PLANNING OF CITIES

Then, Now & Tomorrow!
DEFINITION OF A CITY
Cities came into existence concurrently with the agriculture revolution of Neolithic times 12,000 years ago. Thus the city is an artifact that predates the industrial revolution. A city is a group of people and a number of permanent structures within a limited geographical area, so organized as to facilitate the interchange of goods and services among its residents and with the outside world. One conventional population definition is, the cordon that encloses the area in which the density is 2500 people/ sq mile. There is wide latitude for argument about various specific definitions of urban agglomerations based on size. In USA, a town is bigger than a village but smaller than a city; where as in England, Town does not necessarily indicate a specific size at all; a group of buildings on a farm could properly be called a town in Britain. Thus we can say that there is no one definition of a city. One must adopt a definition commonly accepted for the purpose to which he wishes to put it. Further, more, the user must make very clear his precise definition if this plays a pivotal role in his argument.

CONTENTS

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Definition of a city Origin of city Ancient Towns The Classic Towns Pre Medieval and Medieval Towns Renaissance Towns Modern Cities The City of Tomorrow Conclusion References

PLANNING OF CITIES
Then, Now & Tomorrow!
DEFINITION OF A CITY
Cities came into existence concurrently with the agriculture revolution of Neolithic times 12,000 years ago. Thus the city is an artifact that predates the industrial revolution. A city is a group of people and a number of permanent structures within a limited geographical area, so organized as to facilitate the interchange of goods and services among its residents and with the outside world. One conventional population definition is, the cordon that encloses the area in which the density is 2500 people/ sq mile. There is wide latitude for argument about various specific definitions of urban agglomerations based on size. In USA, a town is bigger than a village but smaller than a city; where as in England, Town does not necessarily indicate a specific size at all; a group of buildings on a farm could properly be called a town in Britain. Thus we can say that there is no one definition of a city. One must adopt a definition commonly accepted for the purpose to which he wishes to put it. Further, more, the user must make very clear his precise definition if this plays a pivotal role in his argument.

ORIGIN OF CITIES
There are different views regarding the origin of cities. ‘Mumford’ argues that there were three reasons for establishing these first villages: first, as sanctuaries and places rites of the dead; second, as ceremonial centers for magic, religious practices and social enjoyment; and only thirdly as means for promoting the safety of the tribe. The Algonquin were a nomadic people and subsisted by hunting, fishing and gathering. In general, we could say they were a Neolithic people who had passed through the agricultural revolution. The Iroquois, on the other hand, had an agricultural economy.

They lived in comfortable, permanent lodges behind carefully constructed defensive ramparts. For a distance as great as 5 miles out, their villages were surrounded with maize fields and apple orchards. They had abundant stores of corn, beans, squash, and fruit in storage by the time winter approached. This advanced agriculture was carried on by the women and children, leaving the warriors free to engage in art forms such as the dance and elaborate rituals to develop a complex political structure, and most of all, to engage in offensive war. Whereas the Algonquin needed all their energy to maintain each small wandering band through the cold winter, the Iroquois gathered, nation by nation, in their warm lodges, supported their ample stocks of food and fiber, and planned their raiding parties for the approaching spring. The surplus human energy released by the agricultural revolution can be argued as it has by Adams, to have triggered the rise of cities. Mumford would agree and go further, pointing out that in turn this encouraged an attitude of special sanctity toward property rights and indeed the invention of aggressive war. And Cornier connects the rise of agriculture to the rise of the state. A ‘Class A’ city was approximately 2 km. on a side and contained a maximum of approximately 50000 persons. ‘Center of Empire’ could describe the first of three functions we will postulate as the driving force behind the establishment of ‘Class B’ centers. These three functions are also roughly sequential in time, although remnants of early Class B type centers still exist. Most major cities of the world before 18th century were centers of empire. Because rapid communication was impossible, the reins of government had to be gathered together in the capital. A major portion of the army was stationed nearby, and the greater part of the empire’s business was conducted near the capital city to swell beyond the limits of a regional trading center to become a Class B city. City may be grouped into two main divisions according as they evolved consciously or unconsciously. It cannot be definitely arrested in the history of any city that every stage of its growth from the very foundation was due to deliberate efforts to improve and expand it. Neither can the country proposition be seriously adducted, that at no period of a certain city did it receive any trimming from human hands. The truth perhaps lies midway between these

