THE PERCEIVED EFFECTS OF PARENTS SEPARATION TO THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF NURSING STUDENTS

Statement of the problem

Major Problems:

1. What are the perceived effects of parents¶ separation towards the academic performance of the nursing students? 2. What is the relationship of parents¶ separation to the academic performance of nursing students?

Minor Problems:

1. How many nursing students are affected to the separation of their parents and to their academic performance? 2. Do having separated parents can really affect the academic performance of the nursing students?

2.Hypothesis 1. There is no significant relationship between parents separation to the academic performance of the nursing students Assumptions 1. . sadness. loss of focus to study and can lead to severe emotional burden or problem these perceived effects can affect the student to their academic performance in school. Parents¶ separation can affect the academic performance of the nursing students because if their parents got separated usually emotional problems set in that will lead to depression. Parents separation do not affect the academic performance of the nursing students 2. depression. There is a relation between parents separation to academic performance of the students because once there is parents separation there is an effect to the students emotional aspect that can lead to loss of motivation to learn and to study.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The alarming increase of the incidence of parents¶ separation really affects the siblings most especially on their academic performance. there is no requirement that such a settlement agreement be filed with the court. more formal approach to achieving a ³legal separation´ entails filing a legal action in the court system. and to sign a contract or settlement agreement setting forth all of their wishes. This chapter tackles some citations.´ A legal separation can generally be achieved in two ways: first. then the judge will be asked to . The filing of such a legal action ultimately obtains the endorsement of the court. a couple can simply agree to draft a contract between themselves. In most states. support for each other and the children. custody and visitation arrangements. but not yet get divorced. academic performance and emotional status of the affected siblings. and other important matters. ideas and findings of researchers when it comes to separation of parents. the use of property. all of the terms and conditions of their separation. If they cannot settle. A second. or that the court be involved with the process at all. insurance. The parties still have the right to settle their case. taxes. which sets forth. This may be known as a Complaint for Separate Maintenance or some variation of those terms. When parties decide to separate. Contract or ³separation agreement´ can include provisions pertaining to separate living arrangements. it may be necessary for them to obtain what is often called a ³legal separation.

if one spouse dies while the parties are married but living separately. for example where parents find new partners or where new children are brought into the household. in many states. it is important to seek sound legal advice before proceeding with a legal separation. Financial hardship and parental distress are also associated with continuing problems for children. They stress the importance both of making sure that children are told clearly what is happening and of listening sensitively to what children have to say about decisions which affect them. . There is also growing concern about the role of fathers and the need for children to maintain a good relationship with both their parents. Recent years have seen the development of a growing range of services designed to help children and families experiencing these changes. Therefore. the other spouse may be prohibited from claiming an elective share from the estate because he or she is not included in the deceased spouse¶s will.fix the terms and conditions of their separation arrangement. a court order or final judgment will ultimately be issued at the conclusion of the process. Many important legal consequences arise from living separately. For example. Separation for children can be particularly difficult when followed by a number of other changes to the family setting. Researchers suggest the need to see parental separation not as an event but as a process which begins long before a parent departs and continues throughout childhood. Whether the case is settled by agreement or decided by the judge. Concern about separation is partly fuelled by the rise in the separation rate and the numbers of children affected by family changes.

Children with depression and conduct disorders showed indications of those problems related to parents¶ separation. as the single most critical determining factor in children's post-parents separation adjustment. and have changes in their eating and sleeping patterns. they just differ in how they suffer. New evidence indicates that when children have a hard time. have parents who can communicate effectively and work together as parents. . fight more with peers and parents.Children who moved with their fathers. frustration and hurt. Esq. and got in trouble with the law. boys and girls suffer equally. Girls tend to internalize their distress. or who remained behind in the custody of their fathers had significantly more hostility than children in families in which neither separated parent moved. James Melamed . who succeed after parents¶ separation. develop headaches or stomach aches. Boys are more externally symptomatic than girls. they act out their anger. In the last few years. In the past we read that children from separated parents suffered from depression. or who either moved with their mothers or remained behind with their mothers. higher-quality research which has allowed the "meta-analysis" of previously published research has shown the negative effects of parents¶ separation on children have been greatly exaggerated. rather than the separation or residential schedule. failed in school.)) Researchers now view conflict. They may get into trouble in school. (Mediating Divorce Agreement. They may become depressed. Older studies showed boys had greater social and academic adjustment problems than girls. The children.

