Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy

Personality Development
1. An introduction 2. Looking at your own personality: 2.1 In a theoretical point of view, core and peripheral personality 2.2 Identifying weaknesses and strengths of the personality 2.3 Parts of the personality in accordance with “Johari window” 3. Different attitudes of the people: negative and positive; 3.1 Understanding negative attitudes 3.2 Cultivating positive attitudes 4. Communication and personality: 4.1 Different types of communication: passive, aggressive, assertive 4.2 Assertiveness is the only way? 4.3 Fundamentals of effective  Acquiring the basic skills  Developing confidence  Getting the right approach  Vitalizing the talk  Sharing the talk with the audience  Making the talk to convince  Making impromptu talks 4.4 The art of communicating • Organizing • Delivering • Applying what you have learned

5. Personality and consumption: 5.1 Commodities consumption and etiquettes 5.2 “The arts” plays a vast role in your personality: literature, films, stage dramas, songs and so on


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The word "personality" originates from the Greek persona. Significantly. Cognitive psychology and personality 10. which means mask. The pioneering American psychologist. Gordon Allport (1937) described two major ways to study personality. the mask was not used as a plot device to disguise the identity of a character. in the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world. with an abundance of theoretical traditions.Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy 6. Personal goals and synergy 9. the nomothetic and the idiographic. motivations. Looking at your own personality 2 Version 1. such as the principle of selfactualization. Nomothetic psychology seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people. but rather was a convention employed to represent or typify that character. There is also a substantial emphasis on the applied field of personality testing with people. whereas others have focused their attention on theory development. Idiographic psychology is an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a particular individual. Some psychologists have taken a highly scientific approach.0 . The study of personality has a rich and varied history in psychology. 2004). How to handle people Fundamental techniques Making people like you Winning people Changing people 7. Stopping worrying and starting living Fundamental facts Basic techniques The perfect way to conquer worry Preventing fatigue 8. and behaviors in various situations (Ryckman. or the trait of extraversion. Facing the interviews with outstanding personality An introduction Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions.

4.roughly from six years to puberty Genital Stage . relating to.g. Sociology.eighteen months to three years c.) Phallic Stage .) Anal Stage . After having empirical researches. psychoanalytic theories. 3. The least controversial dimension. observed as far back as the ancient Greeks.0 . Sigmund Freud is the foremost figure in psychoanalytic theory of the personality. Oral period Anal period Phallic period Latency period Puberty period They have been broadly defined in this manner. behaviorist theories. some people are outgoing while others are shy).between three and five Latency Period . and c) Traits influence behavior. and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts. He divides the human personality into three areas viz: Id.adolescence and adulthood Trait theory of personality recognizes something else According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. is simply extraversion vs. Philosophy and some other subjects.Birth until four to five years a. introversion 3 Version 1. personality traits are "enduring patterns of perceiving. type theories.) Oral Stage .Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy Personality has been understood in different ways and also it has been studied in Psychology. 2." Theorists generally assume that a) Traits are relatively stable over time. b) Traits differ among individuals (e. 5. Infantile Stage .birth to approximately eighteen months b. The most common models of traits incorporate three to five broad dimensions or factors. He also proposed five psycho-sexual stages of personality development: 1. they have come up with theories of the personality such as trait theories. cognitive theories and so on. Ego and Super ego.

