org/wiki/Socioeconomic_issues_in_India Socio-economic issues in India
Since India's Independence in 1947, country has faced several social and economic issues.


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1 Violence o 1.1 Religious violence o 1.2 Terrorism o 1.3 Naxalism o 1.4 Caste related violence 2 Overpopulation 3 Economic issues o 3.1 Poverty o 3.2 Corruption 4 See also 5 References

Religious violence
Main article: Religious violence in India Further information: Hindutva, Hindu nationalism, Islamic Extremism, Khalistan movement, Islamic terrorism, and Christian terrorism See also: Anti-Christian violence in India, Anti-Christian violence in Karnataka, and Religious violence in Orissa [[Image:Babri rearview.jpg|right|thumb|The 16th Century [[Babri Mosque], (built by destroying Ram Mandir -birth place of God Ram) was destroyed by the members of Hindu nationalist VHP and Bajrang Dal in 1992,[1] resulting in nationwide religious riots]] Constitutionally India is a secular state, [2] but large-scale violence have periodically occurred in India since independence. In recent decades, communal tensions and religion-based politics have become more prominent. .[3] Although India is generally

known for religious pluralism, [4] the Hindutva ideology propagates that India belongs to the Hindus, and the Christians and the Muslims are "aliens", [5] and many proponents of this ideology portray violence against Muslims and Christians as a form of "self-defence" against "invaders". [6] The Hindutva ideology is at the core of Sangh Parivar politics and its expression in violence against religious minority. [5] Throughout the history of postIndependence India, both Muslim and Christian communities have faced repeated attacks from Hindu activists. [7] As the Hindutva ideology has grown more powerful over the years, many Hindutva activists have partaken in riots against minority communities. [8] Over the last decade, religious violence in India has increasingly become what academics believe to be organized pogroms to eliminate minority communities. [9] [10] [11] Some state governments in India have been accused of not effectively prosecuting those who attack religious minorities. [12] Major religious violent incidents include Ayodhya debate, Bombay Riots, 1993 Bombay bombings, 2002 Gujarat violence.

Many Ahmedabad's buildings were set on fire during 2002 Gujarat violence Although related, Hinduism and Hindutva are different. Hinduism is a religion while Hindutva is a political ideology. The Hindutva movement is not supported by majority of Hindus. Some tolerant or "secular" Hindus use the term "Hindu Taliban" to describe the supporters of the Hindutva movement.[13] Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize-winning Indian sociologist and cultural and political critic Ashis Nandy argued "Hindutva will be the end of Hinduism."[14] In Jammu and Kashmir, Since March 1990, estimates of between 250,000 to 300,000 pandits have migrated outside Kashmir due to persecution by Islamic fundamentalists in the largest case of ethnic cleansing since the partition of India.[15] The proportion of Kashmiri Pandits in the Kashmir valley has declined from about 15% in 1947 to, by some estimates, less than 0.1% since the insurgency in Kashmir took on a religious and sectarian flavor.[16] Many Kashmiri Pandits have been killed by Islamist terrorists in incidents such as the Wandhama massacre and the 2000 Amarnath pilgrimage massacre.

In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in violent attacks on Christians in India, often perpetrated by Hindu Nationalists.[22] The acts of violence include arson of churches, re-conversion of Christians to Hinduism, distribution of threatening literature, burning of Bibles, raping of nuns, murder of Christian priests and destruction of Christian schools, colleges, and cemeteries.[23][24] The Sangh Parivar and related organisations have stated that the violence is an expression of "spontaneous anger" of "vanvasis" against

"forcible conversion" activities undertaken by missionaries,[23][25][26] a claim described as "absurd" and rejected by scholars.[23] Between 1964 and 1996, thirty-eight incidents of violence against Christians were reported.[23] In 1997, twenty-four such incidents were reported.[27] In 2007 and 2008 there was a further flare up of tensions in Orissa, the first following the Christians' putting up a Pandhal in land traditionally used by Hindus and the second after the unprovoked murder of a Hindu Guru and four of his disciples while observing Janmashtami puja. This was followed by an attack on a 150-year-old church in Madhya Pradesh,[28] and more attacks in Karnataka,[29]

Main article: Terrorism in India

Terrorist attacks in India (since 2001) The regions with long term terrorist activities today are Jammu and Kashmir, Central India (Naxalism) and Seven Sister States (independence and autonomy movements). In the past, the Punjab insurgency led to militant activities in the Indian state of Punjab as well as the national capital Delhi (Delhi serial blasts, anti-Sikh riots). As of 2006, at least 232 of the country’s 608 districts were afflicted, at differing intensities, by various insurgent and terrorist movements.[30] Terrorism in India has often been alleged to be sponsored by Pakistan. After most acts of terrorism in India, many journalists and politicians accuse Pakistan's intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence of playing a role. Recently, both the US and Afghanistan have accused Pakistan of carrying out terrorist acts in Afghanistan.[31]

Main article: Naxalism

Map showing the districts where the Naxalite movement is active

Phoolan Devi. such as Kherlanji Massacre have been reported from many parts of India. many violent protests by Dalits.[33] Caste related violence Main articles: Caste system in India. many parties Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP). At the same time. The Mandal Commission was established in 1979 to "identify the socially or educationally backward".[35] Bharatiya Janata Party has also showcased its Dalit and OBC leaders to prove that it is . many Dalit leaders and intellectuals started realizing that the main Dalit oppressors were so-called Other Backward Classes. The Congress (I) in Maharashtra long relied on OBCs' backing for its political success. In 1990s. In 1981. various incidents of violence against Dalits. relying primarily on Backward Classes' support. Phoolan Devi went on to become a politician and Member of Parliament. In recent years. Initially the movement had its centre in West Bengal. Ideologically they belong to various trends of Maoism. such as Chattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh through the activities of underground groups like the Communist Party of India (Maoist). most of whom were not involved in her kidnapping or rape. Singh Government tried to implement the recommendations of Mandal Commission in 1989. massive protests were held in the country. have been reported as well. In 1980. Caste politics in India. Independent India has witnessed considerable amount of violence and hate crimes motivated by caste.[32] The CPI (Maoist) and some other Naxal factions are considered terrorists by the Government of India and various state governments in India. has committed violent acts against Dalits and other members of the scheduled caste community. and Caste-related violence in India Caste-related violence and hate crimes in India have occurred despite the gradual reduction of casteism in the country.[34] and to consider the question of seat reservations and quotas for people to redress caste discrimination. Over the years. Many such parties. often in alliance with Dalits and Muslims. such as the 2006 Dalit protests in Maharashtra. her gang massacred twenty-two Thakurs. Ranvir Sena. a caste-supremacist fringe paramilitary group based in Bihar. P.Naxalism is an informal name given to communist groups that were born out of the SinoSoviet split in the Indian communist movement. When V. Many alleged that the politicians were trying to cash in on caste-based reservations for purely pragmatic electoral purposes. who belonged to Mallah lower-caste. She then became a bandit and carried out violent robberies against upper-caste people. the Samajwadi Party and the Janata Dal started claiming that they are representing the backward castes.[35] At the same time. rose to power in Indian states. was mistreated and raped by upper-caste Thakurs at a young age. they have spread into less developed areas of rural central and eastern India. such as the Indian Justice Party. the commission's report affirmed the affirmative action practice under Indian law whereby members of lower castes were given exclusive access to a certain portion of government jobs and slots in public universities.[36] and formed their own parties.

Indira Gandhi. To cure this problem. which hampered Government programmes for decades.not an upper-caste party. who belongs to OBC caste. This program is still remembered and criticized in India. it ranks 33 in terms of population density below countries such as The Netherlands.[40] Economic issues Percent of population living under the poverty line . Bangaru Laxman. South Korea and Japan. Prime Minister of India. Overpopulation Further information: Family planning in India Further information: Demographics of India India suffers from the problem of overpopulation. In 2006 Arjun Singh cabinet minister for MHRD of the UPA government was accused of playing caste politics when he introduced reservations for OBCs in educational institutions all around. but many unmarried young men. was a former BJP leader. the former BJP president (2001–2002) was a former Dalit. poor men were also believed to have been sterilized. Officially. had implemented a forced sterilization programme in the early 1970s but failed. men with two children or more had to submit to sterilization. former CM of Madhya Pradesh .[37][38][39] Though India ranks second in population. and is blamed for creating a wrong public aversion to family planning. political opponents and ignorant. Sanyasin Uma Bharati.

judiciary. living below the new international poverty line of $1.7 in 2002 to 3. to be around Rs. as measured in a 2005 study by Transparency International India. embezzlement.[52] In India. although its score has improved consistently from 2. India is ranked 72 out of a 179 countries in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index."[50] Corruption Main article: Corruption in India Corruption is widespread in India. India has 456 million people. Official figures estimate that 27. compared to 72. Though the middle class has gained from recent positive economic developments.5%[47] of Indians lived below the national poverty line in 2004–2005.[41] India still ranks in the bottom quartile of developing nations in terms of the ease of doing business.5 in 2007.068 crores.[46] Despite significant economic progress. police.[42][43][44][45] Wealth distribution in India is fairly uneven. lived on less than 20 rupees per day[49] with most working in "informal labour sector with no job or social security. and compared to ..[41] The chief economic consequences of corruption are the loss to the exchequer. etc.2% for Sub-Saharan Africa. 41. The World Bank further estimates that 33% of the global poor now reside in India. evasion of tax and exchange controls. with the top 10% of income groups earning 33% of the income. (Darker regions are more corrupt)[41] Further information: Economy of India Poverty Main article: Poverty in India One-third of India's population (roughly equivalent to the entire population of the United States) lives below the poverty line and India is home to one-third of the world's poor people. corruption takes the form of bribes. like education. or 75. or 236 million people. etc. living in abject poverty.40/day. an unhealthy climate for investment and an increase in the cost of government-subsidised services. The TI India study estimates the monetary value of petty corruption in 11 basic services provided by the government. healthcare. India suffers from substantial poverty. Moreover. 1/4 of the nation's population earns less than the government-specified poverty threshold of $0.21.[48] A 2007 report by the state-run National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector (NCEUS) found that 25% of Indians.6% of its population.[51] Corruption has taken the role of a pervasive aspect of Indian politics and bureaucracy. A 2005 study done by Transparency International (TI) India found that more than 50% had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office.6% of the population living below $2 a day.25 (PPP) per day. India also has 828 million people.Extent of corruption in Indian states. According to the new World Bank's estimates on poverty based on 2005 data.

Tapan Kumar (1993).htm. ^ Ashis Nandy (1991-02-18). ^ International Religious Freedom Report 2007:India. The invention of religion: rethinking belief in politics and history. http://www.html. Khaki shorts and saffron flags: a critique of the Hindu right. ISBN 978-1-57607-348-3 14. pp. ABC-CLIO. ^ [1] ^ Preamble of the Constitution ^ Ludden 1996. ISBN 0-521-00763-1 5. Walhof. Chetan. http://www. ISBN 0-86311-383-4 7. pp. ^ Kashmiri Pandits in Nandimarg decide to leave Valley. retrieved 2008-1110 15. retrieved 2007-11-30 . 3. Torch Home of Prominent Christian 8. retrieved 2007-1130 16.state. (2002). 92. Darren R. ^ Joshi. 17.ucla. Routledge. University of Washington Press. 253 ^ Barbara Harriss-White (2003). ^ Jalal. ^ Fritz Blackwell (2004). N. ^ Hindu Extremists Attack Indian Churches. 10. ^ 'I heard the cries of my mother and sisters'. 20. 4. 2003: p 1144. Ayesha (1995). 132. ^ Basu. Hinduism Versus Hindutva: The Inevitability Of A Confrontation.China and other lower developed Asian nations. India: A Global Studies Handbook. 30 March 2003. Cambridge.outlookindia. 1 May [New Delhi]: Orient Longman. Derek R. pp. pp. the average time taken to secure the clearances for a startup or to invoke bankruptcy is much greater. 174. ^ Bhatt. ISBN 0-521-47271-7 12.[53] See also • • Social issues in the People's Republic of China Social issues in the United States References 1. Peterson. Rediff. ^ Paul Brass. p. 9. p. New York Review of Books. 126. Communal Politics: Facts Versus Myths.J: Rutgers University Press. 99. http://www.asp?id=131481. UK: Cambridge University Press.. The Production of Hindu-Muslim Violence in Contemporary India. Sanjay. "Majority ethnic" claims and authoritarian nationalism".) Rethinking Ethnicity: Majority Groups and Dominant Minorities.sscnet. New 2. ISBN 0-8135-3093-8 11. p. Outlook. 27 January ISBN 0-7619-9667-2 6. 2004. The Times of India. http://www. in Eric Kaufman (ed. SAGE. ^ Kashmir: The scarred and the beautiful. India Working: Essays on Society and Economy. ^ a b Ram Puniyani (2003). p.htm 13. Cambridge University Press. Democracy and authoritarianism in South Asia: a comparative and historical perspective.

html. SAGE. Communal Politics: Facts Versus Myths. The Naxalite Challenge. ^ "150-yr-old church set afire in Madhya Pradesh". ^ New Delhi: Orient http://timesofindia. The Times Of India. 134. http://www. 27 April 2004.18. Venkitesh (2005-09-21).org/english/docs/1999/09/30/india1626. Alaine M. Baral. 25 March 2003.hindustantimes. The Independent.kashmir.) (2002). The Times of India. 8 April 2006.rediff.theotherindia. pp. Amit. ^ ISBN 0-7619-9667-2 28. 29. who-are-the-obcs. retrieved 200703-15 33.cnn. http://hrw.indiatimes. and India's Religious Traditions. A. retrieved 2007-11-30 19. (2003-10-02).htm l 24. ^ http://www.thaindian. ^ City shocked at killing of Kashmiri Pandits. Cultural Interactions. Grand Rapids. http://www.ucla. CNN. Eerdmans. p. ^ Anti-Christian Violence on the Rise in India 25. Brown. Rediff.indiatimes. 167. Primer: Who are the Naxalites?. ^ At least 58 dead in 2 attacks in Frontline Magazine (The Hindu). ^ a b c d Anti-Christian Violence in India. ^ Ram Puniyani (2003). ^ http://www. retrieved 2007-11-30 22.flonnet. http://www.htm.sscnet.highbeam. Judith M. ^ Anti-Christian Violence on the Rise in India. Between Ethnography and Fiction: Verrier Elwin and the Tribal Question in India. C (eds. Tanka Bahadur..htm 23. Som. Mich: W. . ^ Migrant Pandits voted for end of terror in valley.) (2005).com/2000/ASIANOW/south/08/01/india. http://us. ^ Ramakrishnan.cms. ^ India Assessment – 2007 31. The Tribune. 2 August 2000. http://timesofindia. ISBN 0-7007-1601-7 http://web.aspx? sectionName=&id=faf54bd2-af68-4655-a747-28f7d1fc5cfa&&Headline= %E2%80%98Pak+the+problem%2c+not+the+solution %E2%80%99&strParent=strParentID 32. 2008-0920.. archived from the original on 200606-27. ISBN 81-250-2812-9 27. http://www. Sujit. ^ Phil Reeves (25 March 2003). Islamic militants kill 24 Hindus in Kashmir massacre.B. retrieved 2007-11-30 21.massacre/.archive. retrieved 2007-11-30[dead link] 20. retrieved 2006-04-19 Times of India. Who are the OBCs?.html 30. ^ Low. retrieved 2007-03-15 34. Robert Eric (eds. ^ K.

http://timesofindia.hindu. 45. http://dannyreviews. ^ http://web. India). ^ http://www. The Times Of India. http://economictimes. or Upper Class? ". 26 September 2007. 2008-08-27.indiatimes.html 41. ^ Planning commission of India.35.cms. ^ "World Bank's new poverty norms find larger number of poor in India". retrieved 2007-08-15 51.sscnet.prajanet. which uses calorie consumption as the basis for its poverty line.archive. The Hindu (Chennai. http://www. Book review of roject/overpopulation_in_india_and_chin. August 2003 47. 2000-05-11. Reuters. Country Studies US. Retrieved 2010-05-23. ^ w/3423435.cms. Civil Society Information Exchange. The Uniform Recall Period (URP) gives 27. ^ "Over-population warning as India's billionth baby is born".ucla.brynmawr.indiatimes. ^ This figure is extremely sensitive to the surveying methodology used. 43. 46.html. 10 August 2007. ^ "In Pictures – Middle Class. http://news. while the latter comes from the official exchange rate. ^ http://serendip. India . on_in_India. ^ a b c Centre for Media Studies (2005). The Guardian (London). Society and Politics in India: From the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. "World poverty 'more widespread'" ^ This figure has been variously reported as either "2 dollars per day" or "0. http://www. ^ "One-third of world's poor in India: Survey". ^ Nearly 80 Percent of India Lives On Half Dollar A Day. Also note that this figure does not contradict the NSS derived retrieved 2006-12-12 36. Steve (2008-08-27). It just uses a more inclusive poverty line 50.5 dollars per day". ^ The Times Of India. The Mixed Recall Period (MRP) gives a figure of 21. Transparency International India. India Corruption Study 2005: To Improve Governance Volume – I: Key Highlights. CNN-IBN. ^ a b Caste-Based Parties. ^ Danny Yee. ^ Believe it or not! India is becoming less corrupt.pdf retrieved 2006-12-11 37. Poverty estimates for 2004–2005 49. Retrieved 2010-0523.pdf. The former figure comes from the PPP conversion rate.htm. 48. BBC News.

the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. or selectively pursuing. from Latin corruptus. or corruption in Wiktionary. other personal gain.[1] In modern English usage the words corruption and corrupt have many meanings: • • Political corruption. Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Institutions dealing with political corruption 2 Entertainment with corruption themes 3 See also 4 References 5 External links The word corrupt (Middle English. and rumpere. Corruption From Wikipedia. or resources by government officials or employees for personal gain. to break) when used as an adjective literally means "utterly broken". corrupted. to destroy : com-. by extortion. an investigation or arrest . search Look up corrupt. past participle of corrumpere. the free dictionary. a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits. the abuse of public power. and/or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing. ^ Economic Survey 2004–2005 http://en. intensive pref.wikipedia. ^ Corruption in India 53. soliciting or offering bribes[2] Police corruption. e.52.

