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JUNE 2004 VOLUME 51 NUMBER 6 IEBEAX (ISSN 0018-9294)

SPECIAL ISSUE ON BRAIN-MACHINE INTERFACES

Guest Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. A. L. Nicolelis, N. Birbaumer, and K.-L. Müller 877

SPECIAL ISSUE PAPERS

Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI)


Nanostructured Surface Modification of Ceramic Based Microelectrodes to Enhance Biocompatibility for a Direct
Brain-Machine Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K. A. Moxon, N. M. Kalkhoran, M. Markert, M. A. Sambito, J. L. McKenzie, and J. T. Webster 881
Microelectrode Array Fabrication by Electrical Discharge Machining and Chemical Etching. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T. A. Fofonoff, S. M. Martel, N. G. Hatsopoulos, J. P. Donoghue, and I. W. Hunter 890
Chronic Neural Recording Using Silicon-Substrate Microelectrode Arrays Implanted in Cerebral Cortex . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. J. Vetter, J. C. Williams, J. F. Hetke, E. A. Nunamaker, and D. R. Kipke 896
Evaluation of Spike-Detection Algorithms for a Brain-Machine Interface Application . . . . . . . . I. Obeid and P. D. Wolf 905
On the Variability of Manual Spike Sorting . . . . F. Wood, M. J. Black, C. Vargas-Irwin, M. Fellows, and J. P. Donoghue 912
Transmission Latencies in a Telemetry-Linked Brain-Machine Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. A. Bossetti, J. M. Carmena, M. A. L. Nicolelis, and P. D. Wolf 919
Model-Based Neural Decoding of Reaching Movements: A Maximum Likelihood Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Kemere, K. V. Shenoy, and T. H. Meng 925
Modeling and Decoding Motor Cortical Activity Using a Switching Kalman Filter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W. Wu, M. J. Black, D. Mumford, Y. Gao, E. Bienenstock, and J. P. Donoghue 933
Ascertaining the Importance of Neurons to Develop Better Brain-Machine Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. C. Sanchez, J. M. Carmena, M. A. Lebedev, M. A. L. Nicolelis, J. G. Harris, and J. C. Principe 943
Toward a Direct Brain Interface Based on Human Subdural Recordings and Wavelet-Packet Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Graimann, J. E. Huggins, S. P. Levine, and G. Pfurtscheller 954
Force Field Apparatus for Investigating Movement Control in Small Animals . . . . . . . . . J. T. Francis and J. K. Chapin 963
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI)
Principles of a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Based on Real-Time Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
. . . . . . . . . . . . N. Weiskopf, K. Mathiak, S. W. Bock, F. Scharnowski, R. Veit, W. Grodd, R. Goebel, and N. Birbaumer 966
An EEG-Driven Brain-Computer Interface Combined With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T. Hinterberger, N. Weiskopf, R. Veit, B. Wilhelm, E. Betta, and N. Birbaumer 971
An Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Single Trial P300 Detection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. H. Jansen, A. Allam, P. Kota, K. Lachance, A. Osho, and K. Sundaresan 975
An Asynchronously Controlled EEG-Based Virtual Keyboard: Improvement of the Spelling Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R. Scherer, G. R. Müller, C. Neuper, B. Graimann, and G. Pfurtscheller 979

(Contents Continued on Back Cover)


(Contents Continued from Front Cover)

Brain–Computer Interface Design for Asynchronous Control Applications: Improvements to the LF-ASD Asynchronous
Brain Switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .J. F. Borisoff, S. G. Mason, A. Bashashati, and G. E. Birch 985
Boosting Bit Rates in Noninvasive EEG Single-Trial Classifications by Feature Combination and Multiclass Paradigms
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Dornhege, B. Blankertz, G. Curio, and K.-R. Müller 993
Support Vector Channel Selection in BCI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T. N. Lal, M. Schröder, T. Hinterberger, J. Weston, M. Bogdan, N. Birbaumer, and B. Schölkopf 1003
Brain-Computer Communication and Slow Cortical Potentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .T. Hinterberger, S. Schmidt, N. Neumann, J. Mellinger, B. Blankertz, G. Curio, and N. Birbaumer 1011
Classification of Single-Trial Electroencephalogram During Finger Movement . . . . . . Y. Li, X. Gao, H. Liu, and S. Gao 1019
Noninvasive Brain-Actuated Control of a Mobile Robot by Human EEG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J. del R. Millán, F. Renkens, J. Mouriño, and W. Gerstner 1026
BCI2000: A General-Purpose Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G. Schalk, D. J. McFarland, T. Hinterberger, N. Birbaumer, and J. R. Wolpaw 1034
BCI Competition
The BCI Competition 2003: Progress and Perspectives in Detection and Discrimination of EEG Single Trials . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Blankertz, K.-R. Müller, G. Curio, T. M. Vaughan,
G. Schalk, J. R. Wolpaw, A. Schlögl, C. Neuper, G. Pfurtscheller, T. Hinterberger, M. Schröder, and N. Birbaumer 1044
BCI Competition 2003—Data Set Ia: Combining Gamma-Band Power With Slow Cortical Potentials to Improve
Single-Trial Classification of Electroencephalographic Signals . . . . . . . . . . . B. D. Mensh, J. Werfel, and H. S. Seung 1052
BCI Competition 2003—Data Sets Ib and IIb: Feature Extraction From Event-Related Brain Potentials With the
Continuous Wavelet Transform and the -Value Scalogram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V. Bostanov 1057
BCI Competition 2003—Data Set IIa: Spatial Patterns of Self-Controlled Brain Rhythm Modulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .G. Blanchard and B. Blankertz 1062
BCI Competition 2003—Data Set IIb: Enhancing P300 Wave Detection Using ICA-Based Subspace Projections for BCI
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N. Xu, X. Gao, B. Hong, X. Miao, S. Gao, and F. Yang 1067
BCI Competition 2003—Data Set IIb: Support Vector Machines for the P300 Speller Paradigm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. Kaper, P. Meinicke, U. Grossekathoefer, T. Lingner, and H. Ritter 1073
BCI Competition 2003—Data Set III: Probabilistic Modeling of Sensorimotor Rhythms for Classification of Imaginary
Hand Movements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S. Lemm, C. Schäfer, and G. Curio 1077
BCI Competition 2003—Data Set IV: An Algorithm Based on CSSD and FDA for Classifying Single-Trial EEG. . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y. Wang, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Gao, S. Gao, and F. Yang 1081

ANNOUNCEMENTS
Call For Papers: Special Issue on Recent Advances on Heart Rate Variability Signal Processing and Interpretation . . . . . 1087
Call For Papers: The 2nd International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1088