extremes. Either it was first laid out by a certain King; then grew and grew until the unseemly state of things called for a full- fledged city, there resided a patriarchal family in days of hoary antiquity. The family grew into village; the village, a possibly because of containing a marketcenter, out grew its rural dimensions and significance until it came to be a city and was at some stage or other, altered and improved according to the best town planning traditions. After the industrial revolution and the growth of the factory system, new pressures for agglomerations developed. Thousands of employees were needed in the newly developed large mills, and in addition many independent suppliers chose to locate in the factory cities. Thus centers for industrialization sprang up. Evolution of names of Indian cities: A close study of the synonyms below will reveal the history and explain the origin and characteristics of the Indo-Aryan cities. The ‘Savdakalpadruma’ gives the following synonyms of ‘PURAM’, the Sanskrit equivalent of a city; a house (geha); a place containing a market and the like (hattadivisishta-sttanam); a place of palaces or royal residence (puri); a town (Nagara); an emporium (pattanam); a local fastness (sthaniyam); a camp (katakam); a crossing of great highways (pattam); a commercial center (nigama); a place on a river side (putabhedanam).

ANCIENT TOWNS
Towns like Memphis, Thebes, Urs, Babylon, Persepolis, Mohenjo-Doro and Peking in the ancient period, in the fertile valleys of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China. Later on, Greek and Roman towns like Athens, Miletus, Priene, Syracuse, and Rome were founded and the colonial expansion of the Roman Empire, Baalbek Lebanon, Timgad (North Africa) and many other towns came into existence. The populations of the ancient towns ranged between 5000 to 200000 inhabitants. 1. Babylon towns The city was along the Euphrates River and was surrounded by walls and moats. The processional avenues lead to the Ishtar Gate. The temple, great walls and hanging gardens of Nebuchadenzzar’s palace were the vivid spectacle of Babylon in the sixth and fifth centuries BC. The town had narrow streets lined with three to four storied dwellings of populace. Behind the avenues, laid in regular pattern at right angles to each other, were the crowded houses of the people. Of more concern to the vanity of rulers was the monumental spectacle of the great edifices with which they adored their cities.

2. Egyptian towns In the third millennium
B.C

cells and compartments of sun- dried bricks were crowded

about common courtyards like huge barracks. Narrow lanes served as open drainage sewers as well as passageways to the dwellings. Walls surrounded the towns. Because the kingdom was broad and mighty, they were probably built primarily for protection from seasonal floods rather than the armies of invading enemies. In the second millennium B.C, Egyptians built temple cities on the banks of river Nile. Monumental avenues, colossal temple plazas and rock–cut tombs remain mute testimony on the luxurious life of the nobility in the history of city of the people. 3. Mohenjo-Daro Its unique urban characteristics ensure it a place in the annals of world architecture, which had its epicenter in the plains of the Indus. The main cities are Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. Both are in modern-day Pakistan. If by 'urban' we mean the tendency to form society, found in cities with all those attendant rules, then the Harappan people succeeded admirably. Excavations show a degree of urban planning which the Romans achieved only later, after a gap of 2500 years. Both cities were a mile square, with defensive outer walls. An orthogonal street layout was oriented toward the cardinal directions. It is also evident that major roads ran in the north – south direction (first street) and east west directions (cross roads). The street layout shows an understanding of the basic principles of traffic, with rounded corners to allow the turning of carts easily. The house was planned as a series of rooms opening on to a central courtyard. This courtyard served the multiple functions of lighting the rooms, acting as a heat absorber in summer and radiator in winter, as well as providing an open space inside for community activities. There were no openings toward the main street, thus ensuring privacy for the residents’ individual house. Houses ranged from two rooms to mansions with numerous rooms. An advanced drainage system is also in evidence. Drains started from the bathrooms of the houses and joined the main sewer in the street, which was covered by brick slabs or corbelled brick arches, depending on its width. The principle buildings excavated are a public bath and a monastery.

4. Peking, China The city is in the form of a grid, oriented according to cardinal points, the form finalized during the 15th century. Straight streets and avenues were laid out around the central palace known as the ‘Forbidden City’. The Forbidden city (Imperial palace) reflects the power and energy of the ancient authorities. A great museum of historical structures and artifacts, it stands at the head of Tien An Men Square surrounded by public buildings.