a form of corruption caused by Drakath and his 13 Lords of Chaos in Artix Entertainment's MMORPG. the change in meaning to a language or a text introduced by cumulative errors in transcription as changes in the language speakers' comprehension Bribery in politics. a 1999 film starring Ice-T and Silkk The Shocker Corrupt (Angel). a 2007 Wii game Corrupt (film). Corruption (philosophical concept). a 1933 American film directed by Charles E. an unintended change to data in storage or in transit Linguistic corruption. a 1988 computer game by Magnetic Scrolls Corrupted (band). a Japanese doom-metal band Corruption (film). a non-governmental organization that monitors and publicizes corporate and political corruption in international development Global Witness. the natural process of decomposition in the human and animal body following death Data corruption. includes governmental spending on the courts. often refers to spiritual or moral impurity. an unproduced teleplay written for the television program Angel Kurupt (born 1972). published yearly by Transparency International Putrefaction. or sport Rule of law. rapper Corruption (video game).• • • • • • • • Corporate corruption. either internally or externally. or deviation from an ideal Corruption Perceptions Index. Roberts Corrupt (1999 film). including the fact that police obstruct justice. AdventureQuest Worlds Tagore. conflict. governmental corruption of judiciary. business. which is completely financially controlled by the executive in many transitional and developing countries Institutions dealing with political corruption • • • • Transparency International. a telugu chiranjeevi film . corruption. a body established under the Council of Europe to monitor the implementation of instruments adopted by member states to combat political corruption Independent Commission Against Corruption (disambiguation) Entertainment with corruption themes • • • • • • • • • • • • Metroid Prime 3: Corruption. for the Xbox 360 Chaorruption. a 1981 film starring Harvey Keitel and John Lydon Corruption (1933 film). and human rights abuses worldwide Group of States Against Corruption. a 1968 British film directed by Robert Hartford-Davis Fable Series. poverty. corporate criminality and the abuse of power by corporation officials. an international NGO established in 1993 that works to break the links between natural resource exploitation.

reference. Gabriel (2007). as distinct from the force-backed structures of a state (regardless of that state's political system) and commercial institutions of the market Independence of the judiciary. Obert. government officials have broad or poorly . An illegal act by an officeholder constitutes political corruption only if the act is directly related to their official duties. the idea that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government References Also See: John Hoyle or defrauding others of their legal rights. The activities that constitute illegal corruption differ depending on the country or jurisdiction. Anti-Corruption Trust of Southern Africa Political corruption Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. or to obtain an objective forbidden by law typically by defrauding or gaining an unfair advantage Corruption by". cronyism. In some cases. composed of the totality of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions that form the basis of a functioning society. Forms of corruption vary. Misuse of government power for other purposes. is not considered political corruption. Retrieved extortion. sometimes illegal and therefore secretive. ^ "Corrupt | Define Corrupt at Dictionary. misleading. certain political funding practices that are legal in one place may be illegal in another. Institutional working definition of corruption. Shumba.reference. patronage. and human trafficking. but include bribery. graft. varies in different countries Constitutional economics. money laundering. nepotism. While corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise such as drug trafficking. 2. and embezzlement. http://dictionary.See also • • • • • Collusion. it is not restricted to these activities. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved with the government. such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality. to limit open competition by deceiving. a research program in economics and constitutionalism that has been described as extending beyond the definition of 'the economic analysis of constitutional law' in explaining the choice "of alternative sets of legal-institutional-constitutional rules that constrain the choices and activities of economic and political agents Civil society. For instance. an agreement between two or more persons. Dictionary. ^ Chinhamo.

[1] A state of unrestrained political corruption is known as a kleptocracy. Worldwide. literally meaning "rule by thieves". .defined powers. bribery alone is estimated to involve over 1 trillion US dollars annually. which make it difficult to distinguish between legal and illegal actions.

8 Unholy alliance o 2.1 Relation to economic freedom o 3.7 Kickbacks o 2.2 Trading in influence o 2.9 Involvement in organized crime 3 Conditions favorable for corruption o 3.5 Electoral fraud o 2. trade unions. administration. education.4 Nepotism and cronyism o 2.3 Patronage o 2.2 Size of public sector 4 Governmental corruption 5 Fighting corruption 6 Whistleblowers 7 Campaign contributions 8 Measuring corruption 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links .1 Bribery o 2.4 Effects on Humanitarian Aid o 1.1 Effects on politics.5 Other areas: health. 2 Types o 2.3 Environmental and social effects o 1.2 Economic effects o 1.Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 Effects o 1.6 Embezzlement o 2. etc. and institutions o 1. public safety.

it also distorts the playing field. and institutions Detail from Corrupt Legislation (1896) by Elihu Vedder. and the risk of breached agreements or detection. corruption increases the cost of business through the price of illicit payments themselves. Corruption in elections and in legislative bodies reduces accountability and distorts representation in policymaking. Corruption also generates economic distortions in the public sector by diverting public investment into capital projects where bribes and kickbacks are more plentiful. resources are siphoned off. administration. and corruption in public administration results in the inefficient provision of services. thus further distorting investment. or other regulations.C. environmental. and public offices are bought and sold. Corruption also lowers compliance with construction. Officials may increase the technical complexity of public sector projects to conceal or pave the way for such dealings. Washington. reduces the quality of . Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building. the availability of bribes can also induce officials to contrive new rules and delays. In the private sector. corruption undermines the legitimacy of government and such democratic values as trust and tolerance. Corruption poses a serious development challenge. Although some claim corruption reduces costs by cutting red tape. it undermines democracy and good governance by flouting or even subverting formal processes. Where corruption inflates the cost of business.Effects Effects on politics. In the political realm. corruption erodes the institutional capacity of government as procedures are disregarded. D. Openly removing costly and lengthy regulations are better than covertly allowing them to be bypassed by using bribes. More generally. corruption in the judiciary compromises the rule of law. Economic effects See also: Corporate crime Corruption undermines economic development by generating considerable distortions and inefficiency. At the same time. shielding firms with connections from competition and thereby sustaining inefficient firms. the management cost of negotiating with officials.

out of reach of any future expropriation. more than $400 billion was stolen from the treasury by Nigeria's leaders between 1960 and 1999. or indirectly through the manipulation of assessments. In Bihar. criminals. Violation of these laws rights enables corrupt countries to gain illegitimate economic advantage in the international market. targeting. but often accurate. Governments with strong tendencies towards kleptocracy can undermine food security even when harvests are good. construction and other highly valued assistance as the most at risk.government services and infrastructure.[3] (The results. for example. In contrast. Officials often steal state property. The 20th century is full of many examples of governments undermining the food security of their own nations – sometimes intentionally." While drought and other naturally occurring events may trigger famine conditions. corruption has primarily taken the form of rent extraction with the resulting financial capital moved overseas rather than invested at home (hence the stereotypical. and child labor.[2] University of Massachusetts researchers estimated that from 1970 to 1996. more than 80% of the subsidized food aid to poor is stolen by corrupt officials. image of African dictators having Swiss bank accounts). Asian administrations such as Suharto's New Order often took a cut on business transactions or provided conditions for development. it is government action or inaction that determines its severity.) In the case of Africa.[4] Similarly. it cannot be enforced if officials can easily be bribed. but it is highly vulnerable to corruption. Environmental and social effects Corruption facilitates environmental destruction. and often even whether or not a famine will occur. and increases budgetary pressures on government. The Nobel Prize-winning economist Amartya Sen has observed that "there is no such thing as an apolitical food problem. unionization prevention. etc. food aid is often robbed at gunpoint by governments. The same applies to social rights worker protection. and the fact that new governments often confiscated previous government's corruptly-obtained assets. have been modeled in theory by economist Mancur Olson. with food aid.[6] Elsewhere.[6] Food aid can be directly and physically diverted from its intended destination. in construction and shelter.[5] Effects on Humanitarian Aid The scale of humanitarian aid to the poor and unstable regions of the world grows. expressed in retarded or suppressed development. one of the factors for this behavior was political instability. and warlords alike. there are numerous opportunities for diversion and profit . Economists argue that one of the factors behind the differing economic development in Africa and Asia is that in the former. law and order. In Nigeria. India. through infrastructure investment. Corrupt countries may formally have legislation to protect the environment. This encouraged officials to stash their wealth abroad. capital flight from 30 sub-Saharan countries totaled $187bn. and sold for a profit. exceeding those nations' external debts. registration and distributions to favour certain groups or individuals.

etc. bribes paid by suppliers to the automotive industry in order to sell poor quality connectors used for instance in safety equipment such as airbags. Bribery requires two participants: one to give the bribe. Ultimately. to those who pay bribes or are forced to give sexual favours. recipients themselves are most concerned about exclusion.[6] Other areas: health. a customs official may demand bribes to let through allowed (or disallowed) goods. bribes paid to obtain diplomas. members of national sport federation and international committees deciding about the allocation of contracts and competition places). and one to take it.through substandard workmanship. or transition countries.[6] Thus while humanitarian aid agencies are usually most concerned about aid being diverted by including too many. bribes paid by suppliers to manufacturers of defibrillators (to sell poor quality capacitors). public safety. or a smuggler might offer bribes to . Either may initiate the corrupt offering. financial and other advantages granted to unionists by members of the executive board of a car manufacturer in exchange for employer-friendly positions and votes. kickbacks for contracts and favouritism in the provision of valuable shelter material. There have also been cases against (members of) various types of non-profit and nongovernment organisations. Corruption can also affect the various components of sports activities (referees. those able to do so may manipulate statistics to inflate the number beneficiaries and syphon of the additional assistance. there have been cases of bribery and other forms of corruption in all possible fields: under-the-table payments made to reputed surgeons by patients willing to be on top of the list of forthcoming surgeries. In western European countries. trade unions. Types Bribery Main article: Bribery A bribe is a payment given personally to a government official in exchange of his use of official powers. as well as religious organisations. education. developing. for example. contributions paid by wealthy parents to the "social and culture fund" of a prestigious university in exchange for it to accept their children.[6] Equally. the distinction between public and private sector corruption sometimes appears rather artificial and national anti-corruption initiatives may need to avoid legal and other loopholes in the coverage of the instruments. players. etc. Examples are endless.[6] Access to aid may be limited to those with connections. they can discredit certain essential institutions or social relationships. See also: Police corruption Corruption is not specific to poor. medical and laboratory staff involved in anti-doping controls. These various manifestations of corruption can ultimately present a danger for the public health.

offering.gain passage. In addition to using bribery for private financial gain. of any undue advantage [to any public official]. to give a clear signal (from a criminal policy point of view) that bribery is not acceptable. promising. From a legal point of view. there is often no such formal deal but only a mutual understanding. directly or indirectly. up to half of the population has paid bribes during the past 12 months. In some countries the culture of corruption extends to every aspect of public life. The difference with bribery is that this is a tri-lateral relation. or the acceptance of an offer or a promise of such an advantage. decision power or influence to those lobbyists who offer the highest retribution. (article 2 of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 173) of the Council of Europe). or influence peddling in certain countries. Besides. for him or her to act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her functions. refers to the situation where a person is selling his/her influence over the decision process involving a third party (person or institution). for instance when it is common knowledge in a municipality that to obtain a building permit one has to pay a "fee" to the decision maker to obtain a favourable decision. directly or indirectly. offering or giving by any person. Passive bribery can be defined as the request or receipt [by any public official]. active and passive bribery. The reason for this dissociation is to make the early steps (offering. directly or indirectly. including where for instance the latter act on behalf of powerful clients such as industrial groups who want to avoid the passing of certain environmental. Trading in influence Trading in influence.[7] In recent years. of any undue advantage. no financial incentive). which distorts the proper performance of any duty or behaviour required of the recipient of the bribe. In some developing nations. They may also be demanded in order to bypass laws and regulations. Bribes may be demanded in order for an official to do something he is already paid to do. thus. for himself or herself or for anyone else. making it extremely difficult for individuals to stay in business without resorting to bribes. A working definition of corruption is also provided as follows in article 3 of the Civil Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 174): For the purpose of this Convention. the undue advantage or the prospect thereof. such a dissociation makes the prosecution of bribery offences easier since it can be very difficult to prove that two parties (the bribegiver and the bribe-taker) have formally agreed upon a corrupt deal. Active bribery can be defined for instance as the promising. It can be difficult to make a distinction between this form of corruption and certain forms of extreme and poorly regulated lobbying where for instance law. giving or accepting.or decision-makers can freely "sell" their vote. efforts have been made by the international community to encourage countries to dissociate and incriminate as separate offences. requesting an advantage) of a corrupt deal already an offence and. to act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her functions (article 3 of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 173)). Besides. a bribe or any other undue advantage or prospect thereof. they are also used to intentionally and maliciously cause harm to another (i.e. "corruption" means requesting. . for himself or herself or for anyone else. the role of the third party (who is the target of the influence) does not really matter although he/she can be an accessory in some instances.

Sunni Arabs in Saddam Hussein's Iraq. Patronage Main article: Patronage Patronage refers to favoring supporters. as when a newly elected government changes the top officials in the administration in order to effectively implement its policy. leadership of national and regional parties are passed from generation to generation creating a system in which a family holds the center of power. In the Indian political system. Electoral fraud Main article: Electoral fraud . for example with government employment. A similar problem can also be seen in Eastern Europe. it becomes possible to provide for a distinctive criteria and to consider that trading in influence involves the use of "improper influence". It can be seen as corruption if this means that incompetent This may be legitimate. or the Junkers in Imperial Germany) that support the regime in return for such favors.Congress. as in article 12 of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 173) of the Council of Europe. where the government is often accused of patronage (when a new government comes to power. etc. A milder form of cronyism is an "old boy network". in which appointees to official positions are selected only from a closed and exclusive social network – such as the alumni of particular universities – instead of appointing the most competent candidate. the nomenklatura in the Soviet Union. in a few months time it changed most of the officials in the public sector). or other regulations perceived as too stringent. trumped-up charges are often brought up against journalists or writers who bring up politically sensitive issues. Where lobbying is (sufficiently) regulated. are selected before more able ones. They may be almost exclusively selected from a particular group (for example. such as a politician's acceptance of bribes. for example demanding that a business should employ a relative of an official controlling regulations affecting the business. For example. some examples are most of the dravidian parties of south India and also the largest party in India . Seeking to harm enemies becomes corruption when official powers are illegitimately used as means to this end. Nepotism and cronyism Main articles: Nepotism and Cronyism Favoring relatives (nepotism) or personal friends (cronyism) of an official is a form of illegitimate private gain. for example in Romania. as in North Korea or Syria. The most extreme example is when the entire state is inherited. In nondemocracies many government officials are often selected for loyalty rather than ability. as a payment for supporting the regime. This may be combined with bribery.

Embezzlement Main article: Embezzlement Embezzlement is outright theft of entrusted funds. attributed to TR[9] and quoted again in his autobiography[10] where he connects trusts and monopolies (sugar interests. Kickbacks are not limited to government officials. but unlike patronage. when a director of a public enterprise employs company workers to build or renovate his own house. Also called voter fraud. He can give a contract to a company that is not the best bidder.) Unholy alliance An unholy alliance is a coalition among seemingly antagonistic groups. or both. An early. etc. and consequently both major political parties. which is a portion of the sum the company received. For example. depressing the vote share of the rival candidates. Acts of fraud affect vote counts to bring about an election result. . whether by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate. It is a misappropriation of property. intimidation at polls. the official receives a kickback payment. and improper vote counting. Standard Oil. Kickbacks A kickback is an official's share of misappropriated funds allocated from his or her organization to an organization involved in corrupt bidding. In this case. by its deceptive nature and often great financial resources. to dissolve the unholy alliance between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the first task of the statesmanship of the day. the company benefits. for example. Kickbacks are also common in the pharmaceutical industry. as many doctors and physicians receive pay in return for added promotion and prescription of the drug these pharmaceutical companies are marketing. especially if one is religious. suppose that a politician is in charge of choosing how to spend some public funds. well-known use of the term was by Theodore Roosevelt (TR): "To destroy this invisible Government.Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. Howard Taft.) to Woodrow Wilson." – 1912 Progressive Party Platform. This sum itself may be all or a portion of the difference between the actual (inflated) payment to the company and the (lower) market-based price that would have been paid had the bidding been competitive. unholy alliances are not necessarily illegal. Bid rigging.[8] for ad hoc or hidden gain. Another common type of embezzlement is that of entrusted government resources. (See: Anticompetitive practices. and in exchange for betraying the public. or allocate more than they deserve. any situation in which people are entrusted to spend funds that do not belong to them are susceptible to this kind of corruption. an unholy alliance can be much more dangerous to the public interest. the mechanisms involved include illegal voter registration. Like patronage.

