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Three-Degree-of-Freedom Mathemati al Model of a

Skateboard

Andrey V. Kremnev, Alexander S. Kuleshov

avkremenmail.ru, kuleshovme h.math.msu.su

Abstra t
In this paper we ontinue our investigations, started in the paper [1℄
"Nonlinear Dynami s and Stability of a Simpli ed Skateboard Model"
(http://akule.pisem.net/Kuleshov2.pdf). As in the previous model we
suppose that the rider ontrol is absent during the motion. Equations of
motion of the model are derived by the Gibbs-Appell method and their anal-
ysis is ful lled. The integrability of the obtained equations is investigated.
The nonlinear dynami s of the system near the equilibrium posotion is also
studied.

Introdu tion
This paper is a natural ontinuation of the paper [1℄. However in order to read it
independently from [1℄ we in lude in this paper the little part of results, obtained
in [1℄. These results are dis ussed more brie y than in [1℄ and used only for under-
standing the spe i features of a skateboard onstru tion, de ning its kinemati s
and dynami s.
As in the paper [1℄ at the end of this paper the list of referen es ontains the
items, whi h refer to Internet resour es ( les or sites). If the orresponding refer-
en es are no longer available the readers an address to the authors using e-mails:
avkremenmail.ru, kuleshovme h.math.msu.su or akulepisem.net.The authors
on rm that they have all ele troni resour es listed at the end of this paper and
they are ready to give any of them to all interested persons.
The authors hope, that their investigations will ex ite interest to the further
studying of a skateboard dynami s.

Des ription of a Skateboard

The skateboard typi ally onsists of the board, a set of two tru ks and four wheels
(Fig. 1). The modern board is generally from 78-83 m long, 17-21 m wide and 1-2
m thi k [2℄.
The most essential elements of a skateboard are the tru ks, onne ting the axles
to the board. The rider an ontrol the skateboard using the spe i features of
tru ks onstru tion. Angular motion of both the front and rear axles is onstrained
Figure 1. Side view of Skateboard.

Figure 2. Top view of Skateboard

to be about their respe tive nonhorizontal pivot axes (Fig. 1), thus ausing a steering
angle of the wheels whenever the axles are not parallel to the plane of the board
(Fig. 2). The vehi le is steered by making use of this stati relationship between
steering angles and tilt of the board.
We will assume, that the skateboard rolls on a horizontal plane and at every
instant of time all of its wheels are in onta t with the plane.
Following the papers [2, 3℄ suppose also that there is a torsional spring that
exerts a restoring torque between the wheelset and the board proportional to the
tilt of the board relative to the wheelset (Fig. 3); the orrsponding proportionality
oeÆ ient is k1 .

The Skateboard Model
Problem Formulation. The Basi Coordinate Systems.

Considering the simpli ed skateboard model we assumed (see [1℄) that the rider,
modeled as a rigid body, remains xed and perpendi ular with respe t to the board.
In this ase both the board and the rider position is de ned by the unique generalized
oordinate { the tilt of the board. The next step in modeling omplexity therefore
is to allow the board and rider to have separate roll degrees of freedom, and '
respe tively. Here the rider is assumed to be onne ted to the board with a pin
along the entral line of a skateboard through a torsional spring whi h exerts a
torque on the rider and board proportional to the di eren e in their tilts relative to
the verti al, T = k2 ( ') as shown in Fig 3. Here k2 is the sti ness of a rider's

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torsional spring. In the most general ase, rider ontrol would be exer ised through
an internal torque at the ankles a ting both on the rider and on the board. Sin e this
paper addresses only the lateral dynami s without ontrol, a spring was in luded to
model the board-rider intera tion.

Figure 3. Front/Rear view of Skateboard.

Let us introdu e an inertial oordinate system OXY Z in the ground plane. The
origin O of this system is at any point of the ground plane, and the OZ -axis is
dire ted perpendi ularly to the ground plane. Let AB = a be the distan e between
the two axle enters A and B of a skateboard. The position of line AB with respe t
to OXY Z system is de ned by X and Y oordinates of its entre G and by the
angle  between this line and the OX -axis (Fig 4).
The tilt of the board through is a ompanied by rotation of the front wheels
lo kwise through Æf and rotation of the rear wheels anti lo kwise through Ær . The
wheels of a skateboard are assumed to roll without lateral sliding. This ondition is
modeled by onstraints whi h may be shown to be nonholonomi
a
X_ sin ( Æf ) + Y_ os ( Æf ) + _ os Æf = 0:
2
(1)
a_
X_ sin ( + Ær ) + Y_ os ( + Ær )  os Ær = 0:
2
We an solve equations (1) with respe t to X_ and Y_ :
a_
X_ = [ os Æf os ( + Ær ) + os Ær os ( Æf )℄ ;
2 sin (Æf + Ær )
(2)
a_
Y_ = [ os Æf sin ( + Ær ) + os Ær sin ( Æf )℄ :
2 sin (Æf + Ær )
Thus, the velo ities of the points A and B will be dire ted horizontally and
perpendi ularly to the axles of the wheels and there is a point P on the line AB
whi h has zero lateral velo ity. If we denote the forward speed of the point P by u

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Figure 4. Coordinate System.

and its distan e from point A by z then it is easy to obtain the following formulas
(see [1℄):
a_ os Æf os Ær u sin (Æf + Ær ) a sin Æf os Ær
u= ; i.e. _ = ; z= :
sin (Æf + Ær ) a os Æf os Ær sin (Æf + Ær )
Using the theory of nite rotations (see, e.g. [4, 5℄) it an be proved that the
steering angles of the wheels are expressed through the tilt of the board by the
following formulas:
tan Æf = tan f sin ; tan Ær = tan r sin ; (3)
where f and r are the angles, whi h the front and the rear pivot axes makes with
the horizontal (Fig. 1). For the rst time these formulae have been obtained by
a slightly di erent way in the garuate paper [6℄. The detailed explanation how to
derive this formulas an be fownd in our paper [1℄. Note also, that the formulae
(3) are ompletely agree with the experimental data from the site [7℄ where the
skateboard tru k has been investigated numeri ally.
Taking into a ount the formulae z we an rewrite the distan e z from point A
to point P as follows:
a sin Æf os Ær a tan Æf a tan f
z= = = :
sin (Æf + Ær ) tan Æf + tan Ær tan f + tan r
Thus under onditions (3) the point P will be lo ated at a onstant distan e
from point A. Using this fa t we an introdu e the oordinate system P x1 x2 x3
whi h is rigidly onne ted with a skateboard. The origin of this system is at P and
the unit ve tors are e1 , e2 , e3 . The unit ve tor e1 is dire ted along the line AB in
the dire tion of motion, e3 -ve tor is dire ted perpendi ularly to the ground plane
and e2 -ve tor forms right-hand system with e1 and e3 . Further we will investigate
the motion of the skateboard with respe t to two oordinate systems: the system
OXY Z and the system P x1 x2 x3 .

