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Module – 3:

Amplitude Modulation Systems:

Basics of Amplitude modulation, Square law modulator, Switching modulator,
Square law demodulator, Envelope Detector, Double side band
suppressed carrier modulation. Balanced and Ring Modulators, Coherent
modulator, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Module- 3:

1. What is Modulation? What is the purpose of modulation in electrical


2. Discuss Base-band and Carrier communication.

3. Define signal distortion in base-band communication. Distinguish between

linear- distortion and non-linear distortion.

4. Explain Continuous Wave (C. W) modulation systems briefly.

5. What is Amplitude Modulation? Discuss Time domain as well as

Frequency domain representation of AM-wave.

6. Define the following terms:

(a) Amplitude Sensitivity ‘ka’
(b) Modulation Index ‘ma’

7. Discuss Single-tone Sinusoidal Modulation.

8. Discuss Multi-tone Sinusoidal Modulation.

9. Give the expressions for the power contents of side bands and carrier in
the AM-wave.

10. Give the expression for the transmitted current in AM-wave.

11. Derive an expression for Modulation index of Amplitude-Modulated wave

modulated by several sinusoidal signals.
12. For single-tone modulation, obtain the expression for the AM modulated
wave. Define modulation factor and obtain the expression for it. Find its
spectrum. Plot the various waves in time domain and frequency domain.

13. Explain Square-law modulator to generate AM waves. Find and plot the
spectrum of the output.

14. Explain Switching modulator to generate AM waves.

15. (a) What do you mean by Demodulation of AM wave?

(b) Discuss the following methods of Demodulation of AM waves:
(i) Square law Detector, (ii) Envelope detector

16. What do you understand by suppressed carrier modulation?

17. Explain DSB-SC (double side band suppressed carrier) modulation.

Obtain the expression for single-tone DSB-SC modulated wave and find its
spectrum. Plot it in time-domain and frequency-domain.

18. (a) Describe Balanced-Modulator to generate DSB-SC waves.

(b) Explain Ring-Modulator, also referred to as double balanced modulator
to generate DSB-SC waves. Plot the spectrum of the output.

19. (a) Describe Coherent-Demodulator or Synchronous detection for DSB-

SC waves.
(b) Explain Costas receiver for DSB-SC waves.

20. Explain Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). What are its


21. (a) Show that for 100% modulation, the total power in two side frequencies
is only one third of the total power in the modulated wave.

22. A transmitter radiates 9Kw of power with carrier un-modulated and

10.125 Kw,
when the carrier is modulated. Calculate the depth of modulation. If
another sine
wave corresponding to 40% modulation is transmitted simultaneously,
the total power radiated and also derive the formula used.

23. A 10 KW radio broadcasting transmitter is modulated by a single-tone of 1

Calculate the power in carrier and side-bands, when the modulation is
(i) 10%, (ii) 60% and (iii) 100%.
24. A broadcast transmitter radiates 10.8 KW of modulated power when the
carrier power of 9.6 KW is modulated by a sinusoidal voltage. Calculate
the modulation index, if another sine wave modulates the same carrier
simultaneously to a depth of 30%, calculate the total radiated power.

25. A given AM broadcast station transmits an average carrier power of 40 Kw

and uses a modulation index of 0.707 for sine wave modulation. Calculate
(i) the total average output power, (ii) the transmission-efficiency, (iii) the
peak amplitude of the output if antenna is represented by a 50-ohm
resistive load.