But particularly the goverments and government organisations or the institutions defending itselves which under the "National Protection Law" or "Top Secret" (Secrecy!) of the files as a very aggressive way against him and the Wikileaks. This will also enable an evaluation of the officials who are fighting corruption and the methods used. Contempt for or negligence of exercising freedom of speech and freedom of the press. Conditions favorable for corruption This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. . The United States accused Manuel Noriega's government in Panama of being a "narcokleptocracy". using regular surveys of households and businesses in order to quantify the degree of perception of corruption in different parts of a nation or in different government institutions may increase awareness of corruption and create pressure to combat it. and protection rackets undisturbed.So the many nations. Weak accounting practices. (December 2009) It is argued that the following conditions are favorable for corruption: • Information deficits • o o o o o Lacking freedom of information legislation.S. if appropriate. prostitution. You can help by converting this section to prose. invaded Panama and captured etc.figures around the world which was suddenly became very angry and obsessive campaigning to stop the publishing many important documents and the new ones to come. Lack of measurement of corruption. Later the U. Editing help is available. a corrupt government profiting on illegal drug trade. the local gang companys and important personage or political. while simultaneously being a gang boss and co-operating with Du Yuesheng. For example. The relationship kept the flow of profits from the gang's gambling dens.For instance a new current case of online puplisher Wikileaks and a editor or founder of Julian Assange. The Indian Right to Information Act 2005 has "already engendered mass movements in the country that is bringing the lethargic. where Huang Jinrong was a police chief in the French concession. often corrupt bureaucracy to its knees and changing power equations completely."[11] Lack of investigative reporting in the local media. including lack of timely financial management.Involvement in organized crime An illustrative example of official involvement in organized crime can be found from 1920s and 1930s Shanghai.

o Lacking protection of whistleblowers. o • • Lacking civic society and non-governmental organizations which monitor the government. in particular comparison to those who do the best work. it is easier to notice than from a national agency with $2. o Sale of state-owned property and privatization. o Costly political campaigns. especially in nationwide elections.000 funds. o .g. For example. treasurer-paymasters general) must rotate every few years. unsupervised public investments.• Tax havens which tax their own citizens and companies but not those from other nations and refuse to disclose information necessary for foreign taxation. in the same government or others. since each vote has little weight. with expenses exceeding normal sources of political funding. for instance certain high rank officials in French government services (e. Rotating government officials to different positions and geographic areas may help prevent this. e. especially when funded with taxpayer money. and efficiency in different government departments in Peru.[citation needed] o Poorly-paid government officials.000.000 funds.g. o Lack of benchmarking.000 is embezzled from a local agency that has $2.[13] Opportunities and incentives o Individual officials routinely handle cash. that is continual detailed evaluation of procedures and comparison to others who do similar things. if $1. This enables large scale political corruption in the foreign nations. and slow pace of reform. It annually awards the best practices which has received widespread media attention. o Weak rule of law. costs. See the principle of subsidiarity. import licenses.. o An individual voter may have a rational ignorance regarding politics. The Peruvian organization Ciudadanos al Dia has started to measure and compare transparency. o Large. encourage bribing and kickbacks. instead of handling payments by giro or on a separate cash desk—illegitimate withdrawals from supervised bank accounts are much more difficult to conceal. o Public funds are centralized rather than distributed. o Weak legal profession. o Long-time work in the same position may create relationships inside and outside the government which encourage and help conceal corruption and favoritism. o Weak civil service.[12][citation needed] Lacking control of the government. o Weak judicial independence. This has created competition among government agencies in order to improve. o Government licenses needed to conduct business.

in societies such as 18th and 19th century England. For example. o In societies where personal integrity is rated as less important than other characteristics (by contrast. and then processing this with automated computer systems. from politicians or officials). Officials may then. and clan-centered social structure. o A gift economy. and have in recent economic history also led to corruption: • • • • • Licenses. emerges in a Communist centrally planned economy. 'In analyzing India's state-run irrigation system.g. endemic inefficiency. professor Shyam Kamath . create opportunities for corruption (incentives for individuals and/or companies to buy privileges or favors worth of money. with a tradition of nepotism/favouritism being acceptable. like applications and tax forms.[14] (See Resource curse) o War and other forms of conflict correlate with a breakdown of public security.6 billion was awarded to government banks in direct subsidies through "soft" loans' between 1940 and 1973. o A windfall from exporting abundant natural resources may encourage corruption. In Chile. chronic excess demands.• Less interaction with officials reduces the opportunities for corruption. o Family-. the more corruption there is in a country. See e-Government. where society showed almost obsessive regard for "honor" and personal integrity. Below is a list of examples of governmental activities that limit economic freedom.wrote: Public-sector irrigation systems everywhere are typically plagued with cost and time overruns.. permits.[15] . corruption was less frequently seen)[citation needed] o Lacking literacy and education among the population. using the Internet for sending in required information. sell import or export permits. '$4.. Foreign trade restrictions. such as the Chinese guanxi or the Soviet blat system. o Tribal solidarity. lack of economic freedom explains 71% of corruption[15]: the poorer the Index of Economic Freedom. etc. e.' Access to loans at below-market rates. and widespread corruption and rent seeking. giving benefits to certain ethnic groups o Relation to economic freedom According to a study of the conservative think tank The Heritage Foundation. Credit bailouts. This may also speed up the processing and reduce unintentional human errors. Social conditions o Self-interested closed cliques and "old boy networks". and post-war western Germany. o Frequent discrimination and bullying among the population. State ownership of utilities and natural resources. 20th century Japan.

e. i.[16] The size of the public sector in terms of taxation is only one component of economic un-freedom. also privatization. Private sector corruption can increase the poverty/helplessness of the population. etc. pressuring dependent businesses. An effect is that distribution of funds into multiple instances discourages embezzlement. Therefore. Privatizations in Russia. or would be.. inherently at risk of cronyism. that oligarchy industries can be quite corrupt ( "competition" like collusive price-fixing. Opponents of privatization see the argument as ideological. Complicated regulations and arbitrary. public sector. can keep them in line ( if the public sector gas company is making money & selling gas for 1/2 of the price of the private sector companies. it takes time for corrupted officials to adjust to changes in economic freedom). The argument that corruption necessarily follows from the opportunity is weakened by the existence of countries with low to non-existent corruption but large public sectors. Extensive and diverse public spending is. Furthermore. kickbacks. due to their lack of corruption in the first place. . the private sector companies won't be able to simultaneously gouge to that degree & keep their customers: the competition keeps them in line ). The actual share may be even greater. As mentioned above. they can run large public sectors without inducing political corruption. larger without privatization. ). and East Germany were accompanied by large scale corruption during the sale of the state owned companies. such as in the sale of government-owned property. so the empirical studies on economic freedom do not directly answer this question. there is evidence to suggest that extralegal and unofficial activities are more prevalent in countries that privatized less. studies have argued that in addition to increased operating efficiency. daily petty corruption is. due to good and often simple regulations. and embezzlement. and that corruption is more prevalent in nonprivatized sectors. which has discredited privatization in these regions. In the European Union. in the long-term. and have rule of law firmly established. is particularly at the risk of cronyism. While media have reported widely the grand corruption that accompanied the sales. these countries score high on the Ease of Doing Business Index. the principle of subsidiarity is applied: a government service should be provided by the lowest. This is one argument for privatization and deregulation. and only by having a portion of the market owned by someone other than that oligarchy.[17] However. Those with political connections unfairly gained large wealth.g.[18] There is the counter point. most local authority that can competently provide it. Like other governmental economic activities. like the Nordic countries. low degree of economic freedom explains 71% of corruption...Size of public sector It is a controversial issue whether the size of the public sector per se results in corruption. as also past regulation affects the current level of corruption due to the slowing of cultural changes (e. Latin America. in itself. so it can affect government corruption. unsupervised official conduct exacerbate the problem. however.

for instance.[23] where other forms of communications are limited. General Secretary of the Republic of Cuba since 1959. although that needs to be proven. especially in developing regions like Africa. narcotics. In contrast.. adopted a comprehensive . of likely being the beneficiary of up to $900 million. and that the $900 million published by Forbes is merely a portion of his assets. In the 1990s. the Council of Europe. He is reputed to have stolen some US$3–4 billion. corrupt dictators routinely ignore economic and social problems in their quest to amass ever more wealth and power.[20] More recently. which in reality turn out not to exist. A corrupt dictatorship typically results in many years of general hardship and suffering for the vast majority of citizens as civil society and the rule of law disintegrate.because even small sums missing will be noticed. based on "his control" of state-owned companies. He and his relatives are often mentioned in Nigerian 419 letter scams claiming to offer vast fortunes for "help" in laundering his stolen "fortunes". In addition. It is said that usage of the term kleptocracy gained popularity largely in response to a need to accurately describe Mobutu's regime. most notably Forbes magazine. international loans. have pointed to Fidel Castro. The classic case of a corrupt. the OECD) to put a ban on corruption: in 1996. initiatives were taken at an international level (in particular by the European Community. diamonds and oil in a few prominent cases) or state-owned productive industries. Another classic case is Nigeria. especially under the rule of General Sani Abacha who was de facto president of Nigeria from 1993 until his death in 1998. it is sometimes referred with the neologism kleptocracy.g. even minute proportions of public funds can be large sums of money. A number of corrupt governments have enriched themselves via foreign aid. the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. articles in various financial periodicals. which is often spent on showy buildings and armaments. exploitive dictator often given is the regime of Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko. Governmental corruption If the highest echelons of the governments also take advantage from corruption or embezzlement from the state's treasury.[21] Opponents of his regime claim that he has used money amassed through weapons sales. in a centralized authority. and confiscation of private property to enrich himself and his political cronies who hold his dictatorship together. who ruled the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which he renamed Zaire) from 1965 to 1997.[19] More than $400 billion was stolen from the treasury by Nigeria's leaders between 1960 and 1999.[22] Fighting corruption Mobile telecommunications and radio broadcasting help to fight corruption. Members of the government can take advantage of the natural resources (e.

etc. the Civil Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 174). France also imposes maximum spending caps on campaigning. and the Recommendation on Common Rules against Corruption in the Funding of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns (Rec(2003)4) The purpose of these instruments was to address the various forms of corruption (involving the public sector. Many companies. Further conventions were adopted at the regional level under the aegis of the Organization of American States (OAS or OEA). fund both the Democratic and Republican parties. Politicians are placed in apparently compromising positions because of their need to solicit financial contributions for their campaign finance. issued a series of anticorruption standard-setting instruments: • • • • • • the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 173). it is difficult to prove corruption. sometimes part of a smear campaign. the Recommendation on Codes of Conduct for Public Officials (Recommendation No. To monitor the implementation at national level of the requirements and principles provided in those texts. why are they funding politicians at all. the private sector. Certain countries.Programme of Action against Corruption and. or . Because of the possible circumvention of this ban with respect to the funding of political campaigns. at the universal level under that of the United Nations. Whistleblowers Main article: Whistleblower Campaign contributions In the political arena. the financing of political activities. risk having their candidacy ruled invalid. and in 2003. especially larger ones. ban altogether the corporate funding of political parties. R (2000) 10). Though donations may be coincidental. For this reason. the Additional Protocol to the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 191). If they then appear to be acting in the interests of those parties that funded them. the African Union. if they get nothing for their money. a monitoring mechanism . the question asked is. there are often unproven rumors about many politicians. the Twenty Guiding Principles for the Fight against Corruption (Resolution (97) 24).) whether they had a strictly domestic or also a transnational dimension. candidates that have exceeded those limits. Laws regulating campaign finance in the United States require that all contributions and their use should be publicly disclosed. such as France. subsequently. it could be considered corruption.the Group of States Against Corruption (also known as GRECO) was created. or that have handed in misleading accounting reports.

a Global Corruption Barometer (based on a survey of general public attitudes toward and experience of corruption). and dissuasive sanctions. and making sure infringements are subject to effective. looking at the willingness of foreign firms to pay bribes. in that they often favor the political status quo.[28] . political parties are run solely off subscriptions (membership fees).a. In the context of its monitoring activities. the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe recognised in 1996 the importance of links between corruption and political financing. proportionate. This text is quite unique at international levels as it aims i. and a Bribe Payers Index. pioneered this field with the Corruption Perceptions Index. the government funds political parties according to their successes in elections. As indicated above. This work is often credited with breaking a taboo and forcing the issue of corruption into high level development policy discourse. The Corruption Perceptions Index is the best known of these metrics. updated annually: a Corruption Perceptions Index (based on aggregating third-party polling of public perceptions of how corrupt different countries are). In some countries.[24] While "corruption" indices first appeared in 1995 with the Corruption Perceptions Index.even being prevented from running in future elections. It adopted in 2003 the Recommendation on Common Rules against Corruption in the Funding of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns (Rec(2003)4). Transparency International currently publishes three measures. Measuring corruption Measuring corruption statistically is difficult if not impossible due to the illicit nature of the transaction and imprecise definitions of corruption. In addition. Minor parties and independents often argue that efforts to rein in the influence of contributions do little more than protect the major parties with guaranteed public funding while constraining the possibility of private funding by outsiders. an anti-corruption NGO. all of these metrics address different proxies for corruption. parties do not have the monopoly over the presentation of candidates for elections). first released in 1995. officials are legally taking money from the public coffers for their election campaigns to guarantee that they will continue to hold their influential and often well-paid positions. at increasing transparency in the funding of political parties and election campaigns (these two areas are difficult to dissociate since parties are also involved in campaigning and in many countries. [25] Transparency International. In these instances. Even legal measures such as these have been argued to be legalized corruption. ensuring a certain level of control over the funding and spending connected with political activities. such as public perceptions of the extent of the problem. though it has drawn much criticism[25][26][27] and may be declining in influence. the Group of States Against Corruption has identified a great variety of possible improvements in those areas (see the country reports adopted under the Third Evaluation Round).

and many lesser known local groups. which is defined as "the extent to which power is exercised for private gain. and not consistent across countries."[29] While the definition itself is fairly precise. but to create policy change via targeting resources more effectively and creating checklists toward incremental reform. alternative approaches such as the British aid agency's Drivers of Change research skips numbers entirely and favors understanding corruption via political economy analysis of who controls power in a given society. as well as 'capture' of the state by elites and private interests. awareness-raising tools by giving governments facing public outcry a checklist which measures concrete steps toward improved governance.The World Bank collects a range of data on corruption. These second wave projects aim not to create awareness.[24] In part in response to these criticisms.[24] Typical second wave corruption metrics do not offer the worldwide coverage found in first wave projects. one of the six dimensions of governance measured by the Worldwide Governance Indicators is Control of Corruption. the data aggregated into the Worldwide Governance Indicators is based on any available polling: questions range from "is corruption a serious problem?" to measures of public access to information. "unpackable" content that matches quantitative and qualitative data.[24] See also Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Political corruption Corruption by country • • • • • Corruption in local government Police corruption Political class Political machine Power elite History of corruption • Andrew Johnson . including survey responses from over 100.[30] These approaches compliment the first wave. the International Budget Partnership. discourage. Moreover. a second wave of corruption metrics has been created by Global Integrity. most notably by the Millennium Challenge Corporation. including both petty and grand forms of corruption.000 firms worldwide and a set of indicators of governance and institutional quality. the global coverage of these datasets has led to their widespread adoption. or expose corruption. and instead focus on localizing information gathered to specific problems and creating deep. Global Integrity and the International Budget Partnership each dispense with public surveys and instead uses in-country experts to evaluate "the opposite of corruption" – which Global Integrity defines as the public policies that prevent. first published in 2004. starting with the Global Integrity Index. Despite these weaknesses. Meanwhile.

the body and mechanism established to monitor the implementation of: o the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 173). o the Twenty Guiding Principles for the Fight against Corruption (Resolution (97) 24).fbi. o the Civil Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 174).gov/about-us/investigate/corruption Independent Commission Against Corruption Inter-American Convention Against Corruption . R (2000) 10). Bush administration controversies Category:Nixon administration controversies Category:Reagan administration controversies Forms or aspects of corruption • • • • • • Baksheesh Crony capitalism Electoral fraud Honest services fraud Political scandal Professional courtesy Good governance • • • • Constitutional economics Civil society Comitology Due diligence Theoretical aspects • • • Conflict of interest Principal-agent problem Rent seeking Anti-corruption authorities and measures • • • • GEMAP The Council of Europe's Group of States Against Corruption (French: Groupe d'Etats contre la corruption) or GRECO. and o the Recommendation on Common Rules against Corruption in the Funding of Political Parties and Electoral Campaigns (Rec(2003)4) o http://www. o the Recommendation on Codes of Conduct for Public Officials (Recommendation No. o the Additional Protocol to the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 191).• • • • Ulysses S. Grant presidential administration scandals Category:George W.

Retrieved 2009-11-05.html. "O' Patricia.blogspot. Kpac2. 2006". http://kpac2. Forbes. ". Retrieved 2009-12-05. and Latin American countries paid a bribe in the previous twelve 2007-04-05. BBC News. 25.unodc.. 2005_barometer_2005.a relatively high proportion of families in a group of Central Eastern European.stm. "Ukraine remembers famine horror".newstatesman.blogspot. http://www. Smith Goes to Washington (Hollywood film 1939) Atlas Shrugged (1957 novel) Henry Adams' novel Democracy (1880) Carl Hiaasen's novel Sick Puppy (1999) Much of the Batman comic book series V for Vendetta comic book series The Ghost in the Shell Anime films and series Animal Farm a novel by George Orwell Training Day (2001 film) Exit Wounds (2001 film) American Gangster (2007 film) Robert Penn Warren's novel All the King's Men (1946) References 1. African. Theodore Dreiser's Trilogy of Desire. 10 July 2007. and The Stoic (1947). "The War of 1912. ^ "Kentucky's unholy alliance". 6. Laura (2007-11-24). http://www. ^ "When the money goes west".forbes. ^ "Nigeria's corruption busters". http://www. Retrieved 2009-12-05. 4. perceptions and prevention in humanitarian assistance Overseas Development Institute 7. Unodc." ^ a b c d e f Sarah Bailey (2008) Need and greed: corruption risks. New Statesman. http://www. Jun. ^ By Patricia OToole Sunday. Retrieved ^ African corruption 'on the wane'. based on the life of the notorious transit mogul Charles Tyson Yerkes Mr. ^ "How common is bribe-paying?"." TIME in Partneship with CNN. 5. The Titan (1914).• • United Nations Convention against Corruption Report Public Corruption Corruption in fiction • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Financier (1912). ^ "Will Growth Slow Corruption In India?". .com. ^ Sheeter. BBC News 2. Time.html. 2006 (2006-06-25). 25.