Absolute velo ity of the board and the rider enter of mass

Let us nd now the formula for the velo ity of the board enter of mass. Suppose
that the board of a skateboard is lo ated a distan e h above the line AB . Sin e the

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tilt of the board through auses rotation of the entire vehi le (the board and the
rider) about the line AB , then this tilt produ es a translation of the entral line of
the board relative to the line AB (Fig. 5). The radius { ve tor of the point D on
the entral line whi h has been lo ated above point P before the tilt has a form:
!
P D = h os 3 e h sin 2 : e

Figure 5.

Suppose that the length of the board is also equal to a and the board's enter of
mass C is lo ated at its enter. Therefore, when the board is not tilted its enter of
mass C is lo ated a distan e h above the enter G of the line AB . The radius-ve tor
of point C relative to the oordinate system P x1 x2 x3 has the form:
! !
P C = P D + DC =
! a (tan f tan r )
e
h sin 2 + h os 3 :e e
2 (tan f + tan r ) 1
To nd the absolute velo ity of the board's enter of mass we will use the law of
omposition of velo ities. The relative velo ity of point C equals
v r
C = h _ os e2 h _ sin 3 : e
The translational velo ity of point C has the form:
= vP + !  P!
h i
v t
C C :

Taking into a ount, that
u (tan f + tan r ) sin
v P = ue1 ; ! = _e3 = e3; a
we nally get:
!
(tan f +tan r ) h
v t
C =u 1
a
sin2 e1 u
2
(tan f tan r ) sin e2 :

Thus, the absolute velo ity of point C has the form
!
(tan f + tan r ) h
v C =u 1
a
sin2 e1
(4)
(tan f tan r ) sin e2 h _ os e2 h _ sin e3 :
u
2
5
We will nd now the absolute velo ity of the rider's enter of mass. As in the
paper [1℄ we assume that the rider's enter of mass R is not lo ated above the
board's enter of mass, but it is lo ated over the entral line of the board a distan e
d behind the front tru k. We denote by E the point on the entral line where the
rider stands. Let ` be the height of the rider's enter of mass over the entral line of
the board. Then the radius-ve tor of the rider's enter of mass R has the folloeing
form with respe t to P x1 x2 x3 system:
! !
P R = P D + DE + ER =
! ! (a d) tan f d tan r
e1
tan f +tan r
(h sin + ` sin ') e2 +(h os + ` os ') e3 :
The relative velo ity of point R equals:
v r
R = (h _ os + `'_ os ') e2 (h _ sin + `'_ sin ') e3 :
The translational velo ity of point R may be written as follows:
= vP + !  P!
h i
v t
R R :
or in the expli it form:
!
(tan f + tan r ) (h sin + ` sin ')
vt
R =u 1
a
sin e1
u
a
((a d) tan f e
d tan r ) sin 2 :

Finally, the absolute velo ity of the rider's enter of mass equals:
!
(tan f +tan r ) (h sin + ` sin ')
v t
R =u 1
a
sin e1
(h _ os + `'_ os ') e2 (h _ sin + `'_ sin ') e3 (5)
u
a
((a d) tan f d tan r ) sin 2 : e
Angular velo ity of the board has the following form:

b = _ e1 + _e3 = _ e1
u
a
e
(tan f + tan r ) sin 3 : (6)
A ording to the problem formulation, in this ase the angular velo ity of the
rider does not oin ide with the angular velo ity of the board as in the ase, inves-
tigated in [1℄. For this model of a skateboard the rider's angular velo ity has the
form:

r = '_ e1 + _e3 = '_ e1 u (tan f + tan r ) sin e3:
a
(7)
Thus the formulae for the absolute velo ity of the board's enter of mass C and
the rider's enter of mass R and for the angular velo ities of the board and the rider
are de ned by (4)-(7).

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Equations of motion

We derive now equations of motion of the given model of a skateboard in the form of
the Gibbs { Appell equations. We hoose variables u, _ and '_ as a pseudovelo ities
for this problem. In order to derive di erential equations of skateboard motion in
the Gibbs-Appell form, let us obtain the Gibbs fun tion [8℄. This fun tion is known
also as the energy of a eleration [4℄. It is well known that the Gibbs fun tion of a
rigid body an be al ulated using the formula (see [4℄)
   
W
S= 2 +1

m _  
_ +
_  [
 
℄ ; (8)
2 2 C C C

where m is the mass of the body, W is a eleration of the body's enter of
mass,  is the moment of inertia tensor of the body and
and
_ are respe tively
C
C
the angular velo ity and angular a eleration of the body.
We will assume that the dire tion of the prin ipal axes of inertia of the board is
de ned by the unit ve tors e , e , e of the oordinate system C , whose origin
is at the board enter of mass. These ve tors are onne ted with unit ve tors of the
oordinate system P x1 x2 x3 by the following relations:
e1 = e ; e2 = e
  os e
 sin ; e3 = e  sin + e os :
In other words, dire tion of the prin ipal axes of inertia of the board is generated
by rotating the P x1 x2 x3 system through about P x1 . Thus the P  -axis is always
normal to the plane of the board. The inertia tensor of the board, written in the
C system, has the form
0 1
Ibx 0 0
 b = B 0
 Iby 0 C
A:
0 0 Ibz

Similarly, dire tion of the prin ipal axes of inertia of the rider is de ned by the
unit ve tors e0 , e0 , e0 of the oordinate system R 0  0  0, whose origin is at the rider
enter of mass. These ve tors are onne ted with unit ve tors of the oordinate
system P x1 x2 x3 by the following relations:
e1 = e0 ; e2 = e0 os ' e0 sin '; e3 = e0 sin ' + e0 os ':
    

Thus, dire tion of the prin ipal axes of inertia of the rider is generated by rotating
the P x1 x2 x3 system through ' about P x1 . The inertia tensor of the rider, written
in the R 0 0  0 system, has the form
0 1
Irx 0 0
 B
r= 0 Iry 0 C
A:
0 0 Irz

Using expressions (4), (5) for the absolute velo ity of the board's enter of mass
and the rider's enter of mass we an al ulate the absolute a eleration of these
points. For the absolute a eleration of the board's enter of mass we have the
following expression

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w C = wC 1 e1 + wC 2 e2 !
+ wC 3 e3 ;
(tan f + tan r ) h 2
wC 1 = u_ 1 sin
a

u2 (tan2 f tan2 r ) 3u _ (tan f + tan r ) h
sin2 sin os ;
2a a
wC 2 = h ( _ 2 sin  os )

