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RS-Sem II – RST

Retele si Servicii
Sem II licenta spec. RST

(English version)
Network and Services

E. Borcoci, UPB
2009-2010

Prof. E.Borcoci- UPB -2009-2010 2


RS-Sem II – RST

CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION-ARCHITECTURE REVISION 5
1.1 NETWORKS LAYERED ARCHITECTURES 5
1.1.1 General Principles and Functional Layers 5
1.1.2 OSI Reference Model 6
1.1.3 Real Stack Examples. Incomplete stacks 9
1.1.3.1 TCP/IP Stack 9
1.1.3.2 IEEE 802.x standards for LAN, MAN 13
1.1.3.3 Signalling System No.7 13
1.1.3.4 MPLS architecture 14
1.1.3.4.1 MPLS IP stack 14
1.2 MULTIPLE PLANES ARCHITECTURES 15
1.2.1 Principles 15
1.2.2 Signalling Issues 16
1.2.3 Next Generation Networks Architecture- high level view 17
1.3 BUSINESS MODELS FOR (MULTIMEDIA) COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURES 20
1.3.1.1 Customers and Users 20
1.3.1.2 Providers (PR) 20
1.4 EXAMPLES OF MULTIPLE PLANE ARCHITECTURES 22
1.4.1 IEEE 802.16 multi-plane stack 22
1.4.2 Generic Example of a multi-plane architecture 24
1.4.3 Architectural stack for wireless heterogeneous mesh network 24
1.4.4 Control Plane in GSM (2G) 26
2 INTERCONNECTION- REVISION 27
2.1 MODURI DE LUCRU CU ŞI FĂRĂ CONEXIUNE CO/CL 27
2.2 CERINŢELE UNUI SERVICIU DE INTERCONECTARE (LA NIVEL TREI) 28
2.3 MODUL DE LUCRU CO ( CONEXIUNE LA NIVEL REŢEA) 29
2.4 MODUL DE LUCRU CL (FARA CONEXIUNE LA NIVEL REŢEA) 29
2.5 INTERCONECTAREA DE TIP PUNTE (“BRIDGE APPROACH”) 29
2.6 EXEMPLE DE INTERCONECTĂRI 30
2.6.1 Interconectarea de reţele LAN prin punţi (B) 32
2.6.1.1 Punţi transparente (Transparent Bridges- TB) 34
2.6.1.2 Punti cu rutare de tip sursa 34
3 ROUTING ALGORITHMS AND PROTOCOLS 34
3.1 GENERALITATI 34
3.2 ALGORITMI DE CAUTARE A CELUI MAI SCURT DRUM 38
3.2.1 Algoritmul Dijkstra (centralizat) 39
3.2.2 Algoritmul Ford (Fulkerson) 41
3.3 IP ROUTING PROTOCOLS 45
3.3.1 Internet Protocol reminder 45
3.3.2 Principles of IP routing 47
3.3.3 Network hierarchies 48
3.3.4 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse ARP – RARP 51
3.3.5 Interior Gateway Protocols 53
3.3.5.1 Routing Internet Protocol (RIP) 53
3.3.5.2 Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) 56
3.3.5.2.1.1 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) ..................................................................... 61
3.3.6 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) 66
3.4 IPV6 68
3.5 ICMPV6 71
4 SERVICES 72
4.1 BUSINESS MODELS FOR (MULTIMEDIA) COMMUNICATION ARCHITECTURES 72
4.1.1 Customers and Users 72
4.1.2 Providers (PR) 72
4.1.3 Service Level Agreements/Specifications (SLA/SLS) 74
4.2 REFERENCES 76
4.3 GENERAL LIST OF ACRONYMS 76
5 ANNEX 1 83
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5.1 ETHERNET FRAME FORMATS: 83

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1 INTRODUCTION-ARCHITECTURE REVISION

1.1 Networks Layered Architectures

1.1.1 General Principles and Functional Layers


Architectural Model : set of functions and relations between them, independent of
implementation
Objective:
management of high complexity: (“divide et impera”) - principle
interoperability among different products
Tools: definition of “functional layers” + interfaces
Network element: terminal, switching node, multiplexer, router, etc. = hierarchical set of
levels
-tasks:
- information transport (lower layers)
- high level processing of information (upper layers)

Ta User Tb
Protocols
Appl. Appl.
Ta Tb processes processes

Upper layers
Processing protocols Processing
functions functions
C1 Network Network
C2 N1 N2
1 functions functions
1 1 1

Physical medium
Network(s)
Complexity/
Intelligence Future Internet?
(more intelligent networks)
E.g. Content aware networks

a b
Figure 1-1 Simplified architectural model for communication
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a. Network and terminals b.Two level model : Ta, Tb = terminals

- application processes ( usually resident in Ta, Tb - they communicate through a set of rules
(protocol) at user level:
Protocols at different levels between:
- application processes
- higher layers processing functions (higher layers)
- network transport functions (lower layers)
- set of layers = protocol stack
Layering principle is extended inside each of the two layer

1.1.2 OSI Reference Model


• Classical architectural mode (1970-80)
ISO (“International Standardization Organization”): OSI - RM ("Open System Interconnection -
Reference Model") – for layered architecture networks
OSI – RM defines: architectural and functional principles for open systems – able to be
interconnected no matter the equipment manufacturer
- real world stack can be different of OSI-RM, but the same principles are applied
- OSI, TCP/IP model – one plane architectural model
• Usage examples of layered architecture networks use:
- industry, administration, business, health, military, education, research, etc.
- data and multimedia networks: local (LAN), metropolitan (MAN) wide area WAN (typical
example: INTERNET, Intranets, Extranets)
-digital telecommunication wide area networks:
- fixed communications: ISDN, BISDN, GSM ( e.g. – Signalling System No.7 SS7 –
used to control the digital telecom networks)
- networks for mobile communications 2G, 3G,
- Integrated (convergent) networks
- TCP/IP based, 3G, 4G- for fixed or mobile communications
- Next Generation Networks ( ITU-T) ~ 1995-2000
- Future Internet: evolution/revolution for current Internet ( > 2005)

• Fundamental Architectural Principles:


- layer N offers to N+1 a service set
- that can be accessed through interfaces (SAP = “Service Access Point”)
- service implementation is achieved by the protocol of the lower layer
- service primitives - information transport between adjacent layers
- protocols- specify the rules of comm between two peer entities
• Criteria for function distribution on layers :
- homogeneity inside a layer
- minimal interactions between layers
- small number of layers
Note about word “service” usage

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- very general term used in a lot of contexts
- much confusion out of this
- OSI model defines very precise semantic for “service”
- Adopting such semantic we distinguish among:
o Low level services , e.g:
 L2 service = “connectivity service between two nodes”
 L3 service = “connectivity service over a network domain”
 L4 service = E2E connectivity service

o High level services , e.g:
 data oriented services: FTP, e-mail, web access to info, transactional
services
 multimedia-oriented services: VoIP, video conf, A/V –streaming, DVB,
IPTV, etc.
• Curent trends:
-traditionally we want/have low coupling between layers
- today this principle is no longer considered good by all professional communities
- “Cross-layer optimisation” especially in wireless on L1-L3
- “Content aware networks” and “Network Aware Applications”
- pros and cons this approach – still open issue

Base layers (1-3) ( network access and information transfer through network(s)
Upper layers (4-7)
- higher layer processing functions (closer to user application processes)
- usually – layers 4-7 belong to terminals (end–to-end ( E2E) protocols – independent of:
- Network technology, Number of networks, Fixed or mobile mode

• Important Notes:
o the same function name can be encountered on different layers but with different
semantics
o Not all functions listed must be present in a layer (large variety in practical stacks)

Layer 1 (Physical- PHY) ; Layer 2 (Data Link Layer - DL ); Layer 3 (Network) :


Layer 4 (Transport T); Layer 5 (Terminal Session – S); Layer 6 (Presentation);
Layer 7 (Applicaţion) :

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User Entities Local Processes


Local Processes

Communication Communication
Processes Processes
Service Primitives

Different level
Ta Service Access Protocols
Tb
Point

7 Application 7 Application E2E


Protocols

6 Presentation 6 Presentation

Protocol Data Higher


Units (PDU) 5 Session Layer
5 Session Protocols

Transport Protocol 4 Transport


4 Transport
Network
Network node
Transport
3 Network 3 Network 3 Retea Protocols
transport

2 Data Link 2 Data Link 2 Data Link

Network
1 Physical 1 Physical 1 Physical Acces
Protocols

Information flow circulation


Physical transmission
through layers
Network medium
environment

OSI Environment

Real systems environment

Figure 1-2 OSI Reference Model

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Figure 1-3 Internetworking example in OSI Model


Note : Service Provider = Transport Service Provider

1.1.3 Real Stack Examples. Incomplete stacks

1.1.3.1 TCP/IP Stack


- TCP/IP stack – different from OSI
- much greater success (history, simpler stack, market driven)
- WWW/Internet strengthened the usage of TCP/IP stack
• Important note:
o Advances in microelectronics and huge increase of perf/cost allowed to include the
full TCP/IP stack in all terminals (including small mobile devices)
o This naturally creates the posibility to integrate all kind of high level services based
on TCP/IP stack
o That is why TCP/IP ( called “Internet” is accepted today as a basis for full network
and services integration
• Communication models:
o Hierachy criterion
 Classic model: Client/server ( asymmetric one)
 After 2000 Peer to peer (P2P) model
• Symmetric model
• huge expansion in last years ( ~70% of the total Internet traffic)
o Time criterion
 Synchronous communication (usually r.t: VoIP, AVC, VoD, but also FTP,
etc.)
 Asynchronous communication : e-mail, publish/subscribe
o Mode to get information: push/pull
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- Original TCP/IP stack – single architectural plain containing several protocols for
data transfer and control

Application services

Transport (TCP)

Internetworking (IP)

Subnetworks

Figure 1-4 Simplified view of TCP/IP stack

Application Telnet, FTP, E-mail,


(communication between processes or SNMP, etc
applications on separate hosts)
Transport TCP, UDP
(end-to-end data transfer service reliable or unreliable)
Network layer IP, ICMP, IGMP,
( network resources mng., OSPF, etc.
routing the data to destination)
Data link (LLC) + MAC
(acces CO or CL to network layer)
Physical layer

Figure 1-5 Simplified view of the TCP/IP protocol stack

MIME
BGP FTP
(*1) Telnet HTTP SMTP RTCP

TCP (Connection oriented)

IP (Connectionless)
RARP ARP

(LLC)+MAC (e.g.IEEE 802.x), AAL+ATM,


Physical Layer

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Video
Voice Multicast
protocols RIP
RTP SNMP (*) BOOTP RSVP
OSPF ICMP,
UDP (Connectionless) (*1) IGMP
(*2)

IP (Connectionless)
ARP RARP

(LLC)+MAC (e.g IEEE 802.x) , AAL+ATM, etc


Physical Layer

Figure 1-6 Example of TCP/IP stack protocols


(*1) – they are not transport protocols but cooperate with IP

MIME – Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions


BGP – Border Gateway Protocol
HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol
SMTP – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNMP – Simple Network Management Protocol
FTP – File Transfer protocol

RTP – Real Time Protocol


ICMP – Internet Control Messages Protocol
IGMP – Internet Group Management Protocol
OSPF – Open Shortest Path First Protocol

Transport:
• TCP – Transmission Control Protocol (connection oriented -CO)
• UDP – User Datagram Protocol ( connectionless CL)
Network: IP –Internet Protocol + ICMP, IGMP, BGP, OSPF
Data link Layer:
LLC – Logical Link Control + MAC- Medium acces Control
Example: AAL – ATM Adaptation Layer + ATM –Asynchronous Transfer Mode

Example: FTP, TCP, IP, (LLC) + MAC ( driver Ethernet)

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Multicasting:
IGMP – Internet Group Management Protocol ( v.1, v.2, v.3)
Multicast routing protocols:
DVMRP – Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
PIM-DM – Protocol Independent Multicast – Dense Mode
PIM-SM – Protocol Independent Multicast – Sparse Mode
CBT – Core based Tree
MOSPF – Multicast OSPF – multicast extension of OSPF
MBGP – Multicast BGP – extension of BGP to multicast
Multicast transport protocols:
RMTP – Reliable Multicast Transport Protocol
SRM – Scalable Reliable Multicast Protocol
MFTP – Multicast File Transfer Protocol
PGM – Pretty Good Multicast

Ping FTP DNS User


Telnet Trace- TFTP processes
Rlogin route BOOTP
SMTP SNMP User
X NFS+RPC process Appl

TCP UDP Transport

ICMP IGMP
Network
ARP IP RARP

Data link
(LLC) MAC

Figure 1-7 Example of logical links between layers


ARP – Address Resolution Protocol
RARP – Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
TFTP – Trivial FTP, BOOTP – Bootstrap Protocol
NFS – Network File Server

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1.1.3.2 IEEE 802.x standards for LAN, MAN

Figure 1-8 IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards- examples

1.1.3.3 Signalling System No.7


SS7:
- datagram virtual network for digital circuit switching network ( ex. ISDN, GSM) control
- Control plane for Telecom Digital Network – containing the signaling protocols
Example for GSM - MSC:
(MSC- Message Switching Centre – main switch in GSM)
- MTP 1-2-3 – subsystem for message transport (layers 1-3)
- Layers 4-5-6 : void
- signaling applications : TUP, ISUP, MAP, etc

7 ISUP, TUP, MAP, TCAP

4-6

SCCP Control Plane


3 of Telecom
MTP-3 Network

2 MTP-2

1 MTP-1

Figure 1-9 Example of incomplete stack: SS7 signalling stack

Signalling Connections Control Part (SCCP) – optionally completes the L3 (CO mode for L3)
- applications :
TCAP -"Transaction Capabilities Application Part" - realizes a common general transaction service
offered to other applications

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Transaction : communication of type query/response (suitable for low volume of information
transfer)
• Examples of signalling applications :
TUP - "Telephonic User Part"- telephonic call control
ISUP - "ISDN User Part" - ISDN call control
MAP - "Mobile Application Part" – mobility control in GSM
All these applications use the message transport part MTP1-3
in CL mode ( if they work directly over MTP 3)
in CO mode ( if they work directly over SCCP)

1.1.3.4 MPLS architecture


• Packet Forwarding in IP Networks
• IP forwarding is done independently at every hop
• IP forwarding decision is made on:
o Packet header, Routing algorithm output (routing table)
o Note: Searching in routing table- time consuming operation done for every
packet
• Each IP hop runs its own instance of the routing algorithm
• Each IP hop makes its own forwarding decisions

Figure 1-10 IP routing example (Cisco Systems)

