18. Dogs /cars /days Word Stress: 26. Cat /hat /bat 9. Uprising /not really /potluck 5. To New York? /Today? /Now? Why not! /Lets go now! /Let’s go! 30. Brother /member /better Consonant Articulation: 10. Public /publicity 28. Van /driving /dove 14. Correct /write /war 12. Luke /look pull /pool suit /soot 19. Shocked /stopped /finished 21. Stayed /phoned / paged 23. Zipping /dizzy /maze Vowel Articulation (minimal pairs): 16. But /bought dug /dog sung /song Past tense /Plural morphology: 20. Naturalness: First Language Interference: 1. Rhythm: (Jack and Jill) . Ace /pass /base 7. Those /worthy /bathe 15.

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