The Nation as Object: Race, Blood, and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania Author(s): Marius Turda Source: Slavic Review

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The Nation Race,
Marius

as Object: Blood, and Biopolitics

in Interwar Romania

Turda

Introduction: In 1926,

Biopolitics

and National

Politics

social hygienist and eugenicist Iuliu Moldovan a book Maria Bucur described as "amanifesto that published Biopolitica, state based on biological called for a total eugenic principles?an entirely new way of in Romania."1 By introducing organizing politics biopolitics was not a char into Romanian Moldovan just adopting public discourse, a versatile modernist it with term, he was also investing acteristically to direct mission: of historical narratives national expe specific disparate rience and cultural traditions toward the idea of improving the racial as a of the nation.2 The nation was portrayed qualities living organism, to laws and embodying great physical functioning according biological to gener transmitted from generation symbols of innate virtues qualities, ation. Equally nation the relationship between and state was important, one based on form of knowledge, turned into a specific scientific biology. of biological thus operated processes Biopolitics through investigations the triadic relationship between and state.3 nation, individual, regulating
Research Robert Dr. for this article was funded Marie Iwould Curie Fellowship. also like to thank by the at Slavic Review and the anonymous referees for their con Feldman, to Mioara I am and indebted and suggestions. deeply Georgescu from Biblioteca Documentara Leasevici R?zvan from P?r?ianu See de Istoria for Medicinii a Institutului Fr. I. Rainer, articles and de Institutul de Antropologie me locate helping Bucur, of Moldovan's See, Eugenics

the Romanian

Pyrah, Matt comments structive Sanda Hondor Publica, and

S?n?tate Bucharest; books. 1. ernization resurfaced Statut

Nicolae Bucharest; and Ioana Patriche

Iuliu Moldovan, Biopolitica (Cluj, in Interwar Romania (Pittsburgh, in articles (Sibiu, and 1943) books and he published Moldovan,

1926). 2002),

also Maria

and Mod

83. Many in the 1940s.

etnic

Introducere

ideas biopolitical I. Moldovan, for example, ?n etnobiologie si biopolitica (Sibiu,

1944).
was of biopolitics in 1911 in the modernist 2. The first discussion journal attempted to policies reference of public and social welfare. This health, TheNewAgein reproduction, a was connection article established between these and the state, which strong policies seen as the of implementing those institution See G. W. Harris, "Bio only capable policies. to insist on The New Age 10, no. 9 (28 December trend was 197. Another Politics," 1911): the fusion tioning of between the state in order to science and materialist the func sociology political explain as a was first One such biological organism. interpretation suggested in the Bio-Politics: An Essay and Politics Physiology, Pathology of the Social and

Roberts, by Morley see Al Somatic Organism For an early conceptualization of this direction, 1938). (London, bert Somit, British Journal Science 2, no. 2 (1972): for more 209-38; "Biopolitics," ofPolitical recent see Ira H. Carmen, The Newest Genetica99, developments, "Biopolitics: Synthesis?"

nos. 2/3
3. 1970s,

(1997): 173-84.
It was in with this his sense theory that Michel Foucault of governmentality. employed See Michel the term in the late de Foucault, Naissance Philoso

largely in connection

la biopolitique: Cours au Coll?ge de France (1977-1978)
Theory Ross Dickinson, according of personal gimes hygiene "Learning phy and as Investment: 38, no. 4 on Notes Governmentality An enlarged 523-40. (2006): to whom should biopolitics to state organized public

(Paris, 2004); and Maarten
and Biopolitics," was definition include health Educational

Simons,

by Edward proposed "medical from re practices and institutions;

campaigns

Slavic Review 66, no. 3 (Fall 2007)

414
Moldovan insisted, was this transformation should become

Slavic Review

Ultimately, tics. How

biopolitics possible?

national

poli

the interwar became concepts During necessary period, biological of national In addition, racial anthropol components identity.4 eugenics, received official endorsement from governments and ogy, and serology this transformation political regimes throughout Europe.5 Accompanying an was the elevation of the national adoration body into object of political as the emblematic of biopolitics of modern theories of national symbol the fusion between the need for biological identification indeed, identity; to the transformation and the quest for national contributed rejuvenation of biopolitics into national politics. Yet in most has scholarship dealing with interwar Romania, biopolitics not received it deserves. the attention The emphasis is either on literary or on cultural and religious constructions of national and identity politics to this interpretation, conflict.6 According in the generational participants about the nation debate themes that were created by succes appropriated are a few notable sive generations of poets, There linguists, and historians.7 exceptions, of Romanian above-mentioned including Maria Bucur's Radu Ioanid's examination eugenics, of study of the history the politics of the

to the various racial from physical racial sciences, programs; anthropology of heredity; and the science scientific and eugenics management demography, and the related and such as psychiatry and psy health; occupational disciplines practices See Edward Ross Dickinson, Some Reflections Fascism, chology." Democracy: "Biopolitics, social welfare theories; 1 (2004): Discourse about Central European 3-4. 37, no. History 'Modernity,'" Laura and Ambivalence Ann Bauman, Stoler, (Ithaca, 1991); Zygmunt Modernity s Race and the Education Order of Things and the Colonial of Desire: Foucault History of Sexuality Tzvetan Lessons and Memory: the Twentieth Todorov, (London, 1995); Hope from Century The Sense of a Beginning Modernism and Fascism: under ;and Roger Griffin, (Princeton, 2004) Mussolini and Hitler 2007). (London, in the Third Reich 5. Margit and Marius ed., Science (Oxford, 2001); Sz?ll?si-Janze, 4. Turda Central debted J. Weindling, Southeast Europe, 6. Much of the recent and to Benedict Anderson's and Paul "Blood and Homeland": and Racial Nationalism eds., Eugenics 1900-1940 2006). (Budapest, in interwar literature with nationalism Romania dealing influential of the nation in is in on Our

conceptualization artifact. See Benedict Communities: Anderson, Imagined Reflections imagined to Anderson, the idea of race does and Spread of Nationalism 1986). According (London, see an not in shaping nationalist For a different role view, imagination. important play and Nation in Latin America "The Hour Race, Gender, (Lon Nancy Leys Stepan, of Eugenics": Laura and Imperial Power: Race and the Intimate Ann Carnal Knowledge in ; don, Stoler, 1991) Colonial 7. mania," terwar National Katherine Rule (Berkeley, 2002); and Marius Turda, The Idea of National Superiority in Central

as a cultural, on the Origin

Europe, 1880-1918
See Katherine and Keith

(New York, 2005).
Ro and National Character in Interwar "National Verdery, Ideology over in In Polemics and Religion "Orthodoxism: Hitchins, Ethnicity in Ivo Banac and and Katherine both Character eds., National Verdery, in Interwar Eastern 103-33 and 135-56; 1995), (New Haven, Europe in Ceaus under Socialism: and Cultural Politics National Identity Ideology (Bucharest, 1998); and Ethnic Building Politics and the Austrian History

Romania," Ideology

Verdery, escus Romania Sorin Alexandrescu, rom?n Paradoxul 1991); (Berkeley, in Greater Romania: Nation Cultural Politics Irina Livezeanu, Regionalism, Irina Livezeanu, "Generational and 1918-1930 1995); (Ithaca, Struggle, of Culture: Lucian Blaga between Tradition and Modernism,"

Philosophy

Yearbook^

(2002): 207-37.

See H. der 1930/40er in J?rgen und Ursula Reulecke. and racial anthropology aimed eugenics creating as was deemed tional ontology. research during research searchers. archaeological facts. limba 127-36." Operen 10. and serologi anthropological the interwar cal research it shaped and examine how period during visions of an idealized Romanian At the biopolitical Volksgemeinschaft. Rainer Mackensens (Wiesbaden. arti such as crania and various cused on physical objects.." Josef zum 80. 17-46. si nafionalitatea sti "Rassa. specific 9. space 1977). Ibr?ileanu. ?n literatura. wherein the nation paramount." b??tina?ilor (Bucharest." Noiprobl?me sociale H. Anthropology "Blood and Homeland.. Her Jahre.8 tions of Romanian during ethnopolitics use of and literary critics did. German (New York. (Bucharest. eds. Festschrift ausforderung "Bev?lkerung": Geburtstag and 8. Rassengeist 1939). re Romanian only "'Volks Teschler-Nicola. Religions German in Collaboration The Case of Sabin Manuil?. Cleasing.. Ferdinand. Sanielevici. eds. In about what they considered knowledge a na at other words. anthropological to the scientific vided that there was a racial nu legitimacy assumption cleus within nation the Romanian that the natural and social environment was what could not obliterate." identified ogy Movements "The Sacralised of the Romanian Iron Guard. Unfortunately. however. and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania 415 as well as Viorel Achim 's and Michael Iron Guard. do not me permit Austrian period. captured from skeptical cialists and lay commentators in the histor believers alike. deutsche' Turda in the (Bucharest.'" . Sanielevici. to those obsessed essence ical destiny of the nation with national and In this context. no. Dichtung in filozofia C. lit Sanielevici.10 contours of the nation the physical the attention of spe time. Hence and Weindling. 18-34. erare. 419-53. (Jena. the blood within groups classifying they hoped to be scientific the nation. contrasting their interpretations of national identity with as more texts. und in der neuen v?lkische Tradition rum?nischen l?t. and serological research pro specificity. limitations the 92-94. 1930). 'Marienfeld in Project. Wedekind's investiga the 1930s and 1940s.Race. ?i cultura politice. make Romanian philosophers in their definitions of the nation. By conducting technical such as cataloguing and experiments. object of the nation These allowed and an representations physical eugenicists to engage in allegedly incursions into the ethnic thropologists objective fabric of society. eds. Ehmer. racial typologies and racial arguments in the cultural and it is essential and political debates that their presence of the interwar period be acknowledged. in Vienna: "55-82. Blood. Wedekind." in the Banat. no. si suinta Literatura Ion Pil Daciei." Arhivapentru 1 (1922): and Garabet "Caracterul in?a si reforma social? 4. R?dulescu-Motru. Radu 2007). 1927)." Politics Totalitarian Ioanid. 2005). cultura istoriei. to create the population. Political 3 (2004): Viorel "Romanian 5. Achim. Interwar Transylvania as it deals see Maria The 1940. "De ce rasa e poporul in H. to deal racial here after with Saxon racial research with in the Banat racial Transylvania during 1930s." in Ingo Haar and Ethnopolitics: Michael Scholars and Ethnic 1919-1945 Fahlbusch. in H. this racial nucleus and serol anthropology as "Romanian. "Rasa. and Michael "Wissenschaftsmilieus und Ethnopolitik im Rum?nien 139-54. rom?n. or Hungarian serology in this article to as is referred For and the Austrian Racial research interwar in northern "Romanian. Sanielevici.9 Complementing literary defini Romanian fo and anthropologists tions of national eugenicists identity. those viewed subjective. literary particularly I will look at Romanian In this article.