(tan f tan r )
(u_ sin + u _ os )
2
!
u2 (tan f + tan r ) sin (tan f + tan r ) h 2
1 sin ;
a a
wC 3 = h ( 2
sin + _ os ) :
Similarly for the a eleration of the rider's enter of mass we have the following
formulas
wR = wR1e1 + wR2e2 + wR3e3;!
(tan f +tan r ) (h sin + ` sin ') sin
wR1 = u_ 1
a

u (tan f + tan r )
(3h _ sin os +2`'_ sin os ' + ` _ os sin ')
a
u2
((a d) tan f d tan r ) (tan f +tan r ) sin2 ;
a2

wR2 = h _ 2 sin + `'_ 2 sin ' h  os `' os '
!
(tan f +tan r ) (h sin + ` sin ') sin u2 (tan f +tan r ) sin
1
a a

((a d) tan f d tan r )
(u_ sin + u _ os ) ;
a

wR3 = h  sin `' sin ' h _ 2 os `'_ 2 os ':
The angular a eleration of the board has the form

_ b = e1 u (tan f + tan r ) _ sin e2 (tan f + tan r ) (u_ sin + u _ os ) e3:
a a
Using expressions of e1 , e2 , e3 in terms of e , e , e , we get for
_ b the following
expression:

_ b = e (tan f + tan r ) (u_ sin + 2u _ os ) sin e
a
(tan f + tan r )    
a
u_ sin os + os2 sin2 u _ e:


8
The angular a eleration of the rider has the form
u (tan f + tan r ) (tan f + tan r )

_ r = 'e1
a
'_ sin 2 e a
(u_ sin + u _ os ) e3 :

Using expressions of e1 , e2 , e3 in terms of e0 , e0 , e0 , we get for
_ r the following
expression:
(tan f + tan r )

_ r = 'e0
a
(u_ sin sin ' + u'_ sin os ' + u _ sin ' os ) e0

(tan f + tan r )
(u_ sin os ' u'_ sin sin ' + u _ os os ') e0 :
a
Let mb be the mass of the board and mr be the mass of the rider. Substituting
expressions for the a eleration of the board's enter of mass, the rider's enter of
mass and the angular velo ities and a elerations both the board and the rider into
formula (8) we get the Gibbs fun tion of the system:
1h
S= A +(C1 2D1 ) sin2 + F1 sin4 2L1 sin sin '+
2 1
i E N
+ 2G1 sin3 sin ' + H1 sin2 sin2 ' u_ 2 + 1 2 + 1 '2 +
2 2
 
+B1 u_  sin os u_ _ 2 sin2 + u _  os2 +

+K1 (u_ ' sin os ' u_ '_ 2 sin sin ' + u _ ' os os ') +
+J1 ( ' os (' )  '_ 2 sin (' ) + _ 2 ' sin (' )) +
 
+2 G1 sin2 L1 + H1 sin sin ' uu_ '_ sin os '+
 
+ D1 F1 sin2 G1 sin sin ' u2  sin os +
 
+ L1 H1 sin sin ' G1 sin2 u2 ' sin os '+
h
+ (C1 3D1 ) sin L1 sin ' + 3F1 sin3 + H1 sin sin2 ' +
i
+ 4G1 sin2 sin ' uu
_ _ os
Here we introdu e the following notations:
(mb + mr ) (tan f + tan r ) h
A1 = mb + mr ; D1 = ; E1 = Ibx + mb h2 + mr l2 ;
a
 
mb m
B1 = (tan f tan r ) + r ((a d) tan f d tan r ) h;
2 a

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mb Ibz + Irz
C1 = (tan f tan r )2 + (tan f + tan r )2 +
4 a2
m
+ 2r ((a d) tan f d tan r )2 ;
a
(tan f + tan r )2   mr ` (tan f + tan r )
F1 = (mb + mr ) h2 + Iby Ibz ; L1 = ;
a2 a
(tan f + tan r )2   mr `
H1 = Iry Irz + mr `2 ; K1 = ((a d) tan f d tan r ) ;
a2 a
mr h` (tan f + tan r )2
J1 = mr h`; N1 = Irx + mr `2 ; G1 = :
a2
The potential energy of the system onsists of the potential due to gravity and
the potentials due to two torsional springs with the sti nesses k1 and k2 :
k (' )2
k1 2
V =+ 2 + mb gh os + mr g` os ':
2 2
The Gibbs { Appell equations, des ribing the dynami s of the given model of a
skateboard have the form
S S V S V
= 0; = ; =
 u_     ' '
or in the expli it form
h
A1 + (C1 2D1 ) sin2 + F1 sin4 2L1 sin sin '+
i
+ 2G1 sin3 sin ' + H1 sin2 sin2 ' u_ +

+B1 ( os _ 2 sin ) sin + K1 (' os ' '_ 2 sin ') sin +
h
+ (C1 3D1 ) sin L1 sin ' + 3F1 sin3 +
i
+ H1 sin sin2 ' + 4G1 sin2 sin ' u _ os +
 
+2 G1 sin2 L1 + H1 sin sin ' u'_ sin os ' = 0; (9)

E1  + J1 ' os (' ) J1 '_ 2 sin (' ) + B1 (u_ sin + u _ os ) os +
 
+ D1 F1 sin2 G1 sin sin ' u2 sin os +

+ (k1 + k2 ) k2 ' (mb + mr ) gh sin = 0;
N1 ' + J1  os (' ) J1 _ 2 sin (' ) + K1 (u_ sin + u _ os ) os '+
 
+ L1 H1 sin sin ' G1 sin2 u2 sin os ' k2 + k2 ' mr g` sin ' = 0:

10
The system (9) will be the main obje t of our further investigations. We show
now that for arbitrary values of parameters A1 , B1 , : : :, N1 equations (9) possess a
rst integral { the energy integral. Indeed if we multiply the rst equation of (9)
by u, the se ond by _ and the third by '_ and then we take the sum of the obtained
expressions we nd after some simpli ation that the result of these al ulations an
be represented as a total derivative of the fun tion
h
U0 = A1 +(C1 2D1 ) sin2 + F1 sin4 2L1 sin sin '+

i u2 E N
+ 2G1 sin3 sin ' + H1 sin2 sin2 ' + 1 _ 2 + 1 '_ 2 +
2 2 2
(10)
+B1 u _ sin os + K1 u'_ sin os ' + J1'_ _ os ( ') k2 '+
(k + k ) k
+ 1 2 2 + 2 '2 + (mb + mr ) gh os + mr g` os ' = 0 = onst
2 2
This fun tion (10) is a total me hani al energy of the system. Thus for integra-
bility of the system (9) we need three additional independent rst integrals. The
problem of integrability of the system (9) will be investigated below.