5. Lukang, Taiwan The ancient town divided the north-south and east- west streets, which controlled the function of social control. Walls that formed a self- contained area surrounded each block. In conventional Chinese architecture, people and space should be in harmony. This concept is crucial to understanding the Chinese city. Crooked streets mark the town. It is an easily workable community. Large farmhouses and small factories are located outside the town. The linear commercial area is located along the main street as are the two major temples. Beyond the residential section are the agricultural area and the fishponds. 6. Priene Here, the agora occupies the approximate geographical center of the town. About it are the temple shrines, public buildings and shops. The dwelling blocks are planned to provide the appropriate orientation of houses. Recreation and entertainment facilities are provided in the gymnasiums, stadiums and theater. The contours of the site indicate that some of the streets were very steep, steps being frequently required, but the main streets connecting the gates and the agora were generally placed so that beasts of burden and carts traverse them readily.

7. Pompeii, Italy* On August 23, 79 AD, Pompeii looked like any other busy, prosperous city. People were moving about, trading goods, news, and friendly talk. Three days later, on August 26, all of these sounds had fallen silent, and the place itself had vanished. Almost nothing was

seen of Pompeii for more than 1500 years. 79 August 24 and 25--Vesuvius erupts, burying Pompeii in ash and cinders and covering Herculaneum in mud as hard as rock. Ash, rock and cinders fall over a large area, damaging houses in many faraway places and blackening the sky over what is now known as Naples for three days.

8. Timgad, Rome The city was almost square in plan with the roads meeting at right angles to each other. This Roman colonial town in North Africa is the present day Algeria.

THE CLASSIC CITY
1. Miletus The expanding affairs of government required appropriate facilities. The agora or market place, was the center of business and political life, and about it were lined the shops and market booths. Accessible from the agora square, but not facing upon it, were the assembly hall, council hall and council chamber. The agora was geometrical in form. The streets generally terminated at the agora rather than crossing it, the open space being reserved primarily for pedestrian traffic and circulation. Olive groves flourished outside the walls and here the philosophers founded the academy. In these quite groves they met their pupils and set the pattern for later institutions of higher learning. From these academics came the first university, the museum of Alexandria.

2.Acropolis, Athens The temple rather than the palace of rulers dominated the ancient Hellenic city and a meeting place for political assembly of the people- the pnyx- was added to the urban pattern. As the power of kings diminished and democracy expanded, the houses of the people and community facilities established for their use assumed greater importance in the city plan.

PRE MEDIEVAL AND MEDIEVAL TOWNS
This period is considered from 1000 AD onwards. The towns of this period had walls around them for protection and defense, and were very crowded as a result. The field and pasture lands were outside the ramparts. Some of these towns became centers of wider and wider activities on a regional, national and continental basis, whereas, others dwindled in their size and importance. 1. Elburg The Dutch walled town Elburg was founded in 14th century. The walls date from the end of 16th century. The church is situated in extreme north- east corner of the city.

2. Noerdlingen The plan of this city shows the radial and lateral pattern of irregular roadways with the church plaza as the principal focal point of the town. The city of Middle Ages grew within the confines of the walls. While the population was small, there was space in the town, but when it increased, the buildings were pocketed more closely and the open spaces filled. Sanitation and water supply remained same. The result was intolerable congestion, lack of hygiene and pestilence.

3. Montpazier The city was founded basically to protect the trade and provide military security. They were plotted for allocation of sites to settlers and the regular plan is a distinct contrast to the informal development of the normal medieval town.

4. Carcassonne Carcassonne was resorted by Viollet-le-Duc in the 19th century. In it, the castle with its own moat and walls, the market place and the church can be seen.

RENAISSANCE TOWNS
The era of renaissance was ushered in, in Europe in the 15th century. The new renaissance style of town planning was used for town extensions and reconstructions; but the guiding principles of the style were defence of the town against artillery. In this period of city plans, the basic concept was vista forming straight streets. The new chessboard pattern of street layout was adopted to create gardens and fountains with new types of public squares or groups of squares. 1.Vienna In the late 18th and early 19th centuries long- range artillery was greatly improved and the old systems of walls, moats and ramparts were reduced in effectiveness for military defence and the form of the city underwent drastic alterations. The walls and ramparts were leveled, the moats were filled in and boulevards were built in the open space as in the famous Ringstrasse encircling the original town of Vienna. These spaces separated the old town from the surrounding suburbs but, as in Paris, they were gradually built up in response to the ruthless speculation of the late 19th century and open space disappeared from the city.