• MPLS ideas
• Packet forwarding is done based on label switching (not IP addresses, no search in the
forwarding table of routers) Labels are short – allow indexed addressing- fast switching
• Labels are assigned when the packets enter into the network (edge)
• Assignment is result of classification at the ingress node in a MPLS domain (criteria:
destination, VPN, QoS, TE, Multicast… )
• Labels are added in front of the IP packets

1.1.3.4.1 MPLS IP stack

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Application
Transport TCP, UDP
Internet layer IP, ICMP, IGMP,
OSPF, etc.
MPLS sublayer
Data link layer (LLC) + MAC
Physical layer

Figure 1-11 MPLS oriented IP stack

IP-H TCP-H Application Data IP Datgram

MPLS-H IP-H TCP-H Application Data Labelled IP


Datagram

LABEL EXP S TTL Header MPLS


20 Bit 3 1 8
32 bit

Figure 1-12 MPLS label adding

1.2 Multiple Planes Architectures

1.2.1 Principles
Ongoing standardization : IETF, ITU-T ETSI, IEEE, 3GPP
• Telecom originated layered architectures: more than one architectural plane
• IETF (TCP/IP- Internet) stack – originally only one plane
Nowadays- recognized the need of defining several cooperating architectural planes

Reasons: Real systems/networks deals with:


- user data flow transfer
- network resources ( paths, links, buffers, etc. ) should be controlled
- short time scale, long time scale
- high level services should be controlled (short and long time scale)

Architectural Planes
• Data plane ( DPl)- transport of user data traffic directly:
o Examples of functions: traffic classification, packet marking traffic policing, traffic
shaping, buffer management, congestion avoidance, queuing and scheduling
o transfer the user data flows and accomplish the traffic control mechanisms to assure
the desired level of QoS
• Control plane (CPl)
o controls the pathways for user data traffic: e.g. Admission control, Routing, Resource
reservation.
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o short term actions for resource and traffic engineering and control, including routing.
In multi-domain environment the MPl and also CPl are logically divided in two sub-
planes: inter-domain and intra-domain. This approach allows each domain to have its
own management and control policies and mechanisms.
• Management plane (MPl)
o the operation, administration, and management aspects of the resources and services
to serve user data traffic: Monitoring, Management Policies (management based not
on fixed configuration of network elements but on set of rules), Service
Management, Service and network restoration.
o long term actions related to resource and traffic management in order to assure the
desired QoS levels for the users and also efficient utilization of the network resources

• Examples of early multiple plane architectures (DPl + CPl + MPl):


ISDN , GSM, BISDN
- reason: telecom design philosophy (user data have been seen long time ago - from the
beginning of telecom systems as separate entities from signalling and management) data s
• TCP/IP :
- Initially: mono-plane (data + control + management)
- Currently it becomes multi-plane (DPl + CPl + MPl)
New stacks- multiple plane: IEEE802.16, 3G, 4G

1.2.2 Signalling Issues


Signaling = actions performed in the control plane :
- convey application (or network) performance requirements
- reserve network resources across the network
- discover routes
- general control messages
- QoS related signalling
QoS signaling : in band or out of band.

In band
- signalling info is part of the associated data traffic( typically presented in a particular header field
of the data packets. –(e.g., the TOS field in IPv4 as in DiffServ and 802.1p)
- Performed in the data plane ⇒ neither introduces additional traffic into the network nor incurs setup
delay for the data traffic.
- not suitable for resource reservation or QoS routing, which needs to be done a priori before data
transmission
- in-band signaling by definition is path-coupled (signaling nodes must be collocated with routers)

Out of band
- signalling info - carried by dedicated packets, separate from the associated data traffic. - introduces
extra traffic into the network and incurs an overhead for delivering desired network performance
it entails the use of a signaling protocol and further processing above the network layer, which tends
to render slower responses than in-band signaling.
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- lends itself naturally to resource reservation or QoS routing.
- depending on whether the signaling path is closely tied to the associated data path, signaling is path-
coupled or decoupled

Path-coupled
- signaling nodes must be collocated with routers
signaling messages - routed only through the nodes that are potentially on the data path.
- advantage of reduced overall signaling processing cost (since it leverages network- layer routing
tasks)
- disadvantage of inflexibility in upgrading routers or in integrating control entities (e.g., policy
servers) not on the data path (or nontraditional routing methods)
If a path-coupled mechanism involves a signaling protocol, routers need to support the protocol and
be able to process related signaling messages
- Example of a path-coupled signaling protocol : RSVP

Path-decoupled
- signaling messages are routed through nodes that are not assumed to be on the data path
only out-of-band signaling may be path-decoupled. (to date, most out-of-band QoS signaling schemes
are path coupled.)
- signaling nodes should be dedicated and separate from routers
- advantage of flexibility in deploying and upgrading signaling nodes independent of routers or in
integrating control entities not on the data path
- disadvantage of added complexity and cost in overall processing and operational tasks.

Example: Session Initiation Protocol for VoIP, videoconference, etc.

Standardization Effort
• NSIS ( Next Step in Signalling)
- Standards efforts underway specifically dealing with QoS signaling- e.g. IETF nsis working group
- developing a flexible signaling framework with path-coupled QoS signaling as its initial major
application
- a QoS signaling protocol defined under the framework - expected to address the limitations of RSVP
On path-decoupled signaling there seems not enough support in the IETF for a new project after
some explorative discussion

1.2.3 Next Generation Networks Architecture- high level view

• Standardization Players
• ATIS NGN FG: Alliance for Telecommunication Industry Solutions, Next Generation Networks
Focus Group - USA
• ITU-T NGN FG: International Telecommunication Union (Telecom), Next Generation Networks
Focus Group
• ETSI TISPAN: European Telecommunications Standards Institute, Telecoms & Internet
converged Services & Protocols for Advanced Networks
• 3GPP: Third Generation Partnership – standardization in Mobile 3G networks
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NGN
• packet-based network
• able to provide Telecommunication multiple services
• able to make use of multiple broadband,
• QoS-enabled transport technologies
• service-related functions are independent from underlying transport-related technologies.
• enables unfettered access for users to networks and to competing service providers and/or services
of their choice.
• supports generalized mobility which will allow consistent and ubiquitous provision of services to
users.

Key requirements of an NGN Architecture


• Trust: Operator should be able to trust the network. User should be able to trust the operator
• Reliability: Users should find it reliable
• Availability: Network should always be available
• Quality: Able to control Quality of the Service
• Accountability: Determine usage of the Service
• Legal: Comply with laws in the local jurisdictions
• Generalized Mobility support
Note: Classical Internet cannot respond in very controllable manner to the above requirements

NGN characteristics

NGN: new telecommunications network for broadband fixed access


• facilitates convergence of networks and services
• enables different business models across access, core network and service domains
• it is an IP based network
• IETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) will be used for call & session control
•3GPP release 6 (2004) IMS will be the base for NGN IP Multimedia Subsystem
• enables any IP access to Operator IMS; from
Mobile domain
Home domain
Enterprise domain
• enables service mobility
• enables interworking towards circuit switched networks
• maintains Service Operator control for IMS signaling & media traffic

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Management
SCN Applications and Plane
Service Level
Control
Plane
Transport Level
INTERNET User (Data)
Plane

Figure 1-13 NGN Architecture


• Design Principles
• Service is rendered in exchange for value
o explicitly requested and explicitly stopped, providing a basis for charging
o only delivered to authorized users
o only saleable if QoS and security can be guaranteed
Note : Traditional Internet does not offer this!
• Dedicated VoIP infrastructure is expensive
o Only a converged (packet) network that supports multiple services over one
infrastructure can be commercially viable
• NGN will be deployed in an unbundled environment
o Competition on service values other than price
o Support for value-added applications
• Affordable multi-service architecture
o Do not mix application and transport!

• Support service for roaming users


o Service provided from HOME service provider
o New “Home Box” concept
 End user as content consumer and/or content provider
• Service provider determines media route
o Service may include in-band media events
o Support for Lawful Intercept
o Call Routing follows the money
o QoS flows cost money so service providers will do least cost routing on it (providing
QoS can be met)

Technologies are transient: NGN is technology independent !


• Clear separation of Application/Services from Transport Services
o Note that this concept is in discussion today!!
• Provide a modular architectural framework which is easy to introduce and extend.
• Use a meta-protocol to specify the technology and inter-working to all applicable protocols

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1.3 Business Models for (Multimedia) Communication Architectures

1.3.1.1 Customers and Users


• Customer (CS) (may be a “subscriber”) :
- entity, having legal ability to subscribe to QoS-based services offered by Providers
(PR) or Resellers (RS)
- target recipients of QoS-based services: CS/PR or CS/RS interaction
- Examples of CS: Householders, SMEs, large corporations, universities or public
organisations
• Service Level Agreements (SLA)- concluded betrween CS and providers
CS differentiation by : size , type of business, type of services required

• User (US)
- entity (human or process) - named by a CS and appropriately identified by PR for
actually requesting/accessing and using the QoS-based services cf. SLAs
- USs are end-users of the services, they can only exist in association with a CS
- may be associated with one or several CS using services according to the agreed
SLAs of the respective CS. (e.g. Company = Customer, End User = employee)

Note: In the current public internet, the majority of users are “subscribers” for Connectivity services
only and maybe for a small subset of high level services (e.g e-mail)
- there is no SLA concluded for high level services quality; e.g for media A/V
streaming, IPTV, etc.
- best effort access to high level services is practised but with no guarantees

1.3.1.2 Providers (PR)


PR types :
• (High Level) Service Providers (SP)
• IP Network Providers (NP)
• Physical Connectivity Providers (PHYP) (or PHY infrastructure Providers)
• Resellers (RS)
• Content Providers (CP)

Network Providers (NPs)


- offer QoS-based plain IP connectivity services
- own and administer an IP network infrastructure
- may interact with Access Network Providers' (ANP) or CS can be connected directly
to NPs
- Expanding the geographical span of NPs
- Interconnected NPs - corresponding peering agreements
- IP NPs differentiation: small ( e.g. for a city) , medium (region) and large ( e.g.
continental)

(High Level) Service Providers (SPs)


- offer higher-level (possible QoS-based) services e.g. : e-mail, VoIP, VoD, IPTV,
A/VC, etc.
- owns or not an IP network infrastructure
- administer a logical infrastructure to provision services (e.g. VoIP gateways, IP
videoservers, content distribution servers)
- may rely on the connectivity services offered by NPs (SPs Providers' interact with
NPs following a customer-provider paradigm based on SLAs
- expanding the geographical scope and augmenting the portfolio of the services
offered ⇒ SP may interact with each other
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- size : small, medium and large

Physical Connectivity Providers (PHYP)


- offer physical connectivity services between determined locations
- services may also be offered in higher layers (layer-3 e.g. IP), ( but only between
specific points)
- distinguished by their target market:
• Facilities (Infrastructure) Providers (FP)
• Access Network Providers (AP) (could be seen as distinct stakeholders)

FPs services - are mainly offered to IP NPs (link-layer connectivity , interconnect with their peers
FPs differentiation : size of technology deployment means

ANPs - connect CS premises equipment to the SPs or NPs equipment


- own and administer appropriate infrastructure
- may be differentiated by
- technology (e.g. POTS, FR, ISDN, xDSL, WLAN, Ethernet, WiMAX, hybrid)
- their deployment means and their size
- may not be present as a distinct stakeholder in the chain of QoS-service delivery
- may be distinct administrative domains, interacting at a business level with SPs /NPs and/or
CSs
Interactions between Providers
- mainly governed by the legislations of the established legal telecom regulation framework
- may follow a customer-provider and/or a consumer-producer paradigm on the basis of
SLAs

Reseller (RS)
- intermediaries in offering the QoS-based services of the PRs to the CSs
- offer market-penetration services (e.g. sales force, distribution/selling points) to PRs for
promoting and selling their QoS-based services in the market
- may promote the QoS-based services of the PRs either 'as they are' or with 'value-added',
however adhering to the SLAs of the services as required by the 'Providers'
- interact with :
• CSs on a customer-provider paradigm (SLA based)
• PRs based upon respective commercial agreements..

Different types RSs:


- according to whether they introduce value-added or not
- their market penetration means
- size ( # of of points of presence and/or sales force)

RSs examples: Dealers, electronic/computers commercial chains, service portals

Content Provider (CP)


- an entity (organisation) gathering/creating, maintain, and distributing digital
information.
- owns/operates hosts = source of downloadable content
- might not own any networking infrastructure to deliver the content
- content is offered to the customers or service providers.
Prof. E.Borcoci- UPB -2009-2010 21
RS-Sem II – RST
- can contain : Content Manager(CM); several Content Servers (CS

New enties (in the perspective of Future Internet)

Virtual Network Provider (VNP)


- composes and configures and offer Virtual Network slices, i.e., a set of virtual
resources at request of higher layers, as a consequence of its provisioning policy or
during self-healing operations
- this approach avoids for the higher layers to establish direct relationships with
infrastructure providers and to take care of inter-domain connections at physical
layer.
Virtual Network Operator (VNO)
- manages and exploits the VNEt s provided by VNPs , on behalf of HLSPs or end
users
Note: the same organisational entity migh play the both roles :VNP and VNO

1.4 Examples of Multiple Plane Architectures

1.4.1 IEEE 802.16 multi-plane stack


IEEE 802.16 : PHY + MAC
Multiple plane architecture: Data Plane(DPl), Control Plane (CPl), Management Plane (MPl)

Figure 1-14 Basic IEEE 802.16 multi-plane protocol stack

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RS-Sem II – RST

Figure 1-15 (IEEE 802.16g-05/008r2, December 2005)

Figure 1-16 Relation IEEE802.16 vs. WiMAX NWG

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RS-Sem II – RST
1.4.2 Generic Example of a multi-plane architecture

Data flow-user Application


Application

Control flow

Services and session Control


Stratum: Application
And Services

Service Mng. (Planning provisioning,


Offering, monitoring)

Management Plane

Data Plane
Control Plan
Control Resurse
Inter si Intra domeniu
Stratum: Transport

Inter-domain
Resources and traffic Mng.
Access & “Core”

Intra-domain
Resources and traffic Mng.
Access & “Core”

Figure 1-17 Generic example of a multi-plane architecture

1.4.3 Architectural stack for wireless heterogeneous mesh network


European Research Project, FP7, 2008-2011
„SMART-antenna multimode wireless mesh Network”
Vertical structure of the architectural stack:
Application and Service Macro-Layer (ASM)
Transport Macro-Layer (TM) (layers 1-4 in the OSI terminology)

• ASM- contains applications (real-time or not real-time), which in their turn may use services
offered by the system (e.g. a given complex application may use, among others, a VoIP
service).
• TM- abstraction of layers providing “IP connectivity services”, (any PHY and MAC
technologies)
• This view offers a complete independency to the application and service providers with
respect to the transport infrastructure.
• The application and service providers can be third parties using connectivity services provided
by the “Transport Macro-Layer” based on agreed Service Level Agreements (SLA) between
them.

