TITLE 6 - CRIMES AGAINST PUBLIC MORALS

The crimes against public morals are divided into 2 chapters: Chapter One (Gambling and Betting): 1. Art. 195 – Gambling (Amended by PD 1602) 2. Art. 196 – Importation, Sale, and Possession of Lottery Tickets or Advertisements 3. Art. 197 – Betting in Sports Contests (Repealed – Act Punished by PD 483) 4. Art. 198 – Illegal Betting on Horse Races 5. Art. 199 – Illegal Cockfighting (Repealed or Modified by PD 449) Chapter Two (Offenses against Decency and Good Customs): 6. Art. 200 – Grave Scandal 7. Art. 201 – Immoral Doctrines, Obscene Publications, and Exhibitions (as amended by PD 960 and 969) 8. Art. 202 – Vagrancy and Prostitution

Chapter One (Gambling and Betting) Art. 195 - Gambling What is Gambling?
Gambling is a game or scheme the result of which depends wholly or chiefly upon chance or hazard. Hence, those games, the result of which depend wholly or chiefly upon skills, are not gambling. (U.S. v. Hilario, 24 Phil. 392)

games using plastic tiles and the likes; slot machines, roulette, pinball and other mechanical contraptions and devices; dog racing, boat racing, car racing and other forms of races, basketball, boxing, volleyball, bowling, pingpong and other forms of individual or team contests to include game fixing, point shaving and other machinations; banking or percentage game, or any other game or scheme, whether upon chance or skill, wherein wagers consisting of money, articles of value or representative of value are at stake or made. 2. Knowingly permitting any form of gambling to be carried on in inhabited or uninhabited place or in any building, vessel or other means of transportation owned or controlled by him. 3. Being the maintainer or conductor of the above gambling schemes. 4. Knowingly and without lawful purpose in any hour of any day, possessing any lottery list, paper or other matter containing letters, figures, signs or symbols pertaining to or in any manner used in the games of jueteng, jai-alai or horse racing bookies, and similar games of lotteries and numbers which have taken place or about to take place. 5. Any barangay official who, with knowledge of the existence of a gambling house or place in his jurisdiction, fails to abate the same or take action in connection therewith. 6. Any security officer, security guard, watchman, private or house detective of hotels, villages, buildings, enclosures and the like which have the reputation of a gambling place or where gambling activities are being held.

Why is Gambling Prohibited and Punished?
To repress an evil that undermines the social, moral, and economic growth of the nation. (People v. Punto, 68 Phil. 481) Gambling has the effect of causing poverty, dishonesty, fraud, or deceit. (U.S. v. Salaveria, 39 Phil. 102)

Acts Punished in Gambling (as provided for in PD 1602)
The acts punished in gambling are: 1. Taking part, directly or indirectly in any illegal or unauthorized activities or games of cockfighting, jueteng, jai alai or horse racing to include bookie operations and game fixing, numbers, bingo and other forms of lotteries; cara y cruz, pompiang and the like; 7-11 and any game using dice; black jack, lucky nine, poker and its derivatives, monte, baccarat, cuajo, pangguingue and other card games; paik que, high and low, mahjong, domino and other

Games Exempted from Punishment When Exclusively Intended for Parlor Games or for Home Entertainment (as provided for in LOI 816)
1. Domino 2. Bingo 3. Poker (When Not Played with Five cards Stud) 4. Cuajo 5. Pangguingue 6. Mahjong

2. Selling or Distributing the same in connivance with the importer. 3. Possessing, knowingly and with intent to use, lottery tickets or advertisements. 4. Selling or Distributing the same without connivance with the importer. Possession of any lottery ticket or advertisement is prima facie evidence of an intent to sell, distribute, or use the same (Art. 196, last par.) but it can be overcome by positive evidence.

Requisites of Gambling
1. That money or other consideration of value be at stake; and 2. That the result of the game depends wholly or chiefly upon chance or hazard Thus, even if a game involves some element of skill, it is still prohibited if the result of which depends wholly upon chance or hazard.