. anthropology to the ethnic map of Romania. ethnically regions state to engage thus prompting the Romanian Bukovina. Prague.see Keith Hitchins. (Bucharest. Siebenb?rgen" like Box und Maehren. Romanian ously multiethnic. (Boulder. state af by the Romanian experienced to classic works In addition such as Henry analysis. of the Romanian the Romanian the periphery N. one took on the of racial anthropology and mined the position question serology. Eng. Botez. Histo A Nation Hitchins.14 sylvania and its ethnic to back up the forms of national Harnessing biological belonging was character and anthropology scientific evidence by serology provided In Romania. cephalic inMoldova et de la Bessarabie de laMoldavie 1941). (Bucharest. Bessarabia. nation. Office RuSHA. Change (Berkeley. rare. Slavic Review It included the and northern in an unparal ad surprisingly. an L. (RuSHA). Backwardness and Daniel ed. (Bucharest.11 Not to Romania's ethnic became central dressing diversity grams elaborated serology general. in interwar Europe. eds. 2001). nation cradle of the Romanian the interwar during devoted considerable attention in particular. to thank Michal See for drawing attention Sim?nek my 13. diverse of Transylvania. 12. National Movement The Romanian Affirmed: and L?szl? K?rti. Al. attention. Mark Mazower. to con subject la studiul taliei si al Etude an si antropogeografia rasiala R?dulescu. Antropologie is on racial research with focus here the main 14. Al. 1994) John R. was nationalism than scientific it rather commitment that deter mania. Imagination 1999). N. I would 114. Ideologies 2004). 1989) . in Not only was this region notori nationalists viewed it as the traditionally in the Kingdom its long inclusion despite the center not represents Transylvania (Berkeley. 1978). allegories an intensifi of race and blood?especially insofar as they represented In interwar Ro cation of national loyalties?were particularly appealing. in Eastern tion (Berkeley.. difficulties pro biopolitical Both and period.. of Europe The institutional the and ter 1918 have been subject Political political of much 11. Although dealing were not not be assumed that other should (and ethnic regions groups) stant I. Romania's territory nearly doubled. sprotektor to this document. 1860-1914 in the Hungarian (Basingstoke. No. rians and the History Colo. of Agrarian on A Debate in Romania. Problems State Rumania: Kenneth (New Haven. of Political. Lampe Case of Twentieth-Century into Southeastern Europe: interest notwith and Southeastern Balkans A Century 12. 1941). p. and Transylvania. Contribuai anthropological and Olga C. 1938). See.13 the growth of a large body of Romanian racial writings with Tran dealing communities. Keith 1992). in Boehmen 1. Centuries subject generated are critical evaluations Economic. Transylvanian L?szl? and Ethnic 1983). of Transylvania in Transylvania. de nord si Bucovina indicelui (Ia?i.12 "Anthropologically. in a European Na 1860-1940: ed. an extensive Three Villagers: P?ter. 1951). ed. of War and Transition R. istic of racial politics however. 2006). 1866-1947(Oxford. The Remote Borderland: Transylvania Such animated scholarship. The standing. for example.. also N. See Katherine Verdery. Lampe. The Origins Chirot." geographer in a memorandum in 1941 to the German submitted R?dulescu asserted saw Rasse. Rumania. septentrionales thropologique .. it Transylvania. Al. . (New York. erschaft f?r das Alter Beweise und die Ureinwohn R?dulescu. "Anthropologische file Reich in Central State Archive der Rum?nen (1941). Necrasov..und Siedlungshauptamt the interwar period Indeed. and National and John Identities: The Europe (Budapest. Roberts. Social Change Development Jowitt. of Hungary. leled process of nationalization and centralization.416 After World War I.

"The Hierarchy of 20. sur V?tat actuel de l'eth ent traditions of race. and Littoral Insular. critique on Based provided Cranial . 21. Here. 17. G?n and Ideals: A Comparison and Hans "Race. were and Mediter (Celtic). nos. ofMan. others brachycephalic mainly and Dinaric like Eastern. Rassenkunde See also Arnos 2d ed. The Races (New York.15 the result of specific historical tics"?and artifact. by divergent as the "sum-total characteris of somatological it described thropologist a cultural conditions. ropean used and See Races in different Sydel the institutional Silverman. pologie 8. five European that there were Western.20 within superior position the utility of cra Toward the end of the nineteenth century. Western." Topinard. "A Classification by G." History 19. who insisted that there racial cartographer William American races: Teutonic. competed naturalist and anthropologist first was proposed Joseph by the French races: Northern. Ideas 32. 1899). was viewed with nial research for racial purposes increasing suspicion. M. length distinguish dolichocephalic brachycephalic a For a discussion of differ establishing craniological comparative study of racial groups. Deniker." 20. K. K. Four Ways: British.18 All three authors Eastern. or Cenevole. Ideas. In Races 325-35. no. Preliminary Biometrika 3-4 Measurements. Western four subraces: Vistulian. G?nther. populated thropologists are detectable to standardize in the effort this problem work through The for prominence. and Northwestern. William 18. Z. did an about what constituted As there was no consensus race. 3. 2005). of Franz Boas F. Races. sub-Northern. gested considered the cephalic index to and Baltic. 1926). French. (1796-1860) to to of width between and thus crania. ofMan: of Anthropology an 8. G?nther The German racial anthropologist ranean. Europas. 16. or Dinaric. races.Race. Adriatic were a race The more (medium-headed). dolichocephalic of European the hierarchy races. Alpine only three European Hans F. (Munich. Dinaric. no. however. K. see Anders Retzius. Gingrich. neither to races on how many agree Attempts Europe. along with was outlined Another model sub-Adriatic. 3 (1897): Journal of Sociology were Parkin. J. nologie point de forme du see Carlos C. Ibero six primary identified who Eastern. 2006): of European the Swedish anatomist Anders Retzius first used the ratio 1842. of Europe: A Sociological Study F. for classification. see Frederik Andre Robert contexts. anthropological Coup d'oeil au vue de la crane osseux (Geneva.19 possessed mesocephalic a the more it claimed and brachycephalic characteristics. Ripley.17 sug races: Nordic. For a discussion between of the relationship the concept of race and physical see Paul "De la notion Revue d'anthro de race en anthropologie. Ripley. instrument that cranial be a reliable meaning capacity races: some were dolichocephalic was what differentiated (long-headed).16 by the Z. three models racial cartography. Deniker. (London. 2 (1879): 589-660. (1928): of Eu 301 Anthropology (Chicago. 1860). Deniker. Closson. For a description. and American German. During an was both a physical Race entity?one interpretations. Morant.21 and Ethnography The Races An Outline 15. no. and some races (short-headed). Blood. 3 (September 313-32. ther. 1900). Hans Morris-Reich. or Atlanto-Mediterranean. were Northern and Ibero-Insular races. thropology. Barth." European American For how ideas of racial classification 314-27. and Biopolitics in Racial in Interwar Romania 417 New Paradigms Sciences was fluid and undermined racial terminology the interwar period. One Discipline.

"Central Confronts Racial Friedrich Europe Hygiene: as Critics of Racial in Turda Iltis and and Wein Hygiene." 25. 22." Hugo Ignaz Zollschan " "Blood and Homeland. ?i Dna raselor. The ABO Blood Groups: Com E. and Ethic: 1996). in general. P. cine (1st Hirschfeld. and Social Setting of the Aryan Tables and Maps (Oxford. (London.. William and Pauline M. immunologists. no. of World Distribution to Blood An Introduction E. a medodelor in Biology and serologice in Clinical ?n problema and Forensic Medi presentation Dr. 12 de (1922): aplicaciune 367-68. The innovative work and by physiologists. 197.. State. Hirschfeld of Different Races."25 Since cranial by answers measurements to of providing had proved definitive incapable historical about racial identity. Clujul Leone Italian Individuality 1923. and the German Physical and 'Modern Anthropology as Method ed. H. Geneza formelor culturii: Priviri der Blutgruppenkunde critice (Munich. progress. . "Blood and Soil: Application of the Discovery of Blood Groups. Volksgeist Tradition (Madison. rapidly making Serology of these. inWilhelmine on Boasian "From Vichow Germany. provided more races for classifying with a new method bio accurate. Boorman Practical Techniques. 1958). national that ideologues questions hoped to legitimize could offer the scientific needed theories serology certainty of biological uniqueness. Hirschfeld. appeared Incerc?ri no. 1961). thus con groups according race a or ex to internal attribute ferring upon impervious distinguishing As the Italian haematologist in ternal influences. Dodd. London. Schneider. 1900?and Ludwik Hirszfeld?who confirmed (A. Group Serology: H. Negulescu. Blood (New York. Blood of Legal and and Appli in the Racial for Clinicians. of discussion and blood Handbuch 23.22 As one form of racial research was slowly cept falling new ones were was one into disrepute.. of the Blood 43. like Karl Landsteiner?who discovered human blood pathologists." Bulletin of the History of L. 75. Hirschfeld 's research in 1922. "Chance The and Kathleen C. pologists by means chemical than by using highly rather contested anthropom?trie characteristics. serology were to Mendelian inherited laws of heredity..24 Leone Lattes declared to a definite his 1923 Uindividualit? del sangue: "The fact of belonging of every human is a fixed character and can be altered blood group being. but also brought the fascination of anthropological with blood into the mainstream The research." Bulletin of the History ofMedicine 57 (1983): Serology Medicine 64 (1990): 187-219. 1942). dling. Anthropological Stockingjr. see Paul Steffan. 545-62. ed. Theory. Arthur Ernest Mourant. For a general groups. serology P. Velluda. 1932). 2 (18 October 1919): "Dr.418 This Slavic Review was a symptom of the growing dissatisfaction with the con suspicion of race. medical3. B. Students Military Medicine prehensive Barbara cations. 1931). 24. Race See also Benoit Massin." Ethnography to Fischer: in George W.23 idea of "biochemical called racial anthro races. O) around groups of blood to that the percentage in a population varied according groups as a racial origin?not of serology the emergence only helped discipline with deciphering the chemical of blood groups preoccupied properties of improving for the benefit medical assistance transfu (such as blood sions and the discovery of new vaccines). also demonstrated that blood Equally important." as Hirszfeld them. Weindling. 2d ed. Boyd. See C. Hertz. L. Mazumdar. eds." of Hirschfeld between the and H. 1934). Serologists. Differences [Hirszfeld] "Serological The Romanian The Lancet 675-79. Lattes. asupra factorilor ei determinant Grouping Technic: A Manual (Bucharest. Fritz Schiff and William Anthropologists. Theories' Essays 79-154. See Paul J. 263-80. neither the lapse of time nor by intercurrent diseases.