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Data Plane Management and Control Plane

Service Macro-Layer
Application and
Services and
Applications & Session
Services Mng&Ctrl

Resource Acces
Data QoS Sec Mng & Control
Flows Control
Coordinator

Transport Macro-Layer
Network Routing Mobility RM&C
TCP/IP Coding Mng

Optimization
Cross Layer
Convergence Data Link Mng&Ctrl
Sublayer QoS, Mobility, RR Control,
Scheduling
Multimode MAC
( 802.11, 802.16, ..)

PHY PHY Mng&Ctrl


Smart Antennas and RAT Control

Figure 1-18 Multi-plane generic functional architecture

The architecture is horizontally divided into MPl, CPl, DPl.


The Data Plane (DPl) processes the data packets (e.g. traffic classification and conditioning,
conversion, coding/transcoding, prioritizing, marking and queuing) and transfer the multimedia flows.

− At ASM level, the DPl may run mechanisms to adapt/transform media flows (fixed or scalable
coding/decoding, transcoding, compression, conversion, security operations) under the control
of some Media Control Middleware (MCM).
− At TM level DPl runs all network level data flow mechanisms for traffic control and QoS
assurance if guarantees are required from the connectivity service offered by this macro-layer.
The MPl performs essentially mid-long-term functions related to:

− At ASM: management of high level services (e.g subscription, invocation, etc.)


− At TM network, resources and traffic management operations.
The CPl performs the short-term control functions including (at different layers):

− At ASM: it accomplishes the service and session control.


− At TM: PHY processing control, MAC processing, routing, mobility,resource and QoS
control, security, etc.
Further vertical decomposition can be seen in the TM

• The lower layers covers Data Link layers and below. The upper layers cover the network
and traditional Layer 4 (transport).
• A convergence layer will solve the compatibility with Layer 3. The MPL and CPl contains
all low-layer mechanisms for PHY/MAC (these are usually defined in the 802.x
standards) but also management and control methods/algorithms which are intentionally

Prof. E.Borcoci- UPB -2009-2010 25


RS-Sem II – RST
not specified by the standards (to give freedom to constructors to use their best “know
how” for them).
• The QoS will be assured with several levels of guarantee (depending on application
requirements), by considering two time scale approaches for resource management and
control:
 provisioning for those applications flows where future resource consumptions
can be forecasted (e.g. media distribution applications), done at aggregated
levels based on Service Level Agreements/Specifications between entities;
 per session/flow QoS control for dynamic call requests.

1.4.4 Control Plane in GSM (2G)


PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
MS – Mobile Station
BTS – Base Tranceiver Station
BSC Base Station Controller
MSC Mobile Switching Center
GMSC Gateway MSC
HLR/VLR Home Visitor Location Register
EIR – Equipment Identity Register
AUC- Authentication Center
ISDN Integrated Services Digital Network
PSPDN Packet Switched Public Data Network

MSC EIR
BSC
HLR
VLR
C
BTS AUC
GMSC

MSC
MS MS
VLR
C
PLMN

PSTN

PSPDN Other PLMNs

ISDN/IN

Figure 1-19 GSM Network General Architecture

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BTS BSC MSC/VLR


MS Relay
to MSC
Um Abis A anchor

RIL3-CM
RIL3-CM Protocol CM
Protocol MM RIL3-MM MAP/E
RIL3-
MM MAP/G
7 OSI-RM
BSSAP BSSAP
DTAP
RIL3- Releu
DTAP BSSMAP DTAP
RR RIL3_RR BSSMAP
Relay
TCAP
Distrib RIL3_RR RSM RSM Distribution Distribution

4-5- 4-5-6 4-5-6 4-5-6 4-5-6 4-5-6

SCCP SCCP
3 3 3 3

LAPDm 2 LAPDm LAPD LAPD MTP1-3 MTP1-3

I/F radio 1 I/F radio 64 kb/s 64 kb/s

PHY Conections BSS NSS

Figure 1-20 Control Plane in GSM


RIL3 - Radio Interface Layer; CM, MM, RR - Connection, Mobility, Radio Resource -
Management; Distrib – distribution RSM - Radio Subsystem Management; BSSAP - Base Station
Subsystem Appl. Part;

2 INTERCONNECTION- REVISION

(Romanian)

2.1 Moduri de lucru cu şi fără conexiune CO/CL


• CO/CL
4 3 ISa 2 1

DTE-A SN1 SN2 DTE-B


1 ISc
3
2
ISb SN3 DTE-C

CL PDU n CO PDU
1

Figura 2-1 Modul de lucru cu şi fără conexiune


IS – Sistem intermediar; SN - subreţea
- CO – fiecare IS joncţionează între ele două segmente de circuit virtual ( Ex. ATM, MPLS)
- CL - fiecare IS ia pentru fiecare PDU o decizie de dirijare ( forwarding în mod independent
de cele anterioare – nu se garantează păstrarea secvenţei datelor
- Internet îşi poate baza transportul sau pe suporturi fizice ale altor reţele der telecomunicatii (
PSTN, ISDN, CATV, etc.) sau pe suportul unor reţele publice de pachete de arie mare
- elemente interconectabile: sisteme de capăt (“hosts”) , sisteme intermediare (punţi,
comutatoare de nivel doi, comutatoare MPLS, rutere), subreţele

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A B
PN
A B
Telco R P P

P1 P2
PN R P1 P2 R

P3
PN P3

Figura 2-2 a. Reţea publică cu comutaţie de pachete b. Reţea Internet


PN – Packet Network

2.2 Cerinţele unui serviciu de interconectare (la nivel trei)


- să asigure link-uri între reţele diferite
- adresare şi rutare/dirijare prin reţele diferite
- contabilizarea utilizării rersurselor pentru a şti starea fiecărui element de interconectare ( la
nivel de element de reţea; la nivel de domeniu administrativ)
- să furnizeze serviciile de mai sus astfel încât să se poată interconecta la reţele de tipuri diferite
fără a modifica infrastructura internă a fiecăreia; deci trebuie rezolvate problemele:
- scheme de adresare diferite
- dimensiuni maxime diferite ale unităţilor de date (este necesară
segmentatare/reasamblare)
- mecanisme de acces la reţea diferite
- valori diferite de expirare pentru diverse temporizatoare ( “timers ”)
- diferite metode (sau inexistente) de recuperare a erorilor
- rapoarte de stare
- tehnici de rutare diferite
- controlul accesului utilizatorilor – mecanisme diferite
- mod de lucru CO/CL

ES/H T
NSAP_1 IS
SNICP Releu + rutare: SNICP
Nivel
SNDCP SNDCP SNDCP’
N=3
SNDAP ’SNDAP ’SNDAP’
’ DL’ ’ DL’’
DL’
PHY’ PHY’ PHY’’

Retea 1 Retea 2

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Figura 2-3 Architectura generică a nivelului de reţea

• soluţie pentru acomodarea diferitelor reţele: divizarea nivelului reţea în trei subnivele:
SNICP, SNDCP, SNDAP

SNICP – Subnetwork Independent Convergence Protocol


SNDCP - Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol
SNDAP - Subnetwork Dependent Access Protocol (can be void)

2.3 Modul de lucru CO ( conexiune la nivel reţea)


- faze: stabilire, menţinere, eliberare de VC
- este nevoie ca toate subreţelele sa cunoasc acelaşi protocol CO pentru a putea construi VC
multi-reţea
- deci presupunem că fiecare subreţea oferă acelaşi serviciu de conectivitate (de nivel trei!)
de tip CO; rezultatul final este concatenarea unor segmente de VC (“virtual circuits”)
- Figura 2-4.a: - mod de lucru CO - accesul la subreţele se face prin intermediul aceluiaşi
protocol de reţea – nu este nevoie de mai multe subnivele
- funcţiunile unui ruter CO :
o funcţie de releu pentru unităţile de date de la o reţea la alta ( “forwarding”)
o selectarea iniţială a rutei (nod cu nod) – are loc în faza de stabilire a conexiunii
o fiecare ruter jonctionează între ele segmente de VC (conexiuni logice)

2.4 Modul de lucru CL (fara conexiune la nivel reţea)


- tratare independentă a fiecarei unităţi de date în fiecare nod de reţea (ruter)
- este util a defini un protocol de reţea comun, independent de diferite tipuri de subreţea
particulare: IP = SNICP (RFC 791) ; ISO 8473 Connectionless Network Protocol (CLNP) -
are funcţiuni similare
- accesul la subreţele particulare se face prin subnivelul de adaptare dependent de tehnologia
specifică (SNDAP= N1, N2, N3; SNDCP poate fi necesar sau nu, depinde de caz)
- Figura 2-4.b – exemplu de stivă
- Avantaje CL:
- robustete (datorită tratării independente a unităţilor de date - datagrame); flexibilitate (poate
lucra peste subreţele CO sau CL); oferă cel mai potrivit serviciu pentru un nivel transport de
tip CL
- Dezavantaje CL:
- servicu nativ fără garanţii ( “best effort” ) – relativ la bandă, pierderi, întârzieri de transfer,
fluctuaţia de intârziere, secvenţialitate

2.5 Interconectarea de tip punte (“Bridge approach”)


- Punte = “bridge” = releu de nivel MAC lucrând în mod CL
- Nu se analizează adresele de nivel trei
- Utilizate de regulă pentru interconectare de LAN-uri

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A SN1 ISa SN2 ISb SN3 B

T T
N R R N
N N N N a
L1 L1 L2 L2 L3 L3
P1 P1 P2 P2 P3 P3

T T
I I I I
N1 N1 N2 N2 N3 N3 b
L1 L1 L2 L2 L3 L3
P1 P1 P2 P2 P3 P3

T T
I I c
LLC LLC
Relay Relay
MAC1 MAC1 MAC2 MAC2 MAC3 MAC3
P1 P1 P2 P2 P3 P3

Figura 2-4 Arhitecturi de interconectare


a. mod CO b. mod CL c. Mod de lucru de tip punte ( “Bridge operation”)

2.6 Exemple de interconectări


Examplu 1: Conexiune FTP client-server

Client Server
FTP FTP
TCP TCP
IP IP IP
MAC1 MAC1 MAC2 MAC2
ETH ETH TR TR
PHY1 PHY1 PHY2 PHY2

Figura 2-5 Acces FTP acces între două reţele LAN via un ruter

Examplu 2: IP peste o configuraţie de subrutele: LAN-reţea publică de pachete -LAN

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Tunel X.25

WAN
A LAN1 R1 R2 LAN2 B
X.25

TCP TCP
IP IP IP IP
X.25-3 7 X.25-3
6
LLC 1 LLC X.25-2 8 X.25-2 LLC LLC
2 5 MAC
MAC MAC MAC
3 4 9 P3
P1 P1 P2 P2 P3

1,6, 7 IP-H TCP-H Date


2, 5 LLC1-H IP-H TCP-H Date
MAC1-H LLC1-H IP-H TCP-H Date MAC1-T
3,4
8 P-H IP-H TCP-H Date
9 DL-H P-H IP-H TCP-H Date DL-T

Figura 2-6 Operarea protocolului Internet via reţea publică de pachete (WAN ex.
X.25)
Note:
- avem acelaşi nivel IP ( SNICP) în toate sistemele ( A, R1, R2, B)
- au loc încapsulări/decapsulări succesive în timp ce PDU traversează in sus şi in jos nivelele
funcţionale (vezi figura)
- se face segmentare/reasamblare daca e necesar
- informatie de rutare: necesara in R1 şi R2
- R1 sau R2 ofera un serviciu de conectivitate nefiabil (best effort)
- congestii posibile (deoarece banda unui VC este limitată în reţeaua X.25)
- intarziere de transfer variabilă

Examplu 3: Interconectare de tip punte (distantă) peste o reţea de pachete

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\
WAN
A LAN1 B1 B2 LAN2 B
X.25

≥3 ≥3
LLC 1 Releu Releu LLC
2 X.25-3 X.25-3
MAC 5 MAC
MAC X.25-2 X.25-2 MAC
3 4 6
P1 P1 P2 P2 P3 P3

1 Data
2 LLC-H Data
3,4 MAC-H LLC-H Data MAC-T
5 X.25-H MAC-H P-H Data MAC-T
6 DL-H X.25-H MAC-H P-H Data MAC-T DL-T

Figura 2-7 Operarea protocolului Internet prin punţi interconectate la nivel doi printr-o reţea
de pachete ( exemplu: X.25 WAN )
- presupunem că avem în LAN1 si LAN2 acelaşi MAC deşi nu este obligatoriu
- diferenţa faţă de interconectarea IP/WAN este ca in acest caz cadrele de nivel doi sunt
transportate prin tunelul X.25 şi nu datgramele IP

2.6.1 Interconectarea de reţele LAN prin punţi (B)


• Interconectarea de nivel 1 ( prin repetor):
o Permite extinderea distantei fizice
o Stiva arhitecturală este aceeaşi în toate sistemele (nivel 1- nivel 7)
o Repetorul: obiect de interconectare de nivel fizic care regenereaza formatul electric al
semnalului
o Repetor: cost scăzut, dar non-inteligent
o Efect general – aceeaşi reţea dar cu extindere pe dimensiuni fizice mai mari
o Exemplu clasic: reţea Ethernet cu repetoare (Hub)
• Interconectarea la nivel 2 a retelelor locale (LAN ): prin punti (B =Bridge)
- Interconectări pentru reţele cu MAC diferit; LLC şi nivele >2 – aceleaşi

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Aplicatie Aplicatie
TCP/UDP TCP/UDP
IP IP
(LLC)* Releu (LLC partial) (LLC)*
MAC1-ETH MAC2 –TR
MAC1-ETH MAC2-TR
PHY1 PHY1 PHY2 PHY2