Art. 197 - Betting in Sports Contests (Repealed - Act punished by PD 483)
PD 483 punishes betting, game-fixing, or point shaving and machinations in sport contests specifically basketball, volleyball, softball, baseball; chess, boxing bouts, "jai-alai", "sipa", "pelota" and other sports contests. They are defined in Section 1. Betting - Betting money or any object or article of value or representative of value upon the result of any game, races and other sports contest. Game-fixing - any arrangement, combination, scheme or agreement by which the result of any game, races or sports contests shall be predicted and/or known other than on the basis of the honest playing skill or ability of the players or participants. Point-shaving - any such arrangement, combination, scheme or agreement by which the skill or ability of any player or participant in a game, races or sports contests to make points or scores shall be limited deliberately in order to influence the result thereof in favor of one or other team, player or participant therein. Game-machinations - any other fraudulent, deceitful, unfair or dishonest means, method, manner or practice employed for the purpose of influencing the result of any game, races or sport contest.

What is Lottery?
Lottery is a scheme for the distribution of prizes by chance among persons who have paid, or agreed to pay, a valuable consideration for the chance to obtain a prize. (U.S. v. Filart, 30 Phil. 80)

Elements of Lottery
1. Consideration 2. Chance 3. Prize, or some advantage or inequality in amount or value which is in the nature of a prize. Thus, lottery embraces all schemes for distribution of prizes by chance. However, if there is full value for money, there is no lottery.

Art. 196 - Importation, Sale, and Possession of Lottery Tickets or Advertisements Acts Punished Relative to Lottery Tickets or Advertisements
1. Importing into the Philippines from any foreign place or port any lottery ticket or advertisement

Art. 198 - Illegal Betting on Horse Races Acts Punished in Illegal Betting on Horse Races
1. Betting on horse races during the periods not allowed by law.

2. Maintaining or employing a totalizer or other device or scheme for betting on races or realizing profit therefrom, during the periods not allowed by law No liability if there is no betting or use of totalizer.

5. Owner, manager, or lessee of the cockpit who shall permit gambling of any kind on the premises of the cockpit or place of cockfighting during cockfights. However, spectators in a cockfight are not liable.

What is a totalizer?
A totalizer is a machine for registering and indicating the number and nature of bets made on horse races. Maintaining or employing a totalizer or other device or scheme for betting on races or realizing profit therefrom aggravates the liability of the offenders.

Cockfighting Allowed on the following dates:
1. Sunday 2. Legal Holidays except those enumerated below 3. During local fiestas for not more than three days 4. During provincial, city or municipal, agricultural, commercial or industrial fair, carnival or exposition for a similar period of three days upon resolution of the province, city or municipality where such fair, carnival or exposition is to be held, subject to the approval of the Chief of Constabulary or his authorized representative

Horse Races Allowed on the following dates:
1. Sundays not reserved 2. 24 Saturdays 3. Legal Holidays except those enumerated below

Cockfighting not Allowed on the following dates:
1. No cockfighting on the occasion of such fair, carnival or exposition shall be allowed within the month of a local fiesta or for more than two occasions a year in the same city or municipality 2. Rizal Day (December 30) 3. Independence Day (June 12) 4. National Heroes Day (November 30) 5. Holy Thursday 6. Good Friday 7. Election or Referendum Day 8. During Registration Days for such election or referendum.

Horse Races not Allowed on the following dates:
1. Independence Day (June 12) 2. Rizal Day (December 30) 3. Registration or Voting Day 4. Holy Thursday 5. Good Friday

Art. 199 - Illegal Cockfighting (Repealed or Modified by PD 449 Acts Punished in Illegal Cockfighting (as provided for in PD 449)
1. Any person who, directly or indirectly, participates in cockfights, by betting money or other valuable things in a day other than those permitted by law. 2. Any person who, directly or indirectly, organizes cockfights at which bets are made in a day other than those permitted by law. 3. Any person who, directly or indirectly, participates in cockfights, by betting money or other valuable things at a place other than a licensed cockpit. 4. Any person who, directly or indirectly, organizes cockfights at which bets are made at a place other than a licensed cockpit.