26 to this axiom. Nouvelles 4-5 the 1999). nos. (Bucharest. la Roumanie: 22. La Roumanie (Paris. the role "blood" Linke.Race. Enqu?tes cranian 1. medical ?i maghiari. of Anthro Institute trois villages roumains les Roumains des Sciences Pittard. the role of protecting As ence." 9 . no. Clujul medical sur la t?te des Roumains de Transylvanie." 29." Eug?ne Bulletin de Pittard. antropologice "Nouvelles indicelui Papilian. 11 (1921): 335-39. Anthropologie l'?tude des Tsiganes (Bucharest. and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania 419 race and blood sci of national transcended symbols belonging. 1913). the former were Compared "hyperbrachycephalic" or broad-headed) to a differ and "mesocephalic": (round they belonged Romanian anthropologists for territories that had ent racial substratum. nos. 1915).29 26. sur l'indice Etude Donici. Papilian Papilian. "Anthropologie de la Soci?t? Roumaine la Roumanie: Les (1913): de la Dobrudja Peuple Sporadiques de la Roumanie: Documents pour somatologiques sur de Transyl with Pittard. and Hungarians with the latter groups. and (Paris. hoped to demonstrate of "special the existence characteristics" cephalometric in Transylvania. a new nationalist one the within they operated register. (1919) were Pittard that Romanians from the Old Kingdom (1927) argued were from while those and Transylvania Bukovina dolichocephalic. and Pa 2. the first Francise 1937). Rainer. unifying of the nation and its resurrected physiognomy Subscribing spirituality. example. anthropologique influence lasting in Romania. anthropologiques Revue 3-4 vanie. "Recherches 28. and Pittard. Eug?ne Pittard. See (Bucharest. 27. Blood. has see Uli for sur Blood played and Nation: in European shaping The European Aesthetics de since imagination of Race (Philadelphia. 1927). nation was thus suggesting that the Romanian brachycephalic. Victor romani on Francise I. together avec un essai de repartition g?o Les Peuples des Balkans: Pittard. See. (1920): Papilian. especially. Middle For Ages. recherches 298-328. "Studiul Rainer. (1919): anthropologique Alexandru graphique Esquisses cised a Anthropologie and Pittard. no.27 anthropologiques in Etude sur l'indice c?phalique en Roumanie vanie" and. It was War before the French World thropologies anthropologist one of the first racial Pittard who conducted in Ro Eug?ne investigations sur les Roumains In "Recherches de Transyl mania. ile de anthropologiques vertical pilian. en Roumanie director pology des Carpathes 29. Romanian Racial Anthropology were been a racial narrative rather late in producing an the focus of other national competing I. 57-76.28 A similar argument of different by the direc tor of the Institute of Anatomy in Cluj. c?phalique de ce caract?re See also Eug?ne (Bucharest. 1916). the physician and anatomist Vic tor In a series of articles published in the 1920s. the Romanians He concluded that the cranial among of Romanians from Transylvania characteristics from differed those of in the Old Kingdom both Romanians in Transylvania. standards according body of the nation were placed un the physical and spiritual qualities whereby both state agencies der close inspection and individuals with entrusted by them. le Skoptzy. and serological research redefined the anthropological to the scientific of the nation of the age." asupra recherches anthropologiques ?i transverse-vertical pe crani "Cercet?ri 763-77. composed was advanced racial types." Clujul rom?nilor ardeleni. of the dans exer Pittard 1917).

der anthropologischen "Tipuri de der Anthropologie Methoden (Jena. Chelcea. de cranii din Ardeal 30.31 Based breadth. anthropological like those expressed and theories. Eugenics Ion Chelcea.30 Methodologically. one that they located in Transylvania." which especially in Transylvania. (length. 3 (1934/35): 31.32 (Western) Mountains Apuseni Chelcea's reflections that although he was suggest anthropological Pittard's about Romania's racial diversity?for arguments by persuaded to differentiate it perfectly he found crania between Romanian possible from Transylvania and the rest of Romania?his of "Dar?an" description to Pittard's bears more cranial characteristics than a passing resemblance not The graphic illustration of this resemblance writings. anthropological he followed the Romanian r?an. encouraged Romanian racial type. Ro the interwar period. Lehrbuch Martin. diameter. however. 33. Romanians and Hungarians?the re conclusions reached by cranial search contravened the general of Romanian rhetoric which nationalism. See Bucur. Rudolf Ber?cksichtigung 32. image underpinning that the territories tradition was the notion manian nationalist constituting of been Romania had frequently invaded the Romans Greater (from to the Magyars of the Middle and the Jews of modern Ages antiquity Revue used notes that Papilian of [his] parameters not own scientific to support she does evidence the any anthropology. no. (or Ibero-Mediterranean). 341-68. Kurgan." . One such sup was the and anthropologist Ion Chelcea. outlined the German Rudolf principles craniological by anthropologist in his 1914 Lehrbuch der Martin individual cranial Anthropologie. 70. grouped Mediterranean Da Nordic. (1923): Although anthropologique to define in evolution determinism the "notions of hereditary Academia Romana: Memoriile Secfiunii ?tiin?fice 10. especially measurements on these and so on). Practically. in systematischer 1914). In fact. only in Romania racial anthropology turned nationalist and became increas with racial specificity.420 Given the use of the tandem Slavic Review in these dolichocephalic-brachycephalic with ethnic in Transylvania? groups writings dealing the alleged racial divide between Romanians from the Old particularly and those from the newly united as well as between Kingdom provinces. claim. by Pittard to believe researchers in the existence of a specific Papilian. rom?ne?ti (Cercetare antropol?gica). Dinaric." "Tipuri Bucur 9-10 337-41. 360-62. and Avar-Turanic. Chelcea crania into six racial types: Roman Romanian principles. to the existence and thus pointed nationalist tradition of a "Dar?an racial was to be found the inhabitants of the among type. nos. Darstellung mit besonderer cranii." provide discipline. ingly obsessed the existence of a distinct Chelcea's claim about Ro Substantiating racial type was the idea of racial permanence?an manian idea that served as a medium for various cultural constructions of the national past during an oft-voiced For instance. and Modernization in Interwar Romania. who analyzed porter sociologist the crania collection in the Museum of Natural History in Vienna existing assembled in the second Weisbach by the Austrian anthropologist Augustin half of the nineteenth Chelcea followed the century. insisted on national unity and ethnic homogeneity. anthropological a direct to the way in which indicates it is also a testament influence.

La P?ninsule humaine (Paris. "Romania and the Balkans: From Geocultural to Ethnic Bovarism Tr@nsit online 21 Revue) (2002). Dada: An Outline Civilizations of the Early of the Carpatho Lucian nostru "R?volta fondului 1928).. F?c?oaru. prehist?rica Scythica: et essai du crane ? relatif anthropologique scythe g?o l'origine des Academia Romana: Memoriile 3 Secfiunii 10. A.33 This tries of central 33. (Cluj. 1993). Dacian-Roman.36 We may see by nationalist appropriated in the topical the emergence of this "ethnic ontology" resemblance be as the historian tween the writings of such different authors Vasile P?rvan.37 As these essence writers the image of a Romanian national and overtly employed to integrate it into the discussion of national in culture obsessively sought to see the way in which it is possible the very concept of race be Romania..at/index. et de leur civilisation 34. Blood. 1-2 122-73. the poet Lucian Blaga. Blaga. came absorbed into the nationalist rhetoric of inclusion and exclusion. (Bucharest. Augustin times). For the classical (Paris." . version 1920). Dreptul Chimet. Romanians deemed theirs and that gave them the right to rule over terri tories where from that race either now lived or had lived. available at http://www. a to be of national metamorphosis. the encounter between individuals different epitomizing representing ethnic groups and cultures. 38. N. suggested by Viktor en Roumanie. and Robert Pich Gramshammer-Hohl.iwm consulted (last 35. a existenfei Dimensiunea rom?neasc? Vulc?nescu. 1991). graphique scythes. in Iordan la memorie and Mircea nelatin." whereby categories are and transformed traditions. nos. Jovan Cvijic.. Dacian. ? l'?tude Ontology. Sorin Antohi specific process defining as "ethnic describes this process universal ontology. itwas the "Dacian racial type" that the Dacian-Roman-Slavic. Contribution Dada "Crania (Bucharest. Lahovary. Densu?ianu. of the national Such a transformation in Romania culture favored the of an anthropological to yet distinct tradition emergence complementary from that set out by western like Eug?ne scholars. a "Istoria metoda de determinare 289-329. ler. See. raselor.38 Iordache Weisbach. as commen that race was the subject of heated What constituted debates." Dagmar und die Grenzen im Kopf 357-85.Race. (Klagenfurt. and the philosopher Mircea Vulc?nescu. See. (Cambridge. Donici. eds. Europa 2004). the anthropological framework Lebzelter." "La R?partition des Types Raciaux Romano-M?diterran?ens L'Anthropologie Danubian Countries 37.php?option 25 May 2007). 1913). tators could not agree whether or it was Roman. K?rper: Grenzziehungen im s?d?stlichen in Karl Raser. for example. 1918). Pittard. European or Viktor a racial Lebzelter. 3:41-43." ?tiin?ifice and N. for example. Balkanique: G?ographie and Christian "Vermessene 'Rassenkundliche' Promitzer. Europa. of this narrative. (1934/1935): ?i o nou? si reforma social? 7. See Vasile . and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania 421 new nor idea was neither Romanian: the coun specifically and southeast the Balkans) have been re Europe (especially as ethnic peatedly singled out extremely heterogeneous regions.34 Yet this troubled confirmed what Romanian nationalists history only overtly pro to the national in its quali claimed with respect past: only a race superior ties could have survived centuries of dislocation and foreign domination.35 descendants seen as of national This racial expression identity may be challenging the scientific claimed credentials yet itmay also be seen by anthropology. Sorin Antohi." stiinf? (1937): Arhivapentru 36. no. Eng. (Europ?ische = com_content&:task=view&:id=235&Itemid=411 P?rvan." ed. see Nicolae Histoire des Roumains Iorga. For Chelcea.