Most probably. traditional and oriented toward routine Weaknesses and Strengths of the personality No personality is perfect in the world so that it should be understood relatively. once we found them or somebody pointed out them. and unreliable 5.emotionally reactive. Weaknesses and strengths both should be understood for a better personality.0 .Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy (outgoing and physical-stimulation-oriented vs. In a particular community. we have to make efforts to understand our weaknesses and strengths. Whatsoever the context. optimistic 3. spontaneous. dominant. Therefore we don’t have either concrete weaknesses or strengths in every personality. And also it doesn’t say that there are no universal weaknesses at all. Understanding our weaknesses is half of the solution to overcome that particular weakness. laidback. we should concentrate upon that as a gradual practice to overcome it. Cardinal traits are those by which an individual may be strongly recognized.affable.dutiful. 4 Version 1. Agreeableness . We have to be very frank to rectify our weaknesses. aggressive. to new ideas and change vs. • Gordon Allport delineated different kinds of traits. while secondary traits are more peripheral. Conscientiousness . particularly in the professional world it would bring more benefits in order to overcome weaknesses and cultivate moreover strengths. Openness to experience . imperturbable. weaknesses and strengths are contextual as well as unique. which he also called dispositions. quiet and stimulation-avoiding 2. as humans. there can be some identified common features as weaknesses and strengths of the personality. prone to negative emotions vs. nicknamed the "Big Five": • 1. It implicates that the absence of universality in weaknesses and strengths. Extraversion . Common traits are those recognized within a culture and thus may vary from culture to culture. and orderly vs. planful. disagreeable 4. Lewis Goldberg proposed a five-dimension personality model. Once we understood them.outgoing and stimulation-oriented vs. Central traits are basic to an individual's personality. Weaknesses and strengths are the formations of the personality. We are able to understand some weaknesses and strengths through “Johari window”. conciliatory vs. calm. quiet and physicalstimulation-averse). Neuroticism .

Parts of the personality in accordance with “Johari window” This theory was formulated by two psychologists in America in order to understand the parts of human personality. Open self in the sense the area has got self to know and the others as well. This area is known to others but not to yourself. Extrovert people have a big portion of open-self whereas introvert people have a small portion of open-self. Known self Known to others Not known others to OPEN HIDDEN to Not known to self BLIND UNKNOWN These four quadrants cover whole personality of the people. Announcers are singing while singers are announcing. they have messed up their professions too.0 . you can aggrandize your open-self. politicians are acting while actors and actresses doing politics. my name can be considered since it known to me and others too. The second quadrant of the window shows blind area. For example. The last quadrant is unknown-self. For example. What does it implicate? The first quadrant of the window will be broader rather than earlier it was. For example. Therefore. A four paned "window" of this theory explains human interaction in a broad manner. You retain something which is extremely limited to you. then.Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy It is crystal clear that most of the Sri Lankans have not recognized what they can and can’t do. such as romantic affairs: they are edited in a way that brings benefits towards yourself. It allows people to develop their personality by understanding themselves. The red colored third quadrant shows hidden-self of the people. The first quadrant represents open self. Sometimes. You never convey them to the others. they are getting angry so that they will never get rid of their blind self but they should. This certain area doesn’t allow either you or to the 5 Version 1. if you are frank enough to light up them. If these are pointed out by someone. That particular area is extremely known to you but not for the others. when you convey some personal stories that are relevant to you. This theory has been named by considering inventors names. some selfish personalities don’t know that they are selfish but it is visible to the others. the others would point out these blind areas. They were Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham.

Negative attitudes Positive attitudes have been defined in many ways in the modern world in order to achieve some personal goals of the people who are using this concept as a business fact. you would never say “that’s fine” but you may try to avoid it tactically. “I don’t like her”. smell and taste. Different attitudes of the people What is attitude? How do we define? It is our mental response towards people. By looking at nature of our mental response towards above mentioned stuffs. people ever can’t understand themselves as they wished. So. We should be able to minimize our negative response particularly towards people and cultivate positive response. 1.0 . There were and are great celebrities who won the world through their positive attitudes particularly towards objects and people. in the sense negative attitudes. you have negative attitudes whereas of it is good you have positive attitudes towards people. But it goes beyond that belief. there are two kinds of attitudes. most of the people believe that positive thinking as a matter of thinking about all the things in a positive way. objects. But we don’t find these pure people in the world. That is your negative response towards that smell. The aspect is minimizing as much as possible those negative responses while maximizing positive responses. Amidst many difficulties. For example.Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy others understand themselves. “he is very bad” and so on. There are some fruit’s smells that you hate. come across people who always respond negatively for almost everything. colors. Since this unknown-self. What do these utterances indicate? There are absolutely good and bad people. if you fell into a pot hole while you walk on the way. positive attitudes comes from your mental process in a way you response to the others and the other mentioned stuffs above. If your mental response towards the people is bad. We. Since these influences. But we know that we are unable to get rid of all negative responses all of a sudden. Also we hear some common utterances such as “I hate him”. Positive attitudes 2. there 6 Version 1.