2. Jaipur city Jaipur is an example of a medieval city in India. The plan follows the gridiron pattern, so popular everywhere in the early days. This is one of the few examples of the types to be followed even today.

3. Peking Tien An Men square in Peking, China represents one of the largest plazas in the world. It originally covered 27 acres but in 1958 was enlarged to include 98 acres. Huge public buildings that appear small against the background of the open space surround it.

MODERN CITIES
Town forms, physical planning and layouts: Mankind has been living in towns, big and small, from times immemorial and the pattern of the town plan has generally been influenced by various factors such as situation of the site, the nature of the terrain, the period of development, the economic structure, the nature of industry and trade practiced. 1. Circular towns Towns with geographical possibility of spreading in all directions on a relatively level site have usually tended to grow in a roughly circular form with inner and outer ring roads, linked together by radiating roads emanating from the center. The residential areas in such towns are located around the core, between the ring and radial roads. The core itself forms the main business area and the early industry is usually mixed up with residential localities. As the town grows, new ring and radial roads come into existence simultaneously with peripheral growth.

2. Star – shaped towns A star shaped plan having green wedges of agricultural fields, fruit orchards, forests and parks radiates from the center of the town. These wedges alternate with compact residential localities served by commuter rail lines having populations of 25000 to 75000,

depending upon the size of the town. At their outer edges, the green wedges merge into the countryside, which serve the purpose of the green belt without any of its disadvantages. Copenhagen, capital of Denmark, has a plan based on the same principle, but with water on three sides, its development can take place only in one direction. Due to this, the shape of the plan looks like the fingers of the hand and hence its development plan is called the ‘fingers plan’ of Copenhagen.

3. Superblock towns Another variety of town form is based on the principle of the superblock, of which Chandigarh is an example. A town on this principle consists of a number of blocks, or sectors as they are called in India, in the form of rectangular tracts of land, approximately3/4
th

of a mile long and half a mile wide. They accommodate populations

ranging from 15000 to 25000 depending upon the exact area of the block and the density of development adopted. There are usually 3 to 4 neighborhood units in each block. A central continuous greenway passes through the unit and is picked up in the next and so on. This is repeated in the next block, which enables the inhabitants to walk practically from one end of the town to another in perfect safety from vehicular traffic and in cheerful surroundings. The sector contains schools, shops, clinics, clubs, social centers, places of worship etc. and is virtually self- contained. The larger public buildings are well

distributed in the town in suitable locations and some of them are placed in the town center.

4. Self- Contained new towns In large towns and in cases where employment is widely dispersed throughout the metropolitan region, the growing population can be channeled into new self- contained towns having large populations of 1 to 2.5 lakhs. Such towns can be separated by strips of open country from the parent town, so that they have their own identity, yet they can draw upon the benefits, the parent town has to offer.

5. Town plan evolved by the MARS group Its basic concept for replanning of London (during the world war II, when the question of replanning of London was being considered) was in the form of a series of strip- like communities which were connected by a network of rail lines to commercial and industrial areas that stretched out at right angles to an elongated core at the center of the plan, but it was not implemented.

6. Linear towns Geographical features often dictate the town form and a linear town sometimes results there from. Such elongated towns are not convenient to live, more particularly if the population exceeds 2 to 3 lakhs, because the distances to be covered to reach the town center where the major amenities are located are too long and the journey thereto causes fatigue. A well-known town of this type is Stalingard in Russia. The new town of Cumbernauld in Scotland is also an elongated town, but since its population is limited to 70000, difficulties cannot crop up there.

7. Victor Gruen’s Metropolis Victor Gruen’s in his book ‘The Heart Of Our Cities’ has discussed in considerable detail his concept of the cellular Metropolis of tomorrow having a population of 33,00,000. He visualizes a metropolitan organism in which cells, each one consisting of a nucleus and protoplasm are combined into clusters to form organs like towns, which in turn are grouped to form cities and finally into highly developed organism which should be the Metropolis of tomorrow. There is another form of town plan, which was mainly intended for the capitals of countries. It was generally monumental in character to impress the visitors. At the beginning of the 20th century, plans for such capital towns were impressive to look at, but not much by way of livability. Traffic conditions are generally poor for today’s automobile traffic because of too many junctions, the neighbourhood concept of living is absent as a result of large plots for individual houses, shopping facilities are few and main shopping center is away from residential areas. New Delhi is an example of this type of plan.