Comparison with known results
The onsidered model of a skateboard has been investigated for the rst time by
Hubbard [2, 3℄. Hubbard assumed that both the angles and ' are small. Therefore
we an easily obtain equations found in [2, 3℄. Indeed if we linearize equation (9)
with respe t to and ', then we an write the linearized equations as follows:
E1  + J1 ' + B1 u _ + D1u2 +(k1 + k2) k2 ' (mb + mr ) gh =0;
(11)
N1 ' + J1  + K1 u _ + L1 u2 k2 + (k2 mr g`)=0; u_ = 0:
Equations (11) have the same form that the equations found in [2, 3℄. The third
equation implies that, for the angles and ' small enough, point P has a onstant
forward speed u. Hen e u will be treated as a parameter in the rst and the se ond
equations for and '.
Linear equations (11) an be obtained also by another way [11℄. Let us keep in
the expression for the Gibbs fun tion S only the terms of the se ond order relative
to and '. Then we get the following expression
A1 2 E1 2 N1 2
S = u_ +  + '_ + B1 (u
_ + u _ )  +
2 2 2
_ + u _ ) ' + J1  ' + D1 u2  + L1 u2 ':
+K1 (u 
The potential energy, represented as a power series of and ' up to terms of
the se ond order has the form
(k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) 2 (k2 mr g`) 2
V  = mb gh + mr g (h + `)+ k2 ' + ':
2 2
11
If we write now the Gibbs-Appell equations,
S  S  V  S  V 
= 0; = = ;
 u_     ' '
then they have the form of equations (11).

Stability of uniform straight-line motion of a skateboard

Equations (10) have the parti ular solution
u = u0 = onst; = 0; ' = 0; (12)
whi h orresponds to uniform straight-line motion of a skateboard. Consider the
problem of stability of this parti ular solution.
Setting u = u0 +  and keeping for and ' their notations we write the equations
of the perturbed motion
E1  + J1 ' + B1 u0 _ + (D1 u20 + 11 ) + 12 ' = ;
(13)
N1 ' + J1  + K1 u0 _ + (L1 u20 + 12 ) + 22 ' = ; _ = :

11 = k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh; 12 = k2 ; 22 = k2 mr g`:
Here ,  and  are the time independent fun tions of , _ , ', '_ and  whose
development as a series in powers of said variables starts with terms of at least the
se ond order. Moreover, these fun tions identi ally vanish with respe t to  when
= ' = 0 and _ = '_ = 0 (this fa t an be veri ed manually):

(0; 0; 0; 0;  ) =  (0; 0; 0; 0;  ) =  (0; 0; 0; 0;  ) = 0:
The hara teristi equation orresponding to the linearized system (13) has the
form:  
s b0 s4 + b1 s3 + b2 s2 + b3 s + b4 = 0: (14)
b0 = E1 N1 J12 ; b1 = (B1 N1 J1 K 1 ) u 0 ;
b2 = (D1 N1 J1 L1 ) u20 + 11 N1 + 22 E1 212 J1 ;
b3 = (B1 22 K1 12 ) u0 ; b4 = (D1 22 L1 12 ) u20 + 11 22 212 :
When the Routh { Hurwitz onditions
b0 > 0; b1 > 0; b2 > 0; b3 > 0; b4 > 0;

b1 b2 b3 b0 b23 b21 b4 = u2 (J1 22 N1 12 ) [B1 K1 N1 11 + B12 J1 22 J1 K12 11 (15)
B1 E1 K1 22 + E1 K12 12 B12 N1 12 +(B1 N1 J1 K1 )(K1 D1 L1 B1 ) u2 ℄ > 0:

are valid equation (14) has one zero-root and four roots in the left half plane. Sin e
the fun tions ,  and  identi ally vanish for = ' = 0, _ = '_ = 0, then under
onditions (15) we have the riti al ase of one-zero root [9, 10℄ and solution (12) is

12
stable with respe t to , _ , ', '_ and u (asymptoti ally stable with respe t to , _ ,
' and '_ ).
Note that the stru ture of the oeÆ ients b1 and b3 allows to on lude that the
stability of motion depends on its dire tion. For the rst time this fa t has been
shown in [2, 3, 11℄ and for the two-degree-of-freedom skateboard model in [1, 2, 3℄.
The rst of the onditions (15) is always valid; indeed
  
b0 = E1 N1 J12 = Ibx + mb h2 Irx + mr `2 + Irxmr h2 > 0:
The remaining ve onditions have the following expli it form:
"  #
mb h Irxmr h
b1 = Irx + mr `2 (tan f tan r ) +((a d) tan f d tan r ) u0 > 0;
2 a
h
b2 = (mb mr `2 + (mb + mr ) Irx ) (tan f + tan r ) u20 + 2k2 mr h`+
a

+ (Ibx +(mb + mr ) h2 ) (k2 mr g`)+(Irx + mr `2 ) (k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) > 0;
h mr
b3 = ((a d) tan f d tan r ) ((` + h) k2 mr g`h) +
a
mb h i
+ (tan f tan r ) (k2 mr g`) u0 > 0;
2
u2
b4 =[(mb + mr ) (k2 mr g`) h + mr `k2 ℄ (tan f + tan r ) 0 +
a
+ (k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) (k2 mr g`) k22 > 0;
(b1 b2 b3 b0 b23 b21 b4 ) =u2 =
(
m m `h2 (a 2d) u20
2
[(Irx + mr ` ) k2 +(k2 mr g`) mr h`℄ b r (tan f +tan r )2 
2a2
h mb   Irx mr i
 2
Irx + mr `2 (tan f tan r )+
a
((a d) tan f d tan r ) +

m2b h2
+ [((` + h) k2 mr gh`) mr ` + Irxk2 ℄ (tan f tan r )2 +
4
mb mr h
+ (tan f tan r ) ((a d) tan f d tan r ) 
2a
 [(Irxh Ibx ` mb h2 ` + mr (` + h) h`) (k2 mr g`) +

+ (Irx + mr `2 ) ((` + h) k2 + `k1 mb gh`)℄ +

m2
+ 2r ((a d) tan f d tan r )2 [(k1 mb gh) Irxh`+
a
)
+ (Irx h Ibx ` mb h2 `) ((` + h) k2 mr g`h)℄ > 0:

13
If at least one of these onditions is not ful lled then equation (14) has the root
in the right-half plane and solution (12) will be unstable.
The obtained stability onditions of uniform straight-line motion of the skate-
board have very ompli ated form. They be ome slightly simpler in the ase, when
the skateboard is symmetri (f = r = ). In this ase the stability onditions an
be rewritten in the form:
Irxmr h m
(a 2d) u0 tan  > 0; r (a 2d) ((` + h) k2 mr g`h) u0 tan  > 0;
a a
2hu20  
mb mr `2 + (mb + mr ) Irx tan  + 2k2 mr h`+
a

+ (Ibx +(mb + mr ) h2 ) (k2 mr g`)+(Irx + mr `2 ) (k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) > 0;
2u20 (16)
((mb + mr ) (k2 mr g`) h + mr `k2 ) tan +
a

+ (k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) (k2 mr g`) k22 > 0;

h 2Irx mb h2 `
[(Irx + mr `2 ) k2 + (k2 mr g`) mr h`℄ u20 tan +
a
i
+ (k1 mb gh) Irxh` + (Irx h Ibx ` mb h2 `) ((` + h) k2 mr g`h) > 0:

Analysis of the rst and the se ond of the onditions (16) allows to on lude that
if
(` + h) k2 mr g`h < 0;
then the motion of the skateboard will be unstable. In other words the motion will
be unstable when the oeÆ ient k2 of a torsional spring is less when some riti al
value. This means that the instability will be take pla e when the rider stands
unsteadily on the board.
Let us nd now onditions of stability of the equilibrium position of a skateboard,
i.e. the parti ular solution
u0 = 0; = 0; '=0
When u0 = 0 the hara teristi equation (14) has one zero-root and two pairs of
pure imaginary roots under the onditions
11 N1 + 22 E1 212 J1 > 0; 11 22 212 > 0;

(11 N1 +22 E1 212 J1 )2 4 (E1 N1 J12 ) (11 22 212 ) > 0:
The last of these onditions an be rewritten as follows:
(11 N1 +22 E1 212 J1 )2 4 (E1 N1 J12 ) (11 22 212 ) =
!
222 J12 2 
22 J1 2
= 11 N1 22 E1 212 J1 + + 4 (E1 N1 J12 ) 12 > 0:
N1 N1

14
and therefore this ondition is always ful lled. Two rst onditions an be rewritten
in the form
(Ibx + (mb + mr ) h2 ) (k2 mr g`) + 2k2 mr h`+
+ (Irx + mr `2 ) (k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) > 0; (17)
(k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) (k2 mr g`) k22 > 0:
Let us prove that inequalities (17) are ne essary and suÆ ient onditions for
stability of equilibrium position of a skateboard. Indeed, point = 0, ' = 0 is a
riti al point of the potential energy of the system. Then using the theorems about
stability of equilibria of nonholonomi systems, proved by V.V. Rumyantsev [12, 13℄
(see also [14℄) we an on lude that the equilibrium position of a skateboard will be
stable with respe t to , _ , ', '_ if the Hessian matrix of the potential energy of the
system will be positive de nite for = ' = 0. The orresponding onditions have
the following form
k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh > 0;
(18)
(k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh) (k2 mr g`) k22 > 0:

It an be shown that two systems of inequalities (17) and (18) are equivalent to
ea h other. Indeed, the se ond inequalities in (17) and (18) have the same form. Let
us assume that the rst inequality in (18) is ful lled. Then from the se ond inequal-
ity of (18) we have k2 mr g` > 0 (otherwise the system (18) will be in onsistent).
Therefore the expression at the left-hand side of the rst inequality in (17) will be
positive and this inequality will be ful lled. Thus, if the onditions (18) is valid, the
onditions (17) is also valid. Suppose now that the onditions (17) is valid and the
rst inequality in (18) is not ful lled, i.e.
k1 + k2 (mb + mr ) gh < 0: (19)
Then, from the se ond inequality in (17) we have
k2 < k2 = mr g` + (mb + mr ) gh k1

However, from the rst inequality of (17) we get
(Ibx + (mb + mr ) h2 ) mr g` + (Irx + mr `2 ) ((mb + mr ) gh k1 )
k2 > k2 = :
Ibx + Irx + mb h2 + mr (` + h)2
Sin e
k2 k2 > 0;
then the two last inequalities are in orre t. Thus when the ondition (19) is ful lled
the system of inequalities (17) is in onsistent. This means that for onsisten y of
the system (17) the inequalities (18) should be valid and therefore two systems (17)
and (18) are equivalent to ea h other.
Further we will say that the skateboard is stati ally stable if the onditions (18)
is ful lled.

15
Note that in the last term of the last inequality in (16) there is an expression
Irx h Ibx ` mb h2 `. Using the results obtained by Chandler et al. [15℄, Clauser et
al. [16℄, Hanavan [17℄ and Wooley [18℄ it is possible to on lude that for the a tual
physi al parameters this expression should be positive
Irxh Ibx ` mb h2 ` > 0: (20)
Further we will onsider inequality (20) is ful lled.

Nonexisten e of an invariant measure.

In this paragraph we onsider the problem of existen e of an invariant measure
with a smooth positive density for the system (9). Sin e the system (9) has a
ylindri al phase spa e, then in our investigation we will use the ideas from the
papers by V.V. Kozlov [19, 20℄. Let us brie y dis uss these ideas. Let us onsider the
ylindri al phase spa e Mn = Rk  Tn k with the oordinates x1 ; : : : ; xn . Between
these oordinates there are k linear oordinates and n k angular ones. Let v is a
smooth ve tor eld on Mn . This ve tor eld orresponds to di erential equation
x_ = v (x) : (21)
Let us onsider the problem of existen e of an invariant measure
Z
mes (D) = x
 ( ) dnx (22)
D

with smooth positive density  : Mn ! R for the system (21).
The Liuoville equation div (v) = 0 is a riterion of existen e of the invariant
measure (22) for the system (21). Sin e the fun tion  is positive then we an
transform the Liouville equation to the form:
w_ = div v; w = ln : (23)
It is evident, that w is a smooth fun tion on Mn .
Let the point x = 0 be an equilibrium of the system (21). In the small neighbor-
hood of this equilibrium the system (21) an be represented in the form:
x_ = Zx +    ; (24)
whre Z is a matrix of the linear part of the system (21).
Theorem. ([19, 20℄) Let x = 0 be an equilibrium of the nonlinear system (24). If
tr Z 6= 0, than this system has no invariant measure with a smooth density in a
small neighborhood of the point x = 0.
We use this theorem for investigation of our problem. Setting
= x1 ; ' = x2 ; _ = x3 ; '_ = x4 ; u = u0 + x5 :
we represent the system (9) in the form:
5
X
x_ i = zij xj +    :
j =1

16
In our ase the tra e of the matrix Z = (zij ) an be written as follows:
(B1 N1 J1 K1 ) u0 b
tr Z = 2 = 1:
(E1 N1 J1 ) b0
Hen e if
B1 N1 6 0
J1 K1 =
equations (9) have no invariant measure with a smooth density
Remark. The question about existen e of an invariant measure for our system in
the ase
B1 N1 J1 K1 = 0
remains opened.
In the next paragraph we study the behavior of the system (9) near the equilib-
rium point
u0 = 0; = 0; ' = 0:

Motion of the system near the equilibrium position.

