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UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WORK

Assignment topic: -Curses of Dowry System

Course No: -

Submitted by; Saina Hussain

Submitted to: madam jugnu salauddin


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Contents

Topics Page #

Definitions of dowry 3

Curses of dowry in Islam 4

Curse of Dowry in Pakistan 5

Causes of dowry system 9

Affects of Dowry On society 11

Control of dowry system 13

References 15
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Definitions of dowry
Money or property brought by a woman to her husband at marriage

Property or payment given by a wife or her family to a husband at the time of marriage. (In some
cultures, it is the husband who pays the dowry to the wife’s family.)

A present given to a new husband by the bride upon marriage. It took the form of land, goods, or
money.

The marriage wealth-exchange practice in which the woman's family is required to provide the
husband with property (eg, money, land, household goods) in order to make the marriage.

An old-fashioned term meaning money or goods that the bride or the bride’s family gives to her
new husband

property, Property or payment brought by a wife or her family to a husband at the time of
marriage. (In some cultures, it is the husband who pays the dowry to the wife’s family

A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the bride's family to that of the groom to
permit their marriage. In societies where payment of dowry is common, unmarried women are
seen to attract stigma and tarnish the household's reputation, so it is in the bride's family's interest
to marry off their daughter as soon as she is eligible. In some areas where this is practiced, the
size of the necessary dowry is directly proportional to the groom's social standing, thus making it
virtually impossible for lower class women to marry into upper class families. In some cases
where a woman's family is too poor to afford any dowry whatsoever, she is either simply
forbidden from ever marrying, or at most becomes a concubine to a richer man who can afford to
support a large household

A dowry (also known as trousseau or tocher or, in Latin, dos) is the money, goods, or estate
that a woman brings to her husband in marriage.[1] It contrasts with bride price, which is paid to
the bride's parents, and dower, which is property settled on the bride herself by the groom at the
time of marriage. The same culture may simultaneously practice both dowry and bride price.
Dowry is an ancient custom, and its existence may well predate records of it.

The practice of dowry is prevalent in India since ancient times. The custom first started in
Vaishya community of Hindu society but later all other communities in the Hindu society
adopted this practice. Subsequently, this practice crept into the Muslim society in places where
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Muslims lived as traders and not as rulers.


This Hindu custom has now gripped the Muslim society as well. This practice has affected the
whole society, especially the poor, backward and middle classes whose economic and financial
resources are limited. Many girls remain unmarried because of the financial problems of their
parents. Some of such girls take recourse to suicide and a few of them enter flesh trade and some
die as virgins.

The evil practice of dowry has turned the sacred relationship of marriage into a commercial
relationship which makes the life of chaste girls and their parents a hell, giving rise to suicide,
corruption and moral degradation. The problem of dowry is closely linked to Muslims’
economic, social, educational and religious life.

One of the reasons of these social evils is ignorance and non-compliance with Islamic teachings
and practices. Hundreds and thousands of educated Muslim girls are leading unmarried lives or
believe in late marriages. Does it not indicate moral degradation of our society? In a society
where this is the case with unmarried girls, who will bother about the marriage of widows and
divorcees? The Prophet (p.b.u.h) and his companions set examples for their followers by
marrying widows and divorcees. Young Muslim girls have to lead unmarried life because of
financial difficulties of their parents or because of the non-availability of suitable matches. Their
unmarried status creates new problems for them and the society.

Our younger generation should come forward to rectify this trend and reform the society. They
should set an example by neither demanding nor offering dowry. Those who demand dowry
should be persuaded by explaining to them religious and Quranic commands. If they still persist
in their evil demands, they should be socially boycotted and the matter reported to the police.
Demanding dowry is a legal offence also. Anti-dowry committees should be set up. This will
bring positive results for the unmarried daughters of the poor.

These steps are in accordance with the commands of God and His Prophet. These will create a
good society free of evil. Unless the younger generations volunteer for such noble tasks, no
reformatory projects can succeed

Curses of dowry in Islam:


If I don’t kill her today; tomorrow she will kill me financially or someone. else will burn her for
the sake of dowry,"

rationalizes the would be father of an unborn female child, at the time of deciding a premature
end for her. Such is the evil of dowry, rampantly prevailing in Indian society. A study has
revealed that an estimated one million (1,000,000 ) female foetuses are being destroyed every
year in India alone where, even today the birth of a female child is viewed as a curse. As soon as
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a daughter is born, the family in general and the father in particular starts calculating the huge
financial burden that lies ahead of him. Whereas a Muslim father seizes, the same opportunity
with both his hands as his Prophet (p.b.u.h) has promised him heaven or paradise for bringing up
his daughter the way he takes care of his male child.