LAN 1
LAN 2

Figura 2-8 Arhitectura de interconectare prin punţi


(*) în principiu LLC poate lipsi
• Cadrele recepţionate de către B pe un port (de la un segment de LAN) : memorate, verificate
CRC, convertite la formatul noului MAC, redirijate
• Are loc o filtrare a adreselor locale (adrese MAC)
• Avantaje ale punţilor (sunt mai importante decât dezavantajele)
o Memorare + retransmisie ⇒ MAC1 poate fi diferit de MAC2. Exemplu : 802.3 –
802.5 – posibile extensii gradate spre tehnologii diferite
o Elimină constrângerile de distanţă fizic (repetorul – interconectare de nivel 1 nu face
asta)
o B este releu pe bază de adresă MAC- transparent la nivele superioare
o Uşurează gestionarea reţelelor mai mari (dacă în B se include SW de management)
o Creşte securitatea reţelelor (datorită filtrării traficului local/extern)
o Creste fiabilitatea /disponibilitatea segmentelor
o Conceptul de B se extinde imediat la comutatoare de nivel 2 ( „Layer 2 switch”)
o Permit crearea de LAN-uri virtuale (VLAN) – foarte important in practică
• Dezavantaje ale punţilor (Problemele de principiu greu rezolvabile/netriviale)
o Lungime diferită de cadre
o Lucru diferit cu priorităţi
o Incompatibilitate între valorile timerelor utilizate
o probleme de gestiune a configuraţiei mixte
Alte probleme:
- lipsa de control de flux la nivel MAC ⇒ posibilitatea supraîncărcării memoriei din B
- memorare + retransmisie ⇒ întârzieri mai mari decăt la interconectarea repetoare
- probleme cu expirări de timere în MAC-uri diferite dacă distanţa este mare
- modificarea cadrelor la traversarea B + calculul pentru noul CRC ⇒ erori eventuale în timpul
translatării (releu) care rămân nedetectate
Concluzii : avantajele sunt mai mari decât dezavantajele ⇒ B utilizate foarte frecvent ( azi sub
formă de comutatoare de nivel 2)
Exemple de standarde:
IEEE 802.1 - punţi transparente

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IEEE 802.5 – conţine o parte referitoare la B cu rutare de tip sursă

2.6.1.1 Punţi transparente (Transparent Bridges- TB)


Caracteristici generale
• prezenţa în reţea a (n>1) punţi - transparenţa pentru staţiile ce intercomunică
• TB- se iniţializează şi configurează automat la introducerea în reţea (fără o intervenţie specială
din partea restului reţelei)
• reconfigurarea dinamică în timpul funcţionării
• sunt prevăzute cu n ≥ 2 porturi pentru n ≥ 2 LAN-uri
• fiecare port are chip-set-uri MAC corespunzătoare tipului de LAN şi SW de gestiune
corespunzător
( SW initializează chip-set-ul; gestionează memoria (buffere) –alocă buffere pentru chip-set MAC din
MAC de recepţie ; pasează buffere pline spre chip-set MAC de transmisie ).
Extensie 1: comutatoare de nivel 2 ( punti cu n > 2 porturi) eventual cu tehnologii diferite
Extensie 2 : VLAN

2.6.1.2 Punti cu rutare de tip sursa


• Punti transparente : B participa in mod colectiv la rutare intr-un mod transparent pentru
statii . Statiile comunica intre ele ca şi cum ar fi pe acelasi LAN.
• Punti cu rutare sursa : statia src include in cadrele emise informatii de rutare pana la
destinatie . Info- rutare in antetul cadrului – folosita de punti pentru rutare (fiecare B
determina daca acel cadru trebuie dirijat spre alt segment sau nu)
• Informatia de rutare = secventa de perechi ( S- B ) unde S= segment ( adresa LAN) B= id
punte
• Observatie Rutarea sursa se utilizeaza in special in IEEE 802.5 ( fiind o parte a acestui
standard) Exemplu cadru 802.5

3 ROUTING ALGORITHMS AND PROTOCOLS

(Romanian)
Not complete

3.1 Generalitati
Protocol de rutare +algoritm + mecanism de schimb de nesaje intre nodurile retelei
Retea-abstractizata printr-un graf orientat/neorientat

asimetric

B
1
2
3
A C
1 asimetric

2 1
D

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Figura 3-1 Exemplu simplu de graf orientat

• G(V,E); V- set de noduri; E – “edge set” – set de link-uri


– Ponderi/costuri asociate link-urilor
Problema de rutare: gasirea unui arbore cu cost minm de la un nod sursa catre orice destinatie
- costul oricarei cai = minim ( SPT = Shortest path tree”)
- cost total al arborelui = minim (arbori Steiner)
Clasificarea algoritmilor de rutare
- Centralizati /distribuiti de tip mixt
Criterii de cost/metrica:
- metrica simpla ( 1 criteriu)
- compusa – mai multe criterii
Exemple de metrici: nr. de noduri traversate, intarziere ( dinamic) , 1/B, cost admin., grad de incarcare
a unui link (dinamic), cost total al unui arbore, etc.
Obs: n>1 metrici => problemne NP-hard; se cauta solutii aproximante quasi-optime
Se poate dem. in unele cazuri care este departarea fata de optimul teoretic

• Exemple:

2 5 8 11
1
2 5 8 11
1
1
1
10
10 S 3 6
S 3 6

9
9
4 7
4 7
a. b.
M= {1,5,6,9,11} M= {1,5,6,9,11}
Cost/link =1
Network graph Shortest Path Tree (SPT)
Cost/link =1 Source Specific Tree
C=8
Dmax = 3
Dav =2.5

Figura 3-2 Exemplu de graf si SPT

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2 5 8 11
1

1
10
S 3 6

9
4 7

M= {1,5,6,9,11} Group Shared Tree


Cost/link =1 Example of Steiner Tree

Figura 3-3 Arbore Steiner- exemplu

Steiner Tree Problem in Networks (SPN)” - NP-complete problem


• Given: G = (V,E) – undirected
• M = multicast group included in V
• cuv = cost of link (u,v); u,v ∈ V
• Required: t = (VT, ET), which spans M so that

∑c
( u ,v )∈ET
uv = min imum

• Steiner nodes = nodes u,v ∈ VT but they do not belong to M


Example
• Steiner nodes= {4,7}
• M = {1,5,6,9,11}
• CT = 6 !! less than in SPT
• DSav = (2 + 3 + 4 + 3)/4 = 12/4 = 3

Constrangeri:

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• Constraints
– to a link (e.g bandwidth, available buffer, etc.).
– to a path or to the whole tree,
• Tree constraints can be ( m = metric)
– additive (e.g. E2E delay on every path from source to destination)
• m(u,v) = m(u,i) + m(i,j) + …m(pv), for a path P( u,i,j, ..v)
• Sum of the costs on all edges of the tree
– multiplicative ( e.g the probability that a packet will reach the destination,
being given the loss probability on each link)
• m(u,v) = m(u,i) *m(i,j) * …m(pv), for a path P( u,I,j, ..v)
– concave (e.g. minimum bandwidth on a chain of links on a path)
• m(u,v) = Min{ m(u,i), m(i,j), …m(pv)}, for a path P( u,I,j, ..v)

Moduri de lucru ale protocolului:


- Proactiv/reactiv/mixt
Clasificare d.p.d.v cunoasterea topologiei:
- vectori de distanta
- link state

Probleme suplimentare:
- mobilitatea; inteferente – in radio; refacerea rutelor deteriorate
- problema link-urilor asimetrice
- problema cailor diferite in cele doua sensuri.

Caracteristici dorite ale protocolului: convegenta, optimalitate, complexitate redusa, robustete,


extensibilitate, echitate, fiabilitate, etc. (unele sunt contradictorii)

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RS-Sem II – RST

Unidirectional tree S1 R3
One tree per source R2
S1 rooted tree (SPT)
S2 rooted tree (SPT) R4
Optimised for source specific mc
communication

R1 S2 R5

S1 R3
Unidirectional Shared R2
(by all sources) tree
Components:
Shared tree R4
Data path S1→RP
Data path S2 → RP
RP

R1 S2 R5
S1 R3
Bidirectional Shared Tree
R2
Distribution of S1 data
Distribution of S2 data
R4

R1 S2 R5

Figura 3-4 Tipuri de arbori

3.2 Algoritmi de cautare a celui mai scurt drum

- Retea- echiv cu un graf


- Caut drumul cel mai scurt intre doua noduri d.p.d.v cost
- Cost cu : nr. Noduri/dist./t. intarziere/ inversul benzii

k1

i j

k2

Fig 1. Cautarea drumului minim intre nodurile I si j

dij min = min { dik + dkj}


k
unde k este un nod oarecare prin careexista drum spre nodul j.

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RS-Sem II – RST

3.2.1 Algoritmul Dijkstra (centralizat)

Se cauta toate drumurile minime de la un nod sursa catre toate celelalte. Rezulta un arbore cu
radacina in nodul sursa. Se repeta alg. ptr. fiecare nod al retelei.
- date: lista nodurilor, lista interconectarilor, costurile link-urilor.
Alg.: Fie un nod A
Se construieste arborele drumurilor minime cu radacina in A extinzandu-l succesiv pana ce
toate nodurile apartin arborelui.
Notatii:
Fie v, w, noduri ale grafului
D(v) = distanta intre A si nodul v ( suma costurilor pe un drum intre A si v)
l (v, w) = distanta ( costul arcului) intre v si w
N = multimea nodurilor din arbore

1. Initializare:
N={A}
Ptr. () v∈
∈ N se eticheteaza nodul v astfel : v(A’,D(v)), unde A’ este nodul din arbore prin care
v are acces spre A.
In particular avem: v(A, D(v)) pentru nodurile legate direct la A
v(-,∞
∞) pentru nodurile care nu sunt legate direct la A
2. Se completeaza arborele cu un nod nou , astfel:
- se cauta w∉ ∉ N, pentru care D(v) = minim
- N= N ∪ {w} – se include in arbore nodul w
- Se reeticheteaza fiecare vecin v (care nu apartine lui N) al lui w, prin recalcularea dist. la
A tinand seama de noul nod inclus in arbore , astfel:
D(v) = min{ D(v), D(w) + l(w, v)},
v ∉ N, v ∈ V(w)

unde V(w) este multimea vecinilor lui w.Ca urmare a reetichetarii, A’ din eticheta v(A’,D(v)), va
ramane A’ sau va deveni w daca prin w se obtine un nou drum mai scurt spre A.
3. Se repeta etapa 2 pana ce toate nodurile apartin arborelui.
Exemplu:

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RS-Sem II – RST

B(A,1)
Initial: N={A} Pas 1: N={A,B} B(A,1)

1 Se adauga B
1
1 1
A D(A,3)
3 A D(B,2)
3
4 2 3
4 2 3
6
E(-,∞) 6
1 E(-,∞)
1
V(B) ∩ C (N)
C(A,6)
C (N)= complement al C(B,5)
lui N
costuri
= dist. recalculate

Pas (2): N= {A,B,D} Pas (3): N= {A,B,D,C}


Se adauga D Se adauga C
B(A,1) B(A,1)

1 1 1
1

A A D(B,2)
D(B,2) 3
3
2 3 4 2 3
4
6 6
E(D,5) E(D,5)
1 1

C(D,4) C(D,4)

Pas (4): N= {A,B,D,C, E}


Se adauga E
B(A,1)
Arbore de drumuri minime
de la A la B,C,D,E
1 1

A D(B,2)
3

4 2 3
6
E(D,5)
1

C(D,4)

Fig.1.1 Exemplu de calcul pentru algoritmul Dijkstra

Arborele de rutare pentru nodul A va fi cel din tabelul de mai jos :


Destinatia Nodul urmator
B B
C B
D B
E B

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3.2.2 Algoritmul Ford (Fulkerson)
- cauta drumurile de cost minim
- nodul radacina ( fie A) este considerat ca destinatie
- alg. E gata dupa etichetarea tuturor nodurilor cu dist. fata de A si cu eticheta nodului
urmator pe drumul minim catre A
- constructia tab. rutare = repetarea alg. pentru fiecare nod destinatie.

Eticheta are aceeasi forma ca la alg Dijkstra . Ex B(5, D) este eticheta nodului B care arata ca
distanta pana la A este 5, via nodul vecin D
1. Initializare
Fie nodul A = destinatie, D(A) = 0.
Se eticheteaza toate celelelte noduri cu ( -, ∞ ).
1. Etichetarea tuturor nodurilor cu distantele minime pana la A
Pentru ∀ nod v ≠ A executa:
- actualizeaza distantele D(v) pana la destinatia A, pentru fiecare nod , prin utilizarea
valorilor curente D(w) ale tuturor vecinilor w ai lui v, adica pentru toti w ∈ V(v). Se face
atribuirea:

D(v) = min{D(w) + l(w,v)}


w ∈V(v)
- se actualizeaza eticheta de nod cu nr. nodului vecin care minimizeaza expresia de
mai sus si cu noua distanta D(v).
3. Repeta etapa 2 pana cand nu mai apar modificari.
Exemplu – problema.
1.Sa se determine arborele drumurilor minime in raport cu nodul A ptr. reteaua din fig.
1. Sa se scrie tab de rutare din nodul A pentru host-urile Hi, I < > 1.
2. Folosind drumurile de lungime minima sa se aloce numere de circuite virtuale pentru
conexiunile ( solicitate temporal in ordinea data) H1 - H7, H3 - H7, H2 - H6, H1 – H6,
H1 – H5.

A H1
1 `
2
H2 B C H3
1 7 `

2
2 3
3
E
H4 D F H6
H4 `
4
8 4
G

V( B)

H7
`

Figure 3-1 Configuratia retelei. Nodul A este destinatie.

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RS-Sem II – RST

Lista etichetelor initiale


B C D E F G
(-, ) (-, ) (-, ) (-, ) (-, ) (-, )

Pasul 1.1 : v = B
Nod w D(w) l (v,w) D(w) + l (v,w) Noua eticheta
ptr. nodul B
A 0 1 1 (A, 1)
C 1
D 2

Lista etichetelor dupa pasul 1.1


B C D E F G
(A,1) (-, ) (-, ) (-, ) (-, ) (-, )

Pasul 1.2 : v = C
Nod w D(w) l (v,w) D(w) + l (v,w) Noua eticheta
ptr. nodul C
A 0 2 2 (A, 2)
B 1 1 2
D 3*
F 3*
G 2*

* = se poate inlocui cu x ( nu conteaza)

Lista etichetelor dupa pasul 1.2


B C D E F G
(A,1) (A,2) (-, ) (-, ) (-, ) (-, )

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Pasul 1.3 : v = D
Nod w D(w) l (v,w) D(w) + l (v,w) Noua eticheta
ptr. nodul D
B 1 2 3 (B,3)
C 2 3 5
G x

Lista etichetelor dupa pasul 1.3


B C D E F G
(A,1) (A,2) (B,3) (-, ) (-, ) (-, )

Pasul 1.4 : v = E
Nod w D(w) l (v,w) D(w) + l (v,w) Noua eticheta
ptr. nodul E
A 0 7 7 (A,7)
G x

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RS-Sem II – RST

Lista etichetelor dupa pasul 1.4


B C D E F G
(A,1) (A,2) (B,3) (A,7) (-, ) (-, )

Pasul 1.5 : v = F
Nod w D(w) l (v,w) D(w) + l (v,w) Noua eticheta
ptr. nodul F
C 2 3 5 (C,5)
G x

Lista etichetelor dupa pasul 1.5


B C D E F G
(A,1) (A,2) (B,3) (A,7) (C,5 ) (-, )

Pasul 1.6 : v = G
Nod w D(w) l (v,w) D(w) + l (v,w) Noua eticheta
ptr. nodul G
C 2 2 4 (C,4)
D 3 8 11
E 7 4 11
F 5 4 9

Lista etichetelor dupa pasul 1.6


B C D E F G
(A,1) (A,2) (B,3) (A,7) (C,5) (C,4)

Repetand pasul doi se constata ca nu mai apar modificari.