In the typical situation where mothers have custody of the children. If they are secure in their relationship with their parents. One important factor which contributes to the quality and quantity of the involvement of a father in a child's life is mother's attitude toward the child's relationship with father. and school choices. And no one can take away the pain that a child feels when a parent decides to withdraw from their lives. music lessons. the prom dress. When fathers leave the marriage and withdraw from their parenting role as well. Often parents assume that after the remarriage "we will all live as one big happy family. A child's continued involvement with both of his or her parents allows for realistic and better balanced future relationships. clothing.Drop in parents' income often caused by the same income now supporting two households directly affects children over time in terms of proper nutrition. Before embarking on a new family. or a special class trip. No one can replace Mom or Dad. encourage clients to do some reading on the common myths of step families. chances are they will adapt well to various time-sharing schedules and experience security and fulfillment in their intimate relationships in adulthood. The impact of father or mother loss is not likely to be diminished by the introduction of stepparents. fathers who are involved in their children's lives are also the fathers whose child support is paid and who contribute to extraordinary expenses for a child such as things like soccer. Sometimes a parent who had stayed home with the children is forced into the workplace and the children experience an increase in time in child care." Step family . involvement in extracurricular activities. they report conflicts with the mother as the major reason. Children learn how to be in relationship by their relationship with their parents.

However. There is no avoiding it. psychological health and whether or not other supportive adults are able to be a regular part of their lives. What they do know is that the impact will vary with each child depending the child's age. the turbulence of the parents¶ separation phase has been shown to play a crucial role in creating unhealthy reactions in affected teenagers. A lot will also depend on how skillfully and compassionately parents handle or mishandle their interactions with each other and their children. there is still a lot we don't know. While there is growing agreement among researchers and practitioners about the effects of parents¶ separation. . psychological health and whether or not other supportive adults are able to be a regular part of their lives. A great deal of study and thought has been given to knowing more about the impact of parents¶ separation on children. Most teenagers eventually adjust to parent¶s separation and regard it as having been a constructive action. Children will feel bad. gender. expectations need to be expressed. In those instances.relationships need to be negotiated. gender. parents. roles need to be defined. Sooner or latter. maturity. The emotional pain is distressing. maturity. and realistic goals need to be set. family or friends should begin to notice the impact of parents¶ separation on children. During and following a parents¶ separation there are a number of issues that parents will usually face. The researchers have not reached a point that they can be specific about the impact of parents¶ separation on a specific child. but one-third does not. there are some generalizations that apply in nearly every situation. The impact and the child's response will vary according to their age.

Also. they are more likely to engage in delinquent activities. which may interfere with their ability to concentrate on schoolwork or to put as much effort into their work.Children from separated parents are more likely to have academic problems. on the other hand. Boys are more likely to be aggressive and have problems getting along with their peers and teachers. it appears that children's difficulties with school may be caused more by their behavior than their intellectual abilities. These problems may lead them to spend less time in school or on their schoolwork. These results have been found quite consistently throughout a variety of research studies over the past three decades. Importantly. They are more likely to be aggressive and get in trouble with school authorities or the police. and their parents. but results based on teacher or parent reports are less likely to show this difference. or dropout rates. Whether you use children's grades. are more likely to experience depression. The pattern may be somewhat different for boys and girls. they are more likely to have some difficulty forming intimate relationships and establishing independence from their families. children whose parents¶ separation generally have poorer scores. to get involved in early sexual activity. These children are more likely to have low self-esteem and feel depressed. Children who grow up in separated parents often have more difficulties getting along with siblings. in adolescence. peers. Girls. children's actual performance on tests consistently shows this difference. School success has . In adolescence and young adulthood. We believe that both parents and teachers often underestimate the difficulties a child may be having in school or may not recognize the problems. standardized test scores. Some cases. and to experiment with illegal drugs.

In the school-age years. as was mentioned earlier. The age of the child is a significant determinant of what particular effects he or she will experience. and so it is important to find ways to support children from divorced families. there are some girls who emerge out of the divorced. This short essay explores these effects by the developmental age groups . It seems that some young women thrive on the increased responsibilities and challenges that they face in these families. Adolescent girls are likely to be involved in early sexual behavior. Similar findings do not occur for boys. adolescent boys are likely to engage in early sexual behavior and become teen parents. there are few consistent findings. both boys and girls are more likely to engage in negative conduct and experience bouts of sadness. This set of events can also have dramatic effects on their completion of school and their ability to enter the workforce and earn a good living. Adolescent boys are likely to spend more time with deviant peers and engage in delinquent behavior. Early research seemed to indicate that boys might experience more difficulties than girls. while girls are more likely to experience depression. leading to a greater risk of teenage pregnancy and parenting. mother-headed households as exceptionally resilient young women. These changes may be due to more children being reared in joint custody arrangements and more involvement of fathers in general in the lives of their children after separation. But by adolescence. boys are more likely to be aggressive and get into fights.(Robert Hughes) Parents¶ separation has many effects on the children in a marriage which differ along several variables.long-term implications for children's success in life. and they develop warm and deeply affectionate ties with their mothers. including substance abuse. Like the young women. On the positive side. Today.