Chapter Two Customs)

(Offenses

against

Decency

and

Good

Acts Punished as Immoral Doctrines, Obscene Publications, and Exhibitions (as provided for in PD 969)
1. Those who shall publicly expound or proclaim doctrines openly contrary to public morals. 2. The authors of obscene literature, published with their knowledge in any form; the editors publishing such literature; and the owners/operators of the establishment selling the same. 3. Those who, in theaters, fairs, cinematographs or any other place, exhibit indecent or immoral plays, scenes, acts or shows, it being understood that the obscene literature or indecent or immoral plays scenes, acts or shows, whether live or in film, which are prescribed by virtue hereof, shall include those which: a. Glorify criminals or condone crimes b. Serve no other purpose but to satisfy the market for violence, lust or pornography c. Offend any race or religion d. Tend to abet traffic in and use of prohibited drugs e. Are contrary to law, public order, morals, good customs, established policies, lawful orders, decrees and edicts. 4. Those who shall sell, give away or exhibit films, prints, engravings, sculpture or literature which are offensive to morals. Publicity is essential in order for the article to be violated.

Art. 200 - Grave Scandal What is Grave Scandal?
Grave scandal consists of acts which are offensive to decency and good customs which, having been committed publicly, have given rise to public scandal to persons who have accidentally witnessed the same.

What is Decency?
Decency means propriety of conduct, proper observance of the requirements of modesty, good taste, etc.

What is Customs?
Customs means established usage, social conventions carried on by tradition and enforced by social disapproval of any violation thereof.

Elements of Grave Scandal
1. That the offender performs an act or acts 2. That such acts or acts be highly scandalous as offending against decency and good customs 3. That the highly scandalous conduct is not expressly falling within any other article of the RPC 4. That the act or acts complained of be committed in a public place or within the public knowledge or view.

What is Moral?
Moral implies conformity with the generally accepted standards or goodness or rightness in conduct or character, sometimes, specifically, in sexual conduct. Cases People v. Kottinger, 45 Phil. 352; October 29, 1923- Kottinger, a manager of a company that sells photographs portraying the inhabitants of the country in native dress and as they appear and can be seen in the regions where they live, was charged with violation of Section 12 of the Philippine Libel Law, making obscene or indecent publications misdemeanors. Trial Court found him guilty. SC acquitted Kottinger because they found that the pictures are not obscene or indecent within the meaning of the Libel Law.

Art. 201 - Immoral Doctrines, Obscene Publications, and Exhibitions (as amended by PD 960 and PD 969) What is the Purpose of the Law?
The object of the law is to protect the morals of the public. (People v. Aparici, C.A., 52 O.G. 249)

SC defined the following terms:  The word obscene and the term obscenity may be defined as meaning something offensive to chastity, decency, or delicacy.  Indecency is an act against good behavior and a just delicacy. Tests of Obscenity:  Whether or not the tendency of the matter charged as obscene is to deprave or corrupt those whose minds are open to such immoral influences and into whose hands a publication or other article charged as being obscene may fall.  Whether or not it shocks the ordinary and common sense of men as an indecency.  What is the judgment of the aggregate sense of the community reached by the publication or other matter?  What is the probable reasonable effect on the sense of decency, purity, and chastity of society extending to the family? Doctrines: 1. The tests of obscenity 2. Pictures portraying the inhabitants of the country in native dress and as they appear and can be seen in the regions in which they live, are not obscene or indecent. Dissent:  While the pictures are not obscene, they are indecent because they offend modesty and refinement.  Women in Manila would not dare to pose in the same fashion as in the women did in these pictures.  Therefore, they are still indecent in the place where they are exhibited. People v. Aparici, 52 O.G, 249; August 30, 1955- Aparici was dancing provocatively and almost nude in a theater. The audience was shouting “Sigue muna, sigue nakakalibog.” The police arrested her. Aparici contends that she was dancing a hula-hula dance, portraying the life of a widow whose husband was killed by the Japanese. Despite this, TC convicted her. CA affirmed conviction by taking into consideration the reaction of the public during the performance. The reaction of the public was such as to give an unequivocal verdict that her dancing was indecent and erotic. Doctrines: 1. Used tests of obscenity in Kottinger. 2. The reaction of the public during the performance should be made the gauge whether a person’s exhibition was indecent and erotic.