June Usatoday. University of Adelaide. Retrieved 2009-11-05. Global Integrity. http://www. ^ "Nigeria's corruption totals $400 billion". Centre for International Economic Studies.asiamedia. 18. Project Ben (2006-08-05). Chafuen and Eugenio Guzmán. ^ Damania. ^ "Fidel Castro net worth rises. 1913". according to 'Forbes'". Appendix "Western bankers and lawyers 'rob Africa of $150bn every year". ^ "Lessons From the North". 2005.projectsyndicate. Townhall.html. June 27. 24. ^ "Why benchmarking works . 13. 11.htm. http://www. http://observer. ''An Autobiography:'' 19. ^ Heritage. Retrieved 2009-11-05. http://www. . Psdblog. 23. ^ a b Economic Freedom and Corruption. Erwin (July 2003). http://www. September 5. Retrieved Archived December 11.worldbank. 2009-03-12. ^ The Peace of Righteousness. ^ "AsiaMedia :: Right to Information Act India's magic wand against corruption". Retrieved from Emerging Markets". 2006-08-17. Alejandro ^ "Roosevelt.globalintegrity.asp? David Martimort and Stéphane Straub. London: Observer. Retrieved 2009-12-05. http://commons.townhall.1994976. "Resources for Sale: Corruption. New York: Macmillan. Alejandro A. Sunita Kikeri and John Nellis. IDEI. Malaysia Retrieved 2010-12-11.ucla. Chafuen and Eugenio Guzmán Econ. Economic Freedom and Corruption (pdf).bartleby. ^ a b c d "A Users' Guide to Measuring Corruption". Retrieved 2009-11-05.adelaide. ^ "Mobile Phones and Radios Combat Corruption in Burundi . Chapter 3 in 2000 Index of Economic Freedom Blog . "Ben Shapiro :: Townhall.usatoday. 2007 at the Wayback Machine. http://www. ^ Privatization in Competitive Sectors: The Record to Date.1207791-2. 15. Retrieved 2009-11-05. Nick (2007-01-21). Democracy and the Natural Resource Curse" (pdf).html. Privatization and Corruption. 12. 22. Retrieved 2009-12-05.time.pdf.html. ^ Mathiason.Com. 14. http://www. 2008. ^ Who wants to be a millionaire? – An online collection of Nigerian scam mails 20. 21. Retrieved :: The death of Fidel Castro".World Bank Group". World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2860. http://voicesfromemergingmarkets. 10. Retrieved 200911-05.

and Mechanisms of Political Corruption. Corruption and Reform: Lessons from America's Economic History U. 27. http://report. and Alberto Vannucci. eds.25. Michael Johnston and Victor T.) (1989). Carmel Connors. Eds. "Measuring the Immeasurable: Boundaries and Functions of (Macro) Corruption Indices. Uses and Abuses of Governance Indicators (Paris: OECD Development Centre). ^ Sik. Glaeser and Claudia Christiane and Charles Oman (2006). the Worse and the Worst: Guesstimating the Level of Corruption. Power. Richard Jensen. Arthur Shacklock. ISBN 0226-29957-0. and Greed (2 vol. (2009) Political Corruption in the Caribbean Basin: Constructing a Theory to Combat Corruption excerpt and text search Charles Copeman and Amy McGrath (eds. Towerhouse Publications. Republicanism and Efficiency: The Values of American Politics. Political Corruption in America: An Encyclopedia of Scandals. Political Corruption: A Handbook 1017 pages. Axel Dreher. The World Bank. ^ a b Galtung. Retrieved 2009-12-05. 30." in Measuring Corruption. 28. Corrupt Elections. [edit] Further reading • • • • • • • • • • Michael W. ^ Arndt. 29. Victor T. 386 pp. eds. Stephen Kotkin and Andras Sajo. Endre (2002). Contesting Democracy: Substance and Structure in American Political 2009. Kensington. Ballot Rigging in Australia." in Byron Shafer and Anthony Badger. LeVine. (1999). Corruption Around the World: Evidence from a Structural Model. of Chicago Press. Corrupt Exchanges: Actors. ^ "A Decade of Measuring the Quality of Governance". LeVine (eds. Fredrik (2006). 2008) Arnold J. Charles Sampford. (1970) Political Corruption: Readings in Comparative Analysis .) (1997) Corruption and the Global Economy Edward L. "The Bad. online edition Michael Johnston. Steve McCorriston (2004). Heidenheimer. Retrieved 2010-12-11." in Political Corruption in Transition: A Skeptic's Handbook. 1775-2000 pp 149–180. Google. Christos Kotsogiannis. Mark Grossman. 2007. and Fredrik Galtung. Eds. ^ "Media citing Transparency International". (Ashgate): 101–130. and Arnold Heidenheimer. 26. Collier. Kimberly Ann Elliott. 1885-1930.globalintegrity. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development. 3. Resources. ^ "The Global Integrity Report: 2009 Methodology White Paper".) (2006). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.cfm. (2001) "Democracy. (ed. Global Integrity. p. http://www. 2008 at the Wayback NSW Donatella della Porta. Archived May 27. (Budapest: Central European University Press): 91–113. (eds.)(1997).org/methodology/whitepaper.

Scandals. NSW Amy McGrath. (2005). Author of Power Without Glory. and/or career advancement for a police officer or officers in exchange for not pursuing. other personal gain. (2003).S. and Democracy Junichi Kawata. West (2000). The Forging of Votes. How Money Corrupts Political Campaigns. Tower House Publications and H. Reynolds. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. NSW Amy McGrath. Kensington. (1999) Bureaucratic and Political Corruption in Africa: The Public Choice Perspective Stephen D. Northeastern University Press. Kensington.) ISBN 1-55553-440-6 Alexandra Wrage (2007) Bribery and Extortion: Undermining Business. Governments and Security Woodward. an investigation or arrest. NSW John Mukum Mbaku. Morris. The Institutional Economics of Corruption and Reform: Theory. Power. and Legislation James C. Evidence and Policy Cambridge University Press Amy McGrath. Government: An Encyclopedia of Investigations. Checkbook Democracy. (1994). (2002) Political Corruption in Australia: A Very Wicked Place? John F. or selectively pursuing.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Michael Johnston (2005). (2001) Ethics in U. Reforms. (2006) Comparing Political Corruption And Clientelism excerpt and text search George C. Tower House Publications. (1972) Comparative Political Corruption Mark Wahlgren Summers. Kohn (2001). NSW Amy McGrath. Frauding of Elections. The Stolen Election.S. C. Scott. (2009) Political Corruption in Mexico: The Impact of Democratization Peter John Perry. Tower House Publications. (March 2009) Police corruption is a specific form of police misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits. The Frauding of Votes. ed. (1993) The Era of Good Stealings. corruption in American politics 1868-1877 Darrell M. (1994). Brighton-le Sands. Responses of the Presidents to Charges of Misconduct (1975). Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (1988).S. Towerhouse Publications and H. Boston (Mass. Australia 1987 According to Frank Hardy. Chapman Society. 1880-1920 on corrupt voting methods Robert North Roberts. Brighton-le Sands. The New Encyclopedia of American Scandal Johann Graf Lambsdorff (2007). Vann. Syndromes of Corruption: Wealth. . American presidents from Washington to Lyndon Johnson Police corruption This article needs additional citations for verification. Chapman Society. Testing Democracy: Electoral Behavior and Progressive Reform in New Jersey.

which investigated corruption in the New York City Police Department in the early 1970s. who "aggressively misuse their police powers for personal gain. casinos. meals. contractors and tow truck operators.2 Topics 5 References 6 External links Corrupt acts by police officers Police officers have various opportunities to gain personally from their status and authority as law enforcement officers.One common form of police corruption is soliciting and/or accepting bribes in exchange for not reporting organized drug or prostitution rings or other illegal activities. Protection of illegal activity: being "on the take". The Knapp Commission.[3] Opportunistic theft from arrestees and crime victims or their corpses. Shakedowns: accepting bribes for not pursuing a criminal violation. who "simply accept the payoffs that the happenstances of police work throw their way. or drug dealers to protect them from law enforcement and keep them in operation. divided corrupt officers into two types: meat-eaters. Contents [hide] • • • • • • 1 Corrupt acts by police officers 2 Prevalence of police corruption 3 Further reading 4 See also o 4. Another example is police officers flouting the police code of conduct in order to secure convictions of suspects — for example." and grass-eaters.1 People & Fictional Characters involved in Police corruption o 4. In most major cities there are internal affairs sections to investigate suspected police corruption or misconduct. More rarely."[1] The sort of corrupt acts that have been committed by police officers have been classified as follows:[2] • • • • • Corruption of authority: police officers receiving free drinks. This can include. through the use of falsified evidence. Kickbacks: receiving payment from referring people to other businesses. . police officers may deliberately and systematically participate in organized crime themselves. Similar entities include the British Independent Police Complaints Commission. for instance. and other gratuities. accepting payment from the operators of illegal establishments such as brothels.

The "frameup": the planting or adding to evidence. Officers in these situations commonly fail to report corrupt behavior or provide false testimony to outside investigators to cover up criminal activity by their fellow officers. such as shifts and holidays. being bought and sold. ISBN 0195169166) Lawrence W.[8] The well-known case of Frank Serpico. for bribery or as a personal favor. Sherman. Direct criminal activities of law enforcement officers themselves. 1999. Scandal and Reform: Controlling Police Corruption (Univ. Calif. ISBN 0942511840) Tim Newburn. In Australia in 1994.• • • • "Fixing": undermining criminal prosecutions by losing traffic tickets or failing to appear at judicial hearings. 2005. Police Research Series. "Police. rather than the exception. Corruption : the mixture dangerous to freedom and justice" . large-scale corruption involving the police not only exists but can even become institutionalized.[5] Police officials and researchers alike have argued that in some countries. Politics. Press. independent politician John Hatton forced the New South Wales state government to override the Independent Commission Against Corruption and the advice of senior police to establish a ground-breaking Royal Commission into Police Corruption[9] Further reading • • • • • Sanja Kutnjak Ivković. Menachem Amir. and concepts : challenges for developing countries (Office of International Criminal Justice. especially in drug cases. Colonel Frank McKetta. in American policing. illustrates how powerful the code of silence can be. since the corrupt activities tend to happen in secret and police organizations have little incentive to publish information about corruption.[4] Internal payoffs: prerogatives and perquisites of law enforcement organizations. by 46 votes to 45. 2003. "Understanding and preventing police corruption: lessons from the literature". a police officer who spoke out about pervasive corruption in the NYPD despite the open hostility of other members. 1974) Stanley Einstein. Police corruption: paradigms. models. Fallen blue knights: controlling police corruption (Oxford U.P. the widespread existence of a Blue Code of Silence among the police can prevent the corruption from coming to light.[7] Where corruption exists.[6] One study of corruption in the Los Angeles Police Department (focusing particularly on the Rampart scandal) proposed that certain forms of police corruption may be the norm. Prevalence of police corruption Accurate information about the prevalence of police corruption is hard to come by. Paper 110.

See also People & Fictional Characters involved in Police corruption • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Brians Iron (from Resident Evil series) Edwin Atherton Charles Becker Harold Challenor Ali Dizaei[4] Antoinette Frank John Hatton Simon Illingworth Jon Kavanaugh Terry Lewis David Mack William King and Antonio Murray Vic Mackey Haji Mammadov Eliot Ness Rafael Perez Roger Rogerson Richie Roberts Frank Serpico Andre Stander Abel Turner from Lakeview Terrace Shane Vendrell Eon Taylor Frank McKetta Adrian Schoolcraft Topics • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1992 Los Angeles riots Blue wall of silence Copwatch False arrest Falsification of Evidence Fitzgerald Inquiry ICAC Intimidation Knapp Commission Operation Countryman Police brutality Police misconduct Political corruption Political repression .

"International Perspectives on Institutional and Police Corruption. no. p. Corporate crime overlaps with: . 3 (2003): 404.htm accessed 16 May 2010 Corporate crime In criminology.stm. available at http://www. 4 3." Judith Grant." The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 93. the imposition of citizen review boards. November 6. ^ Peter Kratcoski." Police Practice and Research 3. departments of Internal Affairs. Note that some forms of corporate corruption may not actually be criminal if they are not specifically illegal under a given system of 1 (2002):• • • Rampart scandal Surveillance abuse Wickersham report References 1. ^ a b "Met Commander Ali Dizaei guilty of corruption". Specifically the continuity between the breaking of procedural rules as a matter of routine and the kind of large scale criminal corruption we saw in Rampart bears further investigation. 2010-02-08. 1 (2002): Mackey. no. ^ "I am simply saying that the current institution of law enforcement in America does appear to reproduce itself according counter-legal norms.php?id=1503. do not appear to mitigate against this structural continuity between law enforcement and crime. Accessed 6 February 2010. Police Corruption: Preventing Misconduct and Maintaining Integrity. "Meat-eaters and Grass-eaters. Retrieved 2010-02-08. some jurisdictions allow insider trading. ^ ABC Stateline The Stench Friday.e. or by individuals that may be identified with a corporation or other business entity (see vicarious liability and corporate liability). ^ Jerome Skolnick." Police Practice and Research 3. no. http://news. ISBN 978-1-4200-7796-4 4. 2/3 (2003): 600. For ^ Tim Prenzler. 9. "Corruption and the Blue Code of Silence. 5. no. November 1997. BBC News. ^ Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovic. ^ Thomas C. "To Serve and Collect: Measuring Police Corruption." H-Net." New Political Science 25. "Assault Under Color of Authority: Police Corruption as Norm in the LAPD Rampart Scandal and in Popular Film. 7.h-net. a business entity having a separate legal personality from the natural persons that manage its activities). 6. corporate crime refers to crimes committed either by a corporation (i. ^ Newburn. 2009 http://www. and that attempts to counteract this reproduction via the training one receives in police academies. 1999.

Organized crime has become a branch of big business and is simply the illegal sector of capital. or property. because the majority of individuals who may act as or represent the interests of the corporation are employees or professionals of a higher social class." . nor shall any State deprive any person of life. liberty.S.2 Function of law o 1. and state-corporate crime because. by the middle of the 1990s. 394 (1886). without due process of law.S. (de Brie 2000). in many contexts. It has been estimated that.1 Criminalization o 2. has been cited by various courts in the US as precedent to maintain that a corporation can be defined legally as a 'person'. The world’s gross criminal product has been estimated at 20 percent of world trade. The Fourteenth Amendment stipulates that.3 Enforcement policy 2 Discussion o 2. the "gross criminal product" of organized crime made it the twentieth richest organization in the world—richer than 150 sovereign states (Castells 1998: 169).2 Penalties 3 Enforcement and legal or quasi-legal corrupt activities 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Definitional issues Legal person An 1886 decision of the United States Supreme Court. "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States. organized crime.1 Legal person o 1. as described in the Fourteenth Amendment to the U. in Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad 118 U. nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.• • • white-collar crime. Contents [hide] • • • • • • 1 Definitional issues o 1. because criminals can set up corporations either for the purposes of crime or as vehicles for laundering the proceeds of crime. Constitution. the opportunity to commit crime emerges from the relationship between the corporation and the state.

Similar incidents of corporate crime. disrupting the otherwise normal socio-economic processes. background feature of our lives—a taken for granted element of late modernity. given the absence of political control today. this was matched by the decision in Salomon v Salomon & Co [1897] AC 22. and the impact of their actions on a much wider group of people than are affected by individual action. the term is commonly used in reference to corporate manslaughter and to involve a more general discussion about the technological hazards posed by business enterprises (see Wells: 2001). In the United Kingdom. a corporation is legally a 'person'. India (Pearce & Tombs: 1993) and the behaviour of the pharmaceutical industry (Braithwaite: 1984). Given the pervasive presence of corporations in a wide range of activities in our society."[1] Similarly. sometimes with success. such as the 1985 Union Carbide accident in Bhopal. Lea (2001) argues that whereas crime used to be the exceptional event. for example. In Australian law.In English law. corporations develop new technologies and economies of scale. as crime becomes more frequent it lost its status as an exceptional event and became "a standard. This doctrine of corporate personhood has often impeded prosecution of corporate crime by allowing corporations to claim Bill of Rights protections in court." ." (Garland 1996: 446) Enforcement policy See also: Police corruption Corporate crime has become politically sensitive in some countries. On another level. following a number of fatal disasters on the rail network and at sea. Russell Mokhiber and Robert Weissman (1999) assert: "At one level. the potential for both economic and physical harm caused by a corporation is great. under the Corporations Act 2001 (Cth).[citation needed] Function of law History shows that laws have always served as instruments of regulation. corporations serve to destroy the foundations of the civic community and the lives of people who reside in them. These may serve the economic interests of mass consumers by introducing new products and more efficient methods of mass production. The Law Reform Commission of New South Wales offers an explanation of such criminal activities: "Corporate crime poses a significant threat to the welfare of the community.

see Reed & Yeager (1996). see Pearce & Tombs (1992) and Schulte-Bockholt (2001). The explanations and exculpations may therefore centre around rogue individuals who acted outside the organizational structures. so the politics of regulating the individuals and corporations that supply that stability become more complex.[peacock term] greed. corporations can commit the same offences as natural persons. is the motive. This may be a short-term crime. for Left realism. i. she or it will be powerless to prevent it. the corporation is set up as a shell to open credit trading accounts with manufacturers and wholesalers. managing their operations. the legislature is making the political judgment that this behavior is sufficiently culpable to deserve the stigma of being labelled as a crime. the historical tradition of sovereign state control of prisons is ending through the process of privatisation. gender. see Snider (1993) and Snider & Pearce (1995). More specifically. In turn. trades for a short period of time and then disappears with the revenue and without paying for the inventory. and selling inmate labor. senior managers will usually be involved.e. and the rationalisation for choosing to break the law usually arises out of a form of contempt for the victim. In law. Simpson (2002) avers that this process should be straightforward because a state should simply engage in victimology to identify which behavior causes the most loss and damage to its citizens. For the views of Marxist criminology. namely that he. but criminal activity is secretly intermixed with legal activity to escape detection. the corporation is the vehicle for the crime. .[dubious – discuss][citation needed] For the most part. Alternatively and most commonly.. and for Right Realism.e.. the primary purpose of the corporation is as a legitimate business. and has it coming for some reason. rather than conceit. Corporate profitability in these areas therefore depends on building more prison facilities. this requires a steady stream of prisoners able to work. For these purposes.Discussion Criminalization Behavior can be regulated by the civil law (including administrative law) or the criminal law. To achieve a suitable level of secrecy. racism and/or age) that facilitated the criminal conduct of a corporation Bribery and corruption are problems in the developed world. where the offender simply sees the chance and thinks that he or she will be able to commit the crime and not be detected. But states depend on the business sector to deliver a stable economy. i. In deciding to criminalize particular behavior. or there may be a serious examination of the occupational and organisational structures (often hinged on the socio-economic system. and then represent the majority view that justice requires the intervention of the criminal law. and the corruption of public officials is thought[according to whom?] to be a large cause of crime in poor countries that have large IMF debts and IMF sovereign obligations. (Kicenski: 2002) The majority of crimes are committed because the offender has the 'right opportunity'.

