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Definition and Importance of Sanitation and Food Safety

INTRODUCTION When diners eat out, they expect safe food, clean surroundings, and well-groomed employees. Overall, the restaurant and foodservice industry does a good job of meeting these demands, but there is still room for improvement. Several factors account for this and likely include: The emergence of new food-borne pathogens (illness-causing microorganisms) The importation of food from countries lacking well-developed food safety practices. Increases in the purchase of take-out and other home meal replacements Changing demographics, with an increased number of individuals at high risk for contracting food-borne illness, such as preschool-age children and elderly people. Employee turnover rates that make it difficult to manage food safety programs. THE DANGERS OF FOODBORNE ILLNESS A food-borne illness is a disease carried or transmitted to people by food. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) define a food-borne-illness outbreak as an incident in which two or more people experience the same illness after eating the same food. A food-borne illness is confirmed when laboratory analysis shows that a specific food is the source of the illness. Each year, millions of people are affected by food-borne illness and are a growing health problem in developed and developing countries. It was reported that in 2000 alone, 2.1 million people died of diarrheal disease worldwide. The Food and Agriculture Organization statistics show that every year 700,000 people die from food and water borne disease in the Asia-Pacific region including the Philippines. The Costs of Food-borne Illness Food-borne illness costs the United States billions of dollars each year in lost productivity, hospitalization, long-term disability and even death. The National Restaurant Association show that food-borne illness outbreak can cost an establishment thousands of dollars and it can even result in closure of the establishment. PREVENTING FOODBORNE ILLNESS Preventing food-borne illness in your establishment requires a comprehensive approach. This include setting up appropriate food safety programs and training employees to handle food safely. I t also includes identifying food that is most likely to become unsafe and the potential hazards that can contaminate it. Finally, food-borne illnesses can be prevented when high-risk patrons are made aware of the risk of consuming raw or undercooked food in your establishment. People at High Risk for Food-borne Illness Anyone can fall a victim to food-borne illness, but some members of the population are more susceptible than others. These include the following: Young children Pregnant women Elderly people People taking certain medications People who are seriously ill Because these groups of people are more likely to become sick with a food-borne illness, it is of particulars concern when they consume potentially hazardous food or ingredients that are raw or have not been fully cooked. In all cases, these high-risk guests should be informed of any potentially hazardous food or ingredients that are raw or not fully cooked. The main symptoms of food-borne illness are: Headache Abdominal pain Diarrhea Fatigue Fever Vomiting Nausea Dehydration Types of Food-borne Illness A food-borne illness is a disease which is transmitted to people from the food they eat. An individual may get a food-borne illness from coming into contact with an individual who is ill with a food-borne illness. The transmission of the illness can be one, or all of the following: Ill human contaminates food eaten, makes someone sick Person - Food - Person Food contains harmful food-borne illness causing bacteria, person eats food, gets sick Food - Person Person to person contact

and preventing crosscontamination. viruses Food chemical hazards or contaminants: Non-food grade lubricants. Some of these organisms are pathogens. illness or death. hair." NUMBER 10: Safe food handling practices are the ones most likely to preserve food's peak quality. food-borne intoxication or toxin-mediated infections. metal shavings. These items are called potentially hazardous food. chemical or physical hazard that can cause illness when it is consumed in food. sanitizers. "Top 10 Reasons to Handle Your Food Safely. toxic metals pesticides. practicing strict personal hygiene.Results from consuming food containing harmful living microorganisms. They can cause illness even after the bacteria is dead. A food-borne hazard is a biological. they can make someone who eats them ill. The key practices for ensuring food safety include controlling time and temperature. Thawing meat and poultry products at room temperature and partial cooking are examples of practices which can seem like good ideas. which means that under the right conditions and in the right numbers. NUMBER 9: Safe food handling lets you enjoy to the fullest the nutritional benefits of food. this becomes a problem that further cooking can't fix.Person . cleaning products. packaging materials. Once in the human intestine they produce harmful toxins. become contaminated. Food Most Likely to Become Unsafe Although any type of food can become contaminated. pleasant aroma and agreeable texture that contribute so strongly to an enjoyable dining experience. It is important to establish standard operating procedures that focus on these areas. and preventing cross-contamination. but that may actually encourage bacterial growth by keeping food in the "danger zone" (40°-140 °F. nails.Direct result of consuming food containing harmful living microorganisms.Person Food-borne illnesses are generally classified as food-borne infections. Some foods undergo further processing and at times. Keeping hot foods hot and cold foods cold inhibits growth of the microorganisms that can spoil your food or make you ill. but they also have a natural potential for contamination due to the way they are produced and processed Potentially hazardous food typically: Contains moisture Contains protein Has a neutral or slightly acidic pH Requires time-temperature control to prevent the growth of microorganisms and the production of toxins. Because foods are from the environment. Storage at the proper temperature also retains the fresh appearance. Food-borne Intoxication . Food hazards include biological contaminants or hazards: Bacteria. Not only do they have a history of being involved in food-borne illness outbreaks. bones THE KEYS TO FOOD SAFETY The keys to food safety lie in controlling time and temperature throughout the flow of food. practicing good personal hygiene. These inherent hazards.. storage or transportation practices. from the soil in which it is grown or because of harvest. they may contain microscopic organisms. fungi. NUMBER 8: The safest ways to handle food are usually the most efficient. parasites. . why not use them up — or properly preserve them for longterm storage — while nutrient levels are at their peak? Foods that must be discarded due to decay or temperature abuse nourish no one. along with the hazards that may occur in your establishment. Food may be contaminated naturally. Food-borne Toxin-Mediated Infection . certain plants and animals (i. raised in the environment. If you've taken the time to carefully select a variety of healthful foods. they can contain objects such as stones that could cause injury. insecticides Food physical hazards or contaminants: Stones. puffer fish).) where bacteria multiply fastest. These toxins may be naturally occurring in foods such as mushrooms. such as metal fragments from grinding. food additives. mold. for example. can lead to injury. In the case of bacteria that produce heat-resistant toxins. Three types of food-borne illness Food-borne Infection . Many foods contain nutrients that make them a place where microorganisms can live and even grow.Direct result from consuming food containing toxins that have been produced by harmful bacteria. glass. Don't take chances in the name of saving time. Because many foods are agricultural products and have started their journey to your door as animals and plants. some are better able to support the rapid growth of microorganisms than others.e.