CITY PLANNING CONCEPTS OF MODERN DAY ARCHITECTS: 1. E Howard’s garden city concept In 1898 E Howard suggested the idea of a garden city with a radial concentric plan structure. Branching out from the city center with a design population of 30000 are 6 radial avenues linking a park in the center with the outer boundaries of the city. The plan provides for a walk way encircling the park beyond which is the residential area comprising 5500 sites for dwellings with gardens. In the middle of this area is a green boulevard; industries are located beyond the city limits.

2. I Leonidov’s city planning concept Architect I Leonidov’s desire to find a harmonious relationship between the main parts of the city in the process of its development is expressed in his design. Here the city develops along the highway leading to the industrial area with cultural, sports, medical and other public buildings and facilities located parallel to the housing complexes on the highway. 3. N Milyutin’s planning concept Developing Leonidov’s idea, N Milyutin proposed his own plan for urban development, placing industry parallel to the residential area and other functional zones. This scheme was the basis for the general plans of a number of Soviet new cities.

4. N Ladvosky’s concept of planning a city In the late 20’s, N Ladvosky, another Soviet city planner after making a study of the radial-concentric and linear-type plans, developed a new parabolic flexible plan structure making possible, even development of all parts of the city without impeding the development of the existing centers. The structure may be regarded as the linear type city proposed by Milyutin and built around an old center.

5. Le Corbusier’s la-ville contemporaine In 1922, Le Corbusier suggested a design for a modern city of 3 million with high-rise tower buildings in the center. The city itself would have a population of 1 to 2 million living in suburbs. Forming the basic compositional axes of the centric plan of this city are its avenues built up with tall buildings. 60 storied public and administrative buildings, cruciform in the plan are located in the center of the city. Surrounding the center are

residential districts with 60 storied residential buildings of an irregular form in plan. Parks and rest and recreational spaces will occupy the remaining territory. The main streets of residential districts are 50 m wide and spaced 400 m from each other. Located in the center of the city is an airport with under-ground traffic crossings and under them at 3 levels are the vestibules and stations of the public transportation system.

6. Le Corbusier’s Radiant City Even better known is the design ‘Radiant City’ suggested by Le Corbusier in 1933. This design is a development of the idea of the city for 3 million with an open linear structure and having growth perspectives. Although the plan retains elements of a geometric pattern, it is characterized by a parallel layout of functional zones perpendicular to a transverse axis-an idea that repeats to a certain extent the design for a ‘Socialist City’ by N Milyutin.

7. Le Corbusier’s Chandigarh city plan In 1950 Le Corbusier realized his city-planning concept for a modern city, collaborating with Indian architects in planning and building the city of Chandigarh. The city of urban greenery taking into account hot climate provides for green open spaces penetrating through the housing zones. Located in landscape areas stretching along pedestrian walkways are cultural, educational buildings and shopping centers. The street network pattern is regular. The city is divided into equal rectangular sectors 800-1200 m in size, each one differing in layout, character and building density, types of communal services to meet the particular needs of the various social groups of the population. The centers are clearly defined: The government center of the capital (The Assembly Hall, The Secretariat, The High Court, The Governor’s Palace) in the north; in the Northwest – the

cultural centers with the university in a park; in the center of the residential area – the civic center. The industrial zone occupies a small area, the city being largely regarded as the administrative, cultural center and the capital of the states.

8. Doxiadas’s Existensia In 1953, the concept of existensia, a city as developed by the Greek urbanist C A Doxiadas became well known not only in Greece but also in a number of other countries. Doxiadas formulated the theoretical basis of the city of the future and a new branch of science-‘Existensia’ (the science of human habitation) embracing the organization of global space in the broad meaning of the town to meet the vital needs of man. He advanced the theory of the future form of population distribution as and Oikoumenopolis’ –the fusing of cities into giant agglomerations. In 1959 he had an opportunity to realize some of his ideas in the design of the general plan for the city of Islamabad, now the capital of Pakistan. Islamabad developed as a metropolis together with the old town of Rawalpindi on the highway between Karachi and Peshawar.