Let u0 = 0 in (12), i.e. the skateboard rests on the plane. The ne essary and
suÆ ient ondition for this equilibrium position to be stable is, a ording to the
results obtained above, inequalities (18). We suppose this ondition is ful lled. We
assume also that
tan f  tan r a > 2d:
Under these onditions the steady motion (12) of a skateboard will be stable if
u0 > 0 and unstable if u0 < 0. Let us onsider the motion of the system near the
equilibrium position. For this purpose we solve equations (9) with respe t to u_ , 
and ' and then we take the power series expansion of the orresponding right-hand
sides in terms of u, , _ , ', '_ up to the se ond order. As a result we obtain the
following system of di erential equations:
u_ = 11 2 + 12 ';
 = 21 + 22 ' + 23 u ;
_ (25)
' = 31 + 32 ' + 33 u :
_
Here it is denoted
(B1 N1 J1 K1 ) 11 (B1 J1 K1 E1 ) 12
11 = ;
A1 (E1 N1 J12 )

(B1 N1 J1 K1 ) 12 (B1 J1 K1 E1 ) 22
12 = ;
A1 (E1 N1 J12 )
J1 12 N1 11 J1 22 N1 12 J1 K1 B1 N1
21 = 2 ; 22 = 2 ; 23 = ;
E1 N1 J1 E1 N1 J1 E1 N1 J12
J1 11 E1 12 J1 12 E1 22 B1 J1 K1 E1
31 = 2 ; 32 = 2 ; 33 = :
E1 N1 J1 E1 N1 J1 E1 N1 J12

17
The assumptions made above allow to de ne the sign of the oeÆ ients ij :
11 > 0; 12 < 0; 21 < 0; 22 > 0;

23 < 0; 31 > 0; 32 < 0; 33 < 0:
Now we hange the variables , ', u ! y1 , y2 , y3 in system (25) whi h redu es the
se ond and the third its linearized equations to the form orresponding to normal
os illations.
The se ond and the third linearized equations of the system (25) have the form:
 21 22 ' = 0;
' 31 32 ' = 0:
(26)

The frequen ies
1 ,
2 , (
1 >
2 ) of normal os illations satisfy the equation

4 + ( 21 + 32 )
2 + ( 21 32 22 31 ) = 0:

From this equation it is possible to nd two expressions
21 and
22 (
21 >
22 )
for the eigenfrequen ies of the system (26):
q
( 21 + 32 ) + ( 21 32 )2 + 4 22 31

21 = ;
2
q
( 21 32 )2 + 4 22 31
( 21 + 32 )

22 = :
2
The orresponding eigenve tors for these eigenfrequen ies have the form:
! !
u1 = 22 1
( 21 +
21 ) 1 ; u2 = 22 2
( 21 +
22 ) 2 :

We hoose the values of arbitrary onstants 1 and 2 from the ondition, that
the eigenve tors u1 and u2 should be unit ve tors. Then
1
i = q ; i = 1; 2:
(
2i + 21 )2 + 222
Finally we an on lude that the redu tion to standard (normal) oordinates is
obtained by hanging the variables
= 22 1 y1 22 2 y2 ;
' = (
21 + 21 ) 1 y1 + (
22 + 21 ) 2 y2 ; (27)
u = y3 :

In variables y1 , y2 , y3 the system (25) takes the form:
y1 +
21 y1 + Q1 y_ 1 y3 + Q2 y_ 2 y3 = 0;

y2 +
22 y2 + Q3 y_ 1 y3 + Q4 y_ 2 y3 = 0; (28)
y_3 = Q5 y12 + Q6 y1 y2 + Q7 y22 ;

18
where we make the following notations:
22 33 + 21 23 + 23
22 ( 22 33 + 21 23 + 23
22 ) 2
Q1 = ; Q2 = ;

21
22 (
21
22 ) 1
( 22 33 + 21 23 + 23
21 ) 1 22 33 + 21 23 + 23
21
Q3 = ; Q4 = ;
(
22
21 ) 2
22
21
 
Q5 = 22 11 22 12 21 12
21 21 ;
  
Q6 = 22 2 11 22 2 12 21 12
21 +
22 1 2 ;
 
Q7 = 22 11 22 12 21 12
22 22 :
As in (25) terms of higher order than the se ond relative to perturbations have
been omitted in the system (28). To investigate the nonlinear system (28) we redu e
it to the normal form [21, 22℄. First of all we make the hange of variables
z1 z3 z2 z4 z1 + z3 z +z
y1 = ; y2 = ; y_1 =
1 ; y_2 = 2 4
2 ; y3 = z5 :
2i 2i 2 2
In variables zk , k = 1; 2; : : : ; 5 the system of equations (28) takes the form
Q1
2 Q2
z_1 = i
1 z1 (z1 + z3 ) z5 (z + z ) z ;
2 2
1 2 4 5
Q4
1 Q3
z_2 = i
2 z2 (z2 + z4 ) z5 (z + z ) z ;
2 2
2 1 3 5
Q1
2 Q2 (29)
z_3 = i
1 z3 (z1 + z3 ) z5 (z + z ) z ;
2 2
1 2 4 5
Q4
1 Q3
z_4 = i
2 z4 (z2 + z4 ) z5 (z + z ) z ;
2 2
2 1 3 5
Q5 Q6 Q7
z_5 = (z1 z3 )2 (z1 z3 )(z2 z4 ) (z2 z4 )2 ;
4 4 4
i.e. the linear part of the system (29) has a diagonal form and the derivation of
its normal form redu es to separating resonant terms from the nonlinearities in the
right-hand sides of the system (29). Taking into a ount this fa t we obtain the
following normal form of the system (29), written in omplex variables:
Q1 Q4
z_1 = i
1 z1 z1 z5 ; z_2 = i
2 z2 zz;
2 2 2 5
Q1 Q4
z_3 = i
1 z3 z3 z5 ; z_4 = i
2 z4 zz; (30)
2 2 4 5
Q5 Q7
z_5 = z1 z3 + zz:
2 2 2 4

19
Introdu ing real polar oordinates a ording to the formulas
z1 = 1 ( os 1 + i sin 1 ) ; z2 = 2 ( os 2 + i sin 2 ) ;

z3 = 1 ( os 1 i sin 1 ) ; z4 = 2 ( os 2 i sin 2 ) ; y5 = 3 ;
we write the system (30) in the variables 1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 2 . As a result we obtain
the normalized system of equations of perturbed motion whi h is then split into two
independent subsystems:
Q1 Q4 Q5 2 Q7 2
_1 = 1 3 ; _2 = 2 3 ; _3 =  + ; (31)
2 2 2 1 2 2
_ 1 =
1 ; _ 2 =
2 : (32)
Terms of order higher than the se ond in (31) and those higher than the rst in 
k , k = 1; 2; 3 in (54) have been omitted here.
In the "-neighborhood of the equilibrium position the right-hand sides of equa-
tions (31) and (32) di er from the respe tive right-hand sides of the exa t equations
of perturbed motion by quantities of order "3 and "2 respe tively. The solutions of
the exa t equations are approximated by the solutions of system (31)-(32) with an
error of "2 for k and of order " for j in a time interval of order 1=". Restri ting
the al ulations to this a ura y, we will onsider the approximate system (31)-(32)
instead of the omplete equations of perturbed motion.
For qualitative des ription of the skateboard motion we should determine the
sign of the oeÆ ients Q1 , Q4 , Q5 and Q7 . First of all let us nd the sign of the
oeÆ ients Q5 and Q7 . Sin e 22 > 0, 12 < 0 and
(11 22 212 ) K1
11 22 12 21 = > 0;
(E1 N1 J12 ) A1
then it is possible to on lude that
Q 5 > 0; Q7 > 0:

Thus, the variable 3 whi h is a small velo ity of the skateboard in stable or in
unstable dire tion has nonegative derivation and therefore it is an always in reasing
fun tion of time.
Let us determine now the sign of the oeÆ ients Q1 and Q4 . Taking into a ount
that the denominator of Q1 is positive and denominator of Q4 is negative we need
to determine only the sign of numerators of Q1 and Q4 . The numerator of Q1 has
the form:
22 33 + 21 23 + 23
22
or substituting the expli it form for
22 :
21 23 23 32 23 q
22 33 + ( 21 23 )2 + 4 22 31 : (33)
2 2 2
Sin e 23 < 0 then
23 q
( 21 23 )2 + 4 22 31 > 0:
2
20
Consequently if
21 23 23 32
22 33 + > 0;
2 2
then the numerator of Q1 is positive. Now suppose that
21 23 23 32
22 33 + < 0:
2 2
In this ase both the expressions
23 q
( 21 23 )2 + 4 22 31 > 0: (34)
2
23
( ) 22 33 > 0 (35)
2 32 21
are positive and therefore the sign of di eren e of the squares of these expressions
oin ides with the sign of di eren e of these expressions. Now we take the squares
of the expressions (34) and (35) and subtra t the square of (35) from the square of
(34):
223 31 + 23 32 33 21 23 33 22 233 :
This di eren e has the form of the fra tion with positive denominator and the
numerator haveng the form:
B12 J1 22 + B1 K1 N1 11 J1 K12 11 B1 E1 K1 22 + E1 K12 12 B12 N1 12 :

We already met this expression when we wrote onditions of stability (15) of the
steady motion (12). Under our assumptions this expression will be positive. Thus
we prove that expression (35) is less than expression (34). This means that under
our assumptions the numerator of Q1 is positive and Q1 is positive too. Using the
similar ideas it is easy to prove that the numerator of Q4 is negative and therefore
Q4 is positive. Finally we get

Q 1 > 0; Q4 > 0:

Using the information about the sign of the oeÆ ients Q1 , Q4 , Q5 and Q7 we
an integrate now the system (31)-(32).
Equations (32) are immediately integrable. We get
j (t) =
j t + j (0) ; j = 1; 2:

System (31) des ribes the evolution of the amplitude 1 of the board os illations,
the amplitude 2 of the rider os illations and also the evolution of the velo ity 3 of
a straight-line motion of the skateboard. It is easy to prove, that this system has
two rst integrals: !
Q 4
1 1 2 = n2 ; 1 = >0 (36)
Q1
!
Q5 Q7
2 21 + 3 22 + 23 = n21 ; 2 = > 0 ; 3 = >0 (37)
Q1 Q4
where n1 , n2 are onstants, spe i ed by initial onditions.

21
Figure 6.

The traje tories of the system (31) are represented in Fig. 6 in spa e 1 , 2 , 
3 . They lie in the region 1  0, 2  0 and they are the urves representing the
interse tions of the surfa e of the ellipsoid (37) and the ylindri al surfa e (36). The
dire tion of motion along the traje tories is indi ated by the arrows.
Let us onsider the properties of the solutions of system (31) and their relations
with the properties of motion of the skateboard. The points P1 = (0; 0; n1 ) and
P2 = (0; 0; n1 ) in Fig. 6 denote the equilibrium positions of system (31). Steady
motions (12) of a skateboard orrespond to these points. By linearizing equations
(31) in a small neighborhood of these points we obtain
Q1 Q4
_1 = n1 1 ; _2 = n  ; _ = 0;
2 2 1 2 3
i.e. if n1 > 0 then the equilibrium position (0; 0; n1 ) will be stable and equilibrium
position (0; 0; n1 ) will be unstable. If n1 < 0 then (0; 0; n1 ) will be unstable and
(0; 0; n1 ) will be stable.
The system of equations (31) has the following parti ular solutions
s  
Q4 2 exp Q42n1 t
1 = 0; 2 = 2 n n3 ;
Q7 1 1 + n3 exp ( Q4 n1 t)
(38)
1 n3 exp ( Q4 n1 t)
3 = n1 ;
1 + n3 exp ( Q4 n1 t)
s  
Q1 2 exp Q12n1 t
2 = 0; 1 = 2 n n4 ;
Q5 1 1 + n4 exp ( Q1 n1 t)
(39)
1 n4 exp ( Q1 n1 t)
3 = n1 ;
1 + n4 exp ( Q1 n1 t)
in whi h 1 and 2 are identi ally equal to zero. Here n3 and n4 are nonnegative
onstants, spe i ed by initial onditions. Solution (38) orresponds to motions of the

22
Figure 7. The amplitude of the rider os illations 2 for parti ular solution (38) in
ase n1 > 0, n3  1.

Figure 8. The skateboard velo ity 3 for parti ular solution (38) in ase n1 > 0,
n3  1.

Figure 9. The amplitude of the rider os illations 2 for parti ular solution (38) in
ase n1 < 0, n3  1.

Figure 10. The skateboard velo ity 3 for parti ular solution (38) in ase n1 < 0,
n3  1.

23
skateboard when the skateboard exe utes straight-line motion with xed board and
the rider os illates with the amplitude 2 (t) (i.e. the system exe utes low-frequen y
os illations). Evolution of the fun tions 2 and 3 in time gives the omplete de-
s ription of behavior of a skateboard in this parti ular ase. Let us suppose, that
at the initial instant the system is near the stable equilibrium position (n1 > 0) and 
3 (0)  0, i.e. n3  1 (the ase when n1 > 0, n3 > 1 is similar to the ase n1 < 0,
n3 < 1, whi h will be investigated below). These initial onditions orrespond to
the situation when at the initial instant the skateboard takes the small velo ity
1 n3
3 (0) = n1
1 + n3
in the stable dire tion. Then in the ourse of time the amplitude of os illations of
the rider 2 de reases monotoni ally from its initial value
s
2n 1 Q 4
2 (0) = n
1 + n3 Q 7 3
to zero, while the velo ity of the skateboard 3 in reases in absolute value. In
the limit the skateboard moves in the stable dire tion with a onstant velo ity n1
(Fig. 7-8).
Suppose now that at the initial instant the system is near the unstable equi-
librium position n1 < 0. Suppose again, that at the initial instant n3 < 1, i.e. 
2 (0) < 0 (the ase n1 < 0, n3 > 1 is similar to the ase n1 > 0, n3 < 1 whi h was
onsidered above). These initial onditions orrespond the situation when at the
initial instant the skateboard takes the small velo ity
1 n3
3 (0) = n1
1 + n3
in the unstable dire tion. In this ase the limit of the system motion is the same as
when 3 (0)  0 but the evolution of the motion is entirely di erent. When
ln (n3 )
0 < t < t =
Q4 n1
the amplitude of the rider os illations 2 in reases monotoni ally and the skateboard
moves in the unstable dire tion with de reasing velo ity. At the instant t = t the
velo ity vanishes and the os illation amplitude 2 rea hes its maximum value
s
Q4 2
2 (t ) = n:
Q7 1
When t > t the skateboard already moves in the stable dire tion with an in reasing
absolute value of its velo ity and the os illation amplitude de reases monotoni ally.
Thus when 2 (0) < 0 during the time of evolution of the motion a hange in the
dire tion of motion of the skateboard o urs only on e (Fig. 9-10). Similar nonlinear
e e t for the simpli ed skateboard model was observed in [1℄, and it is known also
for other problems of nonholonomi me hani s (for example in the lassi al problem
of dynami s of a rattleba k [21℄, [23℄-[28℄).

