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Definition of carbonate buildups
Carbonate buildups are laterallyrestricted structures, which have usually undergone organicallymediated growth. They can be grossly divided into:
Reef (mud) mounds Organic (skeletal) (automicrites) are reefs, built by inorganically and/or organisms with a rigid calcareous frame, may biogenically constructed be matrix or skeleton but lack a rigid skeletal framework and unable to supported and withstand high energy deposited in warm or wind/wave action cold water and able to withstand high energy wind/wave action
However, reef nomenclature remains an area of significant discussion
Coral Stromatoporoid Red algae Stromatolites
Bryozoan Phylloid algae Sponges Codiacean algae Sea grass Crinoids
Frame builders Sediment contributors Bafflers Binders Precipitators
Modified from Tucker and Wright, 1990
Distribution of modern day reefs http://en.org/wiki/Coral_reef .wikipedia.
Controls on reef morphology Reef at 1520m water depth W. nutrient concentration . light.Fenner/SEPM; Quinana Roo. water turbidity.M. Mexico Biological controls Modern day coral growth controlled by temperature. wave energy. salinity.
Controls on reef morphology Topographic controls • Often. including – older reefs – karst – erosional terraces – siliciclastic or volcanic features • May also be a (salt) tectonic control Bosence. 2005 . reefs tend to preferentially develop on topographic highs.
reef will backstep and/or drown (‘give up’) • If reef growth can keep pace with sea level rise (‘keep up’) an accretionary geometry will be developed • If reef growth exceeds the rate of sea level rise.Controls on reef morphology Sea level • Since most reefs grow in shallow water they are highly susceptible to sea level fluctuations • During rising sea level. then flanks will prograde • Progradation may also occur during sea level fall. which can also result in expsosure Drowining Rate of sea level rise Vertical accretion Backstepping Progradation Growth rate Modified from Tucker and Wright. if rate of rise > rate of growth. 1990 Retreat .
Textural classification of reefs Allochthonous Original components not organically bound during deposition >10% grains >2mm Autochthonous Original components organically bound during deposition By By By Supported organisms organisms organisms Matrix which that act as which build supported by >2mm encrust baffles a rigid component and bind framework Floatstone Rudstone Bafflestone Bindstone Framestone Modified from Embry and Klovan (1971) and James (1984) .
Reef dynamics Constructive processes: Biological processes through direct growth. baffling or binding Destructive processes Wave damage and biological destruction Cementation Early cementation from seawater Sedimentation Accumulation of biogenic matter and reefderived detritus .
primarily by photosynthesis • Cyanobacteria • Green algae • Red algae Autotrophic producers via symbionts • Large foraminfera • Hermatypic coral (rely on algae for nutrition) • Some bivalves (?rudists) Heterotrophic producers Nourished from an external supply of organic matter • Foraminfera • Sponges • Ahermatypic corals (rely on planktonics for nutrition) • Gastropods • Cephalopods • Arthropods • Brachiopods • Bryozoan • Echinoderms .Organic (skeletal) reefs Framebuilding organisms Autotrophic producers Selfnourishing.
1990 Atoll Pinnacle .Organic (skeletal) reefs Types of carbonate buildup Fringing reef Fringing reef: attached to coastline Patch reef Barrier reef Barrier reef: separated from coastline by a lagoon Patch reef: isolated reef Faro reef: atoll within a lagoon Atoll: ringlike structure with central lagoon in deep water Pinnacle: flattopped. no lagoon. deep water Faro reef after Tucker and Wright.
massive Encrusting Tabular Intense Moderate Modified from Pomar et al. 1990 . branching Thin. 1985; Tucker and Wright. Moderate high irregular. bulbous. columnar Robust. dendroid. delicate. plate like Globular. branching Wave energy Sedimentation Low Low Moderate Moderate high High Low High Moderate Low Low Low Hemispherical. domal.Growth form of reefbuilding metazoans Growth form Delicate.
(1975)/SEPM Reef front • Reef front extends from highest point on reef to seaward depth where little/no framebuilding (up to 100m) • Reef crest is the highest. Belize. E. most exposed part of reef and therefore very high energy . G. Central America.Reef facies Reef front and crest Spur and groove Reef flat algal coated reef rubble Reef crest Reef apron carbonate sand Columbus Cay. Purdy Purdy et. al.