If it is too low -submissive If it is too high -aggressive In between these -assertive Assertiveness is the best and only way to achieve the success. When we ask that “what are you doing”? The tone of the voice conveys type of the communication. the biggest portion of the personality is communication.Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy are people who have accomplished their goals through positive mental efforts. The relationship that we are going to have with others totally depends on our communication style. Passive or submissive communication 2. we can have rude relationships with the others. viz. Assertive communication 3. If it is so rude. Aggressive communication There are some personalities when communicate loose their personality due to the tone of the voice is too meek. Assertiveness reflects our ability to express positive and negative ideas in a honest. However people have three milestones of their communication styles. If somebody is able to communicate with the others while respecting to the others without loosing his or her personality. Communication and personality Communication style of the people plays a vast role in personality. open and direct way while balancing the others views and perspectives. When we consider it as a degree. We can communicate in variety of ways.0 . It reflects almost all parts of the personality. If somebody communicates in an autocratic manner without considering others while hurting to the receiver. It shows our attitudes as well since it is biggest realization of our mental response. It doesn’t hurt to the others. that is assertive communication. Some typical advantages of assertiveness: 7 Version 1. 1. is called aggressive communication. That is called passive or submissive communication.

When somebody consumes popular arts and literature while practicing 8 Version 1. Here the paramount attention is paid to non-food consumption and personality. arts and literature. In order to be an assertive one. People have formalized some norms for foods consumption including etiquettes. positive as well as negative thoughts and feelings Amendment for assertiveness: In addition to communication aspects. we can observe two schools as classic and popular. Consumption and Personality Whatsoever the community. Even in culture. There are norms for commodity consumption in the society. assertiveness also deals with non-verbal communication. In. it has their own practices of commodities consumption. Those etiquettes have been formalized particularly by ancestors of the societies and by the religions. always monitor your verbal and non-verbal communication with a positive intention. we are able to observe these two schools. Your typical postures such as the way that you move when you talk and have eye contacts.Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy Improves interpersonal relationships Reduces conflicts Reduces other’s anxiety (who are listening to you) Enhances self esteem Retain self respect Minimizes stress Feel good about ourselves Leads to mutual respect Helps to achieve goals Minimizes hurting and alienating other people Enables decision making capacity Allows expressing wide range of verbal and non-verbal.0 . But we don’t have universal etiquettes. decide your assertiveness. Particularly on the arts and literature.

When we consume the arts and literature. stage dramas and other performing arts have been playing a considerable role in people’s personality but not towards positive outcomes that is towards negative outcomes. We have to be logical in consuming the arts in order to get something into our personality. To be specific. songs. we are able to look at the current trend of the young crowd towards arts in Sri Lanka. How to prepare CVs Components of a modern CV: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Heading Name and contact details Job objectives and career goals Skills and competencies Academic achievements Professional frame work Experiences Other relevant efforts (Extra curricular…) Personal particulars Referees Declaration Date and signature Photograph (optional) What should come first? Traditional CV formats were included personal particulars first but nowadays that comes most lately. their personalities represent popular culture. So they can be recognized as too inartistic and narrow minded personalities. So. Films.Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy the same culture.0 . Resume of Kanchana Perera The second component is to be contact details. It is obvious that they don’t enrich our mind set or any other spiritual part of the personality. That can be either Email. The first and foremost part should be the heading: E. we should be careful in finding the right which doesn’t corrupt our personality.g. This doesn’t convey that all the popular arts to be neglected and classical things to be acquired. telephone number or postal address. But it is more advisable to 9 Version 1. The arts plays a vast role in people’s personality. they help to build our personality whereas they corrupt our personality too.