41. the facial index. Archiv Jordache. rasial?. der Central Banat. biopolitic9." Buletin eugenic si and and racial hygiene with Fritz Lenz. In ceive a PhD Eugenics corrects "had com in the book she partly this by saying that F?c?oaru later terestingly. 1930s. See Claims to the Serbian the articles especially "Die I. nos. anthropology Aloys F?c?oaru Studenten-Kartei: and 10. principal in Ro living races and five secondary Mediterranean. Alpine. F?c?oaru. openly anthropology some of the most our the role of clarifying issues concerning important over the territory we possess we do and over the territories rights political not In proffering this assumption. F?c?oaru F?c?oaru 40. of Ministry Iordache." eugenic pentru diagnoz? :341-68. No." F?c?oaru published und 3. Menschen "Beitrag Zeitschrift such in zum f?r during des Studium F?c?oaru. on these criteria. Whereas Papilian a restrained in connecting interest racial anthro and Chelcea expressed a Roman to biopolitics. "Rom?nii dintre Morava 72. Zeitschrift f?r wirtschaftlichen no. nos. and Nordic.42 When becomes evident when program was to in 1937 that the final goal of racial anthropology he declared That F?c?oaru 45. The Oriental. was "Rom?nii dintre advocated R?mneanfu." Studium Rassenkunde9. of Romanian irredentism nia?' as Romanian 42. on the to rely six cri accepted the nasal four index. He of Munich studied from the Faculty of Philosophy University pedagogy with See Fisher. of Statistics Cluj and the Institute em to the crystallization F?c?oaru tributed of this tradition. nos. Contrary assumes. no. 3 (1941): ?i Timoc. Bucharest. Rassen. F?c?oaru. (1941): eugenic bulgar. 9-10 Morava ?i Timoc (1938): 358. and races: mania: Based He thus anthropologists. sozialen Bew?hrung 1 (1939): .41 was devoted to a Romanian developing biopolitical one turns to his racial studies. A new national racial anthropology. F?c?oaru (cum laude) at the in 1931.489. and of Munich in anthropology his Ph.D. See I. O-Np-SS F?c?oaru Personal of Health. by Petru perspective eu al rom?nilor lor etnic din Banat ?i din Tim ?i continuitatea spapului and E. Theodor Mollison." Rum?nien. variety western by European the cephalic height. In fact.422 Slavic Review of Hygiene and Social Hygiene in the Institute affiliated with eugenicist was one author who con in Bucharest. 2 (1937): 248-50. no. Dalic. Europe in Germany das and der 2 (2005): the 99-120. der Ludwig-Universit?t 31. all territories where could be including found. as "Criteriile si biopolitic Buletin 10-11-12 lished 6." Bucur. F?c?oaru made clear refer possess. See Bucur. 12. in constructing F?c?oaru engaged openly pology Romanians ian racial ontology. Roma "'A New Greater in the 1940s. study pub East-European. and Social Hygiene 1936). (1935): racial explaining racial taxonomies produced classification: teria for racial 1-2 to eye and hair color. in the collection of Hygiene edited and later as a brochure (1935) by the Institute Criteriile rasial? in Cluj. F?c?oaru. F?c?oaru then identified when others. index. Dinaric." For a discussion Transilvania 201-11. Petrovici. to what Bucur F?c?oaru did not study in Berlin and did not re 39. 1-4 si biopolitic Buletin ocul 40-62. was first and Indian. required politics "In our national and F?c?oaru stated: has politics. it came 65-69. 's student 's personal Iordache A similar the Archive I would files files. West-Asian. at the University in 1929. Despite his critical attitude toward Iordache Lebzelter F?c?oaru and had and composition.39 significantly braced the study of Romanian racial history with unabashed nationalist a committed fervor."40 ence to a new direction in Romanian national politics. and Modernization in Interwar Romania. und 26-39. in sociology. no. nos. "Socialantropologia ca ctiinf? pragmatista. pentru diagnoz? (Cluj. 37. received Modernization 112. to for drawing attention like to thank Michael Wedekind my with to Alexandru Dumitriu in Bucharest for his help in locating M?nchen File. Eugenics pleted his PhD in Interwar Romania." see Rebecca Ann Haynes. 'Ganzheitsanthropologie' Rassenkunde 6.

F?c?oaru. East-European.45 Next. (emphasis 44. were 3 percent. Atlantid. blood. Hungarians composed East-European. 20 percent. to and F?c?oaru four norms (male and female) were examined. Romanians one of the last on focused Hungarians places. a race or an ethnic value of an individual notypic group.. Transyl Bukovina. Muntenia. Mediterranean. Bessara vania. Cri?ana-Maramure? Moldavia.Race. oarea of 280-81. . "Valoarea The lesser known "Dalic" and "Atlantid" races are subdivisions Dinaric-Alpine. Transylvania. 292. and Romania's racial diversity. 20 percent. constituting namely. "Val Nordic. of composed 15 percent. occupy place. Alpine. and Dalic.46 Finally. 12 percent. 15 percent. Ibid. of Oriental. Paleoasiatic-Mongoloid. 47. and Oltenia. Mediterranean. 6 percent. 1940). percent. 1 per 2 percent. nents: I." profile. 12 percent. F?c?oaru. highest biological an intermediary and Transnistria) the Bessarabia. "western provinces"). (Bukovina. 16 a nafiunilor Buletin were eugenic ?i a provinciilor rom?ne?ti europene si biopolitic 14. were Germans biorasial?. 2 percent. and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania 423 those the 'Wight to leadership of those who are superior'?namely not only insinuated to races deemed that the Ro superior?he belonging were destined to rule over other ethnic minorities. 19 percent. nos. F?c?oaru. the eastern provinces Banat) (Moldavia. (the Transnistria "eastern provinces").47 As expected. are at the level. the "integral. physical and spiritual.43 F?c?oaru from certain ruling contro in one of his most this synopsis of "ethnic hierarchy" developed on three main focuses ideas: racial composition. Blood. genotypic and phe races. spiritual develop com ment. Alpine. ?ncercare for "Valoarea de ierarhizare rasial? biorasial? ?tnica)." a populafiei rurale din Romania (Bucharest. the conclusions reflect F?c?oaru's nationalist mitment." 283. 20 percent. 11 percent." to this racial and "under-endowed races. and Mongoloid. 4 percent. Alpine. composed 8 percent. (O prima 278-310. East-European. and indeed he used no less than twenty-five theories racial terms in his he surveyed the "biological value" of European study. the Nordic 46. : Thus. and bia." According races. to determine the racial composition of the main Euro First. Nordic. 1 percent. while Swedes were at the top of the chart. 5 percent. were in sixth place. Caucasian-Mongoloid. 10 percent. Dinaric. F?c?oaru. of his time. specifically or a nation. which racial hierarchy. Dalic. and Mediterranean. were Romanians of Alpine. in order to have synthesized F?c?oaru claimed the foremost racial pean nations." He into "over-endowed divided them biologically "medium-endowed races. 1 percent. 5 percent. 29 percent. Lapoid. I. 9-10 (1943) of 24 the following racial 15 compo percent. Mongoloid. All three ideas derive from the interrelationship and spiritual achievements. Dinaric." race. (the "southern Both rural and urban populations (the Dobrudja provinces"). and efficiency. but that the manians the Romanian national Romanians racial variation within body justified areas over those from other areas as well. composed 14 percent. Mediterranean.44 between race. 41 Bulgarians percent. example. F?c?oaru occupied the "biological value of the Romanian the histori population" inhabiting cal regions Romania: the Banat. biorasial?. 50 percent. Oriental. 45. military propensity. and Nordic. the "western provinces and the Thus. 35 percent. Structura in the original). Nordic. versial articles. while 43. employed assess the "bio-racial level" of these samples of the population: economic determine social mobility. cent.

R?dulescu-Motru. Manuil? rendus des s?ances de la Soci?t? de Biologie 90. versus racial differences. Knowledge en et hongroise sur les races roumaine "Recherches and G. research: similarity physical logical on the special on to solve this conundrum. Simionescu-R?mniceanu. assigned feature of racial essence. Roumanie indicele rasial rom?nese R?dulescu-Motru." The rest and Dobrudja) southern (Oltenia. among superior social classes. provinces same vision: and simplistic the of his commentary suggests stereotypical are to be found and racial qualities educated. posed during in fact they but use of racial and anthropological cessive terminology.48 wealthy 's descriptions were Papilian's. 49. attempted serologists ethnic of the same and different individuals between groups.424 Slavic Review are last. See Iordache ?i etnic F?c?oaru. S.53 Ibid. rasa ca "Despre Contribuai Buletin si eugenic biopolitic9. Stoler. Psihologiapoporului 144." G?ndirea rom?neasc? la o id?ologie pol?tica 1939). Carnal 52." See Constantin . specific ?n Romania. for as Ann Stoler has these nationalists helped "racisms gain their strategic force. 2 (1935): stil. a at the Faculty of Medicine professor to the new theories scientists manian publicize the in Bucharest.50 it among the Romanians located cea. the nation. See also Marin 69-73. in C. not from the fixity of their es noted. and F?c?oaru that in the difficulties of national narrative clearly expressed belonging to define the "Roman when terwar nationalists encountered attempting the nation constituted about what this ambiguity But ian nation. were the first Ro among In his 1924 of serology. 306-7. urban. (Bucharest. and F?c?oaru How different Chelcea's. nos. 14. and demographer statistician in Cluj. cephalic. Popoviciu. demonstrate distinctiveness of biological the preservation have been obliterated might never disappeared. 48. there must composed Chel and Papilian. 53. in particular. (1938): 276-87. and philosophical For a literary Blaga." dup? "Tipul 150-66. 9-10 51. no. and Gheorghe Popovici. and stereotypical ation for Manichean interpretations also were of different cause the Romanians races. see Lucian idea of race."51 to disseminate racial ideas.. to the changing the internal malleability but from sentialism. Comptes par risoh?magglutination. of the nation theories from other racial characteristics of Romanian pro ex these authors made the interwar period? Undoubtedly. rom?n 1999). tary uniqueness Institute of the National The Director whose characteristics over time but whose of Statistics Sabin Manuil?." rasial "Amestecul 50.49 Ultimately. and Imperial Power. were in Romania what others in anthropological communicated concepts or what terms. Based called to identify blood biological groups. to express in poetic philosophical attempting vener is an unconditional from these anthropological analyses emerged Be of the nation."52 Romanian One Racial Serology of anthropo was Serology of properties relationships to in order physical heredi in this type those involved troubled issue. Muntenia. of superior be a racial engine origin within This of Transylvania. (Bucharest.