Bacterial. what you can't see can hurt you. Food for a concession stand. NUMBER 6: Safe food handling inspires confidence and keeps peace in the family. parasitic or viral illness caused by food is no fun. Sanitizing: Is the application of either heat or chemicals to substantially reduce the numbers of microorganisms to an acceptable level. toxic metals. You are an important link in the farm-to-table chain. But compare the cost of the food to the cost of a bad case of food poisoning. Time-temperature abuse: Food has been time-temperature abused any time it has been allowed too long at temperature favorable to the growth of foodborne microorganisms. Food-borne Intoxication: Direct result from consuming food containing toxins that have been produced by harmful bacteria. and insecticides. deli meats. Ready-to-eat food: Any food that is edible without further washing or cooking. Which brings us to the. government regulator. spices.. you will spare yourself and your family from a painful bout of illness. which provides nutrients for bacterial growth. or grocer in assuring food safety. whole. You are the last person to handle your food before it is eaten. Should we fear food? No. Many of those in your community are very young. puffer fish). and it can have long-term consequences. pesticides. Food-borne illness costs billions each year in health care costs and lost wages. bacteria. Physical hazards or contaminants: Food hazards or contaminants that is accidentally introduced to food such as stones. Food-borne Infection: Direct result of consuming food containing harmful living microorganisms. hair. The “soil” in this case is product residue. NUMBER 1 REASON TO HANDLE YOUR FOOD SAFELY: It may save a life. You are no less important than the manufacturer. You may be the last person to handle food before it is served to your family or friends. and wearing clean and appropriate uniforms. But we must store foods properly. cleaning products. CONCEPTS: Foodborne illness: Illness carried or transmitted to people by food. certain plants and animals (i. These folks are at increased risk for food-borne illness. Avoiding unsanitary actions and reporting illness and injury are also features of good personal hygiene. Contamination: Presence of harmful substances in food. and bakery items. food additives. They can cause illness even after the bacteria is dead. starting with the doctor's bill! NUMBER 2: By handling food safely.. sanitizers. packaging materials. mold. and bones. Some food safety hazards occur naturally. You set a good example for others. NUMBER 4: Safe food handling is the responsible thing to do. Sugars.NUMBER 7: Safe food handling is easy. NUMBER 3: Safe food handling saves money. and body clean. Illnesses are diseases either infectious or toxic in nature caused by ingesting pathogens(e. viruses) through contaminated food or water Foodborne-illness outbreak: Incident in which two or more people experience the same illness after eating the same food. hair.. Once in the human intestine they produce harmful toxins. Personal hygiene: Habits that include keeping hands. And family and friends won't call the Meat and Poultry Hotline begging to have food safety literature mailed to your address! NUMBER 5: Safe food handling can enhance your standing in the community. Biological hazard or contaminants: Food hazards include bacteria. or cut fruit and vegetables. Sometimes. . viruses and toxins. nails. Cross-contamination: Occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one food or surface to another. Potentially Hazardous food: Food that contains moisture and protein and that has a neutral or slightly acidic pH. seasonings and properly cooked food items are also considered ready to eat. while others are introduced by humans or the environment.g. Cleaning: Consists of removing the soil from the equipment and environment. Food-borne Toxin-Mediated Infection: Results from consuming food containing harmful living microorganisms. Such food requires time-temperature control to prevent the growth of microorganisms and the production of toxins. fungi. Chemical hazards or contaminants: Food hazards or contaminants which includes non-food grade lubricants. cook them thoroughly and keep our hands and work areas clean. Those for whom you prepare food deserve the best. Take charge! Prevention of illness may be as simple as washing your hands — an often-neglected but VERY important act. elderly.e. It's hard to throw away food you know has been mishandled. fungi. Microscopic organisms have always been and will always be an important part of our world. or suffering from health problems that affect the immune system. metal shavings. including your children. Protect their health and the reputation of your organization. parasites. parasites. These toxins may be naturally occurring in foods such as mushrooms. It includes washed. glass. Imagine: No more family feuds because someone handled dinner in a questionable fashion. bake sale or church supper must be carefully prepared. and you expect no less from those who produce and prepare food for you.

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