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The technology for manufacturing paper clips evolved in the early years of the twentieth century, and has remained virtually unchanged since the 1930s. Paper clips come in several forms, but the one most often seen in common use is called the Gem clip. The origin of the term "Gem" is supposed to have originated from a British firm that began exporting them at least as early as 1907. The term has come to stand for the iconic shape of the oval-within-oval design. Any clip of this shape is called a Gem clip, regardless of the manufacturer. Another type of paper clip sometimes used by archivists and librarians is called the Gothic clip. It has a rectangular shape, with a triangular inner loop. Other distinguishing marks of paper clips are the overall size, the thickness, and quality of the wire, and whether the clip is corrugated or smooth. Most paper clips in the United States are made domestically by a few firms that specialize in their manufacture. These manufacturers put out roughly 20 million lb (9 kg) a year of paper clips.
The paper clip evolved to fill a specific need. A large amount of paper could be bound into a book in order to hold the leaves together. Binding was not a viable solution to keep together a few sheets, such as a short set of records or receipts. Though paper was invented in China sometime in the first century A.D. , and was widespread in Europe by the thirteenth century, people made do without anything like the modern paper clip until the end of the nineteenth century. People used two general methods to fasten together a few sheets of paper. They could slit the pages in the corner, making two short parallel cuts. Then ribbon or string could be threaded through the slits, the ends tied and often sealed with wax. The second method was to take a common straight pin and pin the sheets together. Machinery to make cheap and uniform quality pins developed early in the nineteenth century. Business people bought boxes of loose pins, sold by the pound and called "bank pins," to use in offices. Both the slit method and the pin method had the same drawback: the paper had to be pierced. Pin holes caused less wear on the paper than slits, yet if pages needed to be unpinned and repinned many times, the pinned corner was subject to a lot of wear, leading to the drooping "dog ear." Pins also had the disadvantage of being sharp enough to prick fingers and tended to rust if left in place for any length of time. Designs or patents for early paper clips date to the middle of the nineteenth century, but none of these early devices seem to have worked well enough to have made a lasting impression. Some of these were closer in form to what is known today as a binder clip or bulldog clip, and others enfolded the entire corner of the paper within teethed overlays of thin metal. This type of paper fastener was made from stamped sheet metal. Wire forming technology advanced in the midnineteenth century, and from about 1870 on, paper clips of various designs competed in Europe and the United States. The earliest recorded patent for a paper clip was granted by the United States Patent Office to a Pennsylvanian, Matthew Schooley, in 1898. Schooley's patent application mentions other devices already on the market of a similar design, so it would not be accurate to name him or any other individual as the father of the paper clip. A Norwegian, John Vaaler, is often credited with inventing the paper clip in 1899. His patent application included several possible paper clip shapes, including one that is similar to the modern Gem clip. Because of Vaaler, the paper clip became a symbol of Norwegian nationalism during World War II. There is even a 23 ft (7 m) high statue of a paper clip in Norway. It was set up to commemorate the solidarity the Norwegians represented against the Nazis by pinning paper clips on their lapels. A Massachusetts inventor, Cornelius Brosnan, received a patent for a paper clip design in 1900. Again, his application spoke of the product as an improvement over other paper clips already in
and surpassingly functional. At least these three clips. The material used to make a paper clip must possess certain properties. Yet leaving the iconic shape aside. has to fall within certain physical parameters to make satisfactory paper clips. His clip was marketed as the Konaclip. the Gem had become the most commonly used. The Konaclip was an oval loop of wire with an inner arm terminating in a rounded eye. Yet the material must also perform well in the manufacturing process. the Vaaler. Engineers also must consider the cost effectiveness of the material used. The wire needs to be stiff enough to hold its shape in use. and the Brosnan designs. Yield stress is the amount of stress needed to permanently reshape the wire. thinner wire may save the manufacturer money. William Middlebrook. but the one pictured on the application's illustration looked like the archetypal Gem. Raw Materials Paper clips are generally made from galvanized steel wire. Design The Gem clip is often held up as a paragon of modern design. elegant. Paper clips can be made from light. superior to all others. It is simple. applied for a patent for a machine to make paper clips. smooth or slightly serrated. however. Middlebrook's patent application was not for making any particular type of clip. So even though the basic Gem design has survived primarily unchanged for about a hundred years. Though paper clips of differing designs continued to be made for several years. by about the mid-1930s. The Gem was advertised as a fine English product. depending on the manufacturer. Gem clips were imported to the United States from England by at least 1907. but not so stiff that it is difficult to open. the Schooley. Using a cheaper. a paper clip designer must consider a host of mechanical and engineering questions. Engineers also consider a quality called yield stress when designing a paper clip. existed by the turn of the century. The clip can have various finishes. or from better quality steel. shiny or dull. and it can be made in many different sizes. The material used also should be non-corrosive. The material used.existence. manufacturers still confront design and materials options when making new paper clips. not leaving sharp burrs at the cut ends and resisting cracking or breaking. The finished appearance of the clip is also a design consideration. it will stay bent open and not hold the papers tightly. In 1899 a Connecticut inventor. cheap steel. If the wire has too low yield stress. The wire diameter depends on what size and quality clips are being made from it. The Manufacturing Process .