In part, this will be a function of the public perception of the degrees of societal culpability involved. Weissman and Mokhiber (1999) catalog the silence and indifference of the major media in the face of the widespread corporate corruption. Only in part is this justifiable. The news media find it difficult to respond to corporate crime both because reporting may compromise the trial by tainting the jury's perceptions, or because of the danger of defamation proceedings. Further, major corporate crime is often complicated and more difficult to explain to the lay public, as against street or property crimes, which may provide graphic visual evidence of harm to victims injured, or of property that has been damaged or vandalized in spectacular fashion. But, more significantly, the news media are owned by large corporations which may also own prisons. Thus, the political decisions on the resources to allocate to investigate and prosecute will tend to match the electorate's understanding of the dangers posed by 'crime'. In sentencing, the fact that the convicted individuals may have had an impeccable character as presidents, CEOs, chairmen, directors and managers is likely to be a mitigating factor. Examples of criminal behavior in most jurisdictions include: insider trading, antitrust violations, fraud (usually involving the consumers), damage to the environment, exploitation of labour in violation of labor and health and safety laws, and the failure to maintain a fiduciary responsibility towards stockholders.

Enforcement and legal or quasi-legal corrupt activities
One example, may be in the area of takeovers and top executive compensation: It is fairly easy for a top executive to reduce the price of his/her company's stock—due to information asymmetry. The executive can accelerate accounting of expected expenses, delay accounting of expected revenue, engage in off balance sheet transactions to make the company's profitability appear temporarily poorer, or simply promote and report severely conservative (e.g. pessimistic) estimates of future earnings. Such seemingly adverse earnings news will be likely to (at least temporarily) reduce share price. (This is again due to information asymmetries since it is more common for top executives to do everything they can to window dress their company's earnings forecasts). There are typically very few legal risks to being 'too conservative' in one's accounting and earnings estimates. A reduced share price makes a company an easier takeover target. When the company gets bought out (or taken private)—at a dramatically lower price—the takeover artist gains a windfall from the former top executive's actions to surreptitiously reduce share price. This can represent 10s of billions of dollars (questionably) transferred from previous shareholders to the takeover artist. The former top executive is then rewarded with a golden handshake for presiding over the firesale that can sometimes be in the 100s of millions of dollars for one or two years of work. (This is nevertheless an excellent bargain for the takeover artist, who will tend to benefit from developing a reputation of being very generous to parting top executives).

Similar issues occur when a publicly held asset or non-profit organization undergoes privatization. Top executives often reap tremendous monetary benefits when a government owned or non-profit entity is sold to private hands. Just as in the example above, they can facilitate this process by making the entity appear to be in financial crisis —this reduces the sale price (to the profit of the purchaser), and makes non-profits and governments more likely to sell. Ironically, it can also contribute to a public perception that private entities are more efficiently run, reinforcing the political will to sell off public assets. Again, due to asymmetric information, policy makers and the general public see a government owned firm that was a financial 'disaster'—miraculously turned around by the private sector (and typically resold) within a few years.

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Accounting scandals Anti-globalization movement Business ethics Corporate abuse o Enron Industrial espionage Misleading financial analysis The Corporation - Documentary and book about the abuses of corporations Mark Thomas & Billy Bragg - British campaigners for corporate accountability and manslaughter laws CorpWatch Multinational Monitor Corporate Accountability International Political corruption List of companies convicted of felony offenses in the United States

1. ^
• •

• • •

Braithwaite, John. (1984). Corporate Crime in the Pharmaceutical Industry. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Books. ISBN 0-7102-0049-8 Castells, Manuel. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society (The Information Age: Economy Society and Culture. volume I.) Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-221409 Clinard, Marshall B. & Yeager, Peter Cleary. (2005). Corporate Crime. Somerset, NJ: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 1-4128-0493-0 de Brie, Christian (2000) ‘Thick as thieves’ Le Monde Diplomatique (April)[1] Ermann, M. David & Lundman, Richard J. (eds.) (2002). Corporate and Governmental Deviance: Problems of Organizational Behavior in Contemporary Society. (6th edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513529-6 Friedrichs, David O. (2002). "Occupational crime, occupational deviance, and workplace crime: Sorting out the difference". Criminal Justice, 2, pp243–256.

• • • • •

• •

• •

• • • • • •

Garland, David (1996), "The Limits of the Sovereign State: Strategies of Crime Control in Contemporary Society", British Journal of Criminology Vol 36 pp445– 471. Gobert, J & Punch, M. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Crime, London: Butterworths. ISBN 0-406-95006-7 Kicenski, Karyl K. (2002). The Corporate Prison: The Production of Crime & the Sale of Discipline. [2] Law Reform Commission for New South Wales. Issues Paper 20 (2001) Sentencing: Corporate Offenders. [3] Lea, John. (2001). Crime as Governance: Reorienting Criminology. [4] Mokhiber, Russell & Weismann, Robert. (1999). Corporate Predators : The Hunt for Mega-Profits and the Attack on Democracy. Common Courage Press. ISBN 156751-158-9 Pearce, Frank & Tombs, Steven. (1992). "Realism and Corporate Crime", in Issues in Realist Criminology. (R. Matthews & J. Young eds.). London: Sage. Pearce, Frank & Tombs, Steven. (1993). "US Capital versus the Third World: Union Carbide and Bhopal" in Global Crime Connections: Dynamics and Control. (Frank Pearce & Michael Woodiwiss eds.). Peèar, Janez (1996). "Corporate Wrongdoing Policing" College of Police and Security Studies, Slovenia. [5] Reed, Gary E. & Yeager, Peter Cleary. (1996). "Organizational offending and neoclassical criminology: Challenging the reach of a general theory of crime". Criminology, 34, pp357–382. Schulte-Bockholt, A. (2001). "A Neo-Marxist Explanation of Organized Crime". Critical Criminology, 10 Simpson, Sally S. (2002). Corporate Crime, Law, and Social Control. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Snider, Laureen. (1993). Bad Business: Corporate Crime in Canada, Toronto: Nelson. Snider, Laureen & Pearce, Frank (eds.). (1995). Corporate Crime: Contemporary Debates, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Vaughan, Diane. (1998). "Rational choice, situated action, and the social control of organizations". Law & Society Review, 32, pp23–61. Wells, Celia. (2001). Corporations and Criminal Responsibility (Second Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826793-2

Corruption (philosophical concept)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search In philosophical, theological, or moral discussions, corruption often refers to spiritual or moral impurity, or deviation from an ideal. Frequently, this takes the form of contrasting a pure spiritual form with a corrupted manifestation in the physical world. Many

corruption generally refers to decadence or hedonism.9 3 .6.1. Corruption Perceptions Index From Wikipedia. 2010. search Overview of the index of perception of corruption." as in Aristotle's book On Generation and Corruption also known as On Coming to Be and Passing Away. In this sense. which is to say.[3] .9 5 .9 7 .10 8 .5. corruption is the process of ceasing to exist and is closely related to the concept of dying given certain views about the nature of living things. Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to "the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians".7.8. 9 . in fact.9 1 .9 No Information 6 . the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.9 Since 1995. have regarded the physical world as inevitably corrupt (Plato being the most famous example of this school of thought).[2] The organization defines corruption as "the abuse of entrusted power for private gain".4.philosophers. Another philosophical use of the term "corruption" is in opposition to "generation.9 2 . certain viewpoints are sometimes accused of being corruptions of orthodox systems of belief.3. In a moral sense. In theological or political debates.2. they are accused of having deviated from some older correct view.9 4 .

the experts surveyed in the CPI sources were often business people from industrialised countries. but now only "experts" are used. Economist Intelligence Unit. The institutions who provided data for the CPI 2005 are: Columbia University. and less reliable for countries with fewer sources. This has changed over time. differs between jurisdictions: a political donation legal in some jurisdiction may be illegal in another."[2] As this index is based on polls. In the past. Information International.[2] The CPI 2005 draws on 16 different polls and surveys from 10 independent institutions[citation needed].The 2003 poll covered 133 countries. In the Arab world. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. the viewpoint of less developed countries was underrepresented. Early CPIs used public opinion surveys. a matter viewed as acceptable tipping in one country may be viewed as bribery in another. Contents [hide] • • • • • • • 1 Methods and interpretation 2 Validity of method 3 Criticism 4 Rankings 5 See also 6 References 7 External links Methods and interpretation Transparency International commissioned Johann Graf Lambsdorff of the University of Passau to produce the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Merchant International Group. 180. what is legally defined (or perceived) to be corruption. World Economic Forum and World Markets Research Centre. The results show seven out of every ten countries (and nine out of every ten developing countries) with an index of less than 5 points out of 10. giving increasingly voice to respondents from emerging market economies.[2] "TI writes in their FAQ on the CPI that "residents' viewpoints correlate well with those of experts abroad. Freedom House. Also. the term "corruption" itself has become a proxy for the broader frustration with all changes since the breakup of the USSR. In former Soviet states. Political and Economic Risk Consultancy. the 2007 survey. terms for corruption had to be invented by advocates as recently as the 1990s. A higher score means less (perceived) corruption. TI requires at least three sources to be available in order to rank a country in the CPI. the results are subjective. International Institute for Management Development.[citation needed] .

Aside from precision issues. The lack of standardization and precision in these surveys is cause for concern. while new. reliable sources are added. Wilhelm's paper [5] [clarification needed] . With differing respondents and slightly differing methodologies. The authors of the CPI argue that averaging enough survey data will solve this. more cross-validations need to be established to demonstrate its applicability. below). a local Transparency International chapter disowned the index results after a change in methodology caused a country's scores to increase—media reported it as an "improvement". The CPI is based on data from the past three years (for more on this. The CPI uses an eclectic mix of third-party surveys to sample public perceptions of corruption through a variety of questions. it is impossible to measure directly. Each year. However. thus making even basic better-or-worse comparisons difficult. frequently use the raw numbers as a yardstick for government performance. Critics are quick to concede that the CPI has been instrumental in creating . such as one or two years. instead proxies for corruption are used. see the question on the sources of data. some sources are not updated and must be dropped from the CPI. leading to calls for the index to be abandoned.[11] In one case. by nature.[6][7][8] This criticism has been directed at the quality of the Index itself. This means that a change in perceptions of corruption would only emerge in the index over longer periods of time".[12] Other critics point out that definitional problems with the term "corruption" makes the tool problematic for social science. and the lack of actionable insights created from a simple country ranking. Media outlets. a more fundamental critique is aimed at the uses of the Index.Statistics like this are.[4] Validity of method The validity of the method has been assessed according to Paul G. imprecise. meanwhile. The methodology of the Index itself changes from year to year. statistics from different years aren't necessarily comparable. without clarifying what the numbers mean. ranging from "Do you trust the government?" to "Is corruption a big problem in your country?" The use of third-party survey data is a source of criticism.[9][10] Because corruption is willfully hidden. The ICCR itself explains. others argue that aggregating imprecise data only masks these flaws without addressing them. a change in a country's score may also relate to the fact that different viewpoints have been collected and different questions been asked… [despite] anti-corruption reform… [or] recent exposure of corruption scandals… [i]t is often difficult to improve a CPI score over a short time period. "…year-to-year changes in a country's score result not only from a changing perception of a country's performance but also from a changing sample and methodology. The data can vary widely in methodology and completeness from country to country. Criticism The Corruption Perceptions Index has drawn increasing criticism in the decade since its launch.

Rankings Worldwide Corruption Perceptions ranking of countries published by Transparency International Rank 2010 1 Index 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006[19] 2005[20] 2004[21] 2003 2002 9.5 8. The only reliable way to compare a country’s score over time is to go back to individual survey sources.[9] These alternative measures use original (often locally collected) data and are limited in scope to specific policy practices (such as public access to parliamentary budget documents).7 8. each of which can reflect a change in assessment.3 9.6 9.0 8.4 9.5 8.9 8.8 9.4 9. which typically measure public policies that relate to corruption.7 8.8 nds Country [15] [16] [17] [18] 8 8 10 11 11 Switzerla nd Australia Norway Iceland Luxemb 8.4 Zealand Singapor 1 9. the field has moved towards unpackable.6 8.3 9.5 9.6 9.3 9.3 9.0 6 Canada 8.5 8.6 9.7 9.3 9.3 9.6 8. The authors state in 2008: "Year-to-year changes in a country's score can either result from a changed perception of a country's performance or from a change in the CPI’s sample and methodology.7 8.7 8.7 8.4 9.7 9.4 9.7 9.8 8.7 8.2 9.9 9.9 9.8 8.3 9. As such.5 9.9 8. However.0 9. the Index is nearly useless as a tool for evaluating the impact of new policies.7 8.6 8.3 9.5 8.9 9.0 8.4 9. rather than try to assess "corruption" as a whole via proxy measures like perceptions.0 8.5 9.5 9.2 8.7 8.6 8.9 Netherla 7 8.6 9.8 9.3 9.5 8.2 9.8 8.1 8.7 8.5 9.7 9.5 9.[14] In the late 2000s.awareness and stimulating debate about corruption.8 8.5 9.4 e 4 Finland 9.4 9." [13] The CPI produces a single score per country.2 9.9 8.9 4 Sweden 9.7 8.6 9.0 8.2 9.3 9.6 9.9 9.9 8.2 8.2 9. as a source of quantitative data in a field hungry for international datasets.5 Denmark New 1 9.4 8.3 9.2 8.5 9. actionoriented indices (such as those by the International Budget Partnership or Global Integrity). cannot be compared year-to-year.7 .4 9.1 8.2 9.2 9.2 9.6 8.6 8.7 8.3 9.0 8. appearing in cross-country and year-to-year comparisons that the CPI authors themselves admit are not justified by their methodology.0 8.3 9. which as noted above.0 8.4 9. the CPI can take on a life of its own.7 7.6 8.4 8.

6 8.4 8.3 6.5 6.4 6.2 7.2 6.5 6.1 7.7 7.7 6.3 6.3 7.3 6.5 4.0 6.6 6.9 8.7 6.6 7.5 5.9 6.1 6.6 7.9 5.4 8.0 7.4 6.9 7.8 5.9 5.8 6.2 7.3 6.7 5.4 6.3 5.6 7.7 4.1 6.7 7.7 8.5 6.0 5.6 4.2 8.4 6.4 7.4 8.1 8.3 7.5 8.4 5.6 6.1 4.0 5.4 7.7 6.6 6.4 6.1 7.6 5.9 6.4 5.7 6.5 6.8 6.0 8.1 7.6 7.8 5.3 7.5 5.9 6.1 8.1 6.5 7.1 6.5 8.3 7.0 7.1 7.ourg Hong 13 Kong 14 Ireland 15 Austria 15 Germany Barbado 17 s 17 Japan 19 Qatar United 20 Kingdom 21 Chile 22 Belgium United 22 States 24 Uruguay 25 France 26 Estonia 27 Slovenia 28 Cyprus United 28 Arab Emirates 30 Israel 30 Spain 32 Portugal Puerto 33 Rico Botswan 33 a 33 Taiwan 36 Bhutan 37 Malta 38 Brunei South 39 Korea Mauritiu 39 s 41 Oman 8.4 5.6 7.7 7.3 5.9 7.5 8.1 6.9 6.0 7.7 5.4 7.0 5.8 5.0 6.2 6.5 5.6 5.2 6.3 5.7 6.7 5.0 5.8 6.4 5.1 7.3 6.1 5.0 6.1 5.6 5.5 6.8 7.5 8.3 7.1 6.9 7.0 7.5 8.9 7.5 .5 4.6 5.7 5.4 5.6 6.1 5.8 7.4 5.5 6.8 5.3 7.5 7.9 8.3 4.3 7.1 5.9 7.9 6.8 5.7 7.1 6.2 5.6 5.8 7.6 5.9 7.1 5.3 4.0 8.8 7.4 6.3 7.6 6.6 7.6 6.6 6.6 5.2 6.3 7.6 5.4 5.0 7.8 5.0 4.0 6.5 7.3 6.1 5.9 7.1 6.8 5.7 5.9 6.4 5.8 5.5 5.9 6.2 6.6 5.7 7.5 6.5 5.4 5.1 6.7 6.5 8.0 7.7 5.4 5.9 7.1 4.3 8.7 6.6 5.0 7.7 5.5 5.7 8.0 7.5 6.2 7.3 5.3 6.8 5.9 6.7 6.0 6.6 8.9 7.1 7.3 7.5 6.6 8.4 7.6 7.7 6.4 5.9 5.4 7.7 8.3 7.0 5.2 5.9 6.4 7.7 7.0 7.1 7.1 6.3 7.