9. B Malish’s Threshold Theory The Polish architect B Malish advanced another well-known concept, the so-called ‘threshold’ theory. According to his theory, there are a number of obstacles or thresholds connected with future urban development, viz., Physical–Geographical conditions configuration and topography, Existing level of infrastructure, Functional interdependence of urban structures. This theory provides for two paths of urban development – the overcoming of the threshold, the decentralization of population distribution by creating Conurbations.

10. L Kibil’s concept of planning an ‘Ideal City’ L Kibil, an adherent of ‘Ideal Cities’ with a radial concentric structure advanced by the 19th century urbanisms favors satellite towns for 60000 inhabitants. In the main satellite town, single-family houses are provided with garden plots. The town is divided into narrow radial belts for sports grounds, schools and pre school buildings. In the center of the town, which is circular in form shops, administrative offices and higher educational institutions are located. A ring highway frames the public center, radial major roads which lead to the center dividing the town into 4 sectors. One sector is for industry and the other 3 sectors are for residential districts, each of which consists of two residential

communities for 10000 inhabitants. Each community has its own compact shopping center.

Purpose of the plan: The modern city is a complex organism. It is a great human enterprise serving the material and spiritual needs of man. It is a segment of the land on which the people have selected their places to live and to work, to learn and to trade, to play and to pray. It is a mosaic of homes and shops, factories and offices, schools and libraries, theaters and hospitals, parks and churches, meeting places and government centers, fire stations and post offices. These are woven together by a network of streets and transportation routes, water, sanitation, and communication channels, and held together by social bonds and economic conditions. To arrange all these facilities properly as the city develops is the function of the comprehensive plan. This rests with the standards a community determines to maintain and the balanced use of its land and resources. The term Master Plan has been applied to almost every scheme for property development from an individual lot to a large estate, a shopping center, or a city. The term General Plan identifies long-range, comprehensive planning by or for a government agency as a foundation for overall land development policies within specific corporate limits. The term Comprehensive Plan was added to the planner’s vocabulary in recent years to indicate that current community planning is more than general. The comprehensive plan is a guide to orderly city development to promote the health, safety, welfare and convenience of the people of a community. It organizes and coordinates the complex relationships between urban land uses and many civic activities. Problems in Plan Implementation: The implementation of a plan of a town requires government and the private sector to have a reasonably similar view of the future. The most important obstacle to appropriate plan implementation exists in the political process that permits the plan to be amended without sound reason or ignores the plan as though it did not have a definitive role in producing compatible development. A major problem with many plans is that there is no schedule for their development. The past lack of growth management techniques has

created plans that are not time and sequential phased. There was no sound basis for the extension and installation of the infrastructure, and thus there was no indication of where, how, or when the community could implement the plan. Objections by the citizen groups often delay or halt the implementation of portions of a plan. Present Picture in India: It is well known that most of the big cities and towns of India have been expanding beyond their boundaries at an alarming pace for the last two decades. In the majority of the cases, such expansions have been taking place without consideration of the city’s need in the foreseeable future in the fields of industry, traffic, social amenities, open spaces, educational facilities, housing and opportunities for the pursuit of leisure and amusement, because comprehensive plans for controlling and guiding future development have not been prepared. In a few cases where the plans have been prepared, no measures have been taken to implement them.

THE CITY OF TOMORROW
PREDICTIONS: Following is a brief description of a number of projects for the city of the future published in special soviet and foreign literature as the urban population is growing much faster than the world population. 1.Radio City A Swiss architect designed this type of an experimental city. It consisted of seven residential formations, each in the form of dome-shaped structure designed to house 15000 persons. The space inside the dome divided into tiers, will accommodate both residential blocks and cultural and service facilities and also industrial enterprises. They can function both as rigidly fixed to the ground and floating on water. First and second tiers are intended for industrial establishments where as third tier was for shops, restaurants, hotels, elementary schools, kindergartens, exhibitions, and clubs. The upper tiers were considered as residential blocks. Around 22 hectares of area around each dome was left for green belts along with social and cultural organizations, a theater, secondary school, higher school, museum, main post office, and hospitals and sports facilities. The very form itself of a dome predetermines the creation of ring roads encircling each structure and radial roads linking the ring roads with each other.