People v. Padan, 101 Phil. 749; June 28, 1957- Fajardo was the manager of a show that can be said to be an exhibition of human “fighting fish” (or in Tagalog, “toro”). Padan was the woman who was paid by Fajardo to do the act. Members of the police were among the audience. After the show, they arrested several people, including Fajardo and Padan. Padan pleaded guilty. TC found all of them guilty. Padan urges the reduction of the prison sentence by the TC. Fajardo, meanwhile, denies that he was the manager of the show and that he was an innocent bystander. SC affirmed the TC judgment. Upheld the sentence of Padan because the actual exhibition of the sexual act, preceded by acts of lasciviousness, is clearly not art but clear and unmitigated obscenity, indecency, and an offense to public morals, inspiring and causing as it does, nothing but lust and lewdness, and exerting a corrupting influence specially on the youth of the land. Upheld conviction of Fajardo because of strong evidence that he was the one who organized the show. Doctrine: The actual exhibition of the sexual act, preceded by acts of lasciviousness, is clearly not art but clear and unmitigated obscenity, indecency, and an offense to public morals, inspiring and causing as it does, nothing but lust and lewdness, and exerting a corrupting influence especially on the youth of the land.

Art. 202 - Vagrancy and Prostitution Persons Punished in Vagrancy and Prostitution
1. Any person having no apparent means of subsistence, who has the physical ability to work and who neglects to apply himself or herself to some lawful calling 2. Any person found loitering about public or semi-public buildings or places or trampling or wandering about the country or the streets without visible means of support 3. Any idle or dissolute person who ledges in houses of ill fame 4. Ruffians 5. Pimps 6. Those who habitually associate with prostitutes 7. Any person who, not being included in the provisions of other articles of this Code, shall be found loitering in any inhabited or uninhabited place belonging to another without any lawful or justifiable purpose

8. Prostitutes A maintainer of a house of prostitution may be considered a vagrant within Paragraph 3 (1) of this article.

What is Dissolute?
Dissolute means lax, unrestrained, immoral.

What are Ruffians?
Ruffians are brutal, violent, lawless persons.

of the RPC. She initially pleaded not guilty but, later, she urged that the case be dismissed because she contends that said Art. 202, paragraph 2 is unconstitutional for being vague and overbroad, violative of the due process clause of the Constitution, and that it proscribes status criminality. Hon. Navarro-Domingo denied the motion on the grounds that said Art. 202, paragraph 2 was never declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court or repealed by Congress. Thus, Perez filed this petition for certiorari and prohibition with the SC but it was referred to the RTC of Quezon City. The RTC decided two things: an MTC can declare a law unconstitutional on the basis of a reading of Sec 2 (A) of Art. VIII of the 1987 Constitution and that said Art. 202, paragraph 2 is unconstitutional because it lacks the requirement of malice as required in felonies committed by dolo. Doctrines: 1. Lower courts can declare a law unconstitutional, if raised as an issue before them, on the basis of a reading of Sec 2 (A) of Art. VIII of the 1987 Constitution. 2. Art. 202, paragraph 2 lacks the requirement of malice as required in felonies committed by dolo, and is therefore, unconstitutional.

What is a Pimp?
A pimp is one who provides gratification for the lust of others. (U.S. v. Cruz, 38 Phil. 677)

What are Prostitutes (as Defined in this Article)?
Prostitutes are women, who for money or profit, habitually indulge in sexual intercourse or lascivious conduct.

RA 9208 Punishes those who Engage in Trafficking of Persons (including those who Traffic Prostitutes)
Trafficking in Persons - refers to the recruitment, transportation, transfer or harboring, or receipt of persons with or without the victim's consent or knowledge, within or across national borders by means of threat or use o force, or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or of position, taking advantage of the vulnerability of the person, or, the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation which includes at a minimum, the exploitation or the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery, servitude or the removal or sale of organs. The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall also be considered as "trafficking in persons" even if it does not involve any of the means set forth in the preceding paragraph.

