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My second treatment about the Skateboard Dynamics

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Skateboard

Andrey V. Kremnev, Alexander S. Kuleshov

avkremenmail.ru, kuleshovme h.math.msu.su

Abstra
t

In this paper we
ontinue our investigations, started in the paper [1℄

"Nonlinear Dynami
s and Stability of a Simplied Skateboard Model"

(http://akule.pisem.net/Kuleshov2.pdf). As in the previous model we

suppose that the rider
ontrol is absent during the motion. Equations of

motion of the model are derived by the Gibbs-Appell method and their anal-

ysis is fullled. The integrability of the obtained equations is investigated.

The nonlinear dynami
s of the system near the equilibrium posotion is also

studied.

Introdu
tion

This paper is a natural
ontinuation of the paper [1℄. However in order to read it

independently from [1℄ we in
lude in this paper the little part of results, obtained

in [1℄. These results are dis
ussed more brie
y than in [1℄ and used only for under-

standing the spe
i
features of a skateboard
onstru
tion, dening its kinemati
s

and dynami
s.

As in the paper [1℄ at the end of this paper the list of referen
es
ontains the

items, whi
h refer to Internet resour
es (les or sites). If the
orresponding refer-

en
es are no longer available the readers
an address to the authors using e-mails:

avkremenmail.ru, kuleshovme
h.math.msu.su or akulepisem.net.The authors

onrm that they have all ele
troni
resour
es listed at the end of this paper and

they are ready to give any of them to all interested persons.

The authors hope, that their investigations will ex
ite interest to the further

studying of a skateboard dynami
s.

Des ription of a Skateboard

**The skateboard typi
ally
onsists of the board, a set of two tru
ks and four wheels
**

(Fig. 1). The modern board is generally from 78-83
m long, 17-21
m wide and 1-2

m thi
k [2℄.

The most essential elements of a skateboard are the tru
ks,
onne
ting the axles

to the board. The rider
an
ontrol the skateboard using the spe
i
features of

tru
ks
onstru
tion. Angular motion of both the front and rear axles is
onstrained

Figure 1. Side view of Skateboard.

Figure 2. Top view of Skateboard

**to be about their respe
tive nonhorizontal pivot axes (Fig. 1), thus
ausing a steering
**

angle of the wheels whenever the axles are not parallel to the plane of the board

(Fig. 2). The vehi
le is steered by making use of this stati
relationship between

steering angles and tilt of the board.

We will assume, that the skateboard rolls on a horizontal plane and at every

instant of time all of its wheels are in
onta
t with the plane.

Following the papers [2, 3℄ suppose also that there is a torsional spring that

exerts a restoring torque between the wheelset and the board proportional to the

tilt of the board relative to the wheelset (Fig. 3); the
orrsponding proportionality

oeÆ
ient is k1 .

**The Skateboard Model
**

Problem Formulation. The Basi
Coordinate Systems.

**Considering the simplied skateboard model we assumed (see [1℄) that the rider,
**

modeled as a rigid body, remains xed and perpendi
ular with respe
t to the board.

In this
ase both the board and the rider position is dened by the unique generalized

oordinate
{ the tilt of the board. The next step in modeling
omplexity therefore

is to allow the board and rider to have separate roll degrees of freedom,
and '

respe
tively. Here the rider is assumed to be
onne
ted to the board with a pin

along the
entral line of a skateboard through a torsional spring whi
h exerts a

torque on the rider and board proportional to the dieren
e in their tilts relative to

the verti
al, T = k2 (
') as shown in Fig 3. Here k2 is the stiness of a rider's

2

torsional spring. In the most general
ase, rider
ontrol would be exer
ised through

an internal torque at the ankles a
ting both on the rider and on the board. Sin
e this

paper addresses only the lateral dynami
s without
ontrol, a spring was in
luded to

model the board-rider intera
tion.

Figure 3. Front/Rear view of Skateboard.

**Let us introdu
e an inertial
oordinate system OXY Z in the ground plane. The
**

origin O of this system is at any point of the ground plane, and the OZ -axis is

dire
ted perpendi
ularly to the ground plane. Let AB = a be the distan
e between

the two axle
enters A and B of a skateboard. The position of line AB with respe
t

to OXY Z system is dened by X and Y
oordinates of its
entre G and by the

angle between this line and the OX -axis (Fig 4).

The tilt of the board through
is a
ompanied by rotation of the front wheels

lo
kwise through Æf and rotation of the rear wheels anti
lo
kwise through Ær . The

wheels of a skateboard are assumed to roll without lateral sliding. This
ondition is

modeled by
onstraints whi
h may be shown to be nonholonomi

a

X_ sin ( Æf ) + Y_
os ( Æf ) + _
os Æf = 0:

2

(1)

a_

X_ sin ( + Ær ) + Y_
os ( + Ær )
os Ær = 0:

2

We
an solve equations (1) with respe
t to X_ and Y_ :

a_

X_ = [
os Æf
os ( + Ær ) +
os Ær
os ( Æf )℄ ;

2 sin (Æf + Ær )

(2)

a_

Y_ = [
os Æf sin ( + Ær ) +
os Ær sin ( Æf )℄ :

2 sin (Æf + Ær )

Thus, the velo
ities of the points A and B will be dire
ted horizontally and

perpendi
ularly to the axles of the wheels and there is a point P on the line AB

whi
h has zero lateral velo
ity. If we denote the forward speed of the point P by u

3

Figure 4. Coordinate System.

**and its distan
e from point A by z then it is easy to obtain the following formulas
**

(see [1℄):

a_
os Æf
os Ær u sin (Æf + Ær ) a sin Æf
os Ær

u= ; i.e. _ = ; z= :

sin (Æf + Ær ) a
os Æf
os Ær sin (Æf + Ær )

Using the theory of nite rotations (see, e.g. [4, 5℄) it
an be proved that the

steering angles of the wheels are expressed through the tilt of the board
by the

following formulas:

tan Æf = tan f sin
; tan Ær = tan r sin
; (3)

where f and r are the angles, whi
h the front and the rear pivot axes makes with

the horizontal (Fig. 1). For the rst time these formulae have been obtained by

a slightly dierent way in the garuate paper [6℄. The detailed explanation how to

derive this formulas
an be fownd in our paper [1℄. Note also, that the formulae

(3) are
ompletely agree with the experimental data from the site [7℄ where the

skateboard tru
k has been investigated numeri
ally.

Taking into a
ount the formulae z we
an rewrite the distan
e z from point A

to point P as follows:

a sin Æf
os Ær a tan Æf a tan f

z= = = :

sin (Æf + Ær ) tan Æf + tan Ær tan f + tan r

Thus under
onditions (3) the point P will be lo
ated at a
onstant distan
e

from point A. Using this fa
t we
an introdu
e the
oordinate system P x1 x2 x3

whi
h is rigidly
onne
ted with a skateboard. The origin of this system is at P and

the unit ve
tors are e1 , e2 , e3 . The unit ve
tor e1 is dire
ted along the line AB in

the dire
tion of motion, e3 -ve
tor is dire
ted perpendi
ularly to the ground plane

and e2 -ve
tor forms right-hand system with e1 and e3 . Further we will investigate

the motion of the skateboard with respe
t to two
oordinate systems: the system

OXY Z and the system P x1 x2 x3 .