2.V Iona’s city with Funnel Shape Residential Communities Swiss architect, v Iona’s idea of a city consists of a group of funnels (cones) with the apex resting on the ground and the top of the funnel connected by the beams. Each funnel is a self- contained block with the apartments located in tiers. In the author’s opinion, the advantage of this form is that the apartments which are placed in the terrace on the inside wall of the funnel will all be better insolated and protected against the noise and harmful gases of automotive traffic. Each funnel will have 702 horse- shoe shaped apartments designed for 2000 persons. Height of the structure will almost be 100 m and the diameter in the top is 200m. Cultural and service facilities and shops are located in the lower part of the funnel. The apartments occupy 2/3rd of the entire plan. Ramps are made on the outside for direct access of cars to the apartments.

3. V Iona’s Floating Funnel City – ‘Intra’ V Iona applied an idea in his design for the floating city of ‘Intra’ consisting of an underwater part, a cone and a funnel. They accommodate various facilities, with schools and apartments on the top. Solar energy is trapped here by mirrors regulated by computers and concentrated in a central station placed on the top of a mast in the center of the structure.

4. P Meymont’s Suspension Resort town P Meymont proposed a design for a resort located on rocky shore. It is a cable suspension construction supported by two masts containing emergency staircases. Suspended from cables are villas connected by suspended passages.

5. P Meymont’s 3-Dimensional City Cable construction was most fully realized in his design of 3-Dimensional City with a central mast and tension cables. The entire body of the structure hanging from a central mast is divided into rings of varying angles of slope making it possible to obtain constant sunlight throughout the enormous space inside the structure.

6. P Meymont’s Floating City In this plan of P Meymont’s, the residential blocks are constructed for 15000 to 20000 inhabitants located on caissons up to 300m to 500m in diameter and connected with each other by bridges for automotive traffic.

7. Dwelling- 67 Dwelling-67 is a housing complex exhibited in an exhibition at Montreal in 1967. Here the system consists of sloping structural elements (diamond shaped flat frames at an angle of 60° connected with each other) to which 3 dimensional residential cells with gardens are suspended. This type of dwelling is especially suited for hot climate since each apartment has direct contact with nature and a diversified layout of the residential cells makes it possible to combat solar radiation.

8. G Borisovsky’s Hanging City G Borisovsky was a Soviet architect with great ideas. The Hanging City is supported by hollow supports (shafts) several 100m high and spaced at a considerable distance from each other. The lifts and other engineering facilities are made inside the shafts. Stretched between the shafts is a 3-Dimensional net of high strength material to which any structural element can be suspended at any place. A kind of ‘field of force’ created in which are the suspended ‘Planet dwellings’, made of 3-Dimentional apartment cells hanging from the net at any place and in their entirety forming the residential space of the city in any shape. Here, the space is isolated from the environment by cup-shaped walls composed of pre- fabricated apartment cells. The climate inside is properly maintained. These dwellings can be suspended at various levels above old cities, gardens, woods and water areas.

9. Dynamic 3- Dimensional Vertical Structure by V Loktyev This system combines a flexible structure with cybernetic modeling of the city and urban distribution. Flexibility of the structure renders it possible to reconstruct and replace any cell unit when required.

10. K Pchelnikov’s 3- Dimensional City This concept is the rational development of existing urban aggregations by constantly renewing and increasing the heights of buildings. This concept is based on a model of a residential district of Moscow with a population of 75000 to 90000 to be carried out in a

period of 25 to 35 years. At each stage, part of the old buildings are demolished and replaced by structures up to 700m high.

CONCLUSION: There are many works going on in this topic of planning and upgrading cities with increasing populations. It is also possible to locate underground buildings and structures that practically do not require daylight such as cinema halls, shopping establishments, cultural and service facilities where people come for only a short time. The use of sub terrain space in large cities will make it possible to solve major city planning problem.

REFERENCES
1. J.E.Gibson, ‘Designing the New City: A Systemic Approach’, A WileyInterscience Publication. 2. Binode Behari Dutt, ‘Town Planning in Ancient India’, New Asian Publishers, Delhi. 3. N.V.Modak and V.N.Ambedkar, ‘Town and Country Planning and Housing’, Orient Longman Ltd. Publications. 4. Arthur B.Gallion and Simon Eisner, ‘The Urban Pattern: City Planning and Design’ IV edition, CBS Publishers and Distributors, Delhi. 5. ‘A.Rimsha- Town Planning in Hot Climates’, Translated from the Russian by A.Shvarts, Mir publishers, Moscow.

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