A Muslim father does not have to bother for dowry, as there is nothing called ‘Dowry’ in Islam.
On the contrary, Islam enjoins the groom to give a ‘Bridal-Gift’ or ‘Dower’ as a token of love
and assurance to his would be wife at the time of marriage. In fact without payment of this sum,
the marriage cannot get solemnized. The Holy Qur’an instructs the believers

"And give the women (whom you marry) their dower (obligatory bridal gift) happily" (4:4)

The practice of dowry among ignorant Muslims is a result of the influence of the evil practices of
the society they live in. Islam does not put any financial burden on the father of the girl. A
Muslim father is told to get her daughter married away in a most simple ‘Nikah’ ceremony
solemnized by a ‘Qazi’ (priest) in a mosque, witnessed by his close relatives and friends. He is
not even required to throw a luncheon to the handful of invitees assembled for this occasion. In
fact it is desirable on the part of the groom that he offers a reception (Waleema) to his near ones
& dear ones without forgetting the poor people of his society.

The example of such a simple marriage was set up by none other than the Prophet (p.b.u.h)
himself. He got his daughters married in the simplest possible manner. There was nothing in it
whatsoever for the bridegroom that could be termed as dowry. The Prophet (pbuh) said:

"The best of the marriages is one which is least burdensome in the financial sense to the families
of the bride and the groom"

Thus he paved a way for people of all times to come to live a life without stress and strain
pertaining to daughters’ marriages too!

Curse of Dowry in Pakistan:

Pakistan The land of the pure is characterized by regrettably low scores of development
indicators, constant political instability, cultural heritage and traditions reflecting centuries old
patriarchy and selective male-friendly application of the dominant religion-Islam. For being part
of the male-dominated belt, the family in Pakistan is patriarchal. Traditionally, father is the
breadwinner and mother is the housekeeper. The disreputable mother-in-law is an advocate of
superiority of her son in marriage. However, this cannot be generalized. In fact, there is not a
homogenous Pakistan in this respect. There is an urban Pakistan and a rural Pakistan. There is a
Pakistan of masses and there is a Pakistan of classes. Considering the diversity of Pakistani
society, female plight and predicament has different interpretations for women from different
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strata. They do suffer similarly in different ways. Institutional and individual violence are not
unknown phenomena for all Pakistani women.

Like all others, Pakistani society is governed by cultural institutions, beliefs, norms and
practices. The contemporary culture, inspite of undergoing transition, mirrors images of centuries
old civilizations and indigenous cultures. One such cultural heritage which has been adopted as a
cultural institution is Dowry or JAHEZ. This practice makes a girl-child less welcome than a
male child. Even today, a girl is perceived to be a burden and a boy to be a blessing. No wonder
there are 79 million missing women only in South Asia and Pakistan, is one of those very few
countries where male to female ratio is reverse.

Dowry: Crime or Custom?

What is dowry? Encyclopedias, thesaurus and dictionaries have explained it beautifully and
simplistically. To me it is a form of culturally sanctioned and socially acceptable violence not
only against women but men too. Despite relatively uninformed and unprepared acceptance of
globalization as a way of life, it appears rather strange that the institution of marriage is still
intact in Pakistan. Marriage is an important event in the life of a Pakistani woman. Getting
married early is being lucky.

Obligatory Jahez takes a heavy toll on the family of dulhan - the bride. Dowry is a multi-
faceted deep-rooted gender issue with social, economic and health consequences. In spite of a
consensus on disliking the practice, only a few have the courage to disown it. According to
renowned Indian writer Shri Sharma the “evolution” of dowry is originally from a gift creating
expectation leading to demands and greed. A large dowry can be an important attribute of status
to both men and women. Dowry, which is popularly considered as a Hindu custom, has visibly
migrated, escalated and embraced in all the areas of the present day Pakistan. It has become an
active tradition, norm and religious practice for those who believe that there is an absence of
such custom and tradition in their faith. The implication of this convenient forgetfulness is
inattentiveness to dowry-related violence.