4 4.7 4.7 6.6 6.5 4.5 3.8 3.6 5.0 4.2 4.5 2.1 4.3 4.3 4.4 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.3 5.6 4.1 5.6 5.5 4.9 4.3 5.5 3.5 4.8 3.5 4.4 3.8 5.3 4.1 3.4 4.9 5.9 3.7 4.3 4.7 3.3 4.5 4.3 4.9 4.6 5.6 .8 5.5 2.2 6.3 2.3 4.6 4.2 5.1 4.9 5.8 5.2 4.6 3.4 3.0 5.0 3.7 1.2 4.3 3.6 4.4 4.7 3.7 4.5 4.8 3.4 4.9 3.7 4.3 4.8 5.4 3.0 3.3 3.8 5.2 5.9 5.7 3.3 3.6 5.4 3.5 6.9 3.0 4.8 3.4 4.9 5.8 4.9 3.3 4.3 2.4 4.9 3.1 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.7 3.6 5.1 4.9 3.1 4.8 4.0 5.4 4.0 3.5 5.5 4.2 3.7 4.8 4.3 4.8 5.6 4.5 4.1 5.7 3.2 3.2 2.1 5.1 4.2 4.8 2.0 5.8 4.0 4.0 5.4 5.9 4.1 4.1 3.7 3.6 4.8 5.9 3.5 4.2 2.7 4.4 4.3 5.0 5.3 5.4 4.2 2.8 3.7 3.8 4.9 5.9 2.0 4.7 4.3 3.Costa Rica 41 Poland Dominic 44 a Cape 45 Verde 46 Macau Lithuani 46 a 48 Bahrain Seychell 49 es 50 Hungary 50 Jordan Saudi 50 Arabia Czech 53 Republic 54 Kuwait South 54 Africa 56 Malaysia 56 Namibia 56 Turkey 59 Latvia 59 Slovakia 59 Tunisia 62 Croatia 62 Ghana Macedon 62 ia 62 Samoa 66 Rwanda 67 Italy 68 Georgia 69 Cuba Montene 69 gro 69 Romania 41 5.7 3.0 4.7 4.1 3.3 4.1 5.9 3.8 4.3 3.8 5.7 3.0 4.7 3.2 5.1 4.7 4.1 3.8 5.6 4.1 3.3 4.9 4.1 3.3 4.3 4.6 3.8 4.5 3.7 5.2 4.5 4.8 4.0 4.7 2.4 3.5 4.1 5.2 4.1 6.7 4.5 5.2 4.0 5.5 5.2 3.8 3.6 2.2 3.7 4.0 4.9 4.8 4.0 4.7 4.9 4.0 5.1 4.4 3.1 4.8 4.3 4.6 2.8 5.7 3.0 4.7 4.1 4.3 4.1 4.1 5.8 4.0 3.6 5.4 5.1 3.4 3.0 2.1 4.2 4.9 5.8 4.5 4.5 2.4 4.

0 3.7 4.7 3.5 3.0 2.3 2.2 3.1 3.1 3.6 3.1 3.5 3.3 2.4 3.8 3.4 3.3 4.69 73 Brazil Bulgaria El 73 Salvador 73 Panama Trinidad 73 and Tobago 73 Vanuatu 78 Greece Colombi 78 a 78 Peru 78 Thailand 78 Lesotho 78 China 78 Serbia[22] 85 Malawi 85 Morocco 87 India 87 Albania 87 Liberia 87 Jamaica Bosnia 91 and Herzegovina 91 Djibouti 3.7 3.6 3.0 3.6 3.1 4.2 3.2 4.5 3.3 3.3 2.0 .9 3.8 2.0 4.7 3.6 3.8 3.3 3.5 3.9 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.7 3.8 3.5 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.2 2.5 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.0 4.9 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 2.8 2.8 3.4 3.8 3.7 4.2 3.3 3.3 3.6 2.4 3.1 3.0 3.4 3.6 3.7 2.8 3.6 3.6 3.9 4.9 3.2 3.5 4.3 3.4 2.6 3.6 4.7 3.5 3.4 2.2 3.2 3.3 3.6 3.3 4.5 3.2 3.2 3.6 3.3 3.6 3.9 2.2 2.9 3.4 2.6 3.2 3.5 3.4 4.7 2.1 3.3 3.3 3.9 3.8 2.3 2.4 3.7 3.3 3.9 2.4 2.5 4.7 3.5 3.8 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.2 3.2 4.5 3.0 4.4 3.3 3.4 3.9 4.5 2.4 2.6 3.4 3.5 2.6 3.6 3.5 3.1 4.2 3.0 4.2 2.9 3.7 2.8 3.8 3.7 3.3 2.9 4.4 3.8 4.0 3.3 3.7 3.3 3.1 3.7 2.0 3.8 4.6 3.

7 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.6 3.2 2.6 2.2 3.3 2.8 2.8 2.7 3.6 3.8 3.4 3.8 2.7 2.0 3.5 2.2 2.6 2.1 2.4 3.0 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.8 2.6 3.5 3.0 2.9 1.6 3.5 2.9 2.8 2.0 2.0 2.2 3.0 2.8 2.2 3.1 3.6 3.8 2.4 2.1 2.6 1.6 2.6 2.7 3.5 3.6 2.4 2.1 2.8 3.2 2.4 3.9 3.9 2.4 2.2 3.2 3.8 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.7 3.7 3.6 2.6 2.9 2.8 2.4 2.6 3.7 2.9 3.3 3.7 2.2 2.8 2.3 2.3 3.9 2.4 3.0 2.5 3.6 2.8 2.4 3.7 3.5 2.2 2.8 2.5 2.2 3.5 3.6 2.9 2.0 2.3 2.7 2.9 3.7 2.7 2.0 3.2 3.3 2.9 3.2 3.9 2.1 2.3 3.8 2.3 3.2 3.5 2.4 3.4 4.4 2.8 2.9 3.7 2.9 3.0 3.7 2.2 3.8 2.9 3.5 2.8 2.1 3.8 3.8 3.3 3.5 2.4 4.9 2.0 3.6 2.1 3.7 3.5 2.9 3.3 3.3 2.9 3.0 3.5 3.0 2.1 3.8 2.9 2.3 2.9 3.0 2.6 2.8 2.1 3.9 2.6 3.8 2.9 2.5 2.3 2.6 2.8 .9 2.1 2.8 2.4 2.0 2.2 2.1 2.2 3.1 2.6 2.0 3.0 1.2 2.3 3.0 2.6 2.2 3.4 2.5 2.5 3.4 1.6 2.8 3.3 2.5 2.7 2.0 2.8 2.9 2.2 2.6 2.9 1.2 3.2 2.0 3.2 2.3 3.0 3.3 3.1 3.6 3.6 2.4 2.4 3.9 2.0 3.8 2.5 2.9 2.2 2.1 2.9 3.9 2.5 2.6 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.0 3.6 2.8 2.7 2.2 3.9 3.3 2.9 2.7 3.7 3.1 2.2 2.5 3.Rank 2010 91 91 91 91 91 98 98 98 101 101 101 101 105 105 105 105 105 110 110 110 110 110 110 116 116 116 116 116 116 116 123 123 123 123 127 127 Country Swaziland Guatemala Sri Lanka Gambia Kiribati Burkina Faso Mexico Egypt Dominican Republic Tonga Zambia São Tomé and Príncipe Moldova Senegal Argentina Kazakhstan Algeria Benin Gabon Indonesia Bolivia Solomon Islands Kosovo Ethiopia Mali Mongolia Vietnam Guyana Tanzania Mozambique Armenia Madagascar Niger Eritrea Belarus Syria Index 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 3.7 2.0 2.6 3.9 2.4 2.1 2.8 3.1 2.3 2.0 2.1 3.2 2.6 3.6 3.

5 2.5 2.4 2.0 2.5 1.4 2.8 2.8 2.1 2.7 2.1 2.0 2.2 1.6 2.0 2.8 2.4 2.2 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.9 2.5 2.4 2.6 2.1 2.1 2.5 2.8 2.0 1.8 2.3 1.8 2.2 2.9 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.2 Democratic Republic of the Congo 164 Guinea .1 2.3 1.5 2.2 2.7 2.5 2.1 2.4 2.5 2.1 2.7 1.0 2.0 2.3 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 1.6 2.5 2.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.6 1.2 2.4 2.4 2.9 2.5 2.7 1.1 2.4 2.1 2.6 2.5 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.2 2.6 2.7 1.3 2.1 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.5 2.5 1.7 1.2 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.5 2.0 2.2 1.4 2.2 2.127 127 127 127 127 134 134 134 134 134 134 134 134 134 143 143 143 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 164 Lebanon Nicaragua Ecuador Timor-Leste Uganda Azerbaijan Nigeria Honduras Togo Bangladesh Philippines Sierra Leone Ukraine Zimbabwe Pakistan Maldives Mauritania Cameroon Nepal Libya Côte d'Ivoire Paraguay Yemen Haiti Iran Comoros Russia Kenya Papua New Guinea Cambodia Central African Republic Laos Tajikistan Republic of the Congo Guinea-Bissau 2.9 2.6 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.1 1.1 1.1 2.2 2.2 2.4 1.4 2.6 2.7 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.6 1.7 2.4 2.8 2.1 2.5 2.0 1.4 2.6 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.2 2.0 1.5 2.2 2.1 2.8 2.6 2.1 2.1 2.0 1.4 2.9 3.3 2.1 2.3 1.7 2.2 2.0 3.3 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.7 1.2 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.3 3.6 2.9 1.2 2.2 3.0 2.6 1.1 2.3 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.0 2.2 2.9 2.3 2.2 2.0 1.6 2.6 2.5 2.6 2.9 2.9 1.0 2.1 3.2 1.2 2.4 2.6 3.4 2.1 2.5 1.1 2.5 1.7 2.8 2.9 3.3 2.2 2.9 1.0 1.0 2.2 2.1 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.6 2.7 2.2 2.0 2.6 1.5 2.0 1.3 2.7 2.9 2.4 2.4 3.9 1.7 2.4 2.8 2.3 2.6 1.9 2.6 1.8 2.8 1.3 2.5 2.6 2.5 2.1 2.5 3.3 1.1 2.8 2.6 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.9 1.7 2.5 2.1 2.3 2.

164 164 168 168 170 171 172 172 172 175 176 176 178 – – - Kyrgyzstan Venezuela Angola Equatorial Guinea Burundi Chad Sudan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan Iraq Afghanistan Myanmar Somalia Belize Grenada Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2.9 3.6 1.4 2.9 2.0 1.6 1.8 1.8 2.8 1. Paul G.3 2. Retrieved 2005-1122.5 1. "International Validation of the Corruption Perceptions Index: Implications for Business Ethics and Entrepreneurship Education".cpi_2004_faq.8 1.4 1.8 1.5 1.2 2.2 2.4 7.1 2.1 1. Retrieved 2010-10-27.9 1. ^ "About Us".0 3.9 2. (2002). Retrieved 2005-07-04.5 6.html.0 1.8 2. ^ Corruption Perception Report accessed on January 9.3 1.7 3.8 2.7 2. ^ a b c d "Frequently Asked Questions: TI Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI 2005)".9 See also • • • Global Integrity Bribe Payers Index List of European countries by Corruption Perceptions Index References 1.0 2.7 1.4 2.4 1.8 6. ^ Wilhelm.7 2. http://www.5 2.6 4.4 2.4 1. .2 1.7 1.1 3.5 1.6 1.3 2.9 7.3 2. http://www.7 1. 4.5 3.5 1.transparency.5 2.4 1.3 2.icgg.1 1. 2007 2.8 1.7 1.2 2.1 2.0 2.9 2.7 1.7 2. ^ "ICCR FAQ".4 3. doi:10.5 1.0 6.8 2.1023/A:1013882225402.2 2.6 1.html. 3.8 1.1 1.3 2.cpi_2005_faq.1 2.1 6.icgg.2 2. http://www.3 1.9 1.0 1.2 2.2 1.6 1. 5.3 2.0 2.8 2.0 1. Journal of Business Ethics (Springer Netherlands) 35 (3): 177–189.0 2.3 1.5 1.2 2.9 1.9 1.0 2.

^ "A Users' Guide to Measuring Corruption".htm. 18. a former Transparency International researcher and pioneer in the development of the Bribe Payers Index (BPI).globalintegrity. 14." in Measuring Corruption. 15. 9.html. Retrieved 2008-12-17.transparency. http://www. The HINDU News Update Service. http://www. Retrieved 2009-11-18." in Political Corruption in Transition: A Skeptic's Handbook. Transparency International. Global reting4. http://www. The author. http://commons.html. 2007-09-27. "The Bad. 8. 12. Retrieved 2007-10-01. Carmel Connors. Global Integrity & _table.html. ^ "CPI 2008 table".globalintegrity. Retrieved 2010-10-26. Transparency International. ^ "The Uses and Abuses of Governance Indicators". ^ "CPI 2009 table". http://www. (Ashgate): 101-130. "Measuring the Immeasurable: Boundaries and Functions of (Macro) Corruption Indices. http://commons. Transparency International. OECD. ^ Galtung. addresses several criticisms of the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). http://www.globalintegrity.html. http://www.transparency.0 0. ^ Sik. Transparency International. and Fredrik Galtung. ^ a b "Bangladesh's economists question corruption perception index". ^ "CPI 2007 table".transparency. 11. http://www. .en_2649_33935_37081881_1_1_1_1. ^ "CPI 2010 table". http://commons.hindu. Arthur Shacklock. Charles Sampford. Fredrik (2006). Endre (2002). ^ "TI's Index: Local Chapter Not Having It". Retrieved 200709-28. 16. ^ "CPI: Methodology FAQ". Transparency International. . ^ "A Users' Guide to Measuring Corruption".org/news_room/in_focus/2008/cpi2008/ ^ "Hey Experts: Stop Abusing the CPI". Global 13.transparency. Stephen Kotkin and Andras Sajo. 10. the Worse and the Worst: Guesstimating the Level of Corruption. Global Integrity & UNDP. He argues that the CPI should be radically revised and complemented by additional indicators. (Budapest: Central European University Press): 91-113.

transparency. 20. http://www. Transparency International. http://www. ^ "CPI 2005 table". It was criticized for poor methodology and unfair treatment of developing nations. TI developed the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Dolores based upon surveys of business people.19. George Moody Stuart. Español. Transparency International. The headquarters is located in Berlin. 22. 21. ^ "CPI 2004 table".org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2004. Transparency International. Retrieved 2007-12-03. a former regional director for the World Bank. Retrieved 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2007-12-03. The CPI was subsequently published annually. Kamal Hossain.transparency. Joe Githongo. Founding board members included Eigen.[2][3][4] Eigen acted as Chairman and Pope was Managing Director. Germany but operates through more than 70 national chapters. Michael Hershman. ^ "CPI 2006 table". ^ The years 2002–2005 show data for Serbia and Montenegro Transparency International Transparency International (TI) is a non-governmental organization that monitors and publicizes corporate and political corruption in international development. http://www. The CPI ranked nations on the prevalence of corruption within each country. a comparative listing of corruption worldwide. Hansjörg Elshorst. It publishes an annual Corruption Perceptions Index. Fritz Heimann. Jerry Parfitt. while also being praised for highlighting corruption and embarrassing Jeremy Pope and Frank Vogl.[5] .[1] Contents [hide] • • • • • • • 1 History 2 Organisation and role 3 Corruption Perceptions Index 4 Competitiveness and corruption 5 See also 6 References 7 External links History TI was founded in May 1993 through the initiative of Peter Eigen.[4] In 1995.

Corruption Perceptions Index Main article: Corruption Perceptions Index The CPI—besides the World Bank corruption index[6]—is the most commonly used measure for corruption in countries worldwide.[5] Organisation and role TI is organised as a group of some 100 national chapters. TI's mission is to create change towards a world free of corruption. The CPI therefore needs to rely on third-party survey which have been criticized as potentially unreliable. The goal of TI is to be non-partisan and to build coalitions against corruption.In 1999. women and children around the world. the completeness . their perceptions of how corrupt a country is. whereas prior to the 1990s this topic was not broadly discussed. it also publishes an annual Global Corruption Report. Relying on the number of actual corruption cases would not work since laws and enforcement of laws differ significantly from country to country. It develops tools for fighting corruption and works with other civil society organisations. companies and governments to implement them. which by definition happens behind the scenes. Germany." Since 1995. and claims to be moving towards a completely democratic organisational structure. TI says of itself: "Transparency International is the global civil society organisation leading the fight against corruption. International Institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund now view corruption as one of the main obstacles for development. both in and outside the countries they are analyzing. The main one stems from the difficulty in measuring corruption. TI's biggest success has been to put the topic of corruption on the world's agenda. To form this index. The CPI has received criticisms over the years. It brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men. Originally founded in Germany in May 1993 as a not-for-profit organisation. TI does not undertake investigations on single cases of corruption or expose individual cases. TI compiles surveys that ask businessmen and analysts. Data can vary widely depending on the public perception of a country. TI began publishing the Bribe Payers Index (BPI) which ranked nations according to the prevalence that a country's multinational corporations would offer bribes. TI has issued an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). TI is now an international non-governmental organisation. with an international secretariat in Berlin. TI furthermore played a vital role in the introduction of the United Nations Convention against Corruption and the OECD AntiBribery Convention. a Global Corruption Barometer and a Bribe Payers Index.