Atentie: rezolvarea completa presupune si terminarea pasului 2 ( adica 2.1 –2.6).

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RS-Sem II – RST

A H1
1
2
H2 B C H3
1 7

2
2 3
3
E
H4 D F H6
H4
4
8 4
G

H7
`

Figure 3-2 Arborele drumurilor minime pana la nodul A


Tabelul de rutare pentru nodul A este :

Destinatia Ruta ( via) Cost


H2 B 1
H3 C 2
H4 B 3
H5 E 7
H6 C 5
H7 C 4

Algoritmul se repeta pentru fiecare nod pentru care se construieste tabelul de rutare.

3.3 IP Routing Protocols

3.3.1 Internet Protocol reminder


- connectionless style, RFC 791- official specification of IP
- best effort protocol – no guarantees- problems for real time traffic
- if problems appear – rejection of datagrams (IP-DGs)
- functions:
- segmentation / reassembly (segmentation at the input of
first subnetwork and reassembly only at the end destination
machine)
- routing – hop-by-hop principle
- error reporting

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• IP services
- two service primitives : send( ), deliver( )

- primitive parameters:
- source and destination IP addresses ( IPa_src, IPa_dst)
- protocol ( recipient of IP-DGs)
- type of service – indicator – specifies data treatment
- identifier – used in combination with IPa_src, IPa_dst and
protocol field to uniquely identify data unit
- don’t fragment – segmentation indication
- time to live – life time of DG measured in network hops
- data length – length of data being transmitted

- option data – option request by the IP user


- security – allow a security label attached to IP-DG
- source routing – list of routers
- route recording –field allocated to record the sequence of
routers
- stream identification – names reserved used for stream
service
- time-stamping – source IP entity and some or all intermediate routers add a
timestamp ( precision - ms) to the data unit
- data – data to be transmitted

• IP Service quality options


- precedence – eight level of importance
- reliability – two levels (normal / high)
- delay – two levels ( normal/high)
- throughput two levels ( normal/high)

• IP Datagram format
- version – indicates version number
- Internet header length (IHL) in 32 bits words
(minimum IP-H –20 octets)
- type of service – reliability, precedence, delay, throughput
- identifier ( 16 bits) – together with IPa_src, IPa_dst – uniquely
identifies the IP-DG
- flags ( “more” bit, “don’t fragment” – bit) – used in segmentation
- fragment offset ( measured in 64 bit units) – used in segmentation
- time to live (TTL) – measured in router hops

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0 4 8 16 31
Version IHL Type of service Total length ( in octets)
Identification Flags Fragment offset 20
Time to live (TTL) Protocol Header checksum oct.
Source IP adress (x1.y1.z1.w1)
Destination IP adress (x2.y2.z2.w2)
Options
Information

Figure 3-3 IP datagram format

- protocol – indicates the higher level protocol


- header checksum- error detecting code for header only –
re-verified at each router (1 complement addition of all 16 bit words
in IP-H)
- options (variable) – encodes the options requested by the user
- padding – to assure multiple of 32 bits
- data field – integer multiple of 32 bits, ≤ 65 535 octets

3.3.2 Principles of IP routing


- if source and destination are on same local network then IP-DG sent arrives directly to the
destination ( broadcast medium or serial line)
- if not, the IP-DG is sent to a router charged to forward the IP-DG (based on routing tables) (
to another router) up to the destination
- routing table consulted for each IP-DG

- routing protocols are executed to build the routing tables


- hop by hop routing principle
- one machine can be configured to function as a router also ( that is to retransmit the received
IP-DGs which are not addressed to itself)
• one entry in the routing table (RT) :
- IPa_dst - destination IP address (machine addr. or network addr.)
- next hop router address or an address of a network directly
connected
- flags - indicates if IPa_dst belongs to a machine or a network, etc.
- interface – specification where the IP_DG must be sent

• IP forwarding operation
- search in RT (Actually – FT) of an entry corresponding to:
- full destination address (if found then route to next hop
router or to I/F directly connected ( depending on flags)
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- or, destination network address - similar actions
- or default entry

routing route netstat UDP TCP


demon command command

update yes
ICMP
no packet for
redirection this dest?
Routing
table
forwarding Retransmission
( compute (if valid)
the next
IP process
hop) options
Source routing

IP layer
Network interface

Figure 3-4 IP actions on the received datagrams

3.3.3 Network hierarchies


The current Internet is a decentralized collection of computer networks from all around the world.
Each of these networks is typically known as a domain or an autonomous system (AS)

AS = network or group of networks under a common routing policy, and managed by a single
authority.
Today, the Internet is basically the interconnection of more than 20,000 ASes [4].
Intradomain routing: Every one of these ASes usually uses one or more interior gateway protocols
(IGPs), such as Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) or Open Shortest Path First
(OSPF), to exchange routing information within the AS.

Interdomain routing focuses on the exchange of routes to allow the transmission of packets between
different ASes.

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Single-homed
stub AS

Multi-homed
stub AS

Transit AS

Figure 3-5 A simplified inter-domain scenario

When an AS is connected to multiple different ASes, it is referred to as a multihomed AS.


Types: single-homed, multi-homed, transit AS. Note a transit AS could be sometimes considered as
multi-homed stub AS. ( e.g. AS 2).

Today’s Internet : hierarchy of transit ASes [5].


This hierarchical structure is rooted in the two different types of relationships that could exist between
ASes
- customer-provider
- peer-to-peer).

Thus, for each transit AS any directly connected AS is either a customer or peer.

Level 1: the top of this hierarchy we found the largest ISPs, (Tier-1 ISPs).
- There are about 20 Tier-1s at present which represents less than 0.1 percent of the total
number of ASes in the Internet
- Tier-1s are directly interconnected in almost a full mesh and compose the Internet core. In
the core all relationships between Tier-1s are peer-to-peer, so a Tier-1 is any ISP lacking
an upstream provider.

Second level of the hierarchy is composed of Tier-2 ISPs.


- A Tier-2 is any transit AS that is a customer of one or more Tier-1 ISPs
- A representative example of a Tier-2 ISP is a national service provider. Tier-2 ISPs tend
to establish peer-to-peer relationships with other neighboring Tier-2s for both
economical and performance reasons (SLA-s can be negotiated)
- This is typically the case for geographically close Tier-2 ISPs that exchange large
amounts of traffic.
-
Tier-3 ISPs : those transit ASes in the hierarchy that are customers of one or more Tier-2 ISP, such
as regional ISPs within a country.
- Stub ASes are non-transit ASes that are customers of any ISP (Tier-1, Tier-2, or Tier-3)
- In Fig. 1-31 ISPs such as AS11, AS12, AS21, AS23, and AS31 would be classified
as Tier-2 ISPs, while AS22 represents a Tier-3 ISP.
- An important corollary of this hierarchical structure is that the diameter of the Internet is
very small in terms of AS hops.

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General definitions

Hierarchy: - backbone network, - autonomous systems, - networks, subnetworks, hosts

- Autonomous System (AS) ( Domain) – logical portion of larger IP networks administered


by a single authority. The AS would normally comprise the internetwork within an
organization, and would be designated as such to allow communication over public IP
networks with ASs belonging to other organizations. It is mandatory to register an
organization's internetwork as an AS in order to use these public IP services.

- Gateways (Routers): IG – Interior Gateway( Router), EG - Exterior(Border) Gateway


- Protocols: IGP, EGP - Interior Gateway Protocol, Exterior Gateway Protocol (e.g.
Border Gateway Protocol- BGP)
- AS-s can be organised on more than one level ( nets, subnets, etc.)
- IP address – global address equivalent to NSAP addresses – different from Network Point of
Attachment (NPA) which depends on particular subnetwork ⇒ mapping: IP_addr ↔ NPA

- routing based on IP_addr ⇒ requires finding the NPA (MAC address) which corresponds
to IP_addr
- Adress Resolution Protocol (ARP) , Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) solve
the problem

EGP
EG
EG N1 IG N3

AS3 IGP
IGP IG IG
Backbone net

N2
EG EG SN1
EGP
AS2
SN1
AS1
second level IG router
host

Figure 3-6 Generic hierarchical Internet topology

• Protocol scopes
- ARP used in one network to find the NPA_dst address corresponding to IPa_dst
Hi ←ARP → Hk
Hi ←ARP → IGj ←ARP → Hk
- IGP, EGP used between routers
IGi ←IGP → IGj ←IGP → EGk ←EGP → EGn

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Demon Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) Exterior Gateway Protocol EGP


HELLO RIP OSPF EGP BGP
routed V1
gated V.2 V1 V1
gated V.3 V1, V2 V2 V2, V3

Table 3-1 Routing protocols supported by routed and gated daemons


[Note: In Unix and other computer multitasking operating systems, a daemon is a computer program
that runs in the background, rather than under the direct control of a user; they are usually initiated as
background processes. Typically daemons have names that end with the letter "d": for example,
syslogd, the daemon that handles the system log, or sshd, which handles incoming SSH connections.]

In TCP/IP software operating systems, routing protocols are often implemented using one of two
daemons:
Routed: Pronounced “route D.” : basic routing daemon for interior routing supplied with the majority
of TCP/IP implementations. It uses the RIP protocol

Gated
Pronounced “gate D.” : more sophisticated daemon on UNIX-based systems for interior and exterior
routing. It can support a number of additional protocols such as OSPF, BGP
In TCP/IP the routing protocols are implemented in the operating system.

3.3.4 Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Reverse ARP – RARP


-RFC 826 – ARP specifications
- ARP, RARP - integral part of IP

A RP
IP_add r NPA _addr
(32 bits) R AR P (e.g. M AC _addr 48 bits)

Figure 3-7 ARP and RARP actions

• ARP

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machine name (0) machine name

DNS (1) FTP


(2) setup connection
IP address (IP_a)
with IP addr = IP_a
source TCP
(3) send
(client)
(4) IP dg(IP_a) (conn-req)
ARP IP
(6) (7) (8) send
IP dg(IP-a, MAC_a)
driver (conn-req)
Ethernet LAN Ethernet

ARP_req(IP_a) (5)

driver driver Ethernet


Ethernet

ARP ARP IP

destination
(server) TCP

Figure 3-8 Example of ARP role in sending IP datagrams

- ARP of a host maintains a table hostid/NPA address pairs for all hosts connected to this
network with which host communicates
- IP-DGs comes from upper layer, ARP table is consulted
- if IPa_dst entry exists then NPA_addr is red and a pointer to address of IP-DGs is passed
(together with NPA_addr) to SNDAP sublayer protocol
- if not, then an ARP_reqt(IPa_src, NPA_src, IPa_dst) is broadcasted or sent to the default IG
- in the second case the ARP in IG relays the ARP_request to the destination host
- the destination host replies with ARP_reply(NPA_addr), using the
NPA_addr of source to return the result
- the source host stores the result of ARP_reply and sends IP-DG to SNDAP

- cache ARP – increase efficiency, limited life time of entries


- proxy ARP – IGP responds on behalf and instead of some machines linked behind it ; the
source does not see the real configuration
• RARP
- obtains the IP_addr associated to a given NPA_addr
- useful in diskless machines at start-up

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3.3.5 Interior Gateway Protocols

- function: finding the routing information within an AS


- distributed protocols – messages between routers ( nodes)
- dynamic routing
-proactive/on-demand protocols

• Distance Vector Algorithm (DVA) based protocols - examples


- most used: Routing Information Protocol (RIP) – each node bases its routing decisions
only on neighbours information on distances (one node does not know the whole domain
topology)
- AODV ( Adhoc on demand Distance vector protocol) – used on WLANS- MANET
- DVMRP – Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol – extension to mcast
• Link state Protcol
- Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) – link-state algorithm - examples
- each node gets messages from neighbours ( info about links, costs) and
builds a network graph
- on this graph it determines the shortest path to the destination by applying
some shortest path algorithm (Dijkstra, Ford, etc.) using a given metric
- Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR)- used in MANET
- Multicast OSPF (MOSPF) – extension of OSPF multicast

I/F Control Plane


Switch
. ( bus, matrix, Routing
Packets . Protocols
etc.)

I/F

Figure 3-9 Generic Router diagram

3.3.5.1 Routing Internet Protocol (RIP)


Distance vector-based protocol:
The distances in the tables are computed from information provided by neighbor routers.

Each router transmits its own distance vector table across the shared network.

The sequence of operations :

• Each router is configured with an identifier and a cost for each of its network links. The cost is
normally fixed at 1, reflecting a single hop, but can reflect some other measurement taken for
the link such as the traffic, speed, etc.
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• Each router initializes with a distance vector table containing zero for itself, one for directly
attached networks, and infinity for every other destination.

• Each router periodically (typically every 30 seconds) transmits its distance vector table to
each of its neighbors. It can also transmit the table when a link first comes up or when the
table changes (event triggered updates).

• Each router saves the most recent table it receives from each neighbor and uses the
information to calculate its own distance vector table (Ford distributed algorithm).

• The total cost to each destination is calculated by adding the cost reported in a neighbor's
distance vector table to the cost of the link to that neighbor.

