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Importance of Stowe and Helper: Literary Incendiaries: There are thousand different ways these two literary works

effects the biggest issue of a rising nation. These works made it known that in a democratic nation you are able to speak out. Which got people thinking of how many things they are able to do. This influenced many parents to give their children’s a fine education, and this goal became popularly known in some of the lower social families, goal of life as hope to give children the education and move up in society. South from their part obviously did their best to keep the books away from southerner’s brains. They banned the books to not let the influence in the works force some of loyal southerner’s to turn against an issue that gives pride and name and most importantly living to the South. South argued that slave-owners are not exactly like pursued in the works that basically tarnished the image of slave-owners. Although both work’s were banned, it did reach some of Southerner’s slave-owners, which made some against slavery, some became a little lenient on the budget of work a common slave might do, and some were influenced to an extent that they let go their most valuable purchase. B. The North-South Contest for Kansas Background: This was turning into the worst possible scenario of the “popular sovereignty”. Northerners began to pour into Kansas, and Southerners were outraged, since they had supported the Compromise of 1850 under the impression that Kansas would become a slave state. 1. on election day in 1855, hordes of Southerners “border ruffians” from Missouri flooded the polls and elected Kansas to be a slave state 2. free-soilers were unable to stomach this and set up their own government in Topeka. 3. Settlers were also fighting over land claims. 4. In 1856, a pro-slavery gang shot up and burnt Free Soil part of Lawrence. Importance: Many people are continuing violence as a source to make a living in Kansas. It is in desperate need of an organized way to run the state. C. Kansas in Convulsion Background: . The state being put to test, and violence was all around it. 1. John Brown, literary crazy, led a band of followers to Pottawatomie Creek in May of 1856 and hacked to death five presumable pro-slaveryites. 2. Kansas was being known as “Bleeding Kansas”. 3. By 1857, Kansas had enough people to apply for statehood, and those for slavery devised the Lecompton Constitution, which provided that the people were only allowed to vote for the constitution “with slavery” or “without slavery.” 4. even if the constitution was passed “without slavery,” those slaveholders already in the state would still be protected. 5. Angry free-soilers boycotted the polls and Kansas approved the constitution with slavery. 6. In Washington, James Buchanan had succeeded Franklin Pierce, he supported the south and Lecompton Constitution. 7. Senator Douglas, championed “popular sovereignty”, threw away his southern support, he fought for Democratic Principles. Importance: The unorganized Kansas statehood was bringing unbalance in the nation. No national party now held acknowledgement of the nation. They lacked organized parties and power to keep the laws running. D. “ Bully” Brooks and His Bludgeon Background: New leaders were trying to shape the country now. 1. “Bleeding Kansas” was an issue thrown in the hands of Senator Charles Sumner, a vocal antislavery. He was a strong manipulator, and through his speech he condemned all slavery supporters. 2. Preston S. Brooks knew he couldn’t challenge Sumner to a duel, so he beat him with a cane like a dog, which is what he did and was cheered by the South. 3. Sumner’s “ The Crime Against Kansas” speech was reprinted and analyzed, and it put South and Brooks in the wrong. Importance: This is another example of unbalance in the nation. Everyone is trying

to sway others to their message, and nobody is analyzing anything and talking it out. They all are publicly throwing shots at each other. E. “Old Buck” Versus “ The Pathfinder’ Background: Elections were soon reaching, and Democrats went to work by having a meeting in Cincinnati to nominate their next presidential candidate. On the other hand, fast-growing republican party met in Philadelphia with bubbling enthusiasm. Another party, the American Party also was on surge and discussed this issue and nominated one. 1. In 1856, Democrats over looked potential candidates, Pierce and Douglas, due to their involvement in Kansas-Nebraska Act. 2. In 1856, Republicans nominated John C. Ferment, a respectable figure due to him being a fighter in Mexican-American War. 3. Another party, the American Party, also called the “Know-Nothing Party” because of its secrecy, was organized by “nativists,” old-stock Protestants against immigrants, who nominated Millard Fillmore. Importance: This presidential election would bring knowledge great among people on how to explore a president. F. The Electoral Fruits of 1856 Background: The taste of wining and the feeling to be ruling one of the great nations. 1. Buchanan won because there were doubts about Fremont’s honesty, capacity, and sound judgment. Importance: Fremont had the similar ideas to what we will see later in Lincoln, but lacked the capacity, and he could easily be defeated and hand the win in the hands of South. G. The Dred Scott Bombshell Background: Dred Scott was a slave whose master took him north into free states where he lived for many years. After his master’s death, he sued for his freedom from his new master, claiming that he had been in free territory and was therefore free. The Missouri Supreme Court agreed, freeing him, but his new master appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, which overruled the decision. 1. Chief Justice Taney said that no slave could be a citizen of the U.S. in his justification. 2. The Court said a legislature/Congress cannot outlaw slavery, as that would go against the 5th Amendment saying a person’s property cannot be taken without due process of law. This was the bombshell statement. The Court then concluded the Missouri Compromise had been unconstitutional all along. 3. The constitution favored the South. 4. Aroused anger and hatred for south in abolitionists, even the ones who didn’t care much. Importance: All these new events were over favoring the south. The South now claimed to have the favors of the president, the supreme court, and the constitution. North had nothing but congress, which was banned from outlawing slavery. The South played North’s own game of going by the constitution. The 5th amendment banned congress to take away other’s property, and slaves were also known at the time as a property and investment a person purchased. That makes it known that slavery does not exist and all the other events or well respected positions gives South a chance of building its side and opinion regarding how they want the nation to be run. This caused hatred in the people living in north, and their hatred affected their image in the eyes of many Southerners, which caused many to stay away from any connection with one another, which was badly hindering the nation as a whole. H. The Financial Crash of 1857 Background: Psychologically, the Panic of 1857 was the worst of the 19th century, though it really wasn’t as bad as the Panic of 1837. It’s causes were (1) California gold causing inflation, (2) over-growth of grain, and (3) overspeculation, as always, this time in land and railroads.