There are certain other factors that ensure the continuity of the practice of Dowry such as:

• It is considered an incentive to lure a more suitable match


• It is submission to the demand of a perceived suitable match
• It is used as an excuse for denial of inheritance to women (the expenses on dowry and
wedding are unilaterally decided by the men folk of the family as transfer of inheritance
by other means)
• It is considered a good support mechanism to help the new couple so that they have a
convenient start in practical life
• It has become a socially forced fait accompli that is followed and executed ‘with a smile’
notwithstanding, how painful it could be to the family.
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Estimates of the percentage of women who experience domestic violence in Pakistan range from
70-90%. According to the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP), the extreme form it
took included driving a woman to suicide or engineering an accident through infamous “Stove
burning” usually when the husband, often in collaboration with his side of the family, felt (or
made to believe) that the dowry or other gifts he had expected from his in-laws were not
forthcoming or/and he wanted to marry again or he expected an inheritance from the death of his
wife. During 1997, the Lahore press reported an average of more than four local cases of women
being burnt weekly, three of the four fatally. Police follow -up to these cases was negligible, with
only six suspects taken into custody out of 215 cases reported in Lahore newspapers during the
year. In 1997, there was not a single conviction in a “stove-death” case in the country.

HRCP reported only one case of dowry-related violence in 2001.In that case the victim was burnt
to death by her in-laws for not bringing sufficient dowry. A research study conducted by
sachet( an CSO)on gender-based violence as reported in the print media also confirmed this
statistic.Does this mean that in reality also, only one woman fell victim to dowry death? I sent
one of our research officers to find some clues. Here is her back-to-office report.

“I met Ms.Naheeda Mahboob Illahi, advocate Supreme court on 9th Jan`2002. According
to her, everyday a large number of cases of dowry-related violence are received but are
mostly registered as Domestic Disputes. The details of only three cases of dowry-related
violence were provided-2 cases in the year 2000 and one in 1997. In all these cases the
victims were tortured mentally and physically by their husbands and in-laws, for not
bringing sufficient dowry with them.”

It remains a mystery for the social science researchers that why stoves burst in susrals only and
why the victim is always a bahu? Ironically, in spite of very high frequency of domestic
violence and frequent cases of stove deaths, dowry-related violence is neither perceived nor
recognized as an accepted form of violence nor documented in social science literature.
Therefore, unfortunately it is not a popular theme or priority agenda item for organizations
working on women issues. There could be three possible reasons for this convenient
forgetfulness. One is the spiral of silence and sharam, which implies that woman, related issues
must not be taken out of the premises of home for the sake of honor. Second is the ironical fact
that attention to the role of dowry in our marriage system has not gained deserved attention of
international donors. Therefore, the hype stirred by comparable social problems like child labor
or environment overshadowed a traditional area like dowry and related issues. Thirdly, the
Ministry of women development in Pakistan has yet to acknowledge dowry and dowry-violence
as gender issues.

Interventions in the Public Sector

Pakistan is a signatory to the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD),


Beijing plan of Action and Convention on the Elimination of all forms of discrimination against
Women (CEDAW). In terms of implementation, the ideals of all such treaties are yet to be
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realized to cast an impact. Empowerment, access to equal rights and emancipation are yet only
distant dreams for a vast majority of women.

However, there are a number of efforts now underway in Pakistan to promote the empowerment
of women, such as attempts to refine the National Plan of Action, develop micro credit plans and
enhance Khushhali (prosperity) bank, implement UN-Conventions and develop positive and
productive partnerships with civil society, the CSOs and the private sector.

Personally, I am convinced that there is growing attention being given by the government to
gender issues including violence, and there is some movement in this direction. But there is no
obvious, focused and concentrated effort geared to the understanding of a complex and common
issue like dowry. This is valid for all service delivery, advocacy, research and communication
interventions.

Interventions in PAKISTAN

Efforts made by mushrooming CSO sector in connection with dowry can be summed up as
Disappointing.

There had been localized and limited efforts by small-scale welfare societies in the 1960s and
1970s aiming at awareness rising and motivation campaigns to convince people at the mohalla
level to resist the mindless following of dowry demands. However, with the advent of
international donors in the 1980s, the CSOs in Pakistan have either undertook campaigns against
other more visibly anti-women oppressive mechanisms like hudood ordinance or political
marginalization under the Zia regime. Later too, the CSOs have taken up issues of expressed
violence thus being symptomatic and not delving into the deep rooted causes of violence against
women, dowry being one primary cause.