• The distance vector table (the routing table) for the router is then created by taking the lowest
cost calculated for each destination

Comparison:
(lau + duD) < > (lav + dvD) < > (law + dwD)
lau u
duD

lav
a v
dvD D

law
dwD
Message : Routing table of w: w
…(D, dWD)…

Figure 3-10 Principle of RIP distance vector based counting of costs


- RFC 1058/1988 – official specification of RIP
- very used as a simple distributed intra-domain routing protocol
- RIP messages between nodes are transported in UDP datagrams (Non reliable):
IP-H, UDP-H, RIP_message = IP-DG format for RIP

Destination Next hop Distance Timers Flags


NetB Router 2 3 (in hop count) t1, t2, t3 x,y
NetA Router1 5 t1, t2, t3 x,y

Table 3-2 Typical RIP Routing Table


Note: in RIP the RT is the same as Forwarding Table
- RIP maintains only the best route to a destination
- messages exchanged at request or periodically ( e.g. 30 sec)

• RIP packet format

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- command - specifies a request or response message
- version number- specifies RIP implementation
- up to 25 routes having the format:
- address family ID – shows the address family used (e.g. IP_addr)
- address – IP destination address (4 octets),
- metric – Hop count ( how many routers) up to the destination
- a RIP message can contain the whole or part of the source RT
- update timer – 30 sec ( each router sends its RT to neighbours each 30 sec)
- route invalid timer – when expires a route is marked invalid ( e.g. 90 sec), neighbours are
notified of this fact
- route flush timer – when expires route is erased from RT

Figure 3-11 RIP packet format

• Stability features
- Hop count limit ( < 16)– prevents count to infinity routing loops
- Hold down – routers hold down any changes reported by neighbours regarding a route which
was just removed route (prevent oscillations)
- Split horizon – avoids loops
- Poison reverse updates – increasing metric indicates loops; therefore a node detecting this
sends a reverse messages to remove that route

(Net A, cost)

Net A R1 R2

directions to which R2 may forward


and advertise
its route to NetA via R1

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Figure 3-12 Split horizon-prevent loops between adjacent routers


RIP Extensions

• RIP-2
RIP-2 is a draft standard protocol. Its status is elective (RFC 1723).

RIP-2 extends RIP-1. It is less powerful than OSPF but it has the advantages of easy implementation
and lower overheads.
It can replace for RIP that can be used on small to medium-sized networks
- can be employed in the presence of variable subnetting “Classless Inter-Domain Routing
(CIDR)”
- can interoperate with RIP-1

• RIPng for IPv6: intended to allow routers to exchange information for computing routes
through an IPv6-based network (RFC2080 )

3.3.5.2 Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)


AODV – RFC 3561- is originally a reactive ( i.e. on demand) distance-vector routing protocol for
mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and other wireless ad-hoc networks. AODV is capable of both
unicast and multicast routing. The usual metric is hop count.
Otherr usage: in mesh networks.
• WLANS and Mesh networks
- Technology: 802.11, 802.16, 802.15

Figure 3-13 WLANs and Meshnetworks: a) WLAN-infrastructure; b) WLAN-ad hoc; c)


mixedmode; d) mesh network.
Notation: MP – Mesh Point; STA – Station; ESS – Extended Set Services
Routing: - at Layer 2 ( 802.11s), or at Layer 3

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Double role:
Access Point and
Router

Figure 3-14 Examples of mesh network topologies:

a) 802.11 connected mesh; b) 802.11 mesh ad hoc

• AODV Protocol
The AODV algorithm enables dynamic, self-starting, multihop routing between mobile nodes in an
ad hoc network.
- allows nodes to obtain routes quickly for new destinations, and does not require nodes to
maintain routes to inactive destinations
- allows nodes to respond to link breakages and topology changes in a timely manner
- is loop-free, and by avoiding the Bellman-Ford "counting to infinity" problem (by using
destination sequence numbers (dst_seq_no) on route updates) offers quick convergence
when the network topology changes (e.g. node move)
- If links break, AODV causes the affected set of nodes to be notified so that they are able
to invalidate the routes using the lost link.
AODV message types are : Route Requests (RREQs; Route Replies (RREPs); Route Errors (RERRs)
Notes:
- They are received via UDP, and normal IP header processing applies
- The requesting node uses its IP address as the Originator IP address for the messages
- For broadcast messages, the IP limited broadcast address (255.255.255.255) is used. So,
such messages are not blindly forwarded.
- Certain messages (e.g., RREQ) should to be disseminated widely, perhaps throughout the
ad hoc network. The range of dissemination of such RREQs is indicated by the TTL in
the IP header. Fragmentation is typically not required.
When a route to a new destination D, is needed
- the node wanting it broadcasts a RREQ
- a route can be determined when the RREQ reaches either the D itself, or an intermediate
node with a 'fresh enough' route to D (i.e. a valid route entry for the D, whose associated
dst_seq_no is at least as great as that contained in the RREQ)
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- The route is made available by unicasting a RREP back to the origination of the RREQ
- Each node receiving the request caches a route back to the originator of the request, so
that the RREP can be unicast from D along a path to that originator, or likewise from any
intermediate node that is able to satisfy the request
- The requesting node selects among anwers the route with minimum number of hops.
- Unused entries in the routing tables are recycled after a time. When a link fails, a routing
error is returned to a transmitting node, and the process repeats.

Figure 3-15 AODV route finding (1): RREQ

Figure 3-16 AODV route finding (2): RREP

• Enhancements w.r.t Distance Vector (DV) traditional algorithm


- AODV uses dst_seq_no for each route entry
- The dst_seq_no is created by the D to be included along with any route information it
sends to requesting nodes
- Using dst_seq_no ensures loop freedom and is simple to program
- Given the choice between two routes to a destination, a requesting node is required to
select the one with the greatest sequence number. This method reduces the control
overhead

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- Also the route requests have a TTL number used as in IP. If a route request fails, another
route request may not be sent until twice as much time has passed as the timeout of the
previous route request.
• Nodes monitor the link status of next hops in active routes
- When a link break in an active route is detected, a RERR message is used to notify other
nodes that the loss of that link has occurred.
- The RERR message indicates those destinations (possibly subnets) which are no longer
reachable by way of the broken link.
- In order to enable this reporting mechanism, each node keeps a "precursor list",
containing the IP address for each its neighbors that are likely to use it as a next hop
towards each destination.The information in the precursor lists is most easily acquired
during the processing for generation of a RREP message, which by definition has to be
sent to a node in a precursor list.
- If the RREP has a nonzero prefix length, then the originator of the RREQ which solicited
the RREP information is included among the precursors for the subnet route (not
specifically for the particular destination)
Conclusions:
- The advantage of AODV is that it creates no extra traffic for communication along
existing links.
- Also, distance vector routing is simple, and doesn't require much memory or calculation.
- Drawback: AODV requires high time to establish a route.

• Details AODV
RFC 3561 AODV Routing July 2003

5. Message Formats

5.1. Route Request (RREQ) Message Format

0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type |J|R|G|D|U| Reserved | Hop Count |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| RREQ ID |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Destination IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Destination Sequence Number |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Originator IP Address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Originator Sequence Number |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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The format of the Route Request message is illustrated above, and contains the following fields:

Type 1

J Join flag; reserved for multicast.


R Repair flag; reserved for multicast.
G Gratuitous RREP flag; indicates whether a gratuitous RREP should be unicast to the node
specified in the Destination IP Address field
D Destination only flag; indicates only the destination may respond to this RREQ
U Unknown sequence number; indicates the destination sequence number is unknown
Reserved Sent as 0; ignored on reception.
Hop Count The number of hops from the Originator IP Address to the node handling the request.

RREQ ID A sequence number uniquely identifying the particular RREQ when taken in conjunction
with the originating node's IP address.

Destination IP Address
The IP address of the destination for which a route is desired.
Destination Sequence Number
The latest sequence number received in the past by the originator for any route towards the
destination.
Originator IP Address
The IP address of the node which originated the Route Request.
Originator Sequence Number
The current sequence number to be used in the route
entry pointing towards the originator of the route
request.

5.2. Route Reply (RREP) Message Format

0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Type |R|A| Reserved |Prefix Sz| Hop Count |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Destination IP address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Destination Sequence Number |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Originator IP address |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Lifetime |

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+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

The format of the Route Reply message is illustrated above, and contains the following fields:

Type 2

R Repair flag; used for multicast.


A Acknowledgment required; see sections 5.4 and 6.7.

Reserved Sent as 0; ignored on reception.


Prefix Size If nonzero, the 5-bit Prefix Size specifies that the indicated next hop may be used for any
nodes with the same routing prefix (as defined by the Prefix Size) as the requested destination.
Hop Count
The number of hops from the Originator IP Address to the Destination IP Address. For multicast route
requests this indicates the number of hops to the multicast tree member sending the RREP.
Destination IP Address
The IP address of the destination for which a route is supplied.
Destination Sequence Number
The destination sequence number associated to the route.
Originator IP Address
The IP address of the node which originated the RREQ for which the route is supplied.
Lifetime The time in milliseconds for which nodes receiving the RREP consider the route to be valid.

3.3.5.2.1 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

OSPF (basic link-state protocol) – dynamic, proactive, link-state based routing protocol
- designed as an intra-domain routing protocol for Internet
- most widely-used IG in large enterprise networks; IS-IS, another link-state routing
protocol, is more common in large service provider networks.
OSPF is for use in Internet Protocol (IP) networks. It falls into the group of interior gateway
protocols, operating within an autonomous system (AS).
It is defined as OSPF Version 2 in RFC 2328 (1998) for IPv4. The updates for IPv6 are specified as
OSPF Version 3 in RFC 5340 - 2008.

OSPF features:
• Support for type of service (Type of Service-based -TOS) routing
• Provides load balancing ( “OSPF Equal-Cost Multipath”)
• Allows site partitioning into subsets by using areas ( used in large domains)
• Information exchange between routers requires authentication
• Support for host-specific routes as well as network-specific routes
• Reduces table maintenance overhead to a minimum by implementing a designated router
• Allows definition of virtual links to provide support to a non-contiguous area
• Allows the usage of variable length subnet masks (also present in RIP-2)
• Will import RIP and EGP routes into its database

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OSPF routes packets based on the destination IP address found in IP packets. It supports variable-
length subnet masking (VLSM, CIDR). The (simplified) ideas of OSPF are:
- each node detects its link status and distribute this information to neighbours
(flooding)
- these messages (Link updates) are sent when necessary
- each neighbour does the same (relaying information)
- eventually each node finally gets complete knowledge about network topology
- each node runs an SPF algorithm ( e.g. Dijkstra) to compute routes to any destination
- each nodes fill a forwarding table (several tables based on different metrics can be
computed)

• Comparison of routing philosophies


Distance vector routing Link state routing
Each R sends distance information (to reach Each R sends link state information to all other
different destinations/networks) to its routers ( flooding the area)
neighbours and not topological info!!
Info sent = estimate of cost to each Info sent by a R is the exact cost of its
destinations/networks links/segments to other networks
Info sent (usually) periodically or at events Info sent when changes appear
Metric = no of hops Different metrics are possible
R determines next hop info by using Bellman R gets a graph of the network, computes SPF
Ford algorithm on the received estimated path and builds RT
costs

Table 3-3 DVA and LS comparison

• Link state routing algorithm– link state advertisement (LSA) are sent between nodes
• Routing hierarchy
- unlike RIP, OSPF can operate with a hierarchy; OSPF works directly on top of IP not on top
of UDP
- the largest entity within the hierarchy: - Autonomous System AS
- OSPF is intra-AS routing protocol ( but is able to send/receive messages to/from other AS)
- AS can be divided into areas (contiguous set of nets hosts and routers) connected by a
backbone (contiguous set of nets not contained in any area, their attached routers and routers
belonging to multiple areas)
- each router – has a database - the known topology of its area and summary of outside areas
of the same AS
- border router (BR) are used between areas
- inter-area routing and intra-area routing
- each area runs an OSPF algorithm
- backbone network – the same
- designated router – for multi-access networks (such a network may have more than one
router) – charged with generating LSAs for the entire multi-access network
- OSPF : least cost route based on a user-configurable metric
By convention, area 0 :
- represents the core or "backbone" region of an OSPF-enabled network
- and other OSPF area numbers may be designated to serve other regions of an
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enterprise (large, business) network - however every additional OSPF area must have
a direct or virtual connection to the backbone OSPF area. The backbone area has the
identifier 0.0.0.0. Inter-area routing goes via the backbone.
-

Figure 3-17 OSPF Network

Intra-Area Routers (IA)


- situated entirely within an OSPF area; are called intra-area routers.
- They flood router LSAs into the area to define the links they are attached to
- If they are elected Designated or Backup-designated routers (see “Designated and
Backup Designated Router”), they also flood network links advertisements to define
the identity of all routers attached to the network
- maintain a topology database for the area in which they are situated.

Area Border Routers (AB)


- connect two or more areas
- maintain topology databases for each area to which they are attached
- and exchange link state information with other routers in those areas
- AB routers also flood summary LSA into each area to inform them of inter-area
routes.

AS Boundary Routers
- situated at the periphery of an OSPF internetwork
- exchange reachability information with routers in other ASs using exterior gateway
protocols (that is why they are called AS boundary routers)
- Routers that import static routes or routes from other IGPs, such as RIP, into an OSPF
network are also AS boundary routers
- AS boundary routers are responsible for flooding AS external link state
advertisements into all areas within the AS to inform them of external routes.

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Area ID: A 32-bit number identifying a particular area. The backbone has an area ID of zero.

Router ID: A 32-bit number identifying a particular router. Each router within the AS has a single
router ID. One possible implementation is to use the lowest numbered IP address belonging to a router
as its router ID.
Router Priority: An 8-bit unsigned integer, configurable on a per-interface basis indicating this
router's priority in the selection of the (backup) designated router. A router priority of zero indicates
that this router is ineligible to be the designated router.