May be encrusted by forams.Reef facies Reef crest: composition • Reef crest dominated by encrusting organisms. abrasion. bioerosion are high. May be undergo periodic subaerial exposure • Recognised in ancient carbonates as bindstones/framestones with laminar encrusting organisms Acropora Palmata Millepora (fire coral) Porites Ed Purdy/SEPM . gastropods etc • Low energy crests may be composed of Millepora or Acropora Palmata • Skeletal breakage. especially red algae. usually coating dead coral/coral debris.
spur and groove structures form oblique to the shoreline (probably constructional and wave influenced) • Biota evolves with depth as light penetration and energy decreases • Low preservation potential due to bioerosion and early diagenesis Barry Guimbellot.Reef front • Coral growth is extensive seaward of the reef crest and forms the ‘reef core’ preserved in ancient reef limestones • Close to the crest. in the high energy zone. Grand Cayman W.Mayhew (1988)/Quintana Roo. Grand Cayman Reef facies <10m few m’s to ~20m Barry Guimbellot. Mexico ~10m Acropora Palmata Monastrea annularis 1015m SEPM .
Mayhew (1988)/Quintana Roo. Mexico Monastrea.Reef facies Reef front 1520m W. Diploria.Roberts/Cayman Brac Agelas clathrodes (elephant ear sponge) Barry Guimbellot. Grand Cayman >15m (to ~200m) SEPM . Agaricia 26m Gorgonians (soft coral) Sponge Halimeda H.
Spatial distribution of growth forms Pomar . 1991 .
Reef facies Reef front spur and groove muddy carbonate sands grainstone belt surf zone coral growth spurandgroove zone Lighthouse reef. Belize. Central America Lowaltitude oblique aerial photograph showing linear zonation of the Belize Barrier Reef Cliff Jordan/SEPM .
Scale bar is 2 mm long Forereef talus ~30m • Forereef slope is positioned seaward of the reef front. James/SEPM/ Belize Barrier The coarse forereef sediment rich in Halimeda plates from a water depth of 1025 meters.Reef facies Forereef slope Rock wall ~115m Noel P. and provides the transition into the basin • Sedimentation is dominated by gravity flow mechanisms and deposition of pelagic sediments • Depositional/accretionary reef margins slope continuously into the basin • Bypass margins have a steep escarpment seperating the reef from reef talus .
2001 . 1990; Moore.Carbonate platforms Rimmed carbonate shelf margins Tucker and Wright.
= 1. and Halimeda on gravelly substratum. L. Boulders may be algal encrusted • Up to +100m wide (Belize) Landward edge of reef flat with large gastropods (Strombus gigas). Mazzullo/SEPM . few metres of water depth and possibly exposed.Reef facies Reef flat: pavement • Reef flat located behind the reef crest and is partially protected by it • Reef pavement forms directly shoreward of the crest. abundant rubble • Zone of intense bioerosion. soft corals.A. Some coral growth.7 m Sal J.
water depths up to 10m.Reef facies Reef flat: sand apron Reef crest and front Harry Roberts/SEPM/ Grand Cayman Sand apron Rum point Back reef lagoon • Develops behind reef pavement. with local colonisation by sea grass and algal mats • Gradational contact with backreef lagoon . parallel to reef and 100200m wide • Comprise reworked reef debris and carbonate sand. May be up to 160km long.
Back reef lagoon (with patch reefs) • Bioturbation may be pervasive • Abundant calcareous algae • Peritidal environments may develop Turks and Caicos . protected Reef crest and front from the open ocean by the reef rim Open ocean • Width varies from 100’s metres to km wide.Reef facies Backreef lagoon • Lagoons are areas of low energy sedimentation. up to >70m in some Pacific atolls • Usually areas of relatively low energy sedimentation: finer grained sediment than towards reef margin. Water depth may be <10m.
sediment trapping and binding by algae and sea grasses may lead to mud mound development E.Reef facies Backreef lagoon:patch reefs • Isolated reefs. Turks and Caicos . commonly in backreef lagoons • Growth initiated as coral knobs which coalesce and grows upwards to reach wave base; may show bio zonation • Switch to lateral accretion as reef reaches sea level • In lower energy environments.Shinn/SEPM; Belize Patch reef ~200m Pleistocene.