Absolute velo ity of the board and the rider enter of mass

**Let us nd now the formula for the velo
ity of the board
enter of mass. Suppose
**

that the board of a skateboard is lo
ated a distan
e h above the line AB . Sin
e the

4

tilt of the board through
auses rotation of the entire vehi
le (the board and the

rider) about the line AB , then this tilt produ
es a translation of the
entral line of

the board relative to the line AB (Fig. 5). The radius { ve
tor of the point D on

the
entral line whi
h has been lo
ated above point P before the tilt has a form:

!

P D = h
os
3 e h sin
2 : e

Figure 5.

**Suppose that the length of the board is also equal to a and the board's
enter of
**

mass C is lo
ated at its
enter. Therefore, when the board is not tilted its
enter of

mass C is lo
ated a distan
e h above the
enter G of the line AB . The radius-ve
tor

of point C relative to the
oordinate system P x1 x2 x3 has the form:

! !

P C = P D + DC =

! a (tan f tan r )

e

h sin
2 + h
os
3 :e e

2 (tan f + tan r ) 1

To nd the absolute velo
ity of the board's
enter of mass we will use the law of

omposition of velo
ities. The relative velo
ity of point C equals

v r

C = h
_
os
e2 h
_ sin
3 : e

The translational velo
ity of point C has the form:

= vP + ! P!

h i

v t

C C :

**Taking into a
ount, that
**

u (tan f + tan r ) sin

v P = ue1 ; ! = _e3 = e3; a

we nally get:

!

(tan f +tan r ) h

v t

C =u 1

a

sin2
e1 u

2

(tan f tan r ) sin
e2 :

**Thus, the absolute velo
ity of point C has the form
**

!

(tan f + tan r ) h

v C =u 1

a

sin2
e1

(4)

(tan f tan r ) sin
e2 h
_
os
e2 h
_ sin
e3 :

u

2

5

We will nd now the absolute velo
ity of the rider's
enter of mass. As in the

paper [1℄ we assume that the rider's
enter of mass R is not lo
ated above the

board's
enter of mass, but it is lo
ated over the
entral line of the board a distan
e

d behind the front tru
k. We denote by E the point on the
entral line where the

rider stands. Let ` be the height of the rider's
enter of mass over the
entral line of

the board. Then the radius-ve
tor of the rider's
enter of mass R has the folloeing

form with respe
t to P x1 x2 x3 system:

! !

P R = P D + DE + ER =

! ! (a d) tan f d tan r

e1

tan f +tan r

(h sin
+ ` sin ') e2 +(h
os
+ `
os ') e3 :

The relative velo
ity of point R equals:

v r

R = (h
_
os
+ `'_
os ') e2 (h
_ sin
+ `'_ sin ') e3 :

The translational velo
ity of point R may be written as follows:

= vP + ! P!

h i

v t

R R :

or in the expli
it form:

!

(tan f + tan r ) (h sin
+ ` sin ')

vt

R =u 1

a

sin
e1

u

a

((a d) tan f e

d tan r ) sin
2 :

**Finally, the absolute velo
ity of the rider's
enter of mass equals:
**

!

(tan f +tan r ) (h sin
+ ` sin ')

v t

R =u 1

a

sin
e1

(h
_
os
+ `'_
os ') e2 (h
_ sin
+ `'_ sin ') e3 (5)

u

a

((a d) tan f d tan r ) sin
2 : e

Angular velo
ity of the board has the following form:

b =
_ e1 + _e3 =
_ e1

u

a

e

(tan f + tan r ) sin
3 : (6)

A
ording to the problem formulation, in this
ase the angular velo
ity of the

rider does not
oin
ide with the angular velo
ity of the board as in the
ase, inves-

tigated in [1℄. For this model of a skateboard the rider's angular velo
ity has the

form:

r = '_ e1 + _e3 = '_ e1 u (tan f + tan r ) sin
e3:

a

(7)

Thus the formulae for the absolute velo
ity of the board's
enter of mass C and

the rider's
enter of mass R and for the angular velo
ities of the board and the rider

are dened by (4)-(7).

6

Equations of motion

**We derive now equations of motion of the given model of a skateboard in the form of
**

the Gibbs { Appell equations. We
hoose variables u,
_ and '_ as a pseudovelo
ities

for this problem. In order to derive dierential equations of skateboard motion in

the Gibbs-Appell form, let us obtain the Gibbs fun
tion [8℄. This fun
tion is known

also as the energy of a
eleration [4℄. It is well known that the Gibbs fun
tion of a

rigid body
an be
al
ulated using the formula (see [4℄)

W

S= 2 +1

m _

_ +

_ [

℄ ; (8)

2 2 C C C

**where m is the mass of the body, W is a
eleration of the body's
enter of
**

mass, is the moment of inertia tensor of the body and

and

_ are respe
tively

C

C

the angular velo
ity and angular a
eleration of the body.

We will assume that the dire
tion of the prin
ipal axes of inertia of the board is

dened by the unit ve
tors e , e , e of the
oordinate system C , whose origin

is at the board
enter of mass. These ve
tors are
onne
ted with unit ve
tors of the

oordinate system P x1 x2 x3 by the following relations:

e1 = e ; e2 = e

os
e

sin
; e3 = e sin
+ e
os
:

In other words, dire
tion of the prin
ipal axes of inertia of the board is generated

by rotating the P x1 x2 x3 system through
about P x1 . Thus the P -axis is always

normal to the plane of the board. The inertia tensor of the board, written in the

C system, has the form

0 1

Ibx 0 0

b = B 0

Iby 0 C

A:

0 0 Ibz

**Similarly, dire
tion of the prin
ipal axes of inertia of the rider is dened by the
**

unit ve
tors e0 , e0 , e0 of the
oordinate system R 0 0 0, whose origin is at the rider

enter of mass. These ve
tors are
onne
ted with unit ve
tors of the
oordinate

system P x1 x2 x3 by the following relations:

e1 = e0 ; e2 = e0
os ' e0 sin '; e3 = e0 sin ' + e0
os ':

**Thus, dire
tion of the prin
ipal axes of inertia of the rider is generated by rotating
**

the P x1 x2 x3 system through ' about P x1 . The inertia tensor of the rider, written

in the R 0 0 0 system, has the form

0 1

Irx 0 0

B

r= 0 Iry 0 C

A:

0 0 Irz

**Using expressions (4), (5) for the absolute velo
ity of the board's
enter of mass
**

and the rider's
enter of mass we
an
al
ulate the absolute a
eleration of these

points. For the absolute a
eleration of the board's
enter of mass we have the

following expression

7

w C = wC 1 e1 + wC 2 e2 !

+ wC 3 e3 ;

(tan f + tan r ) h 2

wC 1 = u_ 1 sin

a

**u2 (tan2 f tan2 r ) 3u
_ (tan f + tan r ) h
**

sin2
sin
os
;

2a a

wC 2 = h (
_ 2 sin
os
)

(tan f tan r )

(u_ sin
+ u
_
os
)

2

!

u2 (tan f + tan r ) sin
(tan f + tan r ) h 2

1 sin
;

a a

wC 3 = h ( 2

sin
+
_
os
) :

Similarly for the a
eleration of the rider's
enter of mass we have the following

formulas

wR = wR1e1 + wR2e2 + wR3e3;!