• Networks and connections supported


- point to point links;
- multiple access broadcasting networks (e.g. LANs)
- multiple access non- broadcasting networks (e.g. WANs)
• Route computing
- cost criteria examples: inverse of bandwidth, delay, hop count, geographical distance,
monetary cost, throughput, etc.
- several routes (to a dest) can be computed depending on cost criteria
- network graph: - nodes (vertices) : routers, networks (transit or stubs)
- edges between routers or between routers and subnetworks

SN 1 3 SN 5
8
SN6
R1 1 1
R5
1
3 SN4 R4
SN2 7 SN7
R2 8
1
1
2 4
6 4
R3 R6
SN 3 8 SN8
2

Figure 3-18 A sample of autonomous system (AS)

SN5
SN1 3 8
1 SN6
R1 SN4 1
5 R5
SN2 8
3 1 R4
R2 SN7
1
1 4 7
2
6
SN3 R3 R6 4
2 SN8
8

Figure 3-19 Directed graph of AS

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SN – subnetwork R - Router

Destination SN1 SN2 SN3 SN4 SN5 SN6 SN7 SN8


Next hop R3 R3 R3 R3 R3 R5 R5 R6
Distance 11 11 8 7 9 15 15 4

Table 3-4 Example: routing table of the R6 router

- each router applies a Dijkstra shortest path algorithm to get the routes to each destination

• Types of OSPF messages


Hello – sent at regular intervals to establish and maintain neighbour relationship

Hello packets are sent directly to neighbors on point-to-point links and non-broadcast
networks.
On LANs, hello packets are sent to a predefined group or multicast IP address that can
be received by all routers.
Neighbors who receive hellos from a router should reply with hello packets that include
the identity of that originating router.
Database description – describes the contents of the topological database, exchanged at
initialisation
Link state request – requests pieces of neighbour’s topological data base (requested for
update)
Link state update – response to link state request ; contains LSAs
Link state ack- acknowledges link state update packets
• LSA types
Router links advertisement (RLA) – collected states of R links to a specific area
Network links advertisement (NLA)– sent by designated Rs, describe all routers linked to the
multi-access network and are flooded into the area containing the multi-access network
Summary links Advertisements (SLA) - sent by area border routers, summarises routes to
destination outside the area but within AS
AS External links Advertisements – describe a route to a dest external to the AS; are generated
by AS boundary routers

LSAs are normally sent only under the following specific circumstances:
• When a router discovers a new neighbor
• When a link to a neighbor goes down
• When the cost of a link changes
• Basic refresh packets are sent every 30 minutes

• boundary AS routers communicate via EGP or BGP
• additional OSPF features
- multipath routing (based on TOS requests)
- more than one metric
- accepts variable length subnet mask
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3.3.6 Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

- preferred exterior routing protocol for INTERNET


- cannot use RIP for EGP:
- different metrics in different AS
- there can be restrictions/priorities/policies w.r.t. some AS; RIP does not take into
account these characteristics
- cannot use OSPF for EGP:
- different metrics in different AS
- flooding inter AS is not manageable
- lack of sufficient policy capabilities
• key feature: path-vector routing
- path vector does not contains a cost
- each block of routing info lists all AS-s to be crossed up to the destination;
- the source can introduce some selection/filtering policies
- eBGP, iBGP

• BGP-4 messages
Open - open relationship with another router
Update – (1) – transmit info about a single router
(2) – lists multiple routes to be withdrawn
Keepalive (1) – Ack to open
(2) – periodically confirm the neighbour relationship
Notification sent when an error condition is encountered

• functional procedures
- neighbour acquisition – because the border router (BR)s are in different AS-s the neighbour
relationship must be agreed by both parts
- neighbour reachability- to maintain the relationship
- network reachability – each BR maintains a database of the subnets that it can reach and
preferred route to each SN. If a change is made the BR sends an Update message to other BRs and
then flooding is done within BRs.
Update message information can be
- about a single route through Internet; the recipient must add this information to its
database
- list of routes previously advertised by this router that are being withdrawn

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16 Marker Marker Marker Marker


2 Length Length Length Length
1 Type Type Type Type
1 Version 2 Unfeasible Keepalive 1 Error code
routes message
length 1 Error
subcode
2 My var Withdrawn var Data
Autonomous routes
System
2 Hold time 2 Total path Notification
attributes message
length
4 BGP ID var Path Hold time – minimum time
attributes between two successive
1 Opt param. var Network messages (Update or Keep alive)
length layer
var Optional reachability Keep alive – prevents Hold Time
parameters info to expire
Open Update
message message

Figure 3-20 Border Gateway Protocol message format


-marker- reserved for authentication
-length- message length in octets
- type – open, etc.

Update message information can be


- about a single route through Internet; the recipient must add
this information to its database
- list of routes previously advertised by this router that are
being withdrawn

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3.4 IPv6

- Ipv6 – IPNG – Internet Protocol Next Generation


- RFC 1883 (year 1995), 1809, 1884, 1886, 1887
• reasons to develop a new IP specification
- IPv4 limited by
- 32 bit address – too small for large networks
- two level structure( network, host) is wasteful
- increase in routing table dimension of EG routers
- need of multiple address per host
- not sufficient security support
- not sufficient multicast support
• IPv6 features
- extension of addresses (128 bits)
- improved option mechanism – separate optional headers located
in IP-H and transport-H; most of these are not examined by routers
– simplifies and speeds up router processing
- address autoconfiguration – dynamic assignment of addresses
- increased addressing flexibility – ( anycast addresses, scalability
of multicast routing –improved)
- support for resource allocation -
- increased security ( authentication and privacy)

IPv6 Header Extension ... Extension Transport level PDU


header header
(basic)
40 octets 0 or more

Figure 3-21 General IPv6 datagram format

• IPv6 datagram format


• Ipv6-Header the only mandatory header ( 40 octets)
- version – the value is 6
- priority – priority value of DGs
- flow label – packet labeling for special handling
- payload length – rest of IP-DG in octets
- next header – identifies the next extension header
- hop limit – the remaining number of allowable hops for this
packet; packet is discard if hop limit reach zero
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- source and destination addresses

• Ipv6-Extension Headers
- Hop-by-Hop Options Header - special options that require
hop-by –hop processing
- Routing Header - extended routing similar to IPv4 source routing
- Authentication Header – packet integrity and authentication
- Encapsulating Security Payload Header – provides privacy
- Destination Options Header – optional info to be examined by
the destination node

Length
(octets)
(40)
IPv6 H (40)
(var) Next header field
Hop-by-hop Options H
(var) IPv6 Header:
Routing Header
Version (4 bits)
(8)
Priority (4) 4 octets
Fragment Header
Flow label (24)
(var)
Authentication Header Payload length (16)
Encapsulation security (var) Next Header (8) 4 octets
Payload H Hop limit(8)
(var)
Destination Options H Source address ( 128) 32 octets
TCP Header (20)- opt Destination address ( 128)
var. part
Application Data (var)

Figure 3-22 IPv6 datagram extension headers

• Priority field
- enables the source to identify the desired transmit and delivery
priority of each packet ( relative to others of the same source)
- traffic categories
- congestion controlled – the source backs off in response to
congestion status of network
- non-congestion controlled – constant data rate and constant
delivery delay are desirable ( real time video, audio, voice)
- have higher priority than congestion controlled traffic

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- congestion controlled (decreasing priorities) : internet control traffic, interactive traffic,
attended bulk transfer (e.g. FTP, HTTP), unattended data transfer (e.g. e-mail), filler traffic,
uncharacterised traffic
- non-congestion controlled traffic
-low fidelity audio ( e.g. voice) has highest priority (loss of some
packets is apparent as clicks and buzzes on the lines)
- high fidelity video ( the other end of the range) – lowest priority

• Flow label
- source can label all packets of one flow ( e.g. one TCP connection)
with the same flow label
- source point of view: all packets of a flow have similar transfer
requirements
- router point of view : similar treatment of the packets of a flow :
(path, resource allocation, discard requirements, accounting,
security, etc.)
- if router does not know to treat flow label then set the field to zero

- flow label reduces the processing amount in routers


- options of a flow – in extension headers ⇒ significant processing
overhead for each packet
- solution- flow label passed through a hashing function addresses a look-up table containing
processing info
- this table is initially filled up by first flow label and optional fields of the packet)

• IPv6 addresses
- assigned to interfaces not to node itself
- IPv4 addresses does not have a structure to assist routing ⇒
routers can have huge tables to maintain routing paths
- longer Internet addresses allow for aggregating addresses by
hierarchies of networks, access providers, corporation, etc.

- address types
- unicast address – for a single interface ( provider-based global,
link-local, site-local, embedded Ipv4, loopback)
- anycast addresses – ID for a set of I/Fs belonging to different
nodes; the IP-Dg is delivered to one only ( the nearest one
according to a distance criterion)
- multicast – ID for a set of I/Fs belonging to different nodes; the
IP-Dg is delivered to all IF/s

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- address autoconfiguration
- IPv4 – users or managers must manually configure IPv4 addresses
on nodes ( error prone activity)
- IPv6 – allows autoconfiguration – enabling a host to configure
automatically one or more addresses per interface
- allow plug and play capability (a host attaches to a network and
the IPv6 addresses are automatically assigned to its interfaces)
- address models: local scope, stateless server, stateful server

• Hop-by-hop Option Header - carries info which is processed by


every router on the path

• Fragment Header
- fragmentation can be performed only at the source nodes
- a node must discover the maximum transmission unit (MTU)
supported by any network on the path
- the source can fragment differently for different addresses
- fields: fragment offset, more-bit, identification (original packet)

• Routing Header (if source routing is desired)


- contains a list of one or more intermediate nodes to be visited by
the packet on the way to destination
- fields: next-header-field, routing-type, routing-specific-data
- if a router does not recognise the routing-type value then it
discards the packet

3.5 ICMPv6

-new version of ICMP (RFC 1885) compliant to IPv6


- key features
- new protocol number different from ICMPv4
- both protocols use the same header format
- some little used messages of ICMPv4 – omitted in ICMPv6
- maximum size of ICMPv6 is larger as to exploit the larger
- packet size that IPv6 permits without fragmentation

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4 SERVICES

Not complete

4.1 Business Models for (Multimedia) Communication Architectures

4.1.1 Customers and Users


• Customer (CS) (may be a “subscriber”) :
- entity, having legal ability to subscribe to QoS-based services offered by Providers
(PR) or Resellers (RS)
- target recipients of QoS-based services: CS/PR or CS/RS interaction
- Examples of CS: Householders, SMEs, large corporations, universities or public
organisations
• Service Level Agreements (SLA)- concluded betrween CS and providers
CS differentiation by : size , type of business, type of services required

• User (US)
- entity (human or process) - named by a CS and appropriately identified by PR for
actually requesting/accessing and using the QoS-based services cf. SLAs
- USs are end-users of the services, they can only exist in association with a CS
- may be associated with one or several CS using services according to the agreed
SLAs of the respective CS. (e.g. Company = Customer, End User = employee)

Note: In the current public internet, the majority of users are “subscribers” for Connectivity services
only and maybe for a small subset of high level services (e.g e-mail)
- there is no SLA concluded for high level services quality; e.g for media A/V
streaming, IPTV, etc.
- best effort access to high level services is practised but with no guarantees

4.1.2 Providers (PR)


PR types :
• (High Level) Service Providers (SP)
• IP Network Providers (NP)
• Physical Connectivity Providers (PHYP) (or PHY infrastructure Providers)
• Resellers (RS)
• Content Providers (CP)

Network Providers (NPs)


- offer QoS-based plain IP connectivity services
- own and administer an IP network infrastructure
- may interact with Access Network Providers' (ANP) or CS can be connected directly
to NPs
- Expanding the geographical span of NPs
- Interconnected NPs - corresponding peering agreements
- IP NPs differentiation: small ( e.g. for a city) , medium (region) and large ( e.g.
continental)

(High Level) Service Providers (SPs)


- offer higher-level (possible QoS-based) services e.g. : e-mail, VoIP, VoD, IPTV,
A/VC, etc.
- owns or not an IP network infrastructure

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- administer a logical infrastructure to provision services (e.g. VoIP gateways, IP
videoservers, content distribution servers)
- may rely on the connectivity services offered by NPs (SPs Providers' interact with
NPs following a customer-provider paradigm based on SLAs
- expanding the geographical scope and augmenting the portfolio of the services
offered ⇒ SP may interact with each other
- size : small, medium and large

Physical Connectivity Providers (PHYP)


- offer physical connectivity services between determined locations
- services may also be offered in higher layers (layer-3 e.g. IP), ( but only between
specific points)
- distinguished by their target market:
• Facilities (Infrastructure) Providers (FP)
• Access Network Providers (AP) (could be seen as distinct stakeholders)

FPs services - are mainly offered to IP NPs (link-layer connectivity , interconnect with their peers
FPs differentiation : size of technology deployment means

ANPs - connect CS premises equipment to the SPs or NPs equipment

- own and administer appropriate infrastructure


- may be differentiated by
- technology (e.g. POTS, FR, ISDN, xDSL, WLAN, Ethernet, WiMAX, hybrid)
- their deployment means and their size
- may not be present as a distinct stakeholder in the chain of QoS-service delivery
- may be distinct administrative domains, interacting at a business level with SPs /NPs and/or
CSs

Interactions between Providers


- mainly governed by the legislations of the established legal telecom regulation framework
- may follow a customer-provider and/or a consumer-producer paradigm on the basis of
SLAs

Reseller (RS)
- intermediaries in offering the QoS-based services of the PRs to the CSs
- offer market-penetration services (e.g. sales force, distribution/selling points) to PRs for
promoting and selling their QoS-based services in the market
- may promote the QoS-based services of the PRs either 'as they are' or with 'value-added',
however adhering to the SLAs of the services as required by the 'Providers'
- interact with :
• CSs on a customer-provider paradigm (SLA based)
• PRs based upon respective commercial agreements..

Different types RSs:


- according to whether they introduce value-added or not
- their market penetration means
- size ( # of of points of presence and/or sales force)

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RSs examples: Dealers, electronic/computers commercial chains, service portals

Content Provider (CP)


- an entity (organisation) gathering/creating, maintain, and distributing digital
information.
- owns/operates hosts = source of downloadable content
- might not own any networking infrastructure to deliver the content
- content is offered to the customers or service providers.
- can contain : Content Manager(CM); several Content Servers (CS

New enties (in the perspective of Future Internet)

Virtual Network Provider (VNP)


- composes and configures and offer Virtual Network slices, i.e., a set of virtual
resources at request of higher layers, as a consequence of its provisioning policy or
during self-healing operations
- this approach avoids for the higher layers to establish direct relationships with
infrastructure providers and to take care of inter-domain connections at physical
layer.
Virtual Network Operator (VNO)
- manages and exploits the VNEt s provided by VNPs , on behalf of HLSPs or end
users
Note: the same organisational entity migh play the both roles :VNP and VNO

4.1.3 Service Level Agreements/Specifications (SLA/SLS)

SLA
• it is a contract : documented result of a negotiation between a customer and a provider
of a service that specifies the levels of availability, serviceability, performance,
operation or other attributes of the transport service
• SLA contains technical and non-technical terms and conditions
• May be established offline or online (using negotiation oriented-protocols)

Service Level Specification (SLS)


• It is a part of SLA
• SLS = set of technical parameters and their values, defining the service, offered by the provbider
to the customer
o e.g. service offered to a traffic stream by a network domain (e.g. Diffserv domain)

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Content
Provider

HIGH LEVEL
(HIGH LEVEL) SERVICE
RESELLER
SERVICE PROVIDER N
PROVIDER 1
.....