Taking notice of the visible exclusion of dowry as a gender issue from the agenda and aims of
development CSOs and self-acclaimed gender experts, I initiated fight against dowry (fad)
through the platform of SACHET, which I co founded nearly five years back. FAD has been
shaped into a project in Jan`02.The main objective of this project, rather a movement is to
Eradicate (institution and practice of) Dowry in Pakistan. The key strategies to achieve this aim
are research and communication. The activity spectrum ranges from surveys, signature
campaigns, e-petitions, youth-parent consultations, legal advice, and amendments in the existing
law, lobbying, TV programs to anything possible under the sun.

The Government of Mr. Nawaz Sharif in mid-1990s had introduced an ordinance banning grand
wedding receptions (an implicit upshot of dowry). However, it was enforced for short time only,
but is now losing its spirit. Right now, commission of Law and Justice, has drafted a new law in
connection with wedding expenses and dowry. The consultation on the draft version is in
progress.

Challenges not Conclusions


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Such write-ups usually conclude by drawing conclusions and making suggestions. I am


concluding by identifying some of the challenges connected with the gruesome practice, of
dowry and the accompanying violence.

• How dowry could be made a high priority agenda to create a critical mass to combat this
institutional violence?
• Are we ready to adopt this extremely critical gender issue as a passion?
• Is our mass media mature enough to advocate and sensitize all stakeholders?
• Do we have any political commitment in this regard and how far our governments are
ready to go in this respect?

Causes of dowry system;

We are all familiar with the story : boy meets girl, boy falls in love with girl, boy and girl gets
married. For the majority of the western world, this is our ideal of a great beginning to a perfect
marriage. It is important to realize that while India is very modernized in some aspects (i.e.. they
lead the world in student's math and science scores and produce the largest amount of engineers
in the world) they still keep to the tradition of arranged marriages. Marriages formed out of love
AKA "love marriages" do happen in India but it is not the norm. It is an accepted fact that a
person's family will play a role in picking the marriage partner.

While to many people raised in the west, this might sound odd. It is important to remember that
in Indian society an arranged marriage is seen as an act of love. Since marriage is one of the most
important decisions a person will ever make and because divorce is not accepted among most
Indians, it is imperative that the marriage choice is carefully thought out and planned. How can a
young person make such an important decision on his/her own? Instead, the family (usually the
parents) look for certain traits in a marriage partner. Some desirable traits looked for in both
male and female are: matching levels of education, matching cultures, close parental cities,
matching religions, and matching vegetarians/non-vegetarians just to name a few.

Potential bride-grooms come under close scrutiny for several areas of the matching process. Do
they have enough means to support the bride? Do they appear to be men who will make good
husbands and fathers? Often, the bride will live with her in-laws after marriage in what is called
a joint family. Because of this, the groom's family is also brought under close scrutiny. Do the
women of the household seem well cared for? Do they have a big enough house for another
person and grandchildren? Does the family have a good reputation?

Potential brides also come under scrutiny by the boy's parents. Since it is a commonly held belief
that brides are the embodiment of that family's honor and pride, the girl must be from good
family and have good manners. She should be respectable and have no taint on her name. Does
she have the makings of a good wife and mother? Does she want to work after marriage or stay
at home? There are so many factors to weigh, that I cannot list them all.
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Often, this turns into an interview process where photos are provided of the boy/girl in question
along with bio-data about his/her life and family. If that meets with approval, arrangements will
be made for the parents to meet the boy/girl and their family. Traditionally, however, the bride
and groom would not even see each other until the day of their wedding. Today, while most
marriages are still arranged, times are changing. There is usually a small courtship period where
the bride and groom can meet and talk under the careful watch of a guardian. Also, if either one
of the two do not want the marriage, it is likely to be cancelled. Very little family’s today "force"
marriages upon their children.

Of course, with any society, you have those people who just will not adapt and change. There are
places in India where time has not moved forward. For those people, they carry on their lives as
their parents have and their grandparents before them. Shockingly, there are still some forced
marriages and child brides.

Which brings me to the issue of the dowry system....yes, folks it still exists. Now before you
make that grimace of distaste, let me tell you a little about it. The dowry system has been in
place since before the written record and it has been used by parents in every country
imaginable, including America in older times. The point of the dowry system was to provide for
the bride should something unfortunate occur with her husband such as death or divorce. As you
can probably imagine, daughters can be extremely expensive offspring. Parents had/have to
make a mad scramble to get enough wealth and material goods together to see their daughter
well taken care of by the time she is of marriageable age. In Northern India, today this age can
vary from 18-25 though exceptions do apply depending on socio-economic factors.