They argue that "perceptions matter in their own right. Cambridge University Press.globalintegrity. p. ISBN 978-3110154481. ISBN 0230613608. Global standards of market civilization. The second issue is that data cannot be compared from year to year because TI uses different methodologies and samples every year. ed. 12–13. ^ Kumar. FAQ. 5. Financial Management. "Transparency International". http://books. Lafayette. Brett. including a study entitled “Differences between Politically Connected and Non-Connected Firms: A Cross Country Comparison” [10] See also • Transparency (humanities) References 1. 9. Hanna Chair in Entrepreneurship & Associate Professor of Finance at the Krannert School of Management at Purdue University. pp. Differences between Politically Connected and NonConnected Firms: A Cross Country Comparison. Eric M. Transparency International 3. 11–17. ISBN 0521874890. David (June 2009).[9] Professor Mara Faccio. Bowden. Corruption and money laundering: a symbiotic relationship. since. inequality. Indiana USA has issued a number of papers on this subject. Corruption.. ^ "When and why was Transparency International (TI) founded?". Palgrave Macmillan. 4. Peter (September 2006).html. ISBN 0415375452. id=TLvfSVkZYo4C&pg=PA11. This makes it difficult to evaluate the result of new policies. ^ Uslaner. (2008). 95–106. ^ "A Users' Guide to Measuring Corruption". Walter de Gruyter. firms and individuals take actions based on perceptions". 8. 2. pp. Ethics in International Management. Bill (2010). Autumn . ^ Hicks. Global Integrity & UNDP. ^ a b Chaikin. http://commons.of the surveys and the methodology pp.[7] The CPI authors replied to these criticims by reminding that the CPI is meant to measure perception and not "reality". and the rule of law: the bulging pocket makes the easy life. ^ a b Larmour. ^ "tenth international anti-corruption conference: The Prague agenda" (in English) (HTML).worldbank.[8] Competitiveness and corruption A review of the linkages between countries' competitiveness and the incidence of corruption was initiated at a TI workshop in Prague.. Brij (March 1998). Routledge. November 1998 and picked-up in the International Anti-Corruption Conference three years later. ^ Anticorruption at web.

For example. where each bit of data has an independently low probability of being changed. This is particularly important in banking. http://www. Retrieved 2010 Dec 10. the file containing that data would be inaccessible. Interruption of data transmission causes information loss. doi:2010 November. Computer storage and transmission systems use a number of measures to provide data integrity. procedures such as automatic retransmission or restoration from backups can be applied. Data corruption Data corruption refers to errors in computer data that occur during transmission. Head crashes and general wear and tear of media fall into the former category. Retrieved 2010 Dec 10. introducing unintended changes to the original data. 905-927. It depends on the level of corruption. Data corruption during transmission has a variety of causes. and can often be corrected by the use of error correcting codes. In general.asp. There are various causes of the corruption. Data loss during storage has two broad causes: hardware and software failure. when you try to open that file with MS Word. you will get an error message.purdue. or processing.krannert. especially when dealing with wireless transmission methods. Financial vol 39(3). and some programs cannot repair it. if a Microsoft Word file is corrupted. and the system or the related application will give an error. Wireless networks are susceptible to interference from devices such as microwave ovens. and the file would not be opened. Environmental conditions can interfere with data transmission. Some programs can give a suggestion to repair the file automatically (after the error). depending on the level of RAID implemented. vol 39(3). data integrity can be maintained. Certain levels of RAID disk arrays have the ability to store and evaluate parity bits for data across a set of hard disks and can reconstruct corrupted data upon of the failure of a single or multiple disks. while software failure typically occurs due to bugs in the code.phtml? documents=400. retrieval. Heavy clouds can block satellite transmissions. Autumn 2010. data corruption can generally be detected by the use of checksums. doi:2002 November. http://10iacc. and the in-built functionality of the application to handle the error. where an . If appropriate mechanisms are employed to detect and remedy data corruption. 905-927. When data corruption behaves as a Poisson process. when there is a data corruption. or lack of errors. If an uncorrectable data corruption is detected. Differences between Politically Connected and Non-Connected Firms: A Cross Country Comparison. ^ "Differences between Politically Connected and Non-Connected Firms: A Cross Country Comparison" (in English) (HTML).

ch Corruption (linguistics) Corruption or bastardisation is a way of referring to certain changes in a language and their prescriptive evaluation. Difference from the so-called "purity" of standard language. which dispensed with the first. transcription. as described above. Text bastardisation is: • Unauthorized alteration and publication of a text inconsistent with the original purpose or the author's intention. For example Guangzhou was formerly known as "Canton" in English. Language corruption may refer to two similar things: • • Change of words. The terms "corruption" and "bastardisation" are rooted in prescriptivist theories of language. ^ Data Integrity by Cern April 2007 Cern. “ „ . the split infinitive has long been disputed as either a corruption or norm of the English language. sexually explicit pages of the manuscript. The most common way that a word can be said to be corrupted is the change of its spelling through errors and gradual changes in comprehension. This is especially common with words borrowed from another language.[1] References 1.undetected error can drastically affect an account balance. Gallimard published a bastardised text called Ravages. which is a transliteration of Guangdong following the rules of French sound structures. For example: A year after rejecting the novel. For example. and in the use of encrypted or compressed data. where a small error can make an extensive dataset unusable. and hearing.

which means "Let's go")[1] "Cajun" (from "Acadian")[2] "spitting image" (from "spit and image" or "spirit and image")[3] "parting shot" (from "Parthian shot")[4] "That doesn't jive (with the facts)" (from "That doesn't jibe with the facts")[5] tow the line (from "toe the line")[6] See also • • • • • • Solecism Barbarism Contrafact Lectio difficilior potior Neologism Portmanteau • • • • • • Eggcorn Mondegreen English As She Is Spoke Deliberate misspelling Fallacy of quoting out of context Appropriation (music) . however. its informal nature often encourages intentional language changes. such changes could become standardized. with unstandardized spelling for English and other languages. English is now highly standardized with some dialectal variation. A large number of these changes occurred during the 19th century. common typographical errors and attempts at humor have created a number of new alternate spellings (see leet). Eventually. chat rooms and other situations. a word would be pronounced differently by people who encountered the word in text and not speech.Contents [hide] • • • • 1 History 2 Examples 3 See also 4 References History In the past. The mass written communication of the Internet promotes even greater standardization. Examples Some commonly known words and phrases which are the result of linguistic corruption include: • • • • • • "vamoose" (from the Spanish verb vamos. In online interactive games.

Carnal Knowledge: A Navel Gazer's Dictionary of Spanish Loanwords in the English Language. Steven (Autumn. ^ Gonzaléz. The bribe is the gift bestowed to influence the recipient's conduct. http://muse. Bribery Bribery. .1215/00031283-79-1-33. id=09NEuGHh2R8C&pg=PA13&dq=vamoose+etymology. receiving. right in 1998). Félix Rodriguez (1996). vote. http://books. "Spitten image : Etymythology and Fluid Dynamics". or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in charge of a public or legal duty.M1. Martin's Griffin. American Speech 79 (1): 33–58. Charles (2007).References 1. Laurence The Turks in World History. is an act implying money or gift given that alters the behavior of the recipient. a form of corruption. "Among the Cybercajuns: Constructing Identity in the Virtual Diaspora". and Trivia. ^ Hodgson. New York: St. p. giving. ^ "The Mavens' Word of the Day (for July 11. ISBN 0195177266. or influence of a person in an official or public capacity. 4. emolument. pp. ^ Findley. Louisiana History: the Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association (Louisiana Historical Association) 39 (4): 443–456. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Retrieved ^ Webre. good. property. http://books. preferment.1horn. ^ Horn. 5. 208–209. http://books. 2. ISBN id=IAzfurRydecC&pg=PA208&dq=%22tow+the+line%22#PPA209. Bribery constitutes a crime and is defined by Black's Law Dictionary as the offering. p. object of value. or merely a promise or undertaking to induce or influence the action. 6.pperl?date=20000711.jstor. 2000)". Random House. 39. doi:10. Carter V (2005). 26. Oxford University Press. It may be any money.pdf. (Spring 2004). 3. Etymology. ISBN 3110148455.

stock options. secret commission. or promotion (rise of position/rank). "wine-pot"). Bakshish is more akin to tipping and is socially permissible. the expression "dessous-de-table" can be often understood as a commonly accepted business practice (for instance. while in others the two concepts may not be interchangeable. happy meal. free trip. "pot-de-vin" (literally.Contents [hide] • • • • • • • • • • 1 Forms of Bribery 2 Government o 2. higher paying job. Frenchspeaking countries often use the expressions "dessous-de-table" ("under-the-table" commissions). However. Expectations of when a monetary transaction is appropriate can differ from place to place. "bite"). or "commission occulte" ("secret commission" or "kickback"). donation. even though according to the Transparency International corruption perception index. a partial payment made between the buyer and seller. gift. the expression "mutbrot" (literally. free food. inflated sale of an object or property. free tickets. discount. funding. In certain Scandinavian countries. In German the common term is Schmiergeld ("greasing money"). One must be careful of differing social and cultural norms when examining bribery. free ad. lucrative contract. kickback/payback. skim. waived fee/ticket. sweetheart deal. while in the United States they are legal. grease money. "butter-bread") is quite commonly used and does not have the same negative connotation as "bribe". for example. fund raiser. bribes are referred to as "mordida" (literally. . needless to say. this is a good way to launder money).1 Tax treatment of bribes 3 Medicine 4 Politics 5 Business 6 Sport corruption 7 Notable instances of bribery 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Forms of Bribery Many types of bribes exist: tip. in Arab countries they are Baksheesh or Bakshish. Tipping. is considered bribery in some societies. on the occasion of a real estate transaction before the notary. favor. In some Spanish-speaking countries. are considered criminal acts of bribery in some countries. corruption would be rare in that part of the world. While the last two expressions contain inherently a negative connotation. campaign contribution. for example. perk. Political campaign contributions in the form of cash. sponsorship/backing.

bribery is an important aspect of the local SLUG Queen pageant that sets it apart from other pageants. Euphemisms abound for this (commission. Besides. or the acceptance of an offer or a promise of such an advantage. active bribery can be defined for instance as the promising.[1] As indicated on the pages devoted to political corruption. directly or indirectly. The forms that bribery take are numerous. for himself or herself or for anyone else. active and passive bribery. The moment a new queen is crowned. a profit made by an agent. For example. to give a clear signal (from a criminal policy point of view) that bribery is not acceptable. there is often no such formal deal but only a mutual understanding. Besides. where a person invested with power is induced by payment to use it unjustly. offering or giving by any person. of any undue advantage. for instance when it is common knowledge in a municipality that to obtain a building permit one has to pay a "fee" to the decision maker to obtain a favourable decision. The reason for this dissociation is to make the early steps (offering.The offence may be divided into two great classes: the one. for himself or herself or for anyone else. . In Eugene. for him or her to act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her functions. From a legal point of view. the old queens. of any undue advantage [to any public official]. The Slug Queens set the rare example of creating an environment where bribery is both accepted and encouraged. or in other cases. back-kick etc. efforts have been made in recent years by the international community to encourage countries to dissociate and incriminate as separate offences. sweetener. promising. thus. Bribery may also take the form of a secret commission. without the knowledge of his principal. (article 2 of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 173) of the Council of Europe). are open to bribery. directly or indirectly. Passive bribery can be defined as the request or receipt [by any public official]. to act or refrain from acting in the exercise of his or her functions (article 3 of the Criminal Law Convention on Corruption (ETS 173)). a motorist might bribe a police officer not to issue a ticket for speeding. a citizen seeking paperwork or utility line connections might bribe a functionary for faster service. although this is better known as extortion. a bribe may be effectively extracted from the person paying it. Likewise. such a dissociation makes the prosecution of bribery offences easier since it can be very difficult to prove that two parties (the bribe-giver and the bribe-taker) have formally agreed upon a corrupt deal. Oregon. in the course of his employment. Bribery around the world is estimated at about $1 trillion (£494bn).) Bribers and recipients of bribery are likewise numerous although bribers have one common denominator and that is the financial ability to bribe. requesting an advantage) of a corrupt deal already an offence and. the other. where power is obtained by purchasing the suffrages of those who can impart it. the briber might hold a powerful role and control the transaction. who are the judges of the pageant.

[2] Medicine Pharmaceutical corporations may seek to reward doctors for heavy prescription of their drugs through gifts. most economists regard bribery as a bad thing because it encourages rent seeking behaviour. the majority of the OECD countries which are signatories of the convention have revised their tax policies according to this recommendation and some have extended the measures to bribes paid to any official. Nevertheless. in 1996. For example. In countries offering state-subsidized or nationally funded healthcare where medical professionals are underpaid. however. The American Medical Association has published ethical guidelines for gifts from industry which include the tenet that physicians should not accept gifts if they are given in relation to the physician’s prescribing practices. Dentists often receive samples of home dental care products such as toothpaste. the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act contains an exception for "grease payments".[3][4] . United States law is particularly strict in limiting the ability of businesses to pay for the awarding of contracts by foreign governments. the OECD Council recommended that member countries cease to allow the tax-deductibility of bribes to foreign officials. Since that time. In some countries. sending the message that bribery will no longer be tolerated in the operations of the government.[1] Doubtful cases include grants for traveling to medical conventions that double as tourist trips. very basically. this allows payments to officials in order to obtain the performance of ministerial acts which they are legally required to do. patients may use bribery to solicit the standard expected level of medical care. which are of negligible value. Tax treatment of bribes The tax status of bribes is an issue for governments since the bribery of government officials impedes the democratic process and may interfere with good government. In some countries. in many formerly Communist countries from what used to be the Eastern Bloc it may be customary to offer expensive gifts to doctors and nurses for the delivery of service at any level of medical care in the non-private health sector. dentists in a television commercial will often state that they get these samples but pay to use the sponsor's product. in an effort to discourage bribery. but may delay in the absence of such payment. However. often resulting from a developing nation not having the tax structure to pay civil servants an adequate salary. such bribes are considered tax-deductible payments. this practice is the norm. This was followed by the signing of the Anti-Bribery Convention. somewhat ironically. A state where bribery has become a way of life is a kleptocracy.Government A grey area may exist when payments to smooth transactions are made.

See also influence peddling and political corruption. "secret commissions". halting production or stalling other normal activities of a firm. for example. Bribing the officials is a common way to deal with this issue in countries where there exists no firm system of reporting these semi-illegal activities. in 2006.Politics Politicians receive campaign contributions and other payoffs from powerful corporations. Specialist consultancies have been set up to help multinational companies and SMEs with a commitment to anti-corruption to trade more ethically and benefit from compliance with the law. Employees. Contracts based on or involving the payment or transfer of bribes ("corruption money". officially stating they are checking for irregularities. organizations or individuals when making choices in the interests of those parties. managers. "pots-de-vin". German prosecutors conducted a wide-ranging investigation of Siemens AG to determine if Siemens employees paid bribes in exchange for business. known as a White Glove. custom officials may harass a certain firm or production plant. In some cases where the system of law is not well-implemented. or in anticipation of favorable policy. bribes may be a way for companies to continue their businesses. "kickbacks") are void. For instance. The disruption may cause losses to the firm that exceed the amount of money to pay off the official. In the case. the service company Aramark was recently accused of offering gifts to an assistant warden in the New Mexico Prison System in exchange for a contract allowing Aramark to provide the food services in the state's prisons. However. Business A campaign to prevent bribes in Zambia. or salespeople of a business may offer money or gifts to a potential client in exchange for business. such a relationship does not meet the legal standards for bribery without evidence of a quid pro quo. A third party. may be involved to act as a clean middleman.[5] Sport corruption Main article: Match fixing . More recently.

and licensing deals to secure or keep professional sports franchises. or even administer a sedative or amphetamine (known as "horse doping" in order to make a horse faster or slower to respectively increase or reduce a their chances of winning). or attempt to "hop up" a long shot in an attempt to collect big winnings by betting on the heavy odds against it. or even competitions. • • • • • • Bid rigging Bribe Payers Index Conflict of interest Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO) of the Council of Europe Lobbying . elements of the game may be tampered with – the classic example being from horse racing. Additionally. former U. better known as the Black Sox Scandal. former American politician convicted of accepting a bribe in the FBI's Abscam operation Martin Thomas Manton. bribes may be offered by cities in order to secure athletic franchises.Referees and scoring judges may be offered money. former New York Supreme Court Justice. where the French judge in the pairs competition voted for the Russian skaters in order to secure an advantage for the French skaters in the ice dancing competition. and ensure that the favorite has an "off day". Athletes themselves can be paid to under-perform. where a groom or other person with access to the horses before the race may be bribed to over-feed an animal. federal judge convicted of accepting bribes See also Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Bribery Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bribery. It is common practice for cities to "bid" against each other with stadiums. as happened with the 2002 Winter Olympics. convicted of accepting bribes to manipulate outcomes of divorce proceedings. gifts. Another type of bribery done for financial gain through gambling is to bet against a clear favorite. in some sports. John Jenrette. A well-known example of this manner of bribery in sport would be the 2002 Olympic Winter Games figure skating scandal. or other compensation to guarantee a specific outcome in an athletic or other sports competition. Notable instances of bribery • • • Gerald Garson. generally so that a gambler or gambling syndicate can secure a winning bet.S. A classic example of this was the 1919 World Series. tax benefits. Finally.

Transparency International estimates that truckers pay annually US$5 billion in bribes. Cambridge University Press. 17 July 2007 <http://www. ^ “Tax Treatment of Bribes: About”. rank 134th).org. 3. It has a CPI score of 3. ed (1911). 4.oecd. 10 July 2007.2.). India was ranked 87th of 178 . OECD.• • • • • • • • • • Match fixing Organized crime Pay to Play Point shaving Political corruption Price fixing Transparency International Principal-agent problem Corruption in India The UK Bribery Act 2010 References • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm. 1.3 (rank 87th). Nepal (2. compared to Pakistan (2. Corruption in India From Wikipedia. Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed. India is one of the least corrupt governments in South Asia. 5. However. common between state borders. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. rank 146th). BBC News 2. The Guardian Weekly (March 26th 2008). Who is paying for healthcare in Eastern Europe and Central Asia? World Bank Publications.[2] Taxes and bribes are a daily life fact. search Political corruption in India is a major concern. (2000).3347.4.en_2649_34551_1_1_1_1_1. OECD Centre for Tax Policy and ^ Bribes for basic care in Romania. Bangladesh (2. according to Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index (CPI). ^ Lewis. ^ African corruption 'on the wane'.html>. rank 143th). Hugh. and Sri Lanka (3. A 2005 study done by Transparency International in India found that more than 75% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get any type of job done in a public office.3.00.2. ^ International principle of law Trans-Lex. rank 92nd) in 2010[1].[3] For 2010.