Nonframe constructed reefs Reef mound/‘Cluster reefs’/bioherm • Buildups in which insitu skeletons are not in contact • Stability provided by matrix. 2001 . corals. Can grade into framebuilt reefs • Low topographic relief do not offer significant wave resistance. stromatoporoids. but can trap sediment Riding. sponges. limited cementation • Organic components include bivalves (rudists).
jpg • Organic reef. 2001). Australia. and Bahamas • Low topographic relief .com/images/Warwickst4250L.Nonframe constructed reefs Microbial buildups Riding. formed from microbially trapped sediment (Riding.aussieactionadventures. with some early cementation • Modern examples in Shark Bay. 2001 http://www.
at/bernd.kaufmann/mudmounds. mud (micrite)dominated buildups that display topographic relief and few or no stromatolites or inplace skeletons’ (Riding. either during periods where frame building metazoans did not flourish or in deep water settings • Automicrite (ie.htm • Fine grained. NW Sahara; Wendt et al.Nonframe constructed reefs Mud mounds Devonian mud mounds. 1993; Wendt et al.unigraz. 1990) • Occur mostly in Palaeozoic. 1997 http://www.. nonmicrobially derived micrite) is main constituent • May be colonised by metazoans .
but with evidence for growth in a relatively high energy. 100m high). Five facies associations. each seperated by a hiatal surface I lime mudstone core II lime mudstone core and crinoidal packstone/grainstone flank III bryozoan cementstone and grainstone core. breccia and megabreccia on flanks V lime mudstone core and flank . Sacremento Mountains Kirkby and Hunt. currentinfluenced setting. 1996 Exhumed mudmound (500m long.Nonframe constructed reefs Muleshoe Mound. crinoidal pst/gst flank IV bryozoan cementstone and gst core. traditionally interpreted as deep water.
Stratigraphic distribution of reefs • The dominance of reefs and mud mounds has varied through time in response to changes in ocean basin morphology. climate and ocean chemistry • The composition of framebuilt reefs has changed through time in response to evolution 100 200 300 400 500 600 increasing abundance Caino zoic T C corals & algae rudists & corals Mesozoic reefs sponges J T P C mud mounds & corals algae & bryozoans & microbes Palaeozoic D sponges S O C & corals sponges microbes microbes Proterozoic extinction events Flügel 1997 .
but can develop into patch reefs and pinnacle reefs . 2005 • Deposition predates Cambrian explosion • Microbialites dominate: stromatolites and thrombolites • Mostly form sheetlike bioherms..InfraCambrian Namibia Grotzinger et al.
InfraCambrian Ara Formation. 2005 • Unique oil and gas reservoirs in South Oman • Saltencased ‘rafts’ of carbonate. Oman Schroeder et al.. with inner ramp succession comprising microbial buildups and carbonate sand .
1998 • Dominated by stromatoporoidsponge communities. Canada.Devonian Canning Basin laminar stromatoporoid sponge Domal stromatoporoid Wood. Cavities may be filled by cyanobacteria (Renalcis [R]) and radiaxial calcite [C] • Principal reservoir in West Canada Basin. where pervasively dolomitised .
2005 • Laminated microbial crusts with cement filled voids and minor skeletal debris (crinoids. UK) see fringing coral reefs and deep water mud mounds . Spain Kenter et al.Carboniferous Sierra del Cuella. Asturias. bivalves and massive.. brachiopods. bryozoa. clotted microbialites • Elsewhere (eg.
Carboniferous Tengiz Field. 2005 . Kazakhstan Kenter et al..
Permian Capitan Reef • Wave resistant.. 1994 . M =microbial micrite Scale bar = 10cm Wood et al. porous structure forming platform margin • Dominantly constructed by sponges and bryozoa • Capitan reef and associated facies form major reservoirs in Permian Basin of West Texas S= sponge. B= bryozoan.
but more common as isolated buildups in midCretaceous • Major hydrocarbon reservoirs in the Middle East . 2003 • Skeletal organisms capable of framebuilding not abundant; dominated by microbialbound (rudist and coral) buildups • Platform margin development locally in Lower Cretaceous.Mesozoic Reef mounds Length= 4mm Hillgartner et al..
1991. Mallorca Pomar.Miocene. 2003 • Shallow water. euphotic (autotrophic) coral algal reef assemblages forming steeply dipping platform margins .
Pinnacle reefs Luconia Province. Malaysia Epting. 1989 .Miocene.
These organisms have changed through time as a function of evolution • The morphology of the reef and the associated reef facies exert a strong control on reservoir properties .Summary • Carbonate buildups are laterallyrestricted structures. which have usually undergone organicallymediated growth • The growth and morphology of carbonate build ups is strongly influenced by relative sea level and the type of reefbuilding organisms.