As you can see, the dowry system was something originally honorable in intention and provided
for the independent wealth of the bride in a time when she was unlikely to work outside of the
home. Like many customs and traditions, time can alter their original meaning and purpose.
While the dowry system is still in place, it has become more of a "bride-price" system. The
parents of a baby girl must come up with a respectable dowry (the term respectable is arbitrary,
respectable dowry can be anything from $50 worth of material goods to $50,000 or more worth
of material goods depending on the family's standing in society). If a good dowry is not made,
the girl is unlikely to have a "good" match. This again, is mostly arbitrary. A good match for a
very poor family might be marriage of their daughter into a slightly better financed family or a
good match for a middle income family might be finding a husband that is a doctor or engineer.
As you have probably guessed, there are very few brides who actually retain their dowry after
marriage. In the most honorable of families the bride is allowed to keep certain items for her own
use such as the bed and cooking pots she is suppose to bring with her and some of the jewelry.
She is also allowed control over how the rest of the dowry is kept, spent etc. This situation is a
very modern one and in place in very educated households.

The most common form of use of the dowry is not meant to be dishonorable and is far more
practical for many families. More often than not, the bride's dowry gets absorbed into the
household for the greater good of the entire family. Perhaps a bride's dowry may help provide
food for the entire family over a lifetime, or allow the purchase of a refrigerator. For many
families, they do not see anything wrong in this sort of dowry absorption simply because it aids
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the bride as well. Furthermore, if the groom's family is better due to the dowry, the bride will
enjoy a better life than perhaps her own mother did.

Of course, there is always that dark side. While these situations are becoming rarer, they still
occur often enough to warrant some discussion on them. There are those families who will use
the bride's dowry as their own. Often in these situations, the bride's dowry will be recycled for
the groom's sisters' dowry. Sometimes, the groom's family uses the bride's dowry entirely for
their own means and the bride does not benefit from it all. There have been horrible, true stories
of the groom's family agreeing to one dowry and after the bride is married (and I might add, no
longer a virgin) demanding more from the bride's parents. Threats of divorce are often used to
entice the bride's parents to give more dowries. In a country where shame is brought down on the
divorcee, parents of the bride will do whatever they can to save their daughters this shame.
Occasionally, the threat of physical violence is used. There really is no way these type situations
can end happily. Even if the bride's parents are able to scrape together more dowry, they will not
be able to continue doing so and in the end the bride is either sent home in shame or sometimes
killed in an "accident".

Often people do not realize the dowry system has repercussions in many different areas other
than the obvious horrible one stated above. Given the fact that a girl's parents must provide a
substantial dowry plus try to give her a college education or some form of formal education
today, it is not surprising that the number of girl abortions is extremely high in India.
Interestingly, India theoretically is a culture which places high value on females. The females of
a family are the life-blood, the pride and honor of that family. It is a very contradictory situation
to see such importance placed on females and then to see the abortion rates of female babies sky
high. Most college-educated Indians I have spoken to, both male and female stand in firm
objection to the dowry system and see that the twisted form it has taken is responsible for the
degradation of women. In these families, girl children are just as prized as boy children and
parents are teaching their daughters of their own worth as a human being.