From the outset. Manuil? a unified these indexes under in name?"Southeast generic European that his research these nations that. to Manuil?.54 He also offered of version on the Hirszfeld's index of race" and its permanence theory "biological to the laws of Manuil? discovered that according Subsequently. anthropology more and more that could subtle". and of the Greeks the Serbs and Bulgarians 2. as "more described ogy. from have been might originated they must were connected. Sabin noua.56 Methodologically.20. they unique exists no other people so whose index that of the closely approximates southeast Manuil? concluded. two contentious with the viability of "race" as a sci ally engaged topics: entific and the racial origins of the ethnic groups in Greater Ro concept in Transylvania."58 therefore served sev previously by Serology eral functions.25. namely corpuscles serum of another vidual mix with the blood from the same spe individual a distilled cies but not from a different one. de "Recherches deBiologie90. identify those and less alterable in blood differences structure that "profound were undetected research. "Cercet?ri literare 56 l'isoh?magglutination. no." "serological thereby unequivocally the idea of racial Yet on the other hand." Ibid. a method objective. Cultural Rom?niei. Not and Romanians. it demonstrated that within the same "race" there were different races. Serbs. Bulgarians. closely only were also Greeks in their racial constitution: "There related. heredity. 224.. Manuil?. precise. 224-25. Blood. Manuil?.29. although dex"?arguing proved not have the same race. sur les races des s?ances en de la Soci?t? unei prin aplicarea "Diferente Gheorghe Popovici. the "biological index" of the Romanians that of by comparison. 2 (1924): 1071-73. D?ngern Contrary Popovici at more a theoretical aimed than just outlining he addition framework. was also a follower of the serological methods Popovici by Emil proposed von and Hirszfeld. "race cannot national differences and should Balkans. was 2.55 European peoples. rejecting homogeneity. or social envi unconditioned natural by ronment. ?i asem?n?ri 224-34. and Biopolitics saluted in Interwar Romania 425 of a new introduction tool: anthropological that the red blood of one indi isohemagglutination. Convorbiri 696.. the results obtained in Thessaloniki Corroborating by Hirszfeld with of Oskar those and Frigyes Verz?r in Hungary. Manuil? added his own contribution to the dis Popovici article." explain as a last resort. 58.Race. and Roumanie par la m?thode 54. Ibid. however. metode 55." Manuil?'s article gave rise to a considerable discussion about serology was in Romania. ?n structura biol?gica de rasa a S. . especially Popovici rejected of "race" in defining national "In the methodological importance identity." (1924): popoarelor 57. was 2.. he noted. and Weszeczky in Romania."57 With be used for this purpose the advent of serol only was endowed with a new method. 56. the mania. to the first Popovici respond. Manuil? the no. s?ro-anthropologiques rendus Comptes privire la rasse. 1 (1924) :542-43. Ibid. serology confirmed were that blood characteristics to transmitted according Mendelian laws of heredity." biologice (1924): cu 694-98. On the one hand.

including Based on this research. this assumption however. This geographical specific group on ethnically in mixed was further tested by concentrating subregions were and German where Romanian. Based their similar origin. nic origins. Agreeing nationalist within emerging Euro the "Southeast about his speculation without embracing (although 59. of the Balkans them "between peoples situating for instance. of Transylvania." Zeitschrift 16 (1921/1922): 33-39. beim zeczky.7. it had in Transylvania." "Rassenbiologische "Diferente Popovici.000 tients in hospitals. he managed of racial origins the theories without reproducing arguments. index of the Romanians" the "biological Manuil?'s: fered from that and those of Russia"."60 the same envi to dissimilar within racial composition With respect that the racial index varied noted and Popovici both Manuil? ronment. schoolchildren. "close to that from Transylvania. Hungarians.426 on the "biological index from different individuals 12. Ibid. Popovici systematic credibility theories. cussion Slavic Review He thus analyzed of the Romanians. indicate?Popovici Serology in different ethnic groups or not common found racial elements whether on this assumption. from the mountainous manians regions or Dobrudja: inWalachia from Romanians fered in their blood properties was to the a of the as a rule. pa social backgrounds (such as well as different eth and villagers). Russians. one ethnic within variation group B). Jews. villages Hungarian. Isoh?magglutininen. use of tech made of his research results." 226. was 1. According which was their ethnic of each group reflected characteristics affiliation. his argumentation interpretation as such. H?magglutination and O. situated Popovici.01. logical conclusions with Manuil?'s circles. 60. an "autochthonous race" whose existence pre basin. to the serological to each next other. of other eth and historical not influenced proximity by the geographical reaffirmed? could ultimately nic groups. of the Hungarians from the Hungarian of their brothers plain. Romanians.61 in the Carpathian the arrival of the Hungarians dated from any nationalist to distance himself to Popovici's efforts Contrary did in fact favor Ro of serological data."59 as soldiers. Oskar "Untersuchungen Weszeczky. Popovici. be explained could by for why Romanians that the plausible concluded explanation Popovici had approxi in Transylvania in the same areas and Hungarians living was that they might have had the same indexes similar biological mately racial ancestor: namely. Transylvania. placed dif he claimed. of serological in the application like comparative analysis niques a scientific for his sero to maintain In another fa?ade article. 61. the more migrations region exposed general in was in the European A (and the higher the lower it Middle group Ages.. and Germans. according The Ro at the center of his argument. Wes F. . 227-34. Roma. a conclusion that dif reached Popovici was 2. Verz?r Biochemische Menschen. of ethnic to the geographical distribution groups. of historical manian continuity paradigms of to biological theories resonance attracted a for nationalists particular the and increase To discourage any nationalist appropriation belonging. ?i aseman?ri. Biochemische Zeitschrift Untersuchungen ?ber 107 (1920): mittels die gruppenweise and 159-71.

" "Cercet?ri Dumitrescu. A good See sioned by the Seventeenth Bucharest. 35. Buletin properties "Grupuri sangvine. Bev?lkerung". eugenicists including F?c?oaru and Petru R?mneanfu. . F?c?oaru. ?i cele sanguine in Omagiu lui Constantin Kirifescu (Bucharest. positioned Asian-African type. 3 (1927): genic serological were search Francise Maria Horia Alexandru and Maria Rainer. See Ve?temeanu. in the Population Blood Groups P. 1937).Race. proportions peoples of the Romanians from the Old Kingdom. Manuil?. nos.64 The biologization belonging to intersect made it possible for racial anthropology visaged by eugenicists were to transform with the disciplines These that endeavored serology. Transylvania". in turn. Kernbach. 144. empire. of blood. of Buletin si and published eugenic biopolitic edited by Moldovan in 1927. and lecturer Mihai Kernbach. interested 1. 337-39. at the Law the legal physician in Oradea. s?rologiques 152-64. and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania 427 was twofold: final observation first. who. zwischen Rassen und chen I. 14. and Alexandru "Constat?ri si biopolitic example P. The nationalist ideal of Greater of a territory myth the fusion of involved (and only by them) occupied by all Romanians various overlapping Romantic notions?the and between unity language of the Dacian the glorification the sanctity of the nation. body National A Rejuvenated A dominant the period: Body Romanian the interwar principle underlay biopolitics during Romania. 141-42. nos." et (Bucharest. 3-4 (1943): is the collaboration between sero-antropologice F?c?oaru and and and R?mneanfu pe teren. "Das Verh?ltnis. cohesion. territory. Romania Francise umane "Exista cordage ?ntre grupele Rainer. Georges Revue Popoviciu. F?c?oaru. as a formula for national the content of an Nevertheless. that the "serological structure" them between and Bukovina the European and the Bessarabia. Blood." occa Ve?temeanu. caract?re lalte 696-701. R?mneantu.63 Racial narratives and typologies of eth were nic groups in Romania and popularized within this circle negotiated en of friends of national and colleagues. from he postulated second. "The I. 4-5-6 (1925): anthropologique In the first volume 63. was the mentor of the main Romanian Hygiene and racial anthropologists in the interwar period. Congress "The of Anthropology held in 1937 in Index Groups P." "Recherches 62. Buletin eugenic 64. bei der Blutgruppen "Der L?ngen-Breitenindex all 1939). in line with a new biopolitical the Romanian national program. R?mneantu from Transylvania". d'Anthropologie d'Arch?ologie Pr?historique and 339-42. Academy a short on blood in which he evaluated of the importance groups published commentary new vistas of research for and surveyed serology up by the discovery anthropology opened of the agglutinating eu See M. to for both were connected in Romania political Iuliu Moldovan.62 The impact of Manuil?'s theories on bio and Popovici's research serological was immediate. pean Popovici's in the same that "the Romanians from Transylvania blood groups present as other the Balkans". F?c?oaru and Siebenb?rgis und die International Congr?s 323-25. antropologice?" Mar?a Horia ?n Romania. in XVIIe the Pigmentation I. 333-37. of the Iris Blood in International and from I. sur les races en Roumanie. he argued index"). the director of the Institute of Hygiene and Social in Cluj. R?mneanfu. asupra sanguine grupelor med?cala 10 (1934): Manuil? and Maria 12. no." si biopolitic re Other in researchers 102-6. R?mneantu the Population and the Facial cu la metodei privire aplicarea 121-25. Dumitrescu. bei der Siebenb?rgischen Blutgruppen Bev?lkerung. no. F?c?oaru and P.

"83-122. upon predicated this interpretation follows From the ideological affiliation. 1 (1935): eth See also Pierre 36-75. suggested were favored neither the colonists. dling. eugenic si biopolitic 1. "Origine biopolitic 6. during it as an expression manian could?and did?understand nationalists of one the doctrine of the homogeneous ethnic racial state." but a common case fea of Yu goslavia." serologice compozi?iei no. eds. the first as of the Szeklers. arguments including the origins in Transylvania and various theories of concerning continuity a synthesis of serological fol the Szeklers. 45-59. were meant to establish the "Romanians' theories these serological to that were. vania.428 Slavic Review was Romania Greater it idealized Indeed. and racial anthropologist another from Tran R?mneanfu. "Cercet?ri asupra originii a pe baza s?ngelui. 66. nique Buletin la romani. "Compozitia nos. Romanian necessitated continuity to a discus he moved additional confirmation. continually changing. ethnic groups in Transyl conundrum could solve the historical regarding source that has remained the unique. s?cui ?i unguri. the "Romanians' racial-biological to the to locate was also employed "index" the biological ogy specific 65. (1937): a 40. perhaps the Szeklers' of time and that will elucidate untouched by the vicissitudes true ethnic origin. comprises to ethnic groups in Transylvania. ture of That racial this was nationalism not to Romania.. 1 (1935/1936): Revue de Transylvanie de Transylvanie. (namely just "summarily Yet serol index" was easily detectable). eugenicist was instrumental of serolog in the development and application sylvania.65 importance of the key arguments and advanced by contemporary anthropological over the racial the dispute of ethnic minori research: serological origins ties and the struggle over the racial core of the Romanian nation (claimed to be located in the mountains of Transylvania)." rasial? and I. confined exclusively something demonstrated is eloquently in the Balkans and Croatian "Of 'Yugoslav Barbarians' in Interwar with Yugoslavia. lowed by their application no in Transylvania For R?mneantu. 4-5 124-42. immediately Accordingly. R?mneantu. Buletin R?mneantu. no." des Sz?klers 2. instead Hungarian R?mneantu they of isohemagglutination that only the process he maintained ory. the second theories. F?c?oaru."67 assertion: Hirsz backed theories Two up R?mneantu's serological race index" and Siegmund "blood specific Wellisch's feld's "biochemical to the ethnic of southeast index. Petru R?mneantu (in collaboration See Rory by the Gentlemen in Turda Scholars: and Wein . etnice "Cercet?ri 67. and Racial Anthropology Ideology "Blood and Homeland. asupra originii populatiei. In ical research one of the most with Petru David) 1935. for "blood is the real. index" and then identify villages according racial-biological those villages where Szeklerized" R?mneanfu." etnice a popula?iei eugenic si din sud-estul Transilvaniei Yeomans. although was a nationalist the interwar period Ro always totalizing ideology. Nationalist Petru David). with two theories: sion of the origins engaging were of Hun the second that that the Szeklers sumed origin.66 This article the first about the Romanian deals with historical narratives. to the study of ethnic minorities in interwar Romania. Instead." Applied groups gene Transylvania. R?mneanju published (together of anthropological theories of race with nation articulated combinations can be divided into two parts: alism and serology.