(tan f +tan r ) (h sin
+ ` sin ') sin

wR1 = u_ 1

a

u (tan f + tan r )

(3h
_ sin
os
+2`'_ sin
os ' + `
_
os
sin ')

a

u2

((a d) tan f d tan r ) (tan f +tan r ) sin2
;

a2

**wR2 = h
_ 2 sin
+ `'_ 2 sin ' h
os
`'
os '
**

!

(tan f +tan r ) (h sin
+ ` sin ') sin
u2 (tan f +tan r ) sin

1

a a

((a d) tan f d tan r )

(u_ sin
+ u
_
os
) ;

a

**wR3 = h
sin
`' sin ' h
_ 2
os
`'_ 2
os ':
**

The angular a
eleration of the board has the form

_ b =
e1 u (tan f + tan r )
_ sin
e2 (tan f + tan r ) (u_ sin
+ u
_
os
) e3:

a a

Using expressions of e1 , e2 , e3 in terms of e , e , e , we get for

_ b the following

expression:

_ b =
e (tan f + tan r ) (u_ sin
+ 2u
_
os
) sin
e

a

(tan f + tan r )

a

u_ sin
os
+
os2
sin2
u
_ e:

8

The angular a
eleration of the rider has the form

u (tan f + tan r ) (tan f + tan r )

_ r = 'e1

a

'_ sin
2 e a

(u_ sin
+ u
_
os
) e3 :

**Using expressions of e1 , e2 , e3 in terms of e0 , e0 , e0 , we get for
**

_ r the following

expression:

(tan f + tan r )

_ r = 'e0

a

(u_ sin
sin ' + u'_ sin
os ' + u
_ sin '
os
) e0

(tan f + tan r )

(u_ sin
os ' u'_ sin
sin ' + u
_
os
os ') e0 :

a

Let mb be the mass of the board and mr be the mass of the rider. Substituting

expressions for the a
eleration of the board's
enter of mass, the rider's
enter of

mass and the angular velo
ities and a
elerations both the board and the rider into

formula (8) we get the Gibbs fun
tion of the system:

1h

S= A +(C1 2D1 ) sin2
+ F1 sin4
2L1 sin
sin '+

2 1

i E N

+ 2G1 sin3
sin ' + H1 sin2
sin2 ' u_ 2 + 1
2 + 1 '2 +

2 2

+B1 u_
sin
os
u_
_ 2 sin2
+ u
_
os2
+

**+K1 (u_ ' sin
os ' u_ '_ 2 sin
sin ' + u
_ '
os
os ') +
**

+J1 (
'
os ('
)
'_ 2 sin ('
) +
_ 2 ' sin ('
)) +

+2 G1 sin2
L1 + H1 sin
sin ' uu_ '_ sin
os '+

+ D1 F1 sin2
G1 sin
sin ' u2
sin
os
+

+ L1 H1 sin
sin ' G1 sin2
u2 ' sin
os '+

h

+ (C1 3D1 ) sin
L1 sin ' + 3F1 sin3
+ H1 sin
sin2 ' +

i

+ 4G1 sin2
sin ' uu

_
_
os

Here we introdu
e the following notations:

(mb + mr ) (tan f + tan r ) h

A1 = mb + mr ; D1 = ; E1 = Ibx + mb h2 + mr l2 ;

a

mb m

B1 = (tan f tan r ) + r ((a d) tan f d tan r ) h;

2 a

9

mb Ibz + Irz

C1 = (tan f tan r )2 + (tan f + tan r )2 +

4 a2

m

+ 2r ((a d) tan f d tan r )2 ;

a

(tan f + tan r )2 mr ` (tan f + tan r )

F1 = (mb + mr ) h2 + Iby Ibz ; L1 = ;

a2 a

(tan f + tan r )2 mr `

H1 = Iry Irz + mr `2 ; K1 = ((a d) tan f d tan r ) ;

a2 a

mr h` (tan f + tan r )2

J1 = mr h`; N1 = Irx + mr `2 ; G1 = :

a2

The potential energy of the system
onsists of the potential due to gravity and

the potentials due to two torsional springs with the stinesses k1 and k2 :

k ('
)2

k1
2

V =+ 2 + mb gh
os
+ mr g`
os ':

2 2

The Gibbs { Appell equations, des
ribing the dynami
s of the given model of a

skateboard have the form

S S V S V

= 0; = ; =

u_
' '

or in the expli
it form

h

A1 + (C1 2D1 ) sin2
+ F1 sin4
2L1 sin
sin '+

i

+ 2G1 sin3
sin ' + H1 sin2
sin2 ' u_ +

**+B1 (
os
_ 2 sin
) sin
+ K1 ('
os ' '_ 2 sin ') sin
+
**

h

+ (C1 3D1 ) sin
L1 sin ' + 3F1 sin3
+

i

+ H1 sin
sin2 ' + 4G1 sin2
sin ' u
_
os
+

+2 G1 sin2
L1 + H1 sin
sin ' u'_ sin
os ' = 0; (9)

E1
+ J1 '
os ('
) J1 '_ 2 sin ('
) + B1 (u_ sin
+ u
_
os
)
os
+

+ D1 F1 sin2
G1 sin
sin ' u2 sin
os
+

+ (k1 + k2 )
k2 ' (mb + mr ) gh sin
= 0;

N1 ' + J1
os ('
) J1
_ 2 sin ('
) + K1 (u_ sin
+ u
_
os
)
os '+

+ L1 H1 sin
sin ' G1 sin2
u2 sin
os ' k2
+ k2 ' mr g` sin ' = 0:

10

The system (9) will be the main obje
t of our further investigations. We show

now that for arbitrary values of parameters A1 , B1 , : : :, N1 equations (9) possess a

rst integral { the energy integral. Indeed if we multiply the rst equation of (9)

by u, the se
ond by
_ and the third by '_ and then we take the sum of the obtained

expressions we nd after some simpli
ation that the result of these
al
ulations
an

be represented as a total derivative of the fun
tion

h

U0 = A1 +(C1 2D1 ) sin2
+ F1 sin4
2L1 sin
sin '+

i u2 E N

+ 2G1 sin3
sin ' + H1 sin2
sin2 ' + 1
_ 2 + 1 '_ 2 +

2 2 2

(10)

+B1 u
_ sin
os
+ K1 u'_ sin
os ' + J1'_
_
os (
') k2
'+

(k + k ) k

+ 1 2
2 + 2 '2 + (mb + mr ) gh
os
+ mr g`
os ' =
0 =
onst

2 2

This fun
tion (10) is a total me
hani
al energy of the system. Thus for integra-

bility of the system (9) we need three additional independent rst integrals. The

problem of integrability of the system (9) will be investigated below.

**Comparison with known results
**

The
onsidered model of a skateboard has been investigated for the rst time by

Hubbard [2, 3℄. Hubbard assumed that both the angles
and ' are small. Therefore

we
an easily obtain equations found in [2, 3℄. Indeed if we linearize equation (9)

with respe
t to
and ', then we
an write the linearized equations as follows:

E1
+ J1 ' + B1 u
_ + D1u2
+(k1 + k2)
k2 ' (mb + mr ) gh
=0;

(11)

N1 ' + J1
+ K1 u
_ + L1 u2
k2
+ (k2 mr g`)=0; u_ = 0:

Equations (11) have the same form that the equations found in [2, 3℄. The third

equation implies that, for the angles
and ' small enough, point P has a
onstant

forward speed u. Hen
e u will be treated as a parameter in the rst and the se
ond

equations for
and '.

