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BMEN 343: Fall 2010

You must know repeat unit structure, morphology, and Tg for Exam I.

Polymer Morphology Tg (°C)


NON-DEGRADABLE POLYMERS
Polyethylene (PE)
HDPE Semi-crystalline: 70-90% “high” - 90
LDPE Semi-crystalline: ~50% -110
UHMWPE Semi-crystalline: ~60% -100
Polypropylene (PP)
Isotactic Semi-crystalline: 70-90% “high” -8
Syndiotactic Semi-crystalline -8
Atactic Amorphous -8
Polystyrene (PS)
Isotactic Semi-crystalline: 70-90% “high” 100
Syndiotactic Semi-crystalline 100
Atactic Amorphous 100
Poly(tetrafluoroethylene ) PTFE Semi-crystalline: 70-90% “high” 117
Poly(vinyl chloride) PVC Semi-crystalline 73
Poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA or PVOH Semi-crystalline 85
Poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA Amorphous 105
Poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) PHEMA Amorphous 55
Poly(dimethyl siloxane) PDMS Semi-crystalline -127
Nylon 6,6 Semi-crystalline 50
Poly(ethylene glycol) PEG (aka PEO) Semi-crystalline -41
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET Semi-crystalline 61
Poly(carbonate) PC Amorphous 150
BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS
Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) Semi-crystalline: (~50%) 36
Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) Semi-crystalline: ( ~40%) 60
Poly(DL-lactic acid) (PDLLA) Amorphous 55
Polydioxanone (PDS) Semi-crystalline -10
Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) Semi-crystalline -60

These Tg values are for thermoplastic polymers (i.e. not crosslinked). Table 15.2 also lists values of Tg’s.
Some vary compared to what is reported here; for instance, Tg of PTFE = -97 °C. For exams and
homeworks, information from this table is what is “correct”. (Data reported here is compiled from several
sources considered to be the “gold” standard in polymer science & engineering).

Lactic acid is a chiral molecule: exists in two stereoisomeric forms (D and L) with opposite configurations
(arrangement in 3-D space).

Examples of Amorphous Polymers: Atactic PP, Atactic PS, PMMA, PHEMA, PC, PDLLA

Examples Highly Crystalline Polymers (70-90% crystalline): HDPE, Isotactic PP, Isotactic PS, PTFE
Repeat Unit Structures:
For information regarding “repeat unit structures”: see Sec. 14.3 and 14.4

CH2 CH2 CH2 CH CH2 CH CF2 CF2


n CH3 n n n
PE PTFE
PP

PS

CH3 CH3
CH2 CH CH2 CH CH2 C CH2 C

Cl n OH n C O n C O n
O O
PVC PVOH
CH3 CH2CH2OH
PMMA PHEMA

CH3 H H O O
Si O N (CH2)6 N C (CH2)4 C CH2 CH2 O
n n
CH3 n
Nylon 6,6 PEG or PEO
PDMS

CH3 O
O O
C C O CH2 CH2 O O C O C
n
n CH3
PET PC

O O O O
O CH2 C O CH C O(CH2)2OCH2 C O(CH2)5C
n n
CH3 n n
PGA PDS PCL
PLLA or PDLLA
Other Information:

Repeat unit structure has "CHIRAL CARBON": 4 different atoms or atom groups

Stereochemistry: spatial arrangment of atoms around chiral carbon

H O H O H O H O

O C C O C C O C C O C C
n n n m
CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3

PLLA PDLA PDLLA

steroregular: all same 3-D orientation/ stereoirregular: different (not nec. "block":
arrangment of of H and CH3 around squiggly connection denotes this)
chiral carbon

H R H R H R R H R H R H R H
H R

n n

ISOTACTIC

H R R H H R R H

n
SYNDIOTACTIC

H R H R R H H R

n
ATACTIC

R = CH3 (PP)
R = Ph ("Phenyl ring") (PS)