Mendicancy and Abetting Mendicancy are Punished in PD 1563
The decree defines a mendicant as one who has no visible and legal means of support, or lawful employment and who is physically able to work but neglects to apply himself to some lawful calling and instead uses begging as a means of living. It also punishes those persons who abet mendicancy by giving alms directly to mendicants, exploited infants, and minors on public roads, sidewalks, parks and bridges. But giving alms through organized agencies operating under the rules and regulations of the Ministry of Public Information is not a violation of the Mendicancy Law. A vagrant without visible means of support may become a mendicant if he uses begging as a means of living. Case Perez v. Hon. Navarro-Domingo, CC No. Q-96-26153; August 28, 1996Perez was charged of being a vagrant punishable under Art. 202, paragraph 2

Acts Punished in RA 9208

1. Recruiting, Transporting, Transferring, Harboring, Providing, or Receiving a person by any means, including those done under the pretext of domestic or overseas employment or training or apprenticeship, for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage. 2. Introducing or Matching for money, profit, or material, economic or other consideration, any person or, as provided for under Republic Act No. 6958, any Filipino woman to a foreign national, for marriage for the purpose of acquiring, buying, offering, selling or trading him/her to engage in prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage. 3. Offering or Contracting marriage, real or simulated, for the purpose of acquiring, buying, offering, selling, or trading them to engage in prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor or slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage.

4. Undertaking or Organizing tours and travel plans consisting of tourism packages or activities for the purpose of utilizing and offering persons for prostitution, pornography or sexual exploitation. 5. Maintaining or hiring a person to engage in prostitution or pornography. 6. Adopting or Facilitating the adoption of persons for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced-labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage. 7. Recruiting, Hiring, Adopting, Transporting or Abducting a person, by means of threat or use of force, fraud, deceit, violence, coercion, or intimidation for the purpose of removal or sale of organs of said person. 8. Recruiting, Transporting or Adopting a child to engage in armed activities in the Philippines or abroad.

TITLE 7 - CRIMES COMMITTED BY PUBLIC OFFICERS

Chapter One (Preliminary Provisions): 1. Art. 203 – Who Are Public Officers Chapter Two (Malfeasance and Misfeasance in Office): Section One (Dereliction of Duty) 2. Art. 204 – Knowingly Rendering Unjust Judgment 3. Art. 205 – Judgment Rendered Through Negligence 4. Art. 206 – Unjust Interlocutory Order 5. Art. 207 – Malicious Delay in the Administration of Justice 6. Art. 208 – Prosecution of Offenses, Negligence, and Tolerance 7. Art. 209 – Betrayal of Trust by an Attorney or Solicitor – Revelation of Secrets

Chapter One (Preliminary Provisions) Art. 203 - Who Are Public Officers Requisites of a Public Officer
To be a public officer, one must be – 1. (a) Taking part in the performance of public functions in the government, or (b) Performing in said Government or in any of its branches public duties as an employee, agent, or subordinate official, of any rank or class and 2. That his authority to take part in the performance of public functions or to perform public duties must be – (a) By direct provision of the law, or (b) By popular election, or (c) By appointment by competent authority. One appointed as laborer in the government is not a public officer but temporary performance of public functions by a laborer makes him a public officer.

Chapter Two (Malfeasance and Misfeasance in Office) What is Malfeasance?
Malfeasance is the performance of some act which ought not to be done. Arts. 210 and 211 are examples of malfeasance.

What is Misfeasance?
Misfeasance is the improper performance of some act which might lawfully be done. Arts. 204-207 are examples of misfeasance.

What is Nonfeasance?
Nonfeasance is the omission of some act which ought to be performed. Art. 208 is an example of nonfeasance.

Arts. 204-209 are Crimes under Dereliction of Duty

Chapter Two (Malfeasance and Misfeasance in Office)

Section One (Dereliction of Duty) Articles 204 – 207
Provision Act(s) punished in general Who may commit Art. 204 Knowingly Rendering Unjust Judgment Knowingly rendering unjust judgment in any case submitted to him for decision Any Judge 1. That the offender is a judge 2. That he renders a judgment in a case submitted to him for decision Elements 3. That the judgment is unjust 4. That the judge knows that his judgment is unjust Art. 205 Judgment Rendered Through Negligence Rendering a manifestly unjust judgment in any case submitted to him for decision by reason of inexcusable negligence or ignorance Any Judge 1. That the offender is a judge 2. That he renders a judgment in a case submitted to him for decision 3. That the judgment is unjust manifestly Art. 206 Unjust Interlocutory Order Knowingly or by reason of inexcusable negligence or ignorance rendering an unjust interlocutory order Any Judge 1. That the offender is a judge 2. That he performs any of the following: a. Knowingly renders unjust interlocutory order or decree or b. Renders a manifestly unjust interlocutory order or decree through inexcusable negligence or ignorance If committed knowingly: AMayor (Max) and Suspension If committed by reason of inexcusable negligence or ignorance: Suspension only An interlocutory order is an order which is issued by the court between the commencement and the end of the suit or action which decides some matter, but which, however, is not a final decision of the matter in issue. The test in determining whether an order or judgment is interlocutory or final is: Does it leave something to be done in Art. 207 Malicious Delay in the Administration of Justice Malicious Delay in the Administration of Justice Any Judge 1. That the offender is a judge 2. That there is a proceeding in his court 3. That he delays in the administration of justice 4. That the malicious PC (Min) delay is