Linear equations (11)
an be obtained also by another way [11℄. Let us keep in

the expression for the Gibbs fun
tion S only the terms of the se
ond order relative

to
and '. Then we get the following expression

A1 2 E1 2 N1 2

S = u_ +
+ '_ + B1 (u

_ + u
_ )
+

2 2 2

_ + u
_ ) ' + J1
' + D1 u2
+ L1 u2
':

+K1 (u

The potential energy, represented as a power series of
and ' up to terms of

the se
ond order has the form

(k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) 2 (k2 mr g`) 2

V = mb gh + mr g (h + `)+
k2
' + ':

2 2

11

If we write now the Gibbs-Appell equations,

S S V S V

= 0; = = ;

u_
' '

then they have the form of equations (11).

Stability of uniform straight-line motion of a skateboard

**Equations (10) have the parti
ular solution
**

u = u0 =
onst;
= 0; ' = 0; (12)

whi
h
orresponds to uniform straight-line motion of a skateboard. Consider the

problem of stability of this parti
ular solution.

Setting u = u0 + and keeping for
and ' their notations we write the equations

of the perturbed motion

E1
+ J1 ' + B1 u0
_ + (D1 u20
+ 11 )
+ 12 ' = ;

(13)

N1 ' + J1
+ K1 u0
_ + (L1 u20 + 12 )
+ 22 ' = ; _ = :

11 = k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh; 12 = k2 ; 22 = k2 mr g`:

Here , and are the time independent fun
tions of
,
_ , ', '_ and whose

development as a series in powers of said variables starts with terms of at least the

se
ond order. Moreover, these fun
tions identi
ally vanish with respe
t to when

= ' = 0 and
_ = '_ = 0 (this fa
t
an be veried manually):

(0; 0; 0; 0; ) = (0; 0; 0; 0; ) = (0; 0; 0; 0; ) = 0:

The
hara
teristi
equation
orresponding to the linearized system (13) has the

form:

s b0 s4 + b1 s3 + b2 s2 + b3 s + b4 = 0: (14)

b0 = E1 N1 J12 ; b1 = (B1 N1 J1 K 1 ) u 0 ;

b2 = (D1 N1 J1 L1 ) u20 + 11 N1 + 22 E1 212 J1 ;

b3 = (B1 22 K1 12 ) u0 ; b4 = (D1 22 L1 12 ) u20 + 11 22 212 :

When the Routh { Hurwitz
onditions

b0 > 0; b1 > 0; b2 > 0; b3 > 0; b4 > 0;

**b1 b2 b3 b0 b23 b21 b4 = u2 (J1 22 N1 12 ) [B1 K1 N1 11 + B12 J1 22 J1 K12 11 (15)
**

B1 E1 K1 22 + E1 K12 12 B12 N1 12 +(B1 N1 J1 K1 )(K1 D1 L1 B1 ) u2 ℄ > 0:

are valid equation (14) has one zero-root and four roots in the left half plane. Sin
e

the fun
tions , and identi
ally vanish for
= ' = 0,
_ = '_ = 0, then under

onditions (15) we have the
riti
al
ase of one-zero root [9, 10℄ and solution (12) is

12

stable with respe
t to
,
_ , ', '_ and u (asymptoti
ally stable with respe
t to
,
_ ,

' and '_ ).

Note that the stru
ture of the
oeÆ
ients b1 and b3 allows to
on
lude that the

stability of motion depends on its dire
tion. For the rst time this fa
t has been

shown in [2, 3, 11℄ and for the two-degree-of-freedom skateboard model in [1, 2, 3℄.

The rst of the
onditions (15) is always valid; indeed

b0 = E1 N1 J12 = Ibx + mb h2 Irx + mr `2 + Irxmr h2 > 0:

The remaining ve
onditions have the following expli
it form:

" #

mb h Irxmr h

b1 = Irx + mr `2 (tan f tan r ) +((a d) tan f d tan r ) u0 > 0;

2 a

h

b2 = (mb mr `2 + (mb + mr ) Irx ) (tan f + tan r ) u20 + 2k2 mr h`+

a

+ (Ibx +(mb + mr ) h2 ) (k2 mr g`)+(Irx + mr `2 ) (k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) > 0;

h mr

b3 = ((a d) tan f d tan r ) ((` + h) k2 mr g`h) +

a

mb h i

+ (tan f tan r ) (k2 mr g`) u0 > 0;

2

u2

b4 =[(mb + mr ) (k2 mr g`) h + mr `k2 ℄ (tan f + tan r ) 0 +

a

+ (k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) (k2 mr g`) k22 > 0;

(b1 b2 b3 b0 b23 b21 b4 ) =u2 =

(

m m `h2 (a 2d) u20

2

[(Irx + mr ` ) k2 +(k2 mr g`) mr h`℄ b r (tan f +tan r )2

2a2

h mb Irx mr i

2

Irx + mr `2 (tan f tan r )+

a

((a d) tan f d tan r ) +

m2b h2

+ [((` + h) k2 mr gh`) mr ` + Irxk2 ℄ (tan f tan r )2 +

4

mb mr h

+ (tan f tan r ) ((a d) tan f d tan r )

2a

[(Irxh Ibx ` mb h2 ` + mr (` + h) h`) (k2 mr g`) +

+ (Irx + mr `2 ) ((` + h) k2 + `k1 mb gh`)℄ +

m2

+ 2r ((a d) tan f d tan r )2 [(k1 mb gh) Irxh`+

a

)

+ (Irx h Ibx ` mb h2 `) ((` + h) k2 mr g`h)℄ > 0:

13

If at least one of these
onditions is not fullled then equation (14) has the root

in the right-half plane and solution (12) will be unstable.

The obtained stability
onditions of uniform straight-line motion of the skate-

board have very
ompli
ated form. They be
ome slightly simpler in the
ase, when

the skateboard is symmetri
(f = r = ). In this
ase the stability
onditions
an

be rewritten in the form:

Irxmr h m

(a 2d) u0 tan > 0; r (a 2d) ((` + h) k2 mr g`h) u0 tan > 0;

a a

2hu20

mb mr `2 + (mb + mr ) Irx tan + 2k2 mr h`+

a

+ (Ibx +(mb + mr ) h2 ) (k2 mr g`)+(Irx + mr `2 ) (k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) > 0;

2u20 (16)

((mb + mr ) (k2 mr g`) h + mr `k2 ) tan +

a

+ (k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) (k2 mr g`) k22 > 0;

h 2Irx mb h2 `

[(Irx + mr `2 ) k2 + (k2 mr g`) mr h`℄ u20 tan +

a

i

+ (k1 mb gh) Irxh` + (Irx h Ibx ` mb h2 `) ((` + h) k2 mr g`h) > 0:

**Analysis of the rst and the se
ond of the
onditions (16) allows to
on
lude that
**

if

(` + h) k2 mr g`h < 0;

then the motion of the skateboard will be unstable. In other words the motion will

be unstable when the
oeÆ
ient k2 of a torsional spring is less when some
riti
al

value. This means that the instability will be take pla
e when the rider stands

unsteadily on the board.