00." R?mneanfu to the Szeklers. argued. in general. his serological informed"?to results well augment by imple pletely the counties of "blood Wellisch's index. 56." represented Streng's the latest synthesis in racial serology considered 1).11. in Szekler research the same serological When (in villages conducting Szeklers. origins on the "race index" was to lers in Transylvania based mistakenly only a treat a topic of paramount with method importance slightly outdated to be com As a result. though were "least racially contaminated. configuration then Oswald using graphically "race-triangle. 69. R?mneantu H?romsz?k). however. whose "race index" suggested curred their a in authentic ethnic "Because we could not establish origin. southeast manians to that of similar between situated with the average 2. a doubt that the eth of analyses.56. 64-65. R?mneantu argued to the Saxons of that region."69 to who returned by Popovici. Odorhei/Udvarhely." the considered who Mountains... in India. near the result of an "This mathematical and biological nians: measurement. biological as it does not exist. Ibid. Blood. Ibid. he decided?"in order R?mneanfu ology. of and the Old Kingdom of Transylvania from other Romanians parts from the Apuseni that of Romanians than lower Romania. the racial discovered that.60 and 1. index parts similarly. proposed these topics in the late 1930s and revised published some of the he had made in the 1920s (for ex assumptions serological Hirszfeld's index of race" redundant in the ample. q. centrating villages the average of the racial index of the Roma racial index was 2. in that region varied between 3.Race. number proves beyond unprecedented is identical with that of the Romani of those named Szeklers nic origin confirmed research was indisputably ans.20 and 2. R?mneanfu respect index of Ro that the racial and considered results research varied between of Transylvania from 2. With Manuil?'s and Trei-Scaune/ Ciuc/Csik. More (see figure oc of "Szeklerization" that a similar process over." namely gene menting by considering specific to the three the gene distribution "bio (p. and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania 429 confirmed to the first assumption.76. and Szek the ethnic Hungarians. for?R?mneantu origin on the resulting inhabited exclusively by Szeklers. dex specific concluded as the that this ethnic group has the same "ethnic-anthropological origin Romanians. confirmed their origins To discuss of Romanians. A was interpretation a series of articles in . He index of the Szeklers was caused ethnic to that such variance hastened by the mixed explain con continued?when of the groups studied. and r) corresponding was and O). by he found no dif of the Saxons and the Roma population: racial indexes and their counter the racial index of the first group ference between of the latter group the racial from Germany.07 and 1."68 To prove that his serological the reflected facts and comparative R?mneantu upon briefly analyses. he deemed "biological of the new wake and accepted that "the blood research) serological similar 68. This new serological chemical races" (A. B.

entre les groupes des Roumains ciu.'' Revue de Transylvanie 2. Birau. Popovi 181-83. ethnique "Origine 1 (1935/ 1936): 56. mixed with Romanians by the fact that the Hungarians whose level of p was also documented. "The Romanians of the mountainous argued: Popovici as well as the center of Transylvania and the Szeklers of this Hungarians a in a few racial purity that one only finds possess region European 70." and Revue I. Popoviciu and Birau. "Comparaison sanguins la Roumanie. Popovici's were in Transylvania racial nationalism: the Hungarians R?mneanfu's to Romanians in Hungary. "Blood Types by Racial Groups. (1936): et ceux des autres de peuples 184-89."70 "almost identical with the Romanians living a from Transylvania of The Hungarians also possessed high proportion the "European value p" (or group A)." des Sz?klers de Transylvanie. 4-6 a l'?tude des isoh?magglu and G.71 high and conclusions resembled F?c?oaru's Unsurprisingly. 182-83. 4-6 (1936): anthropologique 71. tinines anthropologique46. Popoviciu en Roumanie. . As a gloss on the elu Popovici's sive theme of racial purity and illustrative of the nationalist obsession with racial essence.430 Slavic Review ?foa6e/yr t/J/faer/&?/& ?/fO'?//JnO?/X \ A/myres \ #<ssrc. "Nouvelles contributions nos. an occurrence that was explained and Germans. nos. no. closer" than to Hungarians Yet "biologically nationalist ethos carried him even further. "Nouvelles contributions." G. " of the race (isohemagglutination) confirmed that the Szeklers properties were in the same place." Revue 46. \ZSas?ra?sef Carao* a From Pierre R?mneantu. Figure 1.

and In Peter the culture." between 24. a similar 15. supremacy. this nationalization "Les Popoviciu. Nationality. nos. Blood. R?mneanfu "The application of the sero argument: proposed in the populations is one of the most achievements for an logical investigations important on the variations In this way. surprisingly a rule? are?as to Popovici. races "Comparaison sanguines Pr?historique.' Classical than Blood the Groups language. across the but contemporary Hungarians (living Hungarian plain. in Romania that emerged the early various forms of radical politics during of 1940s endorsed the idea of a totalitarian state.75 Not ticular group could not explain then."74 made ized. Just as the of emerging authoritarian regimes mosphere over national and territorial occasioned debates disintegration symbolism an national of views on the essential traits of the Romanian exchange reflections discussions about a new racial biopolitics character. According "The relationship Bucur. This erroneous argument to one of his early serological and dis convictions Next Popovici returned that the of race in defining carded the importance nationality." in XVIIe Congr?s 181-89. Beweise. of Romania "The Hungarians according Magyarized In many at of serology the political reflected in the late 1930s. and the customs. 325. tions from "The 'ethnie. and the eugenics of 'undesirable' in XVIIe Transylvania. "Le probl?me 76. Italy and Nazi Germany.. its racial origin. prompted on Romania's to fascist Similar national future. Ages. especially with Romanian policies regard to its treatment . every belongs population are convinced We that the distribution of the blood indication about groups gives better the extension of an Ramneantzu. Ibid. des populations de 12. Slavs. (1938): d'apr?s 14. en Roumanie. et gie d'Arch?ologie 73. and racial anthropologists and championed manian eugenicists adopted of ethnic and social segregation. entre les groupes sanguins. Romania's adversaries attempt are inhabited their frontiers and that the new provinces possess unjustly or Roman that are either non-Romanian only recently by populations is especially about Transylvania. George des recherches 74. groups. based fixed limits of the classical blood among thropology. 75. we are able to determine to which nation nucleus.."76 ways. sur les races le sang. N and M. and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania 431 mountainous at the same of p and q appear here The proportions of Europe. regions races. explaining extinct during the wars of the race" became virtually "Hungarian original race are a few enclaves of the "pure" Hungarian Middle Indeed." Congr?s torique. N in the Na Properties et International Pr?his d'Anthropologie d'Arch?ologie la Roumanie. International vu a la lumi?re des populations de la Roumanie "Le probl?me Popovici. religion. See also R?dulescu." Revue de Transylvanie 1-2 4.77 reengineering principles 72."72 and Nordic levels as in the Alpine in of serology was fully revealed nationalist Popovici's interpretation an article he He commenced in 1938 in Revue de Transylvanie?^ published is of of the racial origin of nations his analysis thus: "Lately the problem to prove that the Romanians ten posed. of the Antonescu regime. See also Georges d'Anthropolo Romanians. Ibid. seen to be the epitome Ro ethnic And like racial ideologues Romanian elsewhere.Race." 309-16. Popoviciu. Popovici. spread were as well as in Romani in Budapest Transylvania) simply assimilated of a par and the language ans." the M." "Anthropologische to Maria 77. and Germans. 14-27.

"78 superior "mystical and serology Within this new political racial anthropology context. (Chicago. Romania Iordachi. of territorial but its own dream population). de din Informal in See. Unsurprisingly. Ungarn zwischen 1936)." 252-75. P?l's for this document). under their for f. auf Minderheiten A Study of Ostforschung in the Third Turns Eastwards: 80." Gruppe von Faschismus und Nationalsozialismus and Harald Roth. Hitler's Ally: Forgotten archival Moreover. documented The Destruction 1940-1944 the Antonescu 2000). Jean Ancel. 2006). Beziehungen im Spannungsfeld (Tschangos) 1944: 1940 and Reich . Romanian Special catolici antievreiasc? vol. (Bucharest. Ion Antonescu (Basingstoke. and southern and Transylvania. 63/1942 sioned by dorsement 78. ofJews and Gypsies "The German-Romanian connections. on R?mneantu 's indicate the importance bestowed documents of the Csango communi leaders the religious of the Csangos by to the to assure Antonescu of their General attempts loyalty (Bucharest. Lya Benjamin. circumstances the narratives of national permeating political a country this period. rum?nisch-ungarisch-deutschen ethnische strukturierte ana Hausleitner in Mari totalit?rer Volkstumspolitik. Solution. a "In entice ?i a rom?nilor (SSI). Ioanid. Consiliului Arhivele Statului Bucure?ti. and southeast research During Europe. Bukovina northern (In 1940.79 of racial of ethnic minorities Such processes living most in 1940s Europe. aura of a nation. Lya Benjamin. istorice si comparative ed. Studies Holocaust and Genocide and the Final 2 (2005): 19.. (Munich. Legislaba and His Regime. Romania 1993) 1940-1944 . originei ceang?ilor jurul problemei de Mini?tri. Moldova. locating "Glasul article. Eugenics in Romania. Regime. myth" through "palingenetic not only its territories could its Romania but." the Csangos. Romania's entry into the war Bulgaria. Jean Ancel. on the racial work origins ties in Moldova state. Der Einfluss und S?dosteuropa in Ostmittel265-315.80 concern was a to boundaries due of ethnic this transgression pressing in a period in which of defining the body of the nation the problem po scientific its pinnacle?not reached litical revisionism only through and Modernization like Radu clear Ioanid. Not only was Romania identity produced during a of ethnic minorities of the number with (28 to 30 percent significant was short-lived. 2004). Pre?edinfia to Chris of Petru Davis M.and Dennis Deletant. Dial?ctica "Die Moldauer See Arens Meinholf. 79. about (Bucharest. expansion lost northern and Bessarabia. equally regain important." Relationship in Viorel "Bazele doctrinare ale antisemitismului antonescian. the Holocaust have Lya Benjamin. renewal. in Romania: Bucur. See Michael Burleigh. Scholars dealing and Dennis The Holocaust unclear. Dobrudja then. no.. See Radu however. spective nia intre 1940-1944. si Transnistria: Per Achim Problema Holocaustului: and Constantin eds.. Romania to the Soviet Union. 1. Eng.. in Nazi became popular tellingly appropriation in central the war in Romania. to intention the history and racial origin the fervent redesign professed in Romania." (I am grateful the publication sent on 1 to Serviciul note 1943 the informative April example." with Dele tant. in minorities?the Interwar Romania. 1988). Hungary. Germany (Cambridge.. Jews and Roma?remains 224. as a in the subsequent external foes year was portrayed "holy war" against a new context war and hostile circumstances: for the historical provided of national combat and sacrifice. The note a was strong occa en in Originea. 18. im Eine Rahmen vornational der racial theories of Ramneanju's Nicolae naponalismului Ro?u. eds. Evreii din Roma 237-51. proved perfectly the biopolitical of Romanian modernism fascism within the not obfuscate should cultural the specific environ context. Slavic Review integrating European ment and this conspicuous which suited to imitation. s?ngelui. respectively).432 However. 2006). Eng.