1. It hit hard on north more then South. 2. in 1860, Congress passed a Homestead Act that would provide 160 acres of land at a cheap price for those who were less-fortunate, but it was vetoed by Buchanan. 3. The panic also brought calls for a higher tariff rate, which had been lowered to about 20% only months before. Importance: I: An Illinois Rail-Splitter Emerges Background: In 1858, Senator Stephen Douglas’ term was about to expire, and against him was Republican Abraham Lincoln, an ugly fellow who had risen up the political ladder slowly but was a good lawyer and a pretty decent debater. 1. At Philadelphia convention of 1856, where John Fremont was nominated, Lincoln actually received110 votes for the vice-presidential nomination. Importance: His abilities worried others more then his looks. J. The Great Debate: Lincoln Versus Douglas Background: Lincoln rashly challenged Douglas, the nation’s most devastating debater, to a series of seven debates, which the Senator accepted, and despite expectations of failure, Lincoln held his own. 1. The most intriguing debate came in Freeport, Illinois, because Lincoln brought up a hard question giving Douglas struggle to win the debate. His question was, if the people of a territory voted slavery down, despite supreme court going against it, what would you do. Douglas was calm as always, brought up the point of “Freeport Doctrine”. This won the battle for Douglas, even though Lincoln received more votes and support. Importance: Although Douglas won the race for Illinois senate, he already was a proven debater, these debates gave Lincoln a chance to introduce himself and mostly he shined in doing so. Even though Douglas won the debates he still didn’t create an image for himself in the hearts of well respected southerners. K. John Brown: Murderer or Martyr Background: John Brown now had a plan to invade the South, seize its arms, call upon the slaves to rise up and revolt, and take over the South and free it of slaves. 1. At scenic Harpers Harper Ferry, he seized the federal arsenal in October 1859, incidentally killing seven innocent people, and injured 10 more. 2. Brown, though insane, was not stupid, and he portrayed himself as a martyr against slavery, and when he was hanged, he instantly became a martyr for abolitionists; northerners rallied around his memory. Importance: This only enticed anger in Northerners. Everything was going against Northerners and to such an extent that it started to sway people to keep slavery and not worry as much as they did of Blacks. This only worried the abolitionists more and many started violence and took this more of a motivation appeal then something else. L. The Disruption of the Democrats 1. As the elections were coming closer and closer the question was rising more and more times of whether to bring peace or civil war. Deeply divided Democrats met in Charleston to nominate their candidate. Mean while the “Know Nothings” met in Tennessee. 2. They failed to nominate one in Charleston, and at Baltimore, the Northern Democrats nominate Stephen Douglas and Southern nominated John C. Breckinridge. 3. Constitutional Union Party, as known as “Know Nothings” chose John Bell. Importance: Even the biggest and most respected party now was broken into two pieces. A lot of violence was involved around the nation and this election was only ruining the its image. M. A Rail-Splitter Split’s the Union Background: Republicans seemed like they came to really win this election. They were looking to side only one part of the nation, they looked and presented the benefits of the northern part of the nation.

1. They nominated Abraham Lincoln. 2. Lincoln wasn’t an outright abolitionist, since as late as February 1865, he had still favored cash compensation for free slaves. 3. Abe Lincoln won the election despite not even being on the ballot in the South. Importance: Even before Abe won, the Southerners feared of him breaking up the south. After he won they looked to face the situation and start the action rather sooner then later. N. The Electoral Upheaval of 1860 Background: The Republicans, sensing victory against their split opponents, nominated Abraham Lincoln, not William “Higher Law” Seward. 1. The Republicans did not control the House or the Senate, and the South still had a five-to-four majority in the Supreme Court, but the South still decided to secede. Importance: Republicans were in power, but still the South had a lot of control, the things were still in their hands and it was the North looking for action. There was a lot to be done before North claimed comfort and South hold worries. O. The Secessionist Exodus Background: A tragic chain reaction of secession now began to erupt. 1. South Carolina, which had threatened to secede if Lincoln happens to become the president of the United States. Now it went good on its words, seceding in December of 1860. 2. Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas (the Deep South) followed in the next six weeks, before Abe was inaugurated. 3. The seven secession states met in Montgomery, Alabama in February of 1861 and created the Confederate States of America, and they chose Jefferson Davis as president. Importance: Right away Lincoln’s presidency was put on test. He had to do so much and it was one of the biggest issues ever seen by Americans. Every state now was looking for their own benefit, and Lincoln faced the problem of U.S.A breaking apart into different nation. P. The Collapse of Compromise Background: In a last-minute attempt at compromise (again), James Henry Crittenden of Kentucky proposed the Crittenden Compromise, which would ban slavery north of the 36°30’ line extended to the Pacific and would leave the issue in territories south of the line up to the people; also, existing slavery south of the line would be protected. 1. Lincoln opposed the compromise, which might have worked, because his party had preached against the extension of slavery, and he had to stick to principle. Importance: In this case America really missed a compromise guy in Clay. Now there was no one to keep the nation together and everything was going to rapidly. Q. Farewell to Union Background: The seceding states did so because they feared that their rights as a slaveholding minority were being threatened, and were alarmed at the growing power of the Republicans, plus, they believed that they would be unopposed despite what the Northerners claimed. 1. South was looking to secede like the thirteen colonies did. Importance: South was following the thirteen colonies’ step and by doing so it planned to create its own treasury system.