Let us nd now
onditions of stability of the equilibrium position of a skateboard,

i.e. the parti
ular solution

u0 = 0;
= 0; '=0

When u0 = 0 the
hara
teristi
equation (14) has one zero-root and two pairs of

pure imaginary roots under the
onditions

11 N1 + 22 E1 212 J1 > 0; 11 22 212 > 0;

**(11 N1 +22 E1 212 J1 )2 4 (E1 N1 J12 ) (11 22 212 ) > 0:
**

The last of these
onditions
an be rewritten as follows:

(11 N1 +22 E1 212 J1 )2 4 (E1 N1 J12 ) (11 22 212 ) =

!

222 J12 2

22 J1 2

= 11 N1 22 E1 212 J1 + + 4 (E1 N1 J12 ) 12 > 0:

N1 N1

14

and therefore this
ondition is always fullled. Two rst
onditions
an be rewritten

in the form

(Ibx + (mb + mr ) h2 ) (k2 mr g`) + 2k2 mr h`+

+ (Irx + mr `2 ) (k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) > 0; (17)

(k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) (k2 mr g`) k22 > 0:

Let us prove that inequalities (17) are ne
essary and suÆ
ient
onditions for

stability of equilibrium position of a skateboard. Indeed, point
= 0, ' = 0 is a

riti
al point of the potential energy of the system. Then using the theorems about

stability of equilibria of nonholonomi
systems, proved by V.V. Rumyantsev [12, 13℄

(see also [14℄) we
an
on
lude that the equilibrium position of a skateboard will be

stable with respe
t to
,
_ , ', '_ if the Hessian matrix of the potential energy of the

system will be positive denite for
= ' = 0. The
orresponding
onditions have

the following form

k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh > 0;

(18)

(k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) (k2 mr g`) k22 > 0:

**It
an be shown that two systems of inequalities (17) and (18) are equivalent to
**

ea
h other. Indeed, the se
ond inequalities in (17) and (18) have the same form. Let

us assume that the rst inequality in (18) is fullled. Then from the se
ond inequal-

ity of (18) we have k2 mr g` > 0 (otherwise the system (18) will be in
onsistent).

Therefore the expression at the left-hand side of the rst inequality in (17) will be

positive and this inequality will be fullled. Thus, if the
onditions (18) is valid, the

onditions (17) is also valid. Suppose now that the
onditions (17) is valid and the

rst inequality in (18) is not fullled, i.e.

k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh < 0: (19)

Then, from the se
ond inequality in (17) we have

k2 < k2 = mr g` + (mb + mr ) gh k1

**However, from the rst inequality of (17) we get
**

(Ibx + (mb + mr ) h2 ) mr g` + (Irx + mr `2 ) ((mb + mr ) gh k1 )

k2 > k2 = :

Ibx + Irx + mb h2 + mr (` + h)2

Sin
e

k2 k2 > 0;

then the two last inequalities are in
orre
t. Thus when the
ondition (19) is fullled

the system of inequalities (17) is in
onsistent. This means that for
onsisten
y of

the system (17) the inequalities (18) should be valid and therefore two systems (17)

and (18) are equivalent to ea
h other.

Further we will say that the skateboard is stati
ally stable if the
onditions (18)

is fullled.

15

Note that in the last term of the last inequality in (16) there is an expression

Irx h Ibx ` mb h2 `. Using the results obtained by Chandler et al. [15℄, Clauser et

al. [16℄, Hanavan [17℄ and Wooley [18℄ it is possible to
on
lude that for the a
tual

physi
al parameters this expression should be positive

Irxh Ibx ` mb h2 ` > 0: (20)

Further we will
onsider inequality (20) is fullled.

Nonexisten e of an invariant measure.

**In this paragraph we
onsider the problem of existen
e of an invariant measure
**

with a smooth positive density for the system (9). Sin
e the system (9) has a

ylindri
al phase spa
e, then in our investigation we will use the ideas from the

papers by V.V. Kozlov [19, 20℄. Let us brie
y dis
uss these ideas. Let us
onsider the

ylindri
al phase spa
e Mn = Rk Tn k with the
oordinates x1 ; : : : ; xn . Between

these
oordinates there are k linear
oordinates and n k angular ones. Let v is a

smooth ve
tor eld on Mn . This ve
tor eld
orresponds to dierential equation

x_ = v (x) : (21)

Let us
onsider the problem of existen
e of an invariant measure

Z

mes (D) = x

( ) dnx (22)

D

**with smooth positive density : Mn ! R for the system (21).
**

The Liuoville equation div (v) = 0 is a
riterion of existen
e of the invariant

measure (22) for the system (21). Sin
e the fun
tion is positive then we
an

transform the Liouville equation to the form:

w_ = div v; w = ln : (23)

It is evident, that w is a smooth fun
tion on Mn .

Let the point x = 0 be an equilibrium of the system (21). In the small neighbor-

hood of this equilibrium the system (21)
an be represented in the form:

x_ = Zx + ; (24)

whre Z is a matrix of the linear part of the system (21).

Theorem. ([19, 20℄) Let x = 0 be an equilibrium of the nonlinear system (24). If

tr Z 6= 0, than this system has no invariant measure with a smooth density in a

small neighborhood of the point x = 0.

We use this theorem for investigation of our problem. Setting

= x1 ; ' = x2 ;
_ = x3 ; '_ = x4 ; u = u0 + x5 :

we represent the system (9) in the form:

5

X

x_ i = zij xj + :

j =1

16

In our
ase the tra
e of the matrix Z = (zij )
an be written as follows:

(B1 N1 J1 K1 ) u0 b

tr Z = 2 = 1:

(E1 N1 J1 ) b0

Hen
e if

B1 N1 6 0

J1 K1 =

equations (9) have no invariant measure with a smooth density

Remark. The question about existen
e of an invariant measure for our system in

the
ase

B1 N1 J1 K1 = 0

remains opened.

In the next paragraph we study the behavior of the system (9) near the equilib-

rium point

u0 = 0;
= 0; ' = 0:

Motion of the system near the equilibrium position.

**Let u0 = 0 in (12), i.e. the skateboard rests on the plane. The ne
essary and
**

suÆ
ient
ondition for this equilibrium position to be stable is, a
ording to the

results obtained above, inequalities (18). We suppose this
ondition is fullled. We

assume also that

tan f tan r a > 2d:

Under these
onditions the steady motion (12) of a skateboard will be stable if

u0 > 0 and unstable if u0 < 0. Let us
onsider the motion of the system near the

equilibrium position. For this purpose we solve equations (9) with respe
t to u_ ,

and ' and then we take the power series expansion of the
orresponding right-hand

sides in terms of u,
,
_ , ', '_ up to the se
ond order. As a result we obtain the

following system of dierential equations:

u_ =
11
2 +
12
';

=
21
+
22 ' +
23 u
;

_ (25)

' =
31
+
32 ' +
33 u
:

_

Here it is denoted

(B1 N1 J1 K1 ) 11 (B1 J1 K1 E1 ) 12

11 = ;

A1 (E1 N1 J12 )

(B1 N1 J1 K1 ) 12 (B1 J1 K1 E1 ) 22

12 = ;

A1 (E1 N1 J12 )

J1 12 N1 11 J1 22 N1 12 J1 K1 B1 N1

21 = 2 ;
22 = 2 ;
23 = ;

E1 N1 J1 E1 N1 J1 E1 N1 J12

J1 11 E1 12 J1 12 E1 22 B1 J1 K1 E1

31 = 2 ;
32 = 2 ;
33 = :

E1 N1 J1 E1 N1 J1 E1 N1 J12

17

The assumptions made above allow to dene the sign of the
oeÆ
ients
ij :

11 > 0;
12 < 0;
21 < 0;
22 > 0;

23 < 0;
31 > 0;
32 < 0;
33 < 0:

Now we
hange the variables
, ', u ! y1 , y2 , y3 in system (25) whi
h redu
es the

se
ond and the third its linearized equations to the form
orresponding to normal

os
illations.