24
Figure 11. The board in lination for parti ular solution (38) in ase n1 > 0,
n3  1.

Figure 12. The rider in lination ' for parti ular solution (38) in ase n1 > 0, n3  1.

Figure 13. The board in lination for parti ular solution (38) in ase n1 < 0,
n3  1.

Figure 14. The rider in lination ' for parti ular solution (38) in ase n1 < 0, n3  1.

25
Returning to the normal oordinates y1 , y2 , y3 we an write
Q1
2 Q2
y1 = 1 sin 1 1 3 os 1 + 2   os 2 ;
4
1
2
21 2 3
Q4
1 Q3
y2 = 2 sin 2 2 3 os 2   os 1 ;
4
2
22
21 1 3
Q5 2 Q6
y3 = 3  sin 1 os 1   sin (1 2 )
2
1 1 2 (
2
1 ) 1 2
Q6 Q7 2
1 2 sin (1 + 2 )  sin 2 os 2 ;
2 (
2 +
1 ) 2
2 2
and the expressions of the angles and ' through the normal oordinates is given
by (27). Fig. 11-14 represent the evolution of the angles and ' in time for the
parti ular solution (38) in stable and unstable ases. Solution (39) de nes a motion
of a skateboard when the skateboard exe utes straight-line motion with xed rider
and the board os illates with the amplitude 1 (t) (i.e. the system exe utes high-
frequen y os illations). The analysis of the evolution of the motion is similar to the
previous ase. If the skateboard moves in the unstable dire tion then at the instant
ln (n4 )
t = t =
Q1 n1
a hange in the dire tion of motion o urs. At that instant the os illation amplitude 
1 rea hes its maximum value
s
Q1 2
1 (t ) = n:
Q5 1
The evolution of the fun tions 1 and 3 in time will be the same as represented
in Fig. 7-10 for the previous ase. However, sin e in this ase the system exe utes
high-frequen y os illations, the evolution of the angles and ' will be essentially
di erent from the previous ase. In this ase the evolution of and ' is represented
in Fig. 15-18.
Let us now onsider solutions of system (31), that are di erent from those of
(38), (39) and from the equilibrium points P1 and P2 . From the integrals (36) and
(37) we have:
1 ; 3 = f (1 ) ;
2 = n2 1

q (40)
2 2 2
f (1 ) = n1 2 1 3 n2 1 : 21

Substituting 3 from (40) into the rst equation of system (31) we get:
Q1
_1 =   f ( ) ;
2 1 1
and then separating the variables we nally obtain:
d1 Q
=  1 dt: (41)
1 f (1 ) 2
26
Figure 15. The board in lination for parti ular solution (39) in ase n1 > 0,
n4  1.

Figure 16. The rider in lination ' for parti ular solution (39) in ase n1 > 0, n4  1.

Figure 17. The board in lination for parti ular solution (39) in ase n1 < 0,
n4  1.

Figure 18. The rider in lination ' for parti ular solution (39) in ase n1 < 0, n4  1.

27
Figure 19. The amplitude of the board os illations 1 in general ase for n1 > 0.

Figure 20. The amplitude of the rider os illations 2 in general ase for n1 > 0.

Figure 21. The skateboard velo ity 3 in general ase for n1 > 0.

Figure 22. The amplitude of the board os illations 1 in general ase for n1 < 0.

28
Figure 23. The amplitude of the rider os illations 2 in general ase for n1 < 0.

Figure 24. The skateboard velo ity 3 in general ase for n1 < 0.

If the fun tion 1 (t) is determined from (41), then 2 (t) and 3 (t) are al ulated
using expressions (40).
In is not possible, in general, to obtain an expli it analyti al expression for the
fun tion 1 . However the qualitative nature of the motion may be dire tly obtained
from the system of equations (31). Let, for example, at the initial instant of time
the quantity 3 will be positive. In this ase sin e Q1 > 0 and Q4 > 0 the right-hand
sides of the rst two equations in (31) will be negative and therefore fun tions 1 (t)
and 2 (t) will be de rease in time. Sin e Q5 > 0 and Q7 > 0 then in the right-hand
side of the third equation in (31) there is a nonnegative expression, whi h de reases
due to de reasing of 1 and 2 . In the limit 1 (t) and 2 (t) tend to zero and 3 (t)
tends to the value n1 as it is evident from the rst integral (37).
Let at the initial instant of time the quantity 3 will be negative. Then the right-
hand sides of the rst two equations in (31) will be positive and these two fun tions
will be in reasing fun tions in time. The fun tion 3 (t) will be also in reasing
fun tion, whi h is started from negative values. At some instant of time this fun tion
vanishes; at that instant both fun tions 1 (t) and 2 (t) rea h their maximum values.
After that instant the fun tion 3 (t) hanges its sign and the fun tions 1 (t) and 
2 (t) start to de rease and in the limit we obtain the situation, whi was des ribed
above. Thus in general asethe behaviour of the system is very lose to its behaviour
in the parti ular ases (38)-(39). The evolution of the fun tions 1 , 2 and 3 in
time for the general ase is insdi ated in Fig. 19-24. This evolution on rms our
on lusions about the qualitative nature of the skateboard motion.
Here we dis uss some properties of the three-degree-of-freedom mathemati al

29
model of a skateboard with a rider, generalizing the simpli ed skateboard model
investigated by us in [1℄. This model an be developed by various ways: for example,
we an onstru t a more ompli ated model of a skateboard taking into a ount the
wheels and the various types of their onta t with the ground. We an onstru t
also a more ompli ated model of the rider and taking into a ount the possibility
of the rider to ontrol the skateboard (it will be already ontrol system). All these
ideas are very interesting and attra tive and we will ertainly onsider them in the
future.

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