"including human trafficking. Brazil 3. with a CPI score of 3. rape and even murder".7 (rank 69th). The amount is nearly 40% of India's gross domestic product.6 in 2009) rank 78th. which is a slight worsening of it's 2009 score of 3.[8] An international watchdog conducted a study on the illicit flight of money from India. Criminalization of Indian politics is a major setback as well as a serious problem. concludes that India has been drained of $462 billion (over Rs 20 lakh crore) between 1948 and 2008. the worst of the BRICs) [5]. Overview of the index of perception of corruption. with China having a CPI score of 3.1 (rank 154th.3.4 (rank 84th)[4]. and Russia 2. immigration rackets. 2010 .5 (decreasing from 3. embezzlement. India compares favorably with other BRIC countries. perhaps the first ever attempt at shedding light on a subject steeped in secrecy.[9].[6][7] In July 2008 The Washington Post reported that nearly a fourth of the 540 Indian Parliament members faced criminal charges.countries in Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index.

1 Indian government History The economy of India was under socialist-inspired policies for an entire generation from the 1950s until the late 1980s.2.5 Police o 1.2.1 Land and property  1.6 Private sector initiatives 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links o 6.3 Medicine  1.2 Ombudsmen o 2.2 Bureaucracy  1.5 Transport  1.6 Income tax  1. and public ownership.6 Religious institutions o 1. in October 1993.7 Educational Instituions 2 Anti-corruption efforts o Vohra. N.2 Tendering processes and awarding contracts  1. It studied the problem of the criminalisation of politics and of the nexus among criminals.Contents [hide] • • • • • • 1 History o 1.1 Politics o 1.5 Creation of Anti-Corruption Police and Courts o 2.4 Death Certificates  1.7 Preferential award of public resources o 1.2.1 Right to information act o 2. protectionism.4 Armed forces o 1.3 Judiciary o 1.2. leading to pervasive corruption and slow growth.[10] [11][12][13] License Raj was often at the core of corruption.4 Whistleblowers o 2.3 Computerization o 2. politicians and bureaucrats in India. The Vohra Report was submitted by the former Indian Union Home Secretary. The report contained several observations made by official agencies on the criminal network which was virtually running a parallel government. The economy was subject to extensive regulation.N. It also discussed criminal .

however. The unpublished annexures to the Vohra Report were believed to contain highly explosive material. Malaysia. things are often worse. some of the distorted cultural norms that took hold during the earlier period are slowly being repaired by the sheer forces of competition. While a sea change has occurred in the years following 1991. and decisions could get made.[3] A 2009 survey of the leading economies of Asia. It will not change overnight. immigration rackets. Philippines and Indonesia. Taiwan. Bureaucracy A 2005 study done by Transparency International (TI) in India found that more than 50% of the people had firsthand experience of paying bribe or peddling influence to get a job done in a public office. In Uttar Pradesh Assembly elections 2002. Japan. Over the years criminals had been elected to local bodies. The process will be long and slow. In Bihar. They were connected to the military. Land and property Officials often steal state property. elected politicians. judicial officers. particularly pre-1991. Politics Main article: Indian political scandals Criminalization of Indian politics is a problem. Transparency International estimates that truckers pay annually US$5 billion in bribes.[8] At state level. which is endemic in certain parts of the world. embezzlement. South Korea. such that scarce resources could still be allocated within the economy. Hong Kong.. when the License Raj held sway. In cities and villages throughout India.] These were largely distortions created by the politico-economic regime. powerhungry politicians. a shadowy quasi-market. candidates with criminal records won the majority of seats. "including human trafficking. Vietnam. and corruption emerged almost as an illegitimate price mechanism.[2] Taxes and bribes are common between state borders. of all parties. revealed Indian bureaucracy to be not just least efficient out of Singapore."[14] One of the major problems and obstacles to development that many developing countries face is corruption by greedy.[6][15] In July 2008 The Washington Post reported that nearly a fourth of the 540 Indian Parliament members faced criminal charges. further it was also found that working with India's civil servants was a "slow and painful" process. China. more than 80% of the subsidized food aid to poor is stolen [14].. and the protection of government functionaries. State Assemblies and Parliament. all kinds of free market mechanisms were hobbled or stymied. "in the bad old days. Mafia Raj consisting of municipal and other government officials. According to Jitendra Singh.gangs who enjoyed the patronage of politicians. Thailand. and by design. real estate . rape and even murder". It revealed that political leaders had become the leaders of gangs. [.[16].

safety norms. mixing sand in cement while submitting expenses for cement) result in roads and highways being dangerous. corruption is associated with non availability of medicines (or duplicate/fake medicines). consultations with doctors and availing diagnostic services. getting admission. which are groupings of corrupt public works officials. politicians and construction contractors. display negligence in quality control processes[citation needed].g. Income tax There have been several cases of collusion of officials of the income tax department of India for a favorable tax treatment in return for bribes [20][21] Preferential award of public resources . are dominated by construction mafias. This leads to facilitation payments to accelerate normal government processes[citation needed]. Death Certificates The greiving families are often asked to pay a bribe to get their loved one's Death Certificates in the offices run by the Government. Typically a lenient treatment for an offending driver or vehicle is accompanied by expectation of a bribe[citation needed]. acquire. such as road building. and sometimes simply washed away when India's heavy monsoon season arrives.[19] Medicine In Government Hospitals. Many state-funded construction activities in India. develop and sell land in illegal ways. [17] . Transport Officials who oversee transportation regulations.[18] Shoddy construction and material substitution (e.[2]. It happens in the open and yet nobody cares. There have been cases of diversion of medical supplies from government hospitals and clinics[citation needed] as well as supply and distribution of medicines of inferior quality[citation needed] some hospitals are charging extra amounts from rich peoples. Tendering processes and awarding contracts Government officials having discretionary powers in awarding contracts engage in preferential treatment for selected bidders. in india there is a unfair co-operation for medi-insurance companies and hospital.developers and law enforcement officials. traffic violations engage in rent seeking activity. India has multiple jurisdictions for vehicular laws as well as overlapping laws at the central government and state government level which worsens bureaucratic complications. materials suppliers.

5 acres of riverfront property for `14 lakh in Thrissur in 2007. had unsuccessfully contested as a Congress candidate in the Assembly elections from the SC reserved constituency of Narakkal in Ernakulam in 2006. According to Transparency International. which is a major reason behind deaths in custody. He was also a vice-president of the State Youth Congress. a member of the Kerala Pradesh Congress Committee (KPCC). Recent sukhna land scandal involving four Indian Lieutenant Generals has shaken public faith in the country's growing military at a time when large sums are being spent on modernising the armed forces.P. Armed forces The Indian Armed Forces have frequently witnessed corruption involving senior armed forces officers from the Indian Army. is now worth a fortune. Joshi. was able to accumulate huge wealth as he was not in full fledged practice.[22] On the basis of various reports in media like Times of India [www. According to land registration documents cited by Asianet TV channel. Sreenijan purchased 2.timesofindia.hindustantimes. Other examples include the award of mining leases to private companies without a levy of taxes that is proportionate to the market value of the ore[citation needed].[23][24][25] Police Despite State prohibitions against torture and custodial misconduct by the police. Srinijan. Hindustan Times [www. who did not have any land asset four years ago. judicial corruption in India is attributable to factors such as "delays in the disposal of cases. a lawyer by profession.[citation needed]Advocates in the Kerala High Court were baffled how Srinijin. currently chairman of the National Human Rights Commission and also the former chief justice of India (CJI) As A local TV channel of Thiruvananthapuram has reported that former Chief Justice K G Balakrishnan’s son-in-law P V Srinijan.[26][27] The police often torture innocent people until a 'confession' is obtained to save influential and wealthy offenders. the programme coordinator of the Indian branch of . The channel showed footage of a resort under construction on the river front property. Judiciary Corruption is rampant in the judicial system of India.[28]]. all of which are exacerbated by a preponderance of new laws". Indian Navy and Indian Air Force.As detailed earlier. shortage of judges and complex procedures. Many officers have been caught for allegedly selling defence stores in the black market in the border districts of Indian states and territories. land in areas with short supply is relatively common with government entities awarding public land to private concerns at negligible]---various allegations of corruption against Balakrishnan. A string of eyepopping fraud cases has damaged the institution in recent years. torture is widespread in police custody.People in the locality claimed that the market rate for one cent (one-hundredth of an acre) of land in the area now is `2 lakhs.

[29] Religious institutions In India. judiciary. etc.[30] A group of church leaders and activists has launched a campaign to combat the corruption within churches. the corruption has also crept into religious institutions. The chief economic consequences of corruption are the loss to the economy an unhealthy climate for investment and an increase in the cost of government-subsidised services. healthcare. though they are poor.. The TI India study estimates the monetary value of petty corruption in 11 basic services provided by the government.[32][33] . The system of semester is nothing else parrotlessoning.the Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative in New Delhi comments that the main issue at hand concerning police violence is a lack of accountability of the police.6 billion). For awarding these the teachers are collecting money from the students. that require government officials to furnish information requested by citizens or face punitive action. there are internal assessment tests. attendance.068 crore (US$4. India still ranks in the bottom quartile of developing nations in terms of the ease of doing business. Some of the Church of North India are making money by selling Baptism certificates. like education. to be around 21. The absentee student or poor performed students will find out this type of shortcut way to get more marks from the teacher may comeforward to pay the reqquired money to the teacher and will succeed. In the semester type of education. Anti-corruption efforts Right to information act Main article: Right to Information Act The Right to Information Act (2005) and equivalent acts in the states. and compared to China and other lower developed Asian nations. practical test marks will be awarded to the students. Some students. Educational Instituions Don't know why the semester system of education has been adopted by the State.[2][31] The 2006 report by Transparency International puts India at the 70th place and states that significant improvements were made by India in reducing corruption. as well as Central Governments. computerisation of services and various central and state government acts that established vigilance commissions have considerably reduced corruption or at least have opened up avenues to redress grievances. the average time taken to secure the clearances for a startup or to invoke bankruptcy is much greater. police. Though it is shameful on the part of teachers but also dirty teachers will do this type of unhealthy practices and work against their ethics. adjusting the required money in the fear that otherwise they will get less marks.

An amendment to the Constitution has been proposed to implement the Lokayukta uniformly across Indian States as a three-member body. nobribe. These institutions are based on the Ombudsman in Scandinavian countries. is likely to have greater impact in curbing corruption at all levels[opinion][citation needed]. however. http://5thpillar. The proposal has not yet been acted upon by the Indian government. Certain states such as Andhra Pradesh (Andhra Pradesh Anti-corruption Bureau) and Karnataka (Lokayukta) have similar agencies and courts [39][34]. which was highlighted by the assassination of Satyendra Dubey.Ombudsmen The LokAyukta is an anti-government corruption organization in the Indian states [34][35].org is one such organization that is promoting the use of Zero Rupee Notes [40] to fight corruption by shaming the officials who ask for bribe. Special courts that are more efficient than the traditional Indian courts with traveling judges and law enforcement agents are being proposed. Whistleblowers Whistleblowers play a major role in the fight against corruption. India currently does not have a law to protect whistleblowers. Introduction of smart cards for vehicle registration and drivers licenses by Karnataka Regional Transport Organization[37]. The creation of a central agency with specialized courts with broad is another platform for corruption free India and advocates the . including state and local level. The project was designed to eliminate the long-standing problem of inefficiency and corruption. headed by a retired Supreme Court judge or high court chief justice. Private sector initiatives Several new initiatives have come up in the private sector to raise awareness about Corruption related issues and to build anti-corruption platforms. Enforcement automation of traffic violations by Bangalore Traffic Police [38]. Creation of Anti-Corruption Police and Courts Some have called for the Central Government to create an anti-theft law enforcement agency that investigates and prosecutes corruption at all levels of government. Another popular initiative Jaago Re!One Billion Votes from Tata Tea has now changed its focus from voter registration to fighting corruption [41]. Computerization • • • Bhoomi is a project jointly funded by the Government of India and the Karnataka local government to digitize the paper land records and create a software mechanism to control changes to the land registry in Karnataka. and comprise of the state vigilance commissioner and a jurist or an eminent administrator as other members [36].

"Black money trail: 'India drained of Rs 20 lakh crore during 1948-2008'". Financial 2. 10. 2007). http://timesofindia. India Corruption Study 2005: To Improve Governance Volume – I: Key Highlights. . ^ http://www. "With Indian Politics.transparency. Transparency International India. ^ http://en. ^ http://www. See also • • • • • • • • • • Indian political scandals Corruption Perceptions Index List of countries by Corruption Perceptions Index Socio-economic issues in India License Raj Mafia Raj Corruption in Mumbai Rent seeking Lok Ayukta Notable Scams in India References 1. ^ Eugene M. ^ The criminalisation of Indian democracy (May 2.indiatimes. "Jo Johnson". An American's Guide to Doing Business in 6.pdf. Washington Times. ^ "Economic survey of India 2007: Policy Brief".html. http://www. 8.use of direct and regular measurement of corruption to force the hands of the leadership into dealing with corruption related issues[42]. 12.wikipedia. Binoy. ^ "The India Report".cfm?story_id=12749771.oecd. December 11. ^ a b c d Centre for Media Studies (20/tii/ICS2k5_Vol1. 9. The the Bad Gets Worse". Retrieved 2010-04-30. Retrieved 2007-05-12. 7.washingtonpost. ^ Astaire _table 5. ^ a b "A special report on India: The democracy tax is rising: Indian politics is becoming ever more labyrinthine".ft. ^ a b India: Where Shipping Is Shaky.economist. 11. Businessweek 4. ^ a b Wax. Emily (2008-07-24). http://www. http://www.pdf). Makar (2007).html. 2008. timesofindia.

^ Corruption in Indian Armed Forces: 72 officers sold their weapons for profit Army 26. 16. 21. 2007. June 22. ^ "Mulayam Hits Mafia Hard". as well as the Congress . http://blogs..aspx.asp?idnews=37972. Goldman Sachs. Indian Express. 15. ^ "Corruption in Income-Tax: beaten by Babudom". LiveMint. http://ipsnews.. a large number of criminals have been grabbing contracts under the protective umbrella of parties like SP.13.html.. BJP.R. They either ask their men directly to grab the contracts or allow an outsider to take the contract after accepting a hefty commission .ft. Retrieved 2007-05-12.usindiafriendship. 20.. Indian Economy... http://www. ^ Indian bureaucracy ranked worst in Asia: Survey The Times of India. http://archives. Vol #2. ^ "Killer roads in India and rethinking the death penalty". ^ The criminalisation of Indian democracy (May http://www. 17. 23. Forbes. Retrieved 2008-10-30. ^ Is corruption widespread in the Indian armed forces? How can it be dealt with? . Financial Times.India .com/cms/s/21d0f5f8-f8c1-11db-a940000b5df10621.. Retrieved 2008-10-30.. ^ Torture main reason of death in police custody The Tribune 27.. ISBN 8126909269. 2006-10-16.expressindia.DNA 24.html. opportunity to refurbish the image of his Government by initiating a crackdown on the mafiacontractor-engineer nexus .net/viewpoints1/Indias_Rising_Growth_Potential. 2009.R. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors.[dead link] Snippet: .html. Snippet: . 2008-09-01.. liveMint.. http://www.p df. this year's rains have destroyed 581 roads in the state with 139 road accidents killing 373 people through 10 August . 14. ^ K. "INDIA: Legal System in the Dock".com/blogs/romanticrealist/archive/2008/09/01/killer-roadsin-india-and-rethinking-the-death-penalty..livemint. BSP. 18. Gupta and J. ^ 義美聯電-數位影音多媒體刊物 25. http://www. 2008. ^ "Two Income Tax officials booked for corruption". ^ Praful Bidwai. Gupta.html. ^ a b "Will Growth Slow Corruption In India?". ^ Custodial deaths in West Bengal and India's refusal to ratify the Convention against Torture Asian Human Rights Commission 26 February 2004 . The road sector has always been the main source of income for the mafia. The Wall Street ^ "India's Rising Growth Potential". India Today.forbes. 2007). the land market already stands subverted and an active land mafia has already been created .com/2007/04/01225456/Corruption-in-IncomeTax-beat.. Snippet: .. they spoke about a road building contractor mafia that pretty much has a lock on many projects for redoing roads--apparently year after year . "Jo Johnson".

http://www. 38. ^ "Bangalore Traffic Police".gov. Bangalore Traffic Police. Retrieved 2010-06-25. 35. 5thpillar. Retrieved 2010-06-24. ^ Example of a central government department's implementation of the Right to Information Act. ^ a b "Karnataka Lokayukta".com/content/78301/lokayukta-may-get-constitutionalstatus. ^ Transparency International Press release 34. ^ Custodial deaths and torture in India Asian Legal Resource Centre 29.asp? dep=13&org=83.nic. http://www. 41.nic. 32. Deccan Herald. 36. 42. ^ Transparency International Press release 33. Retrieved 2010-06-30.P. ^ "Smart new driving licence issued in Bangalore". ^ "Zero Rupee Note". Government. ^ Are even the Priests taking to corruption?".aponline. nobribe. ^ "nobribe.bangaloretrafficpolice. National Informatics Center.kar. ^ "Karnataka Anti-Corruption Laws (Acts)".deccanherald. ^ "Jaago Re Campaign from Tata Tea". Departments > Anti-Corruption Bureau".28. National Informatics Retrieved 2010-06-24. ^ "Lokayukta may get constitutional status" 40. 39. http://5thpillar. ^ Police Accountability in India: Policing Contaminated by Politics 30. . Tata Tea. http://www. http://www. Live Mint. ^ "A.livemint.