The se
ond and the third linearized equations of the system (25) have the form:

21
22 ' = 0;

'
31
32 ' = 0:

(26)

**The frequen
ies
**

1 ,

2 , (

1 >

2 ) of normal os
illations satisfy the equation

4 + (
21 +
32 )

2 + (
21
32
22
31 ) = 0:

**From this equation it is possible to nd two expressions
**

21 and

22 (

21 >

22 )

for the eigenfrequen
ies of the system (26):

q

(
21 +
32 ) + (
21
32 )2 + 4
22
31

21 = ;

2

q

(
21
32 )2 + 4
22
31

(
21 +
32 )

22 = :

2

The
orresponding eigenve
tors for these eigenfrequen
ies have the form:

! !

u1 =
22 1

(
21 +

21 ) 1 ; u2 =
22 2

(
21 +

22 ) 2 :

**We
hoose the values of arbitrary
onstants 1 and 2 from the
ondition, that
**

the eigenve
tors u1 and u2 should be unit ve
tors. Then

1

i = q ; i = 1; 2:

(

2i +
21 )2 +
222

Finally we
an
on
lude that the redu
tion to standard (normal)
oordinates is

obtained by
hanging the variables

=
22 1 y1
22 2 y2 ;

' = (

21 +
21 ) 1 y1 + (

22 +
21 ) 2 y2 ; (27)

u = y3 :

**In variables y1 , y2 , y3 the system (25) takes the form:
**

y1 +

21 y1 + Q1 y_ 1 y3 + Q2 y_ 2 y3 = 0;

y2 +

22 y2 + Q3 y_ 1 y3 + Q4 y_ 2 y3 = 0; (28)

y_3 = Q5 y12 + Q6 y1 y2 + Q7 y22 ;

18

where we make the following notations:

22
33 +
21
23 +
23

22 (
22
33 +
21
23 +
23

22 ) 2

Q1 = ; Q2 = ;

21

22 (

21

22 ) 1

(
22
33 +
21
23 +
23

21 ) 1
22
33 +
21
23 +
23

21

Q3 = ; Q4 = ;

(

22

21 ) 2

22

21

Q5 =
22
11
22
12
21
12

21 21 ;

Q6 =
22 2
11
22 2
12
21
12

21 +

22 1 2 ;

Q7 =
22
11
22
12
21
12

22 22 :

As in (25) terms of higher order than the se
ond relative to perturbations have

been omitted in the system (28). To investigate the nonlinear system (28) we redu
e

it to the normal form [21, 22℄. First of all we make the
hange of variables

z1 z3 z2 z4 z1 + z3 z +z

y1 = ; y2 = ; y_1 =

1 ; y_2 = 2 4

2 ; y3 = z5 :

2i 2i 2 2

In variables zk , k = 1; 2; : : : ; 5 the system of equations (28) takes the form

Q1

2 Q2

z_1 = i

1 z1 (z1 + z3 ) z5 (z + z ) z ;

2 2

1 2 4 5

Q4

1 Q3

z_2 = i

2 z2 (z2 + z4 ) z5 (z + z ) z ;

2 2

2 1 3 5

Q1

2 Q2 (29)

z_3 = i

1 z3 (z1 + z3 ) z5 (z + z ) z ;

2 2

1 2 4 5

Q4

1 Q3

z_4 = i

2 z4 (z2 + z4 ) z5 (z + z ) z ;

2 2

2 1 3 5

Q5 Q6 Q7

z_5 = (z1 z3 )2 (z1 z3 )(z2 z4 ) (z2 z4 )2 ;

4 4 4

i.e. the linear part of the system (29) has a diagonal form and the derivation of

its normal form redu
es to separating resonant terms from the nonlinearities in the

right-hand sides of the system (29). Taking into a
ount this fa
t we obtain the

following normal form of the system (29), written in
omplex variables:

Q1 Q4

z_1 = i

1 z1 z1 z5 ; z_2 = i

2 z2 zz;

2 2 2 5

Q1 Q4

z_3 = i

1 z3 z3 z5 ; z_4 = i

2 z4 zz; (30)

2 2 4 5

Q5 Q7

z_5 = z1 z3 + zz:

2 2 2 4

19

Introdu
ing real polar
oordinates a
ording to the formulas

z1 = 1 (
os 1 + i sin 1 ) ; z2 = 2 (
os 2 + i sin 2 ) ;

z3 = 1 (
os 1 i sin 1 ) ; z4 = 2 (
os 2 i sin 2 ) ; y5 = 3 ;

we write the system (30) in the variables 1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 2 . As a result we obtain

the normalized system of equations of perturbed motion whi
h is then split into two

independent subsystems:

Q1 Q4 Q5 2 Q7 2

_1 = 1 3 ; _2 = 2 3 ; _3 = + ; (31)

2 2 2 1 2 2

_ 1 =

1 ; _ 2 =

2 : (32)

Terms of order higher than the se
ond in (31) and those higher than the rst in

k , k = 1; 2; 3 in (54) have been omitted here.

In the "-neighborhood of the equilibrium position the right-hand sides of equa-

tions (31) and (32) dier from the respe
tive right-hand sides of the exa
t equations

of perturbed motion by quantities of order "3 and "2 respe
tively. The solutions of

the exa
t equations are approximated by the solutions of system (31)-(32) with an

error of "2 for k and of order " for j in a time interval of order 1=". Restri
ting

the
al
ulations to this a
ura
y, we will
onsider the approximate system (31)-(32)

instead of the
omplete equations of perturbed motion.

For qualitative des
ription of the skateboard motion we should determine the

sign of the
oeÆ
ients Q1 , Q4 , Q5 and Q7 . First of all let us nd the sign of the

oeÆ
ients Q5 and Q7 . Sin
e
22 > 0,
12 < 0 and

(11 22 212 ) K1

11
22
12
21 = > 0;

(E1 N1 J12 ) A1

then it is possible to
on
lude that

Q 5 > 0; Q7 > 0:

**Thus, the variable 3 whi
h is a small velo
ity of the skateboard in stable or in
**

unstable dire
tion has nonegative derivation and therefore it is an always in
reasing

fun
tion of time.