Affects of Dowry On society


Dowry, widely known as the cancer of society, continues to be the most serious social problem.
The incidents related to dowry system paint a sordid picture of diminishing moral values. Many
innocent women are burnt or threw out of their homes by their husbands and in-laws. The
problem is too critical to be solved. Administration, government, parliament, law and order,
social traditions all have failed rather miserably in putting an end to it. Only Islamic teachings
can stop this grievous and heinous crime as Islam does not permit taking or giving dowry.
Dowry is the result of overvaulting greed. Every person wants more and more money and to
achieve this, he does whatever he likes and even stoops himself down to the level of demanding
dowry. He cannot even think what is right and what is wrong. When the people, who have
unmarried sons, fail to meet their costly demands with their honest earnings, they follow the path
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of dowry system. Due to this greed, there is a steep climb in the cases of dowry. Thus this
tradition has become a serious bug of our country.
In India, dowry cases have been taking place for centuries. But, in the past, there were no serious
and grievous incidents of dowry. It was accepted as a social tradition of providing gifts for each
other. But now it has become one of the tools of rich people to show off their richness and
greedy people to fulfill their immoral demands.
Thanks to modern industrialization and materialism, birth of new brutal, barbaric and inhuman
traditions is taking place. People try to enjoy luxuries even when these are beyond the means
available to them. But then luxuries know no end. The fulfillment of one demand leads one to
take up another, and this vicious cycle goes on. The blackmailing of bride’s parents by the
greedy parents of bridegroom for extorting dowry is an easy way of hoarding wealth. And
parents of the bride stand helpless before the circumstances.
The ever widening chasm between the rich and the poor resulting in uncontrolled lust for wealth
is another important cause of continuation of dowry system. In India the greatly increasing
number of rich people is giving way to the new cause of dowry system. In the modern age of
selfish, economical and materialistic patterns of life, the poor are not able to cross the line
stretched by the rich even if they apply their full efforts to fulfill their demands. Then, if they
have an unmarried son, they find it a ‘God-given’ opportunity to become rich in a matter of days.
And the social system established by the greedy people helps such poor men. The poor and
needy people having young marriageable girls to be married off have to bear the brunt. Many
unmarried girls have crossed their age limit of marriage due to this dowry system; some girls
even committed suicide. Owing to this system not only the people who have faced this dilemma
but the people who have small daughters are also suffering.
The parents of daughters, who are suffering from the curse of dowry system, are also ‘criminals’.
After getting news of their daughter’s suffering from this new system, the parents advise her to
live in her in-law’s house and win their heart by her good deeds. The end of this is the bride-
burning, bride-suicide or at least continued mental and physical torture at the hands of her in-
laws. In spite of several laws to contain the dowry system, the parents do not even gather
courage to file a complaint against the perpetrators of this crime.
In the Muslim society, Islam does not permit to give and take dowry. Dowry is prohibited, and
thus a sin. Dowry is a cause of utter shame and disrespect in this life and a cause of punishment
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in the life after death. According to natural justice the responsibility of earning and maintenance
of the family is rests on the man. And as such earning wealth by means of dowry is wrong. If this
practice is not stopped, human society will have to bear more serious results in the form of
decreasing ratio of females.

Control of dowry system:


Gradually the society can get transformed to a dowry free marriage system....well basudha
dowry system is a curse for our society and also its a evil for our society .everyone should
oppose it and protest against it. to erase this system every family should be aware about this and
one thing should be remember by every bride family that if any groom or ant boys family
demand for dowry the bride family should

Understanding dowry system can never be replaced by love marriage until and unless there is
some kind of mutual understanding between all parties if any involved...which would mean, the
in-laws, the marriageable depends..dowry another name can be gift for the newly wedded
couple...No chance of money in love marriage...wither love or arranged dowry has no place ne
were...The condition of dowry should

The dowry system in our society is the root cause of this ghost apprehension. Along with wiping
out....Female foeticide is not because of the cost of education. But it is because of the system of
dowry which is still prevailing in our country. So, if we can spread the knowledge to abolish
dowry system, the numbers

if so why you still see people killing innocent girls even before their birth - the reason very
simple "We cant see our back except others"...Cancel the wedding as today demand from the
auto driver, never go ahead with this proposal....Break up their proposal and search for new and
better family. This is the only solution to pluck out the dowry system from our society

the boy or boys family demand for dowry then the girl’s father should stop the marriage and
look for another boy then agreeing to the demands. In my community wino logic can justify
dowry, especially demanding such....This is simply nonsense. These people who are after dowry
always are up with illogical arguments. A pertinent question rises if they are taking

Dowry is an age old system. It was in vogue even in prehistoric age. However, over the period
of ages dowry is being looked from different beneficial angles/aspects. Now a day, it has
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become a menace take it as a challenge for them2. They should take pledge to stop it from their
time.3. The dowry demanding is a crime. If somebody violets anybody can be punished under
[4.Penalty for demanding dowry

References:
http://www.google.com.pk/search?
hl=en&biw=1003&bih=567&defl=en&q=define:dowry&sa=X&ei=7En3TMa4GcHprAeu-
NXvDw&ved=0CBcQkAE

http://www.allwords.com/word-dowry.html

http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Dowry

http://www.islamawareness.net/Marriage/Dowry/dowry_article003.html
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http://www.radianceweekly.com/156/3679/MORAL-COWARDS-Vs-MORAL-
LEPERS/2009-05-03/Eves-Corner/Story-Detail/Dowry-The-Cancer-of-Society.html

http://www.milligazette.com/Archives/2004/16-31Aug04-Print-Edition/163108200445.htm

http://sachet.org.pk/home/gender_columns/webcolumn_27.asp

http://sawaal.ibibo.com/agony-aunt/how-we-stop-dowry-system-832261.html

http://www.pardesiservices.com/tradition/arrangedmarg.asp