4. Method Statement For Cover Meter If we refer to the case study, the structure needs to be monitored and tested to know the level of damage the structure bear and why the damage occurs. One of the propose method is by using cover meter. This method gives us the depth of the cover, whether it¶s complying with design or the structure is wrongly constructed.

This instrument is use to locate rebar¶s and measure the exact concrete cover, that is the measurement from centre of main bar to the outside surface of the concrete as shown in Figure 4.1. The cover meter works by using the eddy current principle with pulse induction as the measuring method. With this, drilling can be avoided as option to locate the bars.

Figure 4.1 Concrete cover = d

2. the detector are place down at marked line and data collection can be start immediately y Data collection can be use as reference for further analysis . Methodology y The location surrounding the damage structure are marked into several line. about 2-3 inches between each other and the radius of marked area are justified by the engineers y The reader turns on.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION (ECM725-OLD) a. The device can stored thousand of cover values and statistical analysis b. This equipment features: y y y y The cover meter allows the detection of rebar¶s Measurement of the concrete cover depth and the diameter of the reinforcement The device can give correction for the influence of neighboring bars.2. Equipment The cover meter test device contains 2 major parts. Cover Meter apparatus This equipment has certain features that give the engineers the ability to investigate the structural damage and the method to mitigate the problem. as shown in Figure 4. Reader 2. 1. Detector Figure 4.

analysis can be done to justify the condition. accurate and economic way to find out the cause of structural damage. Figure 4.3 Reduction of the initiation time of corrosion sue to reduction of thickness of the concrete covers .CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION (ECM725-OLD) c. Figure 4. Data collected can be use to justify the causes of the damage occurs.3 shows the relationship between the concrete cover thickness and time. whether the cover is low so that the carbonation or chlorides easily enter the structure or the concrete covers are too thick that causes weakness and cracks to the cover itself. effective. From the data collected. Standards y y BS 1881 part 204 DIN 1045 y y SN 505 262 DGZfP B2 (recommendation) d. Conclusion The cover meter is an easy.

the half cell potential test gives the condition of steel embedded in the concrete with regards to the corrosion activity.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION (ECM725-OLD) 5. Using this method. Method Statement For Half Cell Potential Other methods of determine the damage of the structure is by using half cell potential test.1 General diagrams of Half Cell Potential apparatus . This test is another non destructive test which can measure the corrosive activity in the concrete. The test is simple and the result is dependable. Equipment The equipment consists: y y y Reference electrode Positive and negative connection High impedance digital voltmeter Figure 5. Generally. the electrical potential difference between the real structure and reference electrode is then measured. a.

Figure 5. merge with the copper sulphate solution.2 Half Cell Potential apparatus b. Methodology y y Figure 5. The gridline must consistent in order to get good result then.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION (ECM725-OLD) Figure 5.3 Half Cell Potential Test Copper sulphate solution is poured into the container Then a copper rod is put into the container. this plug is use as connector during data collection y The negative wire is connected to the voltmeter and the positive wire to the expose steel bar in the concrete y Gridline is then marked on the surface of the structure.3 The data collected can be use to plot schematic diagrams of the structures as contour map as shown in Figure 5.4 Contour map plotted as per data collected . 1ft x 1ft or 1m x 1m. y y The data now can be collected.4. creating the half cell reference electrode y y The half cell is then screwed onto a voltmeter The protective cap of the half cell container is then remove to expose the plug at the end of the half cell. refer Figure 5.

The data collected can be a reference to engineers to take action accordingly to the structural condition. . we can estimate and justify the severity of damage the structures have. The higher level of negative mV means corrosive activity is active and shown in red colour in the contour map y Values between the upper and lower reading shows that the activity is uncertain c. "Standard Test Method for Half-Cell Potentials of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete" G3 Practice for Conventions Applicable to Electrochemical Measurements in Corrosion Testing y G16 Guide for Applying Statistics to Analysis of Corrosion Data d.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION (ECM725-OLD) y The ASTM standards states that: Potential level of mV % Chance of reinforcement being corrosively active -350 to -500 -200 to -350 <-200 95% 50% 5% y From the contour and standards given. Conclusion The half cell potential test is a good way to detect the activities of corrosion in the structure. it is economic and not causing too much damage to existing structure. Standards ASTM Standards y y ASTM C876-80.