Let us determine now the sign of the
oeÆ
ients Q1 and Q4 . Taking into a
ount

that the denominator of Q1 is positive and denominator of Q4 is negative we need

to determine only the sign of numerators of Q1 and Q4 . The numerator of Q1 has

the form:

22
33 +
21
23 +
23

22

or substituting the expli
it form for

22 :

21
23
23
32
23 q

22
33 + (
21
23 )2 + 4
22
31 : (33)

2 2 2

Sin
e
23 < 0 then

23 q

(
21
23 )2 + 4
22
31 > 0:

2

20

Consequently if

21
23
23
32

22
33 + > 0;

2 2

then the numerator of Q1 is positive. Now suppose that

21
23
23
32

22
33 + < 0:

2 2

In this
ase both the expressions

23 q

(
21
23 )2 + 4
22
31 > 0: (34)

2

23

(
)
22
33 > 0 (35)

2 32 21

are positive and therefore the sign of dieren
e of the squares of these expressions

oin
ides with the sign of dieren
e of these expressions. Now we take the squares

of the expressions (34) and (35) and subtra
t the square of (35) from the square of

(34):

223
31 +
23
32
33
21
23
33
22
233 :

This dieren
e has the form of the fra
tion with positive denominator and the

numerator haveng the form:

B12 J1 22 + B1 K1 N1 11 J1 K12 11 B1 E1 K1 22 + E1 K12 12 B12 N1 12 :

**We already met this expression when we wrote
onditions of stability (15) of the
**

steady motion (12). Under our assumptions this expression will be positive. Thus

we prove that expression (35) is less than expression (34). This means that under

our assumptions the numerator of Q1 is positive and Q1 is positive too. Using the

similar ideas it is easy to prove that the numerator of Q4 is negative and therefore

Q4 is positive. Finally we get

Q 1 > 0; Q4 > 0:

**Using the information about the sign of the
oeÆ
ients Q1 , Q4 , Q5 and Q7 we
**

an integrate now the system (31)-(32).

Equations (32) are immediately integrable. We get

j (t) =

j t + j (0) ; j = 1; 2:

**System (31) des
ribes the evolution of the amplitude 1 of the board os
illations,
**

the amplitude 2 of the rider os
illations and also the evolution of the velo
ity 3 of

a straight-line motion of the skateboard. It is easy to prove, that this system has

two rst integrals: !

Q 4

1 1 2 = n2 ; 1 = >0 (36)

Q1

!

Q5 Q7

2 21 + 3 22 + 23 = n21 ; 2 = > 0 ; 3 = >0 (37)

Q1 Q4

where n1 , n2 are
onstants, spe
ied by initial
onditions.

21

Figure 6.

**The traje
tories of the system (31) are represented in Fig. 6 in spa
e 1 , 2 ,
**

3 . They lie in the region 1 0, 2 0 and they are the
urves representing the

interse
tions of the surfa
e of the ellipsoid (37) and the
ylindri
al surfa
e (36). The

dire
tion of motion along the traje
tories is indi
ated by the arrows.

Let us
onsider the properties of the solutions of system (31) and their relations

with the properties of motion of the skateboard. The points P1 = (0; 0; n1 ) and

P2 = (0; 0; n1 ) in Fig. 6 denote the equilibrium positions of system (31). Steady

motions (12) of a skateboard
orrespond to these points. By linearizing equations

(31) in a small neighborhood of these points we obtain

Q1 Q4

_1 = n1 1 ; _2 = n ; _ = 0;

2 2 1 2 3

i.e. if n1 > 0 then the equilibrium position (0; 0; n1 ) will be stable and equilibrium

position (0; 0; n1 ) will be unstable. If n1 < 0 then (0; 0; n1 ) will be unstable and

(0; 0; n1 ) will be stable.

The system of equations (31) has the following parti
ular solutions

s

Q4 2 exp Q42n1 t

1 = 0; 2 = 2 n n3 ;

Q7 1 1 + n3 exp ( Q4 n1 t)

(38)

1 n3 exp ( Q4 n1 t)

3 = n1 ;

1 + n3 exp ( Q4 n1 t)

s

Q1 2 exp Q12n1 t

2 = 0; 1 = 2 n n4 ;

Q5 1 1 + n4 exp ( Q1 n1 t)

(39)

1 n4 exp ( Q1 n1 t)

3 = n1 ;

1 + n4 exp ( Q1 n1 t)

in whi
h 1 and 2 are identi
ally equal to zero. Here n3 and n4 are nonnegative

onstants, spe
ied by initial
onditions. Solution (38)
orresponds to motions of the

22

Figure 7. The amplitude of the rider os
illations 2 for parti
ular solution (38) in

ase n1 > 0, n3 1.

**Figure 8. The skateboard velo
ity 3 for parti
ular solution (38) in
ase n1 > 0,
**

n3 1.

**Figure 9. The amplitude of the rider os
illations 2 for parti
ular solution (38) in
**

ase n1 < 0, n3 1.

**Figure 10. The skateboard velo
ity 3 for parti
ular solution (38) in
ase n1 < 0,
**

n3 1.

23

skateboard when the skateboard exe
utes straight-line motion with xed board and

the rider os
illates with the amplitude 2 (t) (i.e. the system exe
utes low-frequen
y

os
illations). Evolution of the fun
tions 2 and 3 in time gives the
omplete de-

s
ription of behavior of a skateboard in this parti
ular
ase. Let us suppose, that

at the initial instant the system is near the stable equilibrium position (n1 > 0) and

3 (0) 0, i.e. n3 1 (the
ase when n1 > 0, n3 > 1 is similar to the
ase n1 < 0,

n3 < 1, whi
h will be investigated below). These initial
onditions
orrespond to

the situation when at the initial instant the skateboard takes the small velo
ity

1 n3

3 (0) = n1

1 + n3

in the stable dire
tion. Then in the
ourse of time the amplitude of os
illations of

the rider 2 de
reases monotoni
ally from its initial value

s

2n 1 Q 4

2 (0) = n

1 + n3 Q 7 3

to zero, while the velo
ity of the skateboard 3 in
reases in absolute value. In

the limit the skateboard moves in the stable dire
tion with a
onstant velo
ity n1

(Fig. 7-8).

Suppose now that at the initial instant the system is near the unstable equi-

librium position n1 < 0. Suppose again, that at the initial instant n3 < 1, i.e.

2 (0) < 0 (the
ase n1 < 0, n3 > 1 is similar to the
ase n1 > 0, n3 < 1 whi
h was

onsidered above). These initial
onditions
orrespond the situation when at the

initial instant the skateboard takes the small velo
ity

1 n3

3 (0) = n1

1 + n3

in the unstable dire
tion. In this
ase the limit of the system motion is the same as

when 3 (0) 0 but the evolution of the motion is entirely dierent. When

ln (n3 )

0 < t < t =

Q4 n1

the amplitude of the rider os
illations 2 in
reases monotoni
ally and the skateboard

moves in the unstable dire
tion with de
reasing velo
ity. At the instant t = t the

velo
ity vanishes and the os
illation amplitude 2 rea
hes its maximum value

s

Q4 2

2 (t ) = n:

Q7 1

When t > t the skateboard already moves in the stable dire
tion with an in
reasing

absolute value of its velo
ity and the os
illation amplitude de
reases monotoni
ally.

Thus when 2 (0) < 0 during the time of evolution of the motion a
hange in the

dire
tion of motion of the skateboard o
urs only on
e (Fig. 9-10). Similar nonlinear

ee
t for the simplied skateboard model was observed in [1℄, and it is known also

for other problems of nonholonomi
me
hani
s (for example in the
lassi
al problem

of dynami
s of a rattleba
k [21℄, [23℄-[28℄).