reel 4 (I would like to thank 1.22 and 1. eugenic noi "Contribufii al populafiei grupelor de (1942): 503-11. Blood. in Bessarabia after his research In a report published politics. Ibid. garians between the Germans 1." .31."82 indi of serology. especially mapping some of the territories 1945 and 1947 when between that Romania lost in 1940. on ex we realize is not dependent ferent nations.Race. (Bucharest. 2 vols. op. Contribute compoziiiei morfologice Moldoveneasc? in 4. Buletin Rom?nii Petru R?mneanfu. R?mneanfu. See Anton Ga tural. conquest Transylvania. Institute. nationalist pattern: and Dacian the result of the Roman endurance.41. (unpublished Museum f.35. and the Germans Swabians basin). R?mneanfu and V. 152-56. reintegrated and the Vitality Grounds Rumanians 1946). evolution this wartime R?mneanfu Exemplifying distributed blood cated how the three main B. literary practices in 1942.17 and in racial 81.16 and 1. 2242. finally." s?nge and P.004. into the Romanian The Transylvania. Transylvania conquered or related cer to the descendants of the Huns (but they were Bulgarians in the Carpathian the Hungarians arrived before tainly Magyarized in the center of Transylvania. "Distribuya s?nge. antropologice on microfilm. This in the period exercise continued after the war. la populaba din Transilvania. 83. and racial population sate patru caust Memorial 1944). at the same time. an admirable way of dif the serological By knowing properties anthroposocial phenomena. grupelor (1941): de 2006). a rom?nilor I. the Hun the Szeklers between 1.23 and (both groups) is thus an important in concluded: figures. in the 1940s. index for these and groups was between was as follows: that of the Romanians 1. teams of Romanian research Tilly.81 to the "racial structure of in reference this point F?c?oaru established our co about "Racial researches this region: from the Romanians" the borders have both scientific of the country nationals living outside and biopolitical importance. F?c?oaru.83 within of Transylvania" the tradi the "sero-races discussed neanfu following were in the oldest population the Romanians tional. la studiul de la est de Bug. cul economic. came to Europe in the ninth and from Asia the Hungarians century in the eleventh the Szeklers were either century. belonged assigned by the Roman to ian Social Institute and Central of Statistics Institute the social.84 Based between 1. and O?were groups?A. to a group his wife." Ardealul 12 medical^. and Carl Radu Ioanid for their help in this F?c?oaru and Modig obtaining manuscript). si biopolitic\2. 158. RG-31. on these 1. Lusirea.. la studiul din Rep?blica 82. din Transnistria" lopenfia. din Romania. R?mneantu "Serological study strument to research of history and. See Peter R?mneantzu. no. 9-12 seroetnic (Bucharest. Holo available 1943) paper. "Distribuya nos. 85. R?m In a series of articles published each nation. 84. 1. that their individuality ternal circumstances but on hereditary characteristics. Biological of the Transilvanian (Cluj. like north ern were state."85 A further of how racial research was instrumental in the cre example re ation of the Romanian is R?mneanfu's considerable biopolitical utopia as the search on the Catholic in Moldova communities known Csangos. See also Iordache "Cercet?ri F?c?oaru. complete evaluations of the Romanian in Transnistria. 137-59. (Saxons settled between the twelfth in the Banat and the Partium) gradually The Wellisch the eighteenth centuries.19. and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania 433 of national but in the very substance and exercises.

52. biopolitic 87. nos. Ciang?ii din Moldova. the within Hungarian historiography: especially a group were that became from the Magyar either Csangos separated or were Mag tribes as they headed towards the Pannonian they plain. "Racial Biological Buletin eugenic ?i biopolitic 14. by their Catholicism. R?mneantu yarized in keeping racial of the Csangos with articulated fully interpretation tenets of Romanian the main nationalism (see figure 2). P. R?mneantu.434 Slavic Review Indexes." eugenic . (1943): la Ciang?ii din Buletin si s?nge Moldova. 1-2 14.87 discarded the central however.523 R?mneantu cation) only Csangos a group and that was characterized their use of Romanian Moldova. explicitly of Csango that their Catholicism self-identification." "Grupele de s?nge 1-2 (1943): 64.86 Based on the census race to be a category that considered of identifi 1941 census (a in asserted that there were 8. contested both theories. de "Grupele 51-65. R?mneantu.. R?mneantu. Ibid. argument namely 86. Figure 2. a he developed Cumans." From P. la on the theories Two historiographie origin of the Csangos predominated in the interwar period. nos.

helped in Transylvania conundrums while also drasti about the ethnic mixing fundamental about the national of the cally revising assumptions origin conflicted the fact non-Romanians. 4) Catholic Romanians ian. explanations ar meticulous who accompanied his historical researcher and linguistic with evidence from medieval and his speculations chronicles.. Abstammung 1944). and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania 435 "I rejected "A priori."88 that Csango and Catholic Accordingly. 1944. Consider the issue of religion. Blood. of historical interpretation whom declared R?mneantu sources to be was also ap "Catholicized 89. "Romanians" who had been exposed groups were. R?mneanfu rectify historical Serology. sought as com of his interpretation establish the verisimilitude by constructing a as of the Csangos As evidence. der Tschangos (Sibiu. description extensive forward into the geographical distribu brought investigations structure tion and demographic of the Csangos: he amassed historical identified the Csango in Moldova. with their being Romanian. are identical notions. 2) Catholic speaking speaking and finally. belong can be national identification their contradictory by centuries explained of Magyarization." 60-63."89 the emergence of Romanian ethnic utopia also favored R?mneanfu's a new had been certain blood model of identity: once groups biological ex as the only possible national Romanian defined identity.. speaking Hungarians "blood groups and genes. had similar All four groups. His em discussion on Catholicism an aspect not being of the racial of the phasis identity 88. de s?nge la Ciang?ii. 91. villages plausible was a for their ethnonym. a critical of the Csangos The ethnic reached stage in appropriation Die Abstammung der Tschangos.91 nationalistic. guments from contemporary with confirmation He was also un historiography. "Grupele Petru R?mneantu." and the Csangos since both the Szeklers portrayed race described to the same "autochthonous" groups by Popovici. In many R?mneanfu respects. Hungarian. 90. plied Orthodox Ibid. narratives the works Enlisting to of religious missionaries. .90 The first part of the book group attempted on historical centrates about the Csangos. believed. and historians. environments linguistic as "racially Romanian. No scholar before R?m were Catholic. and offered records. Die Ibid. 3) Catholic speaking Hungarian. different This view from that of other Romanians." R?mneantu. had questioned the fact that the Csangos Disman neanfu the synonymy between "Catholic" and "Csango"?one of the most tling of the claims first put forward as contentious in his 1943 article?served to R?mneanfu's the introduction of racial serology. representing was in other that these ethnic for their occurrence groups planation to cultural and in fact. however. when R?mneanfu published arguably the most radical reconstruction of the national ethnic past of a minority con in modern Romania. nationalistic in Moldova." he declared. 7-29. he prehensive possible. R?mneanfu linguists.Race. 54. reservedly for instance. Ro into four categories: the Csangos divided 1) Orthodox R?mneantu Roman Romanians manians Romanian. This highly to Catholic Romanians Romanians.

Cu o anex?: Programul 1938). diagrams. equations. sive In 1934. why: was treated as a fun autochthonous and foreign Catholicism Orthodoxy as it was for distinction damental between different racially nations?just of Orthodoxy in interwar Romania. among in the 1938 manifesto statului etnocratic" Most pro "Programul prominently Orto Nichifor Crainic. not only in their ogy. After first discussing serological the "individuality of blood" and summarizing the main about arguments the hereditary of blood. Petru R?mneanfu. the Romanian into biological that could investigation tural mechanisms P. 74. and nasal index completed to R?mneanfu. der Tschangos. 5 (1943): 325-48. one must and biopolitics.96 In many and history. Later on the See Dumitru communism.92 other apostles on the The concentrates second book part of R?mneanfu's impor tance of research for national affiliation. examined the "ethnic R?mneanfu properties of blood The outline here repeats the racial meaning groups. 96.436 Slavic Review was invested with national to and it is not difficult Csangos significance. philosopher by the poet statului etnocratic si etnocratie. ian majority and ethnic minorities The racial mythology was indeed itwas well integrated advocated within radical. yet R?mneanfu a nationalist that became in Romania culture after 1940: a cul prevalent ture composed of clusters of biopolitical ideas and practices. however. Martinas^ (1985. In arguments to the direct reference the amend did. racial studies.95 cessities war" for the reunification (the "holy The ethnic engineering "Racial Commandments" and Totalitarian Biopolitics to comprehend the relationship In order serol between anthropology. R?mneanfu of national thus advance the new program could by invok regeneration as well as national ne for example) revisionism. R?mneanfu Csangos. discourse dard Romanian Csangos during developed The Origins Ia?i. the ambiguity the According concerning were ethnic of the Csangos had finally been resolved: origin racially. 1999). a comprehen cul also deciphering Negulescu . 284. Pal. See Nichifor and Orthodox Crainic. in reiterated that traversed and so on). p?storii (Roman. ing political (Hungarian of lost territories). (Bucharest. not racial narrative themselves 94. 43 48." A section on racial morphology that catalogued char physical spectively. they Romanians. Csango R?mneanfu's (although adopted priests si catolicilor din Moldova See Iosif P. 1941). R?mneanfu. examination. Preoccupied of national influence the formation provided with identity. investigate most mathematical formulations technical (charts. see within this unsettling the line traditionally drawn between issue. fran into the stan this view was integrated ciscana lor de veacuri lor. whereby racial typology the Csangos introduced re into "Romanians and "Hungarians nally divided by blood" by blood." provided that R?mneanfu had been articulating since the early 1930s. etno-biopolitice 92. Negulescu Petre philosopher theories of belonging. Origtnea of Csango his negation Catholicism). were now nomi in 1943. but also in the popularly images con terwar sociology other fields of study. Die Abstammung 93. reprint. of the Csangos ale Transilvaniei. posed doxie no." Transilvania "Probleme 95.94 sur in Die Abstammung der Tschangos proposed of the relationship the Roman between passed previous representations in Romania. hair color.93 his acteristics such as height.