4. That it is due to his inexcusable negligence or ignorance AMayor and Temporary Special Disqualification

PM and Perpetual Disqualification Crime(s) and Penalty(ies)

Absolute

Definition of terms

Judgment is the final consideration and determination of the Court of competent jurisdiction upon the An Unjust Judgment is one which is contrary to law, or is not supported by the evidence, or both. An unjust judgment is rendered knowingly, when it is made deliberately and maliciously. The source of unjust judgment may

A manifestly unjust judgment is such if it is so manifestly contrary to law, that even a person having a meager knowledge of the law cannot doubt the injustice. Abuse of discretion or mere error of judgment not punishable.

Malicious, in this article, means that the delay is caused by the judge with deliberate intent to inflict damage on either party in the case. Mere delay, without malice, is not a felony under this article.

either be error or ill-will or revenge, or bribery. No liability if mere error in good faith. There must be evidence that judgment is unjust – it cannot be presumed. None

the trial court with respect to the merits of the case? If it does, it is interlocutory. If it does not, it is final. An order granting preliminary injunction or an order appointing a receiver is interlocutory. None

Counterpart

None

None

Chapter Two (Malfeasance and Misfeasance in Office) Section One (Dereliction of Duty) Articles 208 and 209

Provision

Art. 208 Prosecution of Offenses, Negligence, and Tolerance

Art. 209 Betrayal of Trust by an Attorney or Solicitor – Revelation of Secrets

Act(s) punished in general Who may commit

Maliciously refraining from instituting prosecution against violators of the law or Maliciously tolerating the commission of offenses Any public officer or officer of the law

Betrayal of Trust and Revelation of Secrets by an Attorney or Solicitor Any attorney-at-law or solicitor (procurador judicial)

1. That the offender is a public officer or officer of the law who 1. That the offender is an attorney-at-law or solicitor 1. has a duty to cause the prosecution of, or to prosecute, offenses 2. That the offender does the following acts: 2. That there is dereliction of the duties of his office; that is: a. Knowing the commission of the crime, he does not cause the prosecution of the criminal or Elements b. Knowing that a crime is about to be committed, he tolerates its commission 3. That the offender acts with malice and deliberate intent to favor the violator of the law. a. Causing damage to his client by either: i. By any malicious breach of professional duty ii. By inexcusable negligence or ignorance b. Revealing any of the secrets of his client learned by him in his professional capacity c. Undertaking the defense of the opposing party in the same case without the consent of his first client, after: i. Having undertaken the defense of said first client Crime(s) and Penalty(ies) PC (Min) and Suspension Negligence, in this article, does not mean merely lack of foresight or skill but neglect of the duties of his office by maliciously failing to move the prosecution and punishment of the delinquent. Public Officer extends to officers of the prosecution department, whose duty is to institute criminal proceedings for felonies upon being informed of their perpetration. Thus, public officers liable under this article must have a duty to prosecute or to move the prosecution of the violation of the law, including chief of police and Punong Barangays. Officer of the law includes all those who, by reason of the position held by them, are in duty bound to cause the prosecution and punishment of the offenders. None ii. Having received confidential information from said client PC (Min) or Fine ranging from P 200 – P 1,000 or Both A Procurador Judicial is a person who had some practical knowledge of law and procedure, but not a lawyer, and was permitted to represent a party in a case before an inferior court. However, there are no solicitors or procurador judicial in the present Rules of Court.

Definition of terms

Counterpart

None

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