Generally. we can evaluate the electrical resistance of the concrete so that we can know how good the concrete is. we can run the resistivity test which by using this test. the probability of the steel corrosion increases. This method can be applied in this case study so that the engineers can detect the causes of the damage occurs offers an indication of the concrete permeability. Method Statement For Resistivity The corrosion in steel can be specified as an electro-chemical process that causes current flow. the concrete resistivity deceases and it¶s not a good things. Equipment The equipment consists: y y y y Resistant meter reader Current sensor Current source Resistivity measuring electrodes Figure 6.1 Resistivity test apparatus .CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION (ECM725-OLD) 6. The electrical resistivity of the concrete structure usually decreases because of: y y y y y Increasing temperature Increasing chloride content Decreasing carbonation depth Increasing concrete water content Increasing concrete porosity a. These current flows causing metal to dissolve and lower its strength. To evaluate the probability of the reinforcement corrosion.

the opposite condition happen when the electrical resistivity of the concrete is high.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION (ECM725-OLD) b. . the corrosion is decrease. Methodology y The surface of the concrete are marked into several lines. it¶s better to put wet sponge under the sensor to create better reading y Place the apparatus onto the structure along with the reference block y y The meter reader is then turn on and the data can now be collected Data collected can be use for further analysis and reference to match rehabilitation method y Generally. creating an equal gridline y The sensor are put onto the structure. the result can be justified as: Meter reading When When When • 120 -m -m Corrosion conditon corrosion is unlikely corrosion is possible corrosion is fairly certain = 80 to 120 ” 80 -m y Thus. the corrosion increases when the electrical resistivity of the concrete is low.

. The data shall provide engineers to understand the situation and comes out with proper solution. Conclusion The resistivity test gives the engineer the idea and condition of the concrete condition. Standards y ASTM Standard C1202-94: Standard Test Method for Electrical Indication of Chloride¶s Ability to Resist Chloride Ion Penetration d. whether the resistant to electricity is high that shows the concrete and its covers is in good condition and when the electrical resistivity is low which means the corrosion is increasing.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION (ECM725-OLD) c.

The crack width measurement is use to monitor the crack occurs on structure. Methodology y y y y The surface of structure been clean so that the crack line can be exposed The crack width measurement apparatus being set on the crack line Turn on the torch The crack width data can be taken by using the measurement line .CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION (ECM725-OLD) 7. The apparatus are powered by batteries and easy to operate. The crack line needs to be monitored and the proposed method is by using crack width measurement. a. Method Statement For Crack Width Measurement The structure in this case study might have visible crack line that occurs because of structural problem.1) The equipment consist a very simple apparatus: y y y Adjustable lens Small torch attached to the lens Measurement line at the lens Figure 7.1 crack width measurement apparatus b. Equipment (refer to Figure 7. The equipment comes with microscope that can be adjusted to view the crack and torch to make the crack line visible.

d. ASTM or equivalent standards to check the limitation of crack for particular structure measured. Conclusion This test gives the engineers the width of crack line the structure have.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION (ECM725-OLD) c. The data collected can be compared to the standard data so that the engineers can justify the severity of the damage. Standards The crack width data gathered have to be refer to BS Standards. .

West Conshohocken. PA. Repair. James H. 2006 . Rob Polder. Pielert. Diagnosis.CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION (ECM725-OLD) Reference 1. Wiley-Vch. ASTM International.Lamond. Germany 2004 2.Luca Bertolini. Corrosion Of Steel In Concrete-Prevention. Bernhard Elsener. Significance of test and properties of concrete & concrete-making materialsJoseph F.

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