loneliness. Children this young in a divorce often fail to master conflicts at the proper time. and unpredictable and undependable peer relationships. It is not uncommon to see the child regress to earlier infant type behavior patterns. Like the younger group. and increased aggression leads to poor peer relations. inability to concentrate. and intrusive thoughts about the separation all contribute to this disruption and lead to a drop in school performance. Children in this group are more likely than the younger ones to suffer severe cognitive impairments as a result of parental separation. and self-blame are also common in this age group. Feelings of guilt. Anxiety. restlessness. They often fear the abandonment of the other parent which coupled with poor understanding of the separation leads to high anxiety. There is a constriction of fantasy capacity and high levels of insecurity. This is often manifested as tearful and clingy behavior toward the custodial parent at any sign of separation. Several other factors such as parental custody and post divorce parental relations affect the severity of the outcomes and are not within the scope of this essay. and nightmares are frequent. guilt decreased self worth. There is a significant disruption in the child's ability to participate freely in the learning process. Play behavior which is very important is disrupted. such as day care. and fear of being alone are common and the child often blames themselves for the separation. Children in this age group are the most confused and disoriented by the separation. being unloved. This essay focuses on short term effects. Effects can also be talked about in short term or long term.below. Older children in this group show reduced self esteem. . those that occur during the first year or two following the parental separation. Feelings of sadness. These children are likely to have open expressions of grief. increased irritability leads to difficulties with classmates.

N.compulsively overeat. Moral outrage at the parents' decision is common and they feel torn and distressed by issues of loyalty between the parents. There are high incidences of alcohol and drug abuse. Many teens feel that they are being pushed into adulthood with little time for a transition from childhood. Other areas tend to develop in extremes. it is not uncommon for parental separation to have positive effects on adolescents. stealing. and aggressive behavior. adolescents may even feel that they are in competition with their parents when they see them going on dates and becoming romantically involved. Older children in this group often show examples of lying. and Jackson. Adolescents display many of the effects of the middle childhood group to a higher degree with a few unique impacts. (Runyon. There are feelings of distress about their own futures in marriage and a de-idealization of the parents. however. they too experience some difficulties adjusting. teens have grave doubts about their own ability to get married or stay married. academic performance low. and fluctuate between obedient and rebellious behavior patterns. Unlike other age groups. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. and have trouble with authority figures including the law. Sometimes. or become sexually promiscuous at an early age. They may feel a loss of support in handling emerging sexual and aggressive feelings. Truancy is high. P. Divorce: It's Impact on Children. 1988 ) Adolescents understand the parents¶ separation situation better than younger children do. Often the child makes valuable decisions about their own future and values that leads to positive development and identity formation. In some cases. Vol. The adolescent may withdraw from all relationships and become dependent on the parent. 24(4). . and self concept is dysfunctional.

and others will react by withdrawing from the usual peer activities. difficulty making transitions. They take on increased responsibilities in the home. and increased need to be with a teacher or other caregiver. absences. to talk back. and be distractible and restless. complain about headaches. All children are likely to have some new fears about where their parents are or if they will see parents again. The most important sign is any significant change in a child's usual pattern of behavior. but almost all children will show some of these symptoms. Some of these are more likely to occur in younger children. The signs and symptoms in children when they are going through their parents' separation are similar to the reactions we see to other stressful events. Older children are more likely to be disobedient. show an increased appreciation of money. an appearance in court. tardiness. and to be destructive. Many of these children will have trouble sleeping. and gain insight into their own relationships with others. adolescents may be drawn into the role of taking care of the parent and fail to develop relationships with peers. Few children will show all of these signs. Some of the common reactions teachers or caregivers may see in children experiencing parents¶ separation. and some are more likely in older children. On the other hand. stomachaches. and other symptoms of illness. . especially when there are significant events at home such as a parent moving out. increased whining. be unusually quiet or withdrawn. Young children are more likely to show regressive behaviors such as thumb sucking.Many adolescents seem to mature more quickly following a separation. Some children will react by being easily angered. There also may be significant declines in school performance. and general disruptions in the usual home routine. and difficulties getting along with peers.