24

Figure 11. The board in
lination
for parti
ular solution (38) in
ase n1 > 0,

n3 1.

Figure 12. The rider in lination ' for parti ular solution (38) in ase n1 > 0, n3 1.

**Figure 13. The board in
lination
for parti
ular solution (38) in
ase n1 < 0,
**

n3 1.

Figure 14. The rider in lination ' for parti ular solution (38) in ase n1 < 0, n3 1.

25

Returning to the normal
oordinates y1 , y2 , y3 we
an write

Q1

2 Q2

y1 = 1 sin 1 1 3
os 1 + 2
os 2 ;

4

1

2

21 2 3

Q4

1 Q3

y2 = 2 sin 2 2 3
os 2
os 1 ;

4

2

22

21 1 3

Q5 2 Q6

y3 = 3 sin 1
os 1 sin (1 2 )

2

1 1 2 (

2

1 ) 1 2

Q6 Q7 2

1 2 sin (1 + 2 ) sin 2
os 2 ;

2 (

2 +

1 ) 2

2 2

and the expressions of the angles
and ' through the normal
oordinates is given

by (27). Fig. 11-14 represent the evolution of the angles
and ' in time for the

parti
ular solution (38) in stable and unstable
ases. Solution (39) denes a motion

of a skateboard when the skateboard exe
utes straight-line motion with xed rider

and the board os
illates with the amplitude 1 (t) (i.e. the system exe
utes high-

frequen
y os
illations). The analysis of the evolution of the motion is similar to the

previous
ase. If the skateboard moves in the unstable dire
tion then at the instant

ln (n4 )

t = t =

Q1 n1

a
hange in the dire
tion of motion o
urs. At that instant the os
illation amplitude

1 rea
hes its maximum value

s

Q1 2

1 (t ) = n:

Q5 1

The evolution of the fun
tions 1 and 3 in time will be the same as represented

in Fig. 7-10 for the previous
ase. However, sin
e in this
ase the system exe
utes

high-frequen
y os
illations, the evolution of the angles
and ' will be essentially

dierent from the previous
ase. In this
ase the evolution of
and ' is represented

in Fig. 15-18.

Let us now
onsider solutions of system (31), that are dierent from those of

(38), (39) and from the equilibrium points P1 and P2 . From the integrals (36) and

(37) we have:

1 ; 3 = f (1 ) ;

2 = n2 1

q (40)

2 2 2

f (1 ) = n1 2 1 3 n2 1 : 21

**Substituting 3 from (40) into the rst equation of system (31) we get:
**

Q1

_1 = f ( ) ;

2 1 1

and then separating the variables we nally obtain:

d1 Q

= 1 dt: (41)

1 f (1 ) 2

26

Figure 15. The board in
lination
for parti
ular solution (39) in
ase n1 > 0,

n4 1.

Figure 16. The rider in lination ' for parti ular solution (39) in ase n1 > 0, n4 1.

**Figure 17. The board in
lination
for parti
ular solution (39) in
ase n1 < 0,
**

n4 1.

Figure 18. The rider in lination ' for parti ular solution (39) in ase n1 < 0, n4 1.

27

Figure 19. The amplitude of the board os
illations 1 in general
ase for n1 > 0.

Figure 20. The amplitude of the rider os illations 2 in general ase for n1 > 0.

Figure 21. The skateboard velo ity 3 in general ase for n1 > 0.

Figure 22. The amplitude of the board os illations 1 in general ase for n1 < 0.

28

Figure 23. The amplitude of the rider os
illations 2 in general
ase for n1 < 0.

Figure 24. The skateboard velo ity 3 in general ase for n1 < 0.

**If the fun
tion 1 (t) is determined from (41), then 2 (t) and 3 (t) are
al
ulated
**

using expressions (40).

In is not possible, in general, to obtain an expli
it analyti
al expression for the

fun
tion 1 . However the qualitative nature of the motion may be dire
tly obtained

from the system of equations (31). Let, for example, at the initial instant of time

the quantity 3 will be positive. In this
ase sin
e Q1 > 0 and Q4 > 0 the right-hand

sides of the rst two equations in (31) will be negative and therefore fun
tions 1 (t)

and 2 (t) will be de
rease in time. Sin
e Q5 > 0 and Q7 > 0 then in the right-hand

side of the third equation in (31) there is a nonnegative expression, whi
h de
reases

due to de
reasing of 1 and 2 . In the limit 1 (t) and 2 (t) tend to zero and 3 (t)

tends to the value n1 as it is evident from the rst integral (37).

Let at the initial instant of time the quantity 3 will be negative. Then the right-

hand sides of the rst two equations in (31) will be positive and these two fun
tions

will be in
reasing fun
tions in time. The fun
tion 3 (t) will be also in
reasing

fun
tion, whi
h is started from negative values. At some instant of time this fun
tion

vanishes; at that instant both fun
tions 1 (t) and 2 (t) rea
h their maximum values.

After that instant the fun
tion 3 (t)
hanges its sign and the fun
tions 1 (t) and

2 (t) start to de
rease and in the limit we obtain the situation, whi
was des
ribed

above. Thus in general
asethe behaviour of the system is very
lose to its behaviour

in the parti
ular
ases (38)-(39). The evolution of the fun
tions 1 , 2 and 3 in

time for the general
ase is insdi
ated in Fig. 19-24. This evolution
onrms our

on
lusions about the qualitative nature of the skateboard motion.

Here we dis
uss some properties of the three-degree-of-freedom mathemati
al

29

model of a skateboard with a rider, generalizing the simplied skateboard model

investigated by us in [1℄. This model
an be developed by various ways: for example,

we
an
onstru
t a more
ompli
ated model of a skateboard taking into a
ount the

wheels and the various types of their
onta
t with the ground. We
an
onstru
t

also a more
ompli
ated model of the rider and taking into a
ount the possibility

of the rider to
ontrol the skateboard (it will be already
ontrol system). All these

ideas are very interesting and attra
tive and we will
ertainly
onsider them in the

future.

Referen
es

[1℄ Kremnev A. V., Kuleshov A. S., Nonlinear Dynami
s and Stability of a Sim-

plied Skateboard Model, 2007.

http://akule.pisem.net/Kuleshov.pdf

**[2℄ Hubbard M. Lateral Dynami
s and Stability of the Skateboard // Journal of
**

Applied Me
hani
s. 1979. Vol. 46. P. 931-936.

[3℄ Hubbard M. Human Control of the Skateboard // Journal of Biome
hani
s.

1980. Vol. 13. P. 745-754.

[4℄ Lurie A.I. Analyti
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hani
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[5℄ Synge J.L., GriÆth B.A. Prin
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1959.

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[7℄ http://www.peterverdonedesigns. om/pvdtru ks.htm

**[8℄ Ardema M.D. Analyti
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**

Kluwer A
ademi
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Fran
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[12℄ Rumiantsev V.V. On stability of motion of nonholonomi
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[13℄ Rumiantsev V.V. On asymptoti
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30

[14℄ Karapetyan A.V., Rumyantsev V.V. Stability of Conservative and Dissipative

Systems // G.K. Mikhailov, V.Z. Parton (Eds): Applied Me
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hni
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han-

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http://i
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**[20℄ Kozlov V.V. On the existen
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Journal of Applied Mathemati
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582.

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[23℄ Walker G.T. On a
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31

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32

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