Semantic Fields



Semantic is the study of meaning in language. Word as a part of language realization has meaning. Meaning of words does not only depend on its reference or meaning aspect regarded as the particular characteristic of the words in language. The meaning of word is also determined by the presence of other vocabulary in a language that correlates with some phenomenan. In the beginning of structural linguistic analysis, the linguist is very influenced by arusionitist psikology in their approach toward meaning. The linguist with their self intuition concluded the correlation between sets of words. For example, the data µbaik, kebaikan, memperbaiki, pembaikan, perbaikan¶¶atau¶¶ satu, satuan, penyatu, persatuan, penyatuan, bersatu, pemersatu. The give conclusion that those wordshave association interwords ( Parena, 2004:137).

B. SEMANTIC FIELDS Semantic field analysis uses features to show the relationship of lexical item within a field or domain. For example, if we studied the word iron, we would also look at toaster, vacuum cleaner, and other items in the household tools domain. Or, we would study it along with copper, zinc, and other items the meta! Domain. Because each field is examined separately, polysemy is not an issue ( as it is in semantic feature analysis). Bachelor ( as an unmarried man, a graduate with a B.A. degree, a person who serves a knight, or a sea animal) would be considered four different words and each defined within its domain. The classic example of semantic field analysis is that of kinship terms, an analysis which dates at least to the work of Kroeber (1909). He identified the following components in classifying kinship system: generation, relative age within generations, consanguineal vs. affine ( sister vs. sister-in-law), lineal (father-child) vs. collateral (aunt-uncle), gender, kinsman and linking kinsman terms, and condition (alive-dead). This particular semantic field is especially important to field anthropologists in understanding and classifying family structures.

<+/±kin> daughter <+/±male> mother sister <+/±generation> <+/±generation> <+/±descending> <+/±descending> <+/±gen> <+/±gen> <+/±gen> <+/±gen> son father brother daughter mother sister There are several problems with diagram. let us look first at a semantic feature description of the relationship among member of an immediate family. So gender is an important feature. First. then we would start at the bottom of the tree and add each feature in turn to obtain the meaning of. daughter. A daughter is + 1 generation.The illustrate the arguments about how semantic fields should be described. Most important feature in determining the place of items within the filed? Or is the arrangement more a matter of aesthetic arrangement for the diagram? If the meaning are additive. Is gender the highest. -male. It is unclear how the hierarchy of features is determined. The sum of these features does no give a simultaneous interpretation that could be obtained by a more traditional list: Father Brother Son mother sister daughter . and other are (+male): father. son. kin member of the family. +generation. daughter. brother. sister. +descending. A sister is a no generation female kin member of the family. We know that some terms are (+female): mother. Some terms are related according to generation: mother and daughter illustrate an ascending or descending generation feature. say.

Placemat Etc. Compare table for the semantic field of table settings.C. Set Glass Glasses Serve Pitcher Teapot Etc. Set Cup Plate Etc. TABLE FEATURES FOR TABLESETTING Knife Ladle Plate Platter Wineglass Wine carafe Napkin Tablecloth Silverware + Dishes ± Glasses + ± ± ± ± ± ± ± + + ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± + + ± ± Linens ± Setting + Serving ± ± ± ± ± ± + + ± + ± + ± + ± + ± + ± + ± + Tablesetting Silverware Setting Knife. Linguist using semantic feature analysis traditionally employ trees. teapot placemat tablecloth linens serving Silver Set Knife Spoon Etc. changing the table into a diagram that illustrates hierarchy. serving dishes setting serving plate. wineglass pitcher. It also creates the impression that the words them selves contain these features rather than the impression that we assign words these features in order to comprehend or produce the term. cup cake server tureen. Etc. Set Napkin Linens Serve Tablecloth Tumbler Etc. SEMANTIC FIELD DISPLAY Placing forms in a chart or a box of plus and minus features gives the description a very static quality. Dishes Serve Platter Tureen Etc. Setting napkin. fork Ladle. platter glasses Setting serving tumbler. . Serve Ladle Cake server Etc.

the tree diagram is probably interpreted in table. In truth. rather than an additive one. an oak is a kind of trees have trunks and roots. and leaves. we do not decompose words in a field into semantic features. An example from (1978) may make these differences in approaches to analysis clearer. You do not add + setting + silverware to arrive at the meaning of fork. and oak has a trunk and leaves and roots and is big. The meanings are not additive. the taxonomy provides the logical basis for inclusion or exclusion in each category. we have already discussed for semantic feature analysis. therefore an oak is a tree´. where a spoon is a kind of silver setting in a table setting and a pitcher is a kind of glass serving item in a table setting. with the goal discovering how terms within the field as domain differ from each other. We learn that an oak is a kind of tree (probably because someone pointed out a tree and said. ³ That¶s an oak´. The first is the necessity of taking into account the context in which words occur. We do not think ³ let¶s see. .The tree diagram gives us a better picture of the relationship of the terms within the field. The second is the impossibility of the studying the vocabulary of a language of its grammatical structure. Instead. According to Tyler. Since semantic field analysis inherits the problem. Semantic field analysis uses features to identify the relationship of lexical items within a field. CONCLUSION To conclude the of semantic field section. D. though. Instead. two further theoretical and methodological points maybe emphasized which have emerged in recent work in field theory semantics and upon which tree is widespread agreement. and are big. it is a taxonomic arrangement.

Jakarta: Erlangga.BIBLIOGRAPHY Hatch and Cheryl Brown. Vocabulary Semantic and Language Education . . Theory Semantic: Edisi Kedua. Cambridge: University Press. J.D. Parera.2004.

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