Either way. Children from the group in which neither parent moved had the least inner turmoil and distress from the divorce itself. which in turn precipitated a move. but children who remained behind with their mothers whose fathers moved away. albeit marginally so. marginally more satisfied than children from divorced families in which neither parent moved. also were a little more well-adjusted and satisfied overall. Children who moved with their fathers. the group of children who moved with their mothers or stayed with their mothers when their father moved still had less inner turmoil and distress than children who either moved with their fathers or stayed behind with their fathers when their mothers moved. or who remained behind with their fathers scored significantly lower on personal and emotional well adjustment than children who remained in the custody of their mothers. it is uncorrelated with the . However.The well-adjusted were children who remained with their mothers whose fathers moved away. regardless of whether the mother moved or not. whose fathers moved away). It is unclear whether this factor was related to moving per se. They were better adjusted than children from separated parents. and significantly more satisfied than children who either moved or remained behind with their fathers. or more difficult divorce circumstances. Children in the custody of their fathers scored lowest on general life satisfaction. while a little more hostile. Children who moved with their fathers. or who remained behind in the custody of their fathers had significantly more hostility than children in families in which neither separated parent moved. or who either moved with their mothers or remained behind with their mothers.e. Children who moved with their mothers showed less hostility than children who remained behind with their mothers (i. Children of divorce whose fathers moved away and left them with their mothers were the most satisfied.

They can be depressed or become anxious if they believe they are caught between their parents. They might fail to become involved with their peer group or school activities. either they are forced to grow up too fast or they get into trouble. and appear in juvenile court than are children from intact homes. Parents must avoid confusing teenagers with adults. Teenaged children came from separated parents are usually sad. They do not want to be bothered by their parents' lives. They want to live their own lives on their own terms while having a safe haven for food.children's overall well-adjusted ness and life satisfaction. break the law. which are in chaos from the separation. A boy must not be expected to be the man of the house if his father has left. cleaning. Children across all categories tended to perceive the parent they lived with as more supportive. but when the structure of the home is shaky and the parents are distracted. and caring for younger siblings. and sleep. Teenagers test the limits in the best of homes. Young girls should not be forced into spending their free time cooking. They are struggling with sex and drugs and alcohol and acne and classes they hate. teenagers are at risk of impulsive behavior. They need to have a stable home base even if they hate it and the parents in it. shelter. They do not have time for this level of disruption in their lives. They are more likely to abuse substances. or mask their reactions entirely. but they like to feel that they are. Teenagers possess a more adult understanding of parents¶ separation in cognitive terms but still are emotionally immature. protective. They have increased rates of school absence and illness. Children do not like to think of their . The paradox of adolescence is that teenagers are not truly independent. If impulsive risk-taking occurs. angry. Often they switch their reactions between the two parents or even switch minute to minute with one parent.

the day the legal requirement for child support ends. For the parent. jobs. This switching back and forth can make a mess of custody and support arrangements. two thirds of the teenagers are cut off financially when they reach 18 years. One common phenomenon is that teenagers might want to switch homes and then want to switch back. after-school activities. it is personal. it is a financial matter. It can be difficult for a parent to hear that the teenager does not want to visit because of the disruption in his or her schedule. Adult children of parents¶ separation are less likely to attend or complete college. Teenagers do not need as much visitation time. constantly. Flexibility is the key for parents. this age signals the end of contracted monthly payments to the previous spouse. In late adolescence. for the teens. They are busy with their own lives.parents' sexuality and are uncomfortable anytime they must confront the issue. For the no custodial parent. Reactions to divorce in children persist into adulthood. are more likely to be unemployed or on welfare. and friends. are more likely to have problematic relationships with parents and siblings. Parents should avoid modeling premarital or casual sex at the very time their teenagers are beginning to think about it. . and have more trouble forming their own marital relationships. They do not care to spend time with their parents. perhaps more than once during this period.

Poor single-mother college students' views on the effect of some primary sociological and psychological belief factors on their academic success. (1994). 9501. 64.Journal of Higher Education. Irving. Vol. Costales R.. Thomas. ³Continuity or Change? The Impact of Parents¶ Divorce on Newly Married Couples. Rotolo. N. J. Zimmerman. 65(5)..Baxter. 2001. Goethals (October. . Rivas D. David j. and Hatt. and intellectual performance among students at a highly selective college: a social comparison of abilities analysis´ Discussion Paper-61 Gordon c. Tallman. A. 112-147 Stone. Nelson. 2001) ³Peer effects. J.Washington State University. ³Introductory Sociology and Anthropology A Pedagogy´ pp. 4.´Social Psychology Quarterly. (2000) `Everything Must Go: A Study of Clearing and First Year Progression¶ Journal of Further and Higher Education Vol 24 No 1 pp5-14 George R. 571±584. JEL no I21 Javier J. &Niemann. R. (January 2003) ³Peer Effects In Higher Education´ NBER Working Paper No. Winston. gender. V. S. No. Gray. Louis N.

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