we can concentrate on self management skills. we should stress our foremost skills and competencies relevant to the job. These are the typical self management skills that are important and applicable into the current job market: Leadership Positive thinking Self Motivated Persistency Ambitious Team working Dynamic 10 Version 1. in this part. E. This is the prominent part of the CV since nowadays most of the organizations look for the candidates who are equipped with skills and competencies. E-mail:kanchana@yahoo.0 . the job objectives and career goals to be distinguished very clearly as two different areas: job objectives are short term objectives on the career track whereas career goal means ultimate goal on the career track that has been intended.g. Mahara. Next come skills and competencies. Particularly. Either objective or career goal is to be included in a clear and very visible manner. As the third component. Here. Telephone: 011291919191 287.Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy put e-mail or telephone number since trough them can be contacted easily. we have to include Job objectives and career goals.

professional qualifications and working experiences to be put according to the job requirement. Tests c. The job specification 3. whereas if it is on either academic or professional qualifications. academic achievements. Procedure b. Here onwards. Read your cv/application before the interview.Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy Risk taking Coordinating Dedication Enthusiasm Effective communication Consciousness Assertiveness Problem solving Decision making Out of these. 11 Version 1. Research the company a. Research the interview a. The interviewers 5. The company profile b. Company directors 4. Confirm the company that you will attend 2. Contacts inside the company c. Sometimes you have to take first your experiences if the vacancy has focused on that fact. The job description b. Research the job a. then it is to be taken first. you should find a few skills that are being practiced by yourselves and put them into the CV in an attractive manner.0 . How to Face the Interviews with an Outgoing Personality Things to be done before the Interview: 1.

13. Enhancement of professional qualifications 8. smile and say “Good morning/afternoon” (Greetings) 4. Show your enthusiasm by keeping an interested expression. Where you go in. 12 Version 1. competencies and attitudes o Will she/he able to get on with me? o Will she/he fitting to the existing team? o Will she/he be able to loyal to me? 7. Make a list of questions you want to ask a. Be positive about your skills and achievements 14. Sit up straight. Avoid straight “Yes/No” answers 8. The following will help you to create a good impression of the interviewer. Shake hand with the interviewers. and lean slightly forward in your chair. Make sure you know exactly where the interview will be held 10. 6. ask only intelligent and considered questions. What kind of functions do I have to do? b. Choose smart appropriate clothing a. make it firm 5. Career advancement opportunities c. Check your route. When given the opportunity to ask questions. While you waiting. knowledge. Eye contact is most important. Ask to clarifications if you don’t have understand the question 10. Making Good Impression Things to do: The first impression goes a long way. Think about what questions are likely to be asked and practice your answers. Arrive on time (15 minutes earlier) 2. Feel comfortable b. Never say “it is given in my CV” 12. be polite and friendly to all and use the time to read company magazines or any other to collect information regarding the company. 1. Remember that the interviewer is trying to find out five things: o Can she/he do the job? o Do she/he have the skills. 7.Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy 6. Take time to think before you answering 11.0 . Neat and tidy (well fitting) 9. speak clearly and stack to the point 9. 3. Listen carefully to questions.

Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy Things not to do: Don’t 1. how do you plan to come to work?” 13 Version 1. you will appear unfriendly and disengaged.0 . “Why should you get the job?” “What makes you think you are the best person for the job?” 5. “How do you get on with your supervisors/colleagues?” “Have you ever had problems with colleagues/customers?” 7. “What do you like to be doing in 5 years time?” 8. “Tell us about your self” 2. this suggests that you are not being completely honest. Rub or touch your nose. “What are your strengths/weaknesses?” “What has been your greatest achievement?” “Are tempered or cool?” 4. “Suppose you are selected for this job. 3. “Why did you leave your last employer?” 10. Even if you really do just have a cramp in your neck. “What do you want to be in your life?” “What sort of person do you want to be in life?” “What are your ambitions in life?” 3. when do you think you can start the job?” 11. Rub the back of your head or neck. “Suppose you are selected for this job. “What salary do you expect to receive?” 9. Preparing for the Interview Practicing answers to following common questions: 1. Sit with your armed folded across your chest. “Why do you want to work here?” “What do you know about the company?” “What do you think of the company?” 6. and it’s gross. 2. these gestures make you look disinterested.

Soft Skills Training Division-Orient Academy 14 Version 1.0 .

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