IP NETWORK IP NETWORK
CUSTOMER ..... PROVIDER M
PROVIDER 1

PHYSICAL PHYSICAL
USER
CONNECTIVITY ..... CONNECTIVITY
USER PROVIDER 1 PROVIDER P
USER
May be joined
PROVIDER/
within the same
OPERATOR 1
entity

Figure 4-1 Generic IP Business Model (I) - and business relationships (SLA)

SERVICE 1 CONTENT
PROVIDER M ANAGER

3.n
3.1 3.2
3.1
5
3.2 … 3.n 2
IP NETW ORK
IP NETW ORK PROVIDER N
PROVIDER N 6 Data

CONTENT
SERVER

CUSTOM ER PHYSICA L
PHYSICAL
CONNECTIVITY CONNECTIVITY

PROVIDER
PROVIDER CONTENT
PROVIDER
USER PROVIDER
PROVIDER

Cascade model 4. Data pipe QoS guaranteed


Hub model established through actions 3.x

Figure 4-2 Example: IP Business Models (II) - Hub model and Cascade model
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4.2 References

[WS97] William Stalling, “Data and Computer Communication”, Prentice Hall,


New-York, 1997, ISBN 0-02-415425-3
[WS98] William Stalling, “High-Speed Networks: TCP/IP and ATM Design
Principles”, Prentice Hall, New York, 1998, ISBN 0-13-525965-7
[TA97] A.Tanenbaum, Retele de calculatoare, Ed. IV, Ed. Agora , 2004
[HA96] F.Halsall Data Communication, Computer Network and Open Systems,
fourth edition, Addison Wesley, 1996.
[SR96] R.Stevens, TCP/IP Illustrated, Vol.1. , Addison Wesley, 1996.
[IBM-05] Martin W. Murhammer, et.al., TCP/IP Tutorial and Technical Overview, 2005

4.3 General list of acronyms

AAA Authentication, Authorisation and Accounting


AAL ATM Adaptation Layer
ABR Available Bit Rate
AC Admission Control
ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
AF Assured Forwarding
AN Access Network
ANG Access Network Gateway
AP Access Point
API Application Programming Interface
AQ&S Advanced Queuing and Scheduling
AQM Advanced (Queue) Management
AR Access Router
ARP Address Resolution Protocol
ARQ Automatic Repeat Request
AS Autonomous System
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
BA Behaviour Aggregate
BB Bandwidth Broker
BE Best Effort
BGP Border Gateway Protocol
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B-ICI Broadband Intercarrier Interface


BISDN Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network
BR Border Router
CA Congestion Avoidance
CAC Connection Admission Control
CAS Channel Associated Signalling
CBQ Class Based Queuing
CBR Constraint-based Routing
CBR Constant Bit Rate
CC Content Consumer
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CDV Cell Delay Variation
CER Cell Error Rate
CES Circuit Emulation Service
CIM Common Information Model
CL Connectionless
CLI Command Line Interface
CLP Cell Loss Priority
CLR Cell Loss Rate
CMR Cell Misinsertion Rate
CO Connection Oriented
COPS Common Open Policy Service Protocol
CP Content Provider
CPCS Common Part Convergence Sublayer
CPE Customer Premises Equipment
CR Core Router
CS Convergence sublayer (adaptation)
cSLA Customer Service Level Agreement
cSLS SLS between customers and providers
cSLS Customer Service Level Specification
DB Database
DCCP Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
DI Digital Item
DiffServ Differentiated Services
DLCI Data Link Connection Identifier
DNS Domain Name Service
DS Differentiated Services (DiffServ), IETF Working Group
DSCP Differentiated Services Code Point
DSL Digital Subscriber Line

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DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer


DVA Distance Vector Algorithm
DVB-S Digital Video Broadcast- Sattelite
DVB-T Digital Video Broadcast- Terrestrial
E2E End-to-End
ECN Explicit Congestion Notification
EF Expedited Forwarding
EFSM Extended Finite State Machines
EG Exterior(Border) Gateway
ER Edge Router
ES/H End System/Host
FCFS First Come First Served
FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
FEC Forward Error Control
FEC Forwarding Equivalence Class
FIFO First-In First-Out (queue)
FR Frame Relay
GFC Generic Flow Control
GK Gate Keeper
GOP Group of Pictures
GPS Global Position System
GRED Generalized RED
GSM Global System for Mobile Communication
GW Gateway
HDSL High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line
HEC Header Error Check
HTML Hypertext Mark-up Language
HTTP Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (IETF, W3C)
H-WRR Hierarchical WRR
IAB Internet Architecture Board
ICMP Internet Control Messages Protocol
IE Information Element
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force
IG Interior Gateway( Router)
IMA Inverse Multiplexing ATM
IMS Integrated Multimedia Subsystem
IntServ Integrated Services

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IP Internet Protocol
IPC Inter Process Communication
IRTF Internet Research Task Force
IS Intermediate System
IS see IntServ
LAN Local Area Network
LANE LAN emulation
LAPD Link Access Procedure for D Channel
LB Leaky Bucket
LDAP Large Directories Access Protocol
LDP Label Distribution Protocol
LLC Logical Link Control
LSP Label Switched Path
LSR Label Switched Route
LVC Label Virtual Circuit
MAC Medium Access Control
MAN Metropolitan Area Network
MCTD Mean Cell Transfer Delay
MDT Mean down-time
MF Multi Field
MGCP Media Gateway Control Protocol
MGW Media Gateway
MIB Management Information Base
MIB Management Information Base
MPEG Moving Picture Experts Group
MPLS Multiprotocol Label Switching
MPOA Multiprotocol over ATM
MSC Message Sequence Chart
MT Mobile Terminal
MTTR Mean time to repair/patch
NC Network Controller
NE Network Element
NGN Next Generation Network
NLRI Network Layer Reachability Information
NM Network Manager
NNI Network Network Interface
NP Network Provider
NPA Network Point of Attachment ( Physical Address)
NQoS Network QoS

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nrt-VBR Non-real-time Variable Bit Rate


NSAP Network Service Access Point
NSIS Next Steps in Signalling
NTP Network Time Protocol
OA Ordered Aggregate
OAM Operation and Maintenance
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
OSF Open Software Foundation
OSI - RM Open System Interconnection - Reference Model
OSPF Open Shortest Path First
PBM Policy Based Management
PBNM Policy Based Network Management
PCM Pulse Code Modulation
PDB Per Domain Behaviour
PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
PDP Policy Decision Point
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PDV Packet Delay Variation
PEP Policy Enforcement Point
PHB Per Hop Behaviour
PHP Penultimate Hop Popping
PID Program Identifier
PIM Protocol Independent Multicast
PMD Physical Medium Dependent
PMT Policy management tool
PNNI Private Network-Network Interface
POSIX Portable Operating System Interface
POTS Plain Old Telephone Service
PPP Point to Point Protocol
PQ Priority Queuing
PQoS Perceived QoS
PR Policy Repository
PRIO Priority
pSLA Provider Service Level Agreement
pSLS SLS between providers
pSLS Provider Service Level Specification
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
PT Payload Type
PTD Packet Transfer Delay

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QC Quality of Service Class


QoS Quality of Services
RARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol
RED Random Early Drop
RFC Request for Comments
RIP Routing Information Protocol
RM Resource Manager
RM Resource Manager
RSVP Resource reservation protocol
rt -VBRReal-time Variable Bit Rate
RTCP Realtime Control Protocol
RTD Round Trip Delay
RTP Realtime Transport Protocol
RTT Round Trip Time
SAC Subscription Admission Control
SAP Service Access Point
SAR Segmentation/reassembling
SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol
SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDR Service Discovery Repository
SDU Service Data Unit
SIP Session Initiation Protocol
SLA Service Level Agreement
SLS Service Level Specification
SM Service Manager
SMDS Switched Multimegabit Data Service
SMI Structure of Management Information
SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
SNDAP Subnetwork Dependent Network Access Protocol
SNDCP Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol
SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol
SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol
SONET Synchronous Optical Network
SP Service Provider
SQL Structured Query Language
SS7 Signalling System No.7
SSCOP Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol
SSCS Service Specific Convergence Sublayer
STP Signaling Transfer Point

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SVC Signalling Virtual Channels


TBF Token Bucket Flow
TC Traffic Control
TCP Transmission Control Protocol
TCS Traffic Conditioning Specification
TD Traffic Demand
TDM Time Division Multiplexing
TDM Terminal Device Manager
TE Traffic Engineering
TLI Transport Layer Interface
TME Existing Subscriptions TM
TMN New Subscriptions TM
TP Traffic Policing
TS Traffic Shaping
TSAP Transport Service Access Point
TSPEC Traffic Specification
TT Traffic Trunk
UBR Unspecified Bit Rate
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UED User Environment Description
UNI User network Interface
UPC Usage Parameter Control
UTRAN Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
VBR Variable Bit Rate
VC Virtual Channel
VCC Virtual Channel Connection
VCI Virtual Channel Identifier
VoD Video on-demand
VoIP Voice over IP
VP Virtual Path
VPC Virtual Path Connection
VPI Virtual Path Identifier
VPN Virtual Private Network
WAN Wide Area Network
WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing
WFQ Weighted Fair Queuing
WRR Weighted Round Robin
XML Extensible mark-up language

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5 ANNEX 1

5.1 Ethernet Frame Formats:

Ethernet (a.k.a. Ethernet II)


+---------+---------+---------+----------
| Dst | Src | Type | Data...
+---------+---------+---------+----------
<-- 6 --> <-- 6 --> <-- 2 --> <-46-1500->
Type 0x80 0x00 = TCP/IP
Type 0x06 0x00 = XNS
Type 0x81 0x37 = Novell NetWare

802.3
+---------+---------+---------+----------
| Dst | Src | Length | Data...
+---------+---------+---------+----------
<-- 6 --> <-- 6 --> <-- 2 --> <-46-1500->

802.2 (802.3 with 802.2 header)


+---------+---------+---------+-------+-------+-------+----------
| Dst | Src | Length | DSAP | SSAP |Control| Data...
+---------+---------+---------+-------+-------+-------+----------
<- 1 -> <- 1 -> <- 1 -> <-43-1497->
SNAP (802.3 with 802.2 and SNAP headers)
+---------+---------+---------+-------+-------+-------+-----------
+---------+-----------
| Dst | Src | Length | 0xAA | 0xAA | 0x03 | Org Code
| Type | Data...
+---------+---------+---------+-------+-------+-------+-----------
+---------+-----------
<-- 3 -->
<-- 2 --> <-38-1492->

At the physical layer, the Dst field is preceded by a 7-byte preamble and a 1-byte start of
frame delimiter. At the end of the Data field is a 4 byte checksum. So, the minimum and
maximum frame sizes on Ethernet are:

Field Name Min Size Max Size Min w/o Preamble Max w/o Preamble

Preamble 7 7
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Start of frame delimiter 1 1

Dst 6 6 6 6

Src 6 6 6 6

Type/Length 2 2 2 2

Data 46 1500 46 1500

Checksum 4 4 4 4

Total 72 1526 64 1518

Dst is a 6-byte destination address.


Src is a 6-byte source address.

For Ethernet II frames, Type is the protocol type of the packet. 0x80 0x00 is TCP/IP, etc...
For 802.3 frames, Length is the number of bytes in the Data field.
Ethernet uses the type field to determine the packet protocol. 802.3/802.2 use the DSAP and
SSAP fields.
Since there are only 256 possible SAP values, they are fairly hard to get. The special SAP
number of 0xAA was assigned to indicate that there are further headers after the 802.2 header
that must be parsed to determine the network level protocol. This is the SNAP header which
uses the same type field used by V2 Ethernet.
For its Ethernet_802.3 packet format, Novell uses the 802.3 frame type without adding an
IEEE 802.2 LLC header (in this case, NetWare adds its own proprietary higher-level
information). This type of packet can be called an 802.3 Raw format. NetWare's 802.3 format
is the only CSMA/CD packet type that doesn't incorporate a corresponding standard header
for logical-link control or data-link control information.
While this may seem to make Ethernet II and IEEE 802.3 packets incompatible on the same
wire, they can coexist quite well. This is possible due to the 1,518-byte limit (destination
address field to checksum field) on the size of an Ethernet or 802.3 frame and the fact that all
Ethernet II Frame Types (assigned and managed by Xerox) are values greater than 1,500
decimal (i.e. the maximum value that can appear in the 802.3 type/length field). Thus, if a
packet has a value of 1,500 decimal (05 DC hexadecimal) or less in byte positions 13 to 14, it
will be considered an 802.3 packet.
Ethernet II uses one bit to indicate multicast addresses, 802.3 uses two bits. On 802.3, the first
bit is similar to the multicast bit in that it indicates whether the address is for an individual or
for a group, and the second bit indicates whether the address is locally or universally assigned.
The second bit is rarely used on Ethernet (CSMA/CD) networks.
In Novell's 802.3 Raw format, the Data field begins with IPX header information. The first
two bytes in this header (for this format) are always hexadecimal FF FF. These two bytes help
confirm that an 802.3 Raw packet contains encapsulated IPX information, but they
correspond to IPX's Checksum field. Because this static information interferes with use of the
IPX Checksum field, 802.3 Raw packets will not be able to use the security features, such as
packet signing, planned for the IPX format. Packets incorporating 802.2 link information are
free to use the IPX Checksum feature. Note that IEEE does not recognize Novell's 802.3 Raw
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format; it recognizes only 802.3 packets encoded with 802.2 and 802.2 SNAP headers.
Adding IEEE 802.2 LLC information to an 802.3 physical packet format requires three
additional fields at the beginning of the Data field: a one-byte Destination Service Access
Point (DSAP) field, a one-byte Source Service Access Point (SSAP) field, and a one-byte
Control field. IEEE assigns Service Access Point numbers (SAPs); among those currently
defined are E0 for Novell, F0 for NetBIOS, 06 for TCP/IP, and AA for the Subnetwork
Access Protocol (SNAP). NetWare packets using the Ethernet_802.2 format have DSAP and
SSAP values of E0, and the Control field is set to 03 (denoting the 802.2 unnumbered
format).
Examples:
IP on an "Ethernet" can be indicated by Ethernet V2 type 0x0800, 802.2 SAP code 0x06, or a
SAP code of 0xAA followed by a SNAP type code of 0x0800.
AppleTalk can be indicated by either Ethernet V2 type 0x809B (Phase I), or a SAP code of
0xAA followed by a SNAP type code of 0x809B (Phase II). AppleTalk is currently never sent
as an 802.3/802.2 packet with a unique SAP code.
Novell can be found as either Ethernet type 0x8137, or a raw 802.3 packet. It is not sent as an
802.3/802.2 packet with a unique SAP code.
There are only a few SAP values that you are likely to run across. They are:
04 - IBM SNA
06 - IP
80 - 3Com
AA - SNAP
BC - Banyan
E0 - Novell (TR)
F4 - Lan Manager FE - CLNS

100BaseT is the IEEE specification for the 100-Mbps Ethernet implementation over
unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP) cabling. The Media Access
Control (MAC) layer is compatible with the IEEE 802.3 MAC layer.
100VG-AnyLAN is an IEEE specification for 100-Mbps Token Ring and Ethernet
implementations over 4-pair UTP. The MAC layer is not compatible with the IEEE 802.3
MAC layer. 100VG-AnyLAN was developed by Hewlett-Packard (HP) to support newer
time-sensitive applications, such as multimedia. A version of HP's implementation is
standardized in the IEEE 802.12 specification.

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