2. The machine forms the wire into these three bends by cutting it and passing it by three small wheels. many The simple threading of a paper clip machine. The manufacturing equipment must be maintained in order to work properly. One paper clip industry study estimated that the vast percentage of paper clips were . many are thrown away. 3. Depending on the size of the factory. and the third wheel makes the final turn. Some machines still in use today in the United States were built in the 1930s or even earlier. and catch the length of wire as it passes. so this material can be recycled separately. The wheels are slightly roughened. The finished paper clips fall into open boxes. making the first bend. Automated controls allow one worker to monitor dozens of machines. The entire process is so quick. Trained workers check the equipment for wear and defects that might affect the quality of the finished clips. the process has not changed much since the 1930s. Some recyclers use metal detecting equipment that can separate out staples and paper clips. No special tests are needed. Quality Control Quality control is not a particularly important issue in paper clip manufacturing. A finished paper clip has three bends. the machine can churn out hundreds of clips a minute. A worker feeds the end of the wire into the paper clip machine. The first wheel turns the wire 180 degrees. The process begins with a huge spool of galvanized steel wire. paper clip machines may be operating at once. using a specialized wire forming machine. By products/Waste Though paper clips are re-usable. The boxes are shut and sealed.The manufacturing process for paper clips is fairly simple. Some office paper recyclers ask that paper clips be removed before paper is put in recycling bins. Visual inspection of the product is enough to identify a problem with the process. Moreover. 1. the second makes the next bend. The simple threading of a paper clip machine.
All-plastic paper clips came on the market in the 1950s.never used as intended—to hold paper—but were bent and destroyed by people.Need Stone Fine Powder?Contact! Our Grinding Mills do it.thermoengineers. Quality Control http://www. Petrovsky. Design. 1992. Angela Woodward Ads by Google EPS Machine Manufacturer . which can hold more than one hundred sheets of paper at one time. . The Evolution of Useful Things. Where to Learn More Books Kalpakjian. The Future The Gem clip has held sway against other contenders in paper clip design for a very long time. industry. followed by plasticcoated clips. to some success. "Now This Is a Paper Clip!" Managing Office Technology (April 1997): 16. Henry. Periodicals Allen. thus leaving no room for improvement. Raw Materials. New York: Alfred A.BreakDay.html#ixzz185qWUC39 . Frederick. "How Do You Make Paper Clips?" American Heritage Invention & Technology (Summer 98). machine.com Grinding machine . making. None of these developments differs markedly from the turn-of-the-century design consumers are so familiar with.madehow. 1992. MA: Addison-Wesley.com/Volume-7/Paper-Clip. History. Reading. both to manufacture and to buy as a retail item. The Manufacturing Process of paper clip.Com/Grinder Read more: How paper clip is made . history. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology. etc. most are not re-used or recycled but simply thrown away. used. manufacture. used as cleaning or prying instruments. Serope.EPS machine manufacturer in India EPS moulding machines www. product. Knopf. In the 1990s a Pennsylvania company began marketing what looks like essentially a giant Gem clip. Since paper clips are inexpensive. This leads to the question of whether the Gem clip is already a perfect design.material.
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