97 national upon metamorphoses imagined I shall look at some specific racial In the closing section of this article. Negulescu. gization was to note the that Romanian within biopolitics integrated important so and paradigmatic modernism of "ethnic ontology" convincingly logic sense In its broader and Roger Griffin.100 governance collective essence. as F?c?oaru stand not as exceptions but as representa and R?mneanfu and political that I see as the biolo intellectual tives of a general process This process for it is should be clarified." ?i poli tica de populate. "Comandamentele rassiale "Acfiunea eugenic? ca factor 3. 1934). 3 (2002): 24-43. and economic modernity political. scientific distortion response temporary and individual about by the cultural. Roger "Tunnel Visions and Mysterious Griffin. such as sterilization of those consid measures. Geneza formelor culturii: specificity. nos. "Romania and Political Europe. the biologization of national be racial nationalism a was not merely of racism or a pseudo simplification longing primitive to forms of it was a defensive of eugenics. si biopolitic . P.98 described (to include by Antohi and antisemitism). 98. reflected the concluded that relationship "Not even dru Rasism rom?nese Randa. Ion Foti. between racial and national He serology skeptically can we?at of blood the analysis least not yet?estab through of a 'national lish the existence See P. 1941). (Bucharest. Many of these 1940): de politic? de populate." Regeneration. See. "417-56. to combat of Gypsy the danger cient solutions racial and influence". no. ideas were also discussed Buletin eugenic in Manuil? 1-4 (1941): 1-4. to Ethnic tion Palingenetic in Interwar Community: Totalitarian Rethinking Movements gions 3. (26 October Modernist of Na Projects and Weindling. 97.. often and historians responses sociologists centered racial content. "Blood and eds. Racial serology. Blood." Ontology. to those who wished to see Ro racist fantasies also proved inspirational Sabin Manuil? mania revolution." finally "practical eugenic that gave the world ered dysgenic. a Manuil? Council for the Protection of suggested creating "Superior address racial issues scientifically and in accord with Race. and Antohi." Manuil? body manifesting centrifugal on "racial commandments. fragmentation brought transformations of European social. of Totalitarian Regimes 100. Trees: on Homeland. the interwar period. Roger "The Griffin." based this biopolitical program including to the Jewish "the programmatic solution "effi pro-natalism. of national belonging." which would the political of the new regime. no.99 during the framework for the biologiza rebirth provided If ideas of national as it the interwar tion of national belonging during developed period. the Balkans: From Geocultural Bovarism the Legitima and Political Reli " Romania 12. pology. Sabin 17 Manuil?. outlined his version its ethnic complete of the Romanian thus: "The goal of our population racial biopolitics pol in one place and to eliminate from all Romanians icy should be to gather our all minorities tendencies.'" Priviri critice asupra factorilor ei determinant 375. and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania 437 to this problem.Race. Concep?a eroic? a rasei (Bucharest. question". the fact that the country the Deploring a proper term biopolitics to racial lacked institution dedicated policy. for example. tional and Racial in Turda 1880-1939. links between racial anthro the intimate reveal that further arguments of national such and theories eugenicists identity." 99. and Alexan 1936). (Bucharest. nou? 7.

"The racial purification fully developed: of life and death. Sterilization Cuv?ntul national. spreading of larger masses Eu and the instruction of Romanians. for instance. 91 of indi 1940): (16 January 2.438 Slavic Review to totalitarian In a series of articles dedicated the sociolo biopolitics. ethnic group. The science of genic practices. Herseni. It can systematically the help of eugenics. was at the center of Herseni's genics. when Having surprise on measures in against minorities meditating potential discriminatory and Roma Herseni's Romania became overtly (Jews especially). physical and negative in both its positive forms. Those dysgenic from reproduction. Herseni his adherence both the Nazi expressed glorifying revolution and the need for racial palingenesis in Romania. elites. program: the evaluation and social selection based on racial qualities has been also the most efficient through its the most difficult action?but is the results?must follow: eugenics. in turn echoed thus fused with a racist vocabulary. infiltrating and contaminated Phanariot blood Dacian-Roman ancient. language racist. eugenic and necessity means. Herseni "Legionary super-nation. 102. biopolitical Once achieved. "Mitul "Rasa s?ngelui. was." of certain 17. Herseni's ideas for introducing laws in Roma biopolitical nia as the basis for national social segregation regeneration." Nazi Germany one whose racial and eugenic further the traditional policies amplified aura of cultural the German nation: "With superiority characterizing a nation controls its destiny. manian nation post or half-solved." he "can be kept in existence. in Herseni's opinion. no. a New biological announced. By 1941.and those possessing defects) quali should be banned ties cannot be left without offspring. which and long-lasting qualitative of the race through heredity. the highest its qualities and reach stages of accomplishment improve of a clear vision and human Hitler's consists of this creativity: genius possibility. is a matter It cannot be neglected. . "A race. including were of the Ro and deportation. We need eugenic laws and eu improvement cannot be leftunsupervised. ity. (The myth to eugenics. Traian Traian Herseni. Traian Herseni also stressed the relationship between and gist eugenics In "Mitul s?ngelui" racial nationalism." ?i destin 18."102 Gypsy blood. Romanian anti which nation is to be at semitism: the decay of the Romanian "Without doubt our ethnic to the to inferior racial elements tributed group. purified. policy. inferior races should be completely separated from the [Romanian] 101." was The scientific by eugenics language supplied poned. it should that. hereditary the perfect racial state." not social and political be the state's main vehicle for would institutions. being by and recently by Jewish blood."101 come as no nurtured such ideas. and improved observed. 41 Cuv?ntul categories (23 November no. fitness. of blood). Reproduction that human societies have at demonstrates clearly heredity (genetics) for physical and psychological infallible means their disposal improve for this to happen there can be no random reproduction ment?but (and of hereditary thus the transmission . 1941): 1. increased. by hence the possibility of a racial. This would entail a new national moral the gospel of eugenics.

"104 On 14 October should become 1940. even F?c?oaru reti Interestingly." Then the "eugenic to "the entire To promote will be applied nation. We have a duty to fulfill it faithfully. thought in Interwar Romania." such a legislation" F?c?oaru for Pre-Nuptial Offices transformation.105 a new on he devised plan based primarily biopolitical controlling position. (Ia?i. "N?rmele eugenice ?n organizafiile legionare." Cuv?ntul f. Bucur See Arhivele when at least. veloped duction neanfu Ibid. purity. on the "totalitarian based offered demography" examples by Germany to R?mneanfu. 39. "N?rmele eugenice ?n organizafiile legionare. that: "Regulations Guard."106 Other like R?mneanfu. expressed cence about the position in the of National that he Education. F?c?oaru. and Modernization Eugenics de gen. . Ministerul Nationale she assumes that F?c?oaru "held Inv?f?mantului. Zelea Codreanu]. 1. 17.. during in Ceausescus Romania lived until the late to which anti-abortion.Race. eugenist? in Maria Bucur and Mihaela in is si emancipare Miroiu. Eugenics re ofthat ideologue tion. Nor did F?c?oaru become "the in matters to health. an important measures. R?mneanfu. he could be of assistance. 2002). as the basis for and race gime relating biology. The Legionary was the healthy and reproductive nation fully de The Politics Kligman. only for le and optional for the rest of the population. F?c?oaru. F?c?oaru gionaries. Patriarhat rom?nesti 139-42. no. of Duplicity: Repro Controlling both F?c?oaru and R?m 1998)." they understood that "the nation is above the individual." 2. F?c?oaru of the Department of Higher Education in the director appointed of National the Legionary Education In this Ministry by government." 106. at first be should concerning regulations marriage marriage. "Eugenic as to were he declared. the need for a Romanian outlined authors. in general. See Bucur. The of its best biological the nation will be depleted Otherwise." See government posi and Bucur. 7. and Italy. According the "political and spiritual revolu tions" initiated states to succeed Nazism and fascism allowed both in by a totalitarian attitude" and "restoring values. and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania 439 dignity: it is a eulogy should not be considered morality. eds. accepting Ministry arguing would in "science. and perfection. "N?rmele ?n organizafiile le F?c?oaru.103 and advocated The biologization of national by eugenics belonging a form of thus became racial anthropology clearly associ political identity revolution the form of fascist national ated with prophesized by the Iron se of [hereditary] like F?c?oaru. Interestingly. our of our most possession. would such certificates be compulsory Initially. many eugenice gionare. controlling Modernization the implementation of public health in Interwar Romania. where could fulfil his duties. those who applied exclusively legionaries." "creating spiritual together 103.. (Berkeley. [Corneliu captain roots." ?i rolurile toria g?ndirii politice 104. an affront in to human general. couples certificates. "Miscarea 240." Ibid. Iordache 105. and other professional categories. 69 (21 December is mistaken 1940): 1. Ultimately. state should to the army the "Legionary such practices extend declared. using eugenics his arguments and programs of action. a state commandment. viduals to beauty. Some. and Maria Bucur. ale Rom?niei. Blood. argued are outlined in the testament of our lection and eugenic ideas. suggested establishing be examined and receive where could health Consultations. thus witnessed 1970s and Ceausescu's and of natalism policies idea of See Gail was communism. 854/1940." be more not be where he could than at the ministry helpful replaced. biological protection precious patrimony.

" Buletin rasial? lecfia 108. si biopolitic and Petru R?mneanfu." Buletin 14." Cuv?ntul ?i pol?tica demogr?fica See also George Stroescu. See si Petru R?mneantu. P. rest. 1-2 11. (1943) eugenic nos. Originea neamului rom?nese ?n interpretarea biol?gica 1943). demogr?fica pol?tica 44-45. loan V. nos. purpose of ethnic minorities. lege privitor "Expunere a evreilor din Romania."108 The to 'Dacian' blood talitarian biopolitics that F?c?oaru and R?mneanfu in the eugenic located was of transformation the individual and the family relocated by Panaitescu in a historical "call" from Romania's Dacian past. 11-12 14. Petit. Buna vestir? no. 109. 110. between the same motiva agenda. Originea 1991). 1941). "Originea s?nge. but we belong to a great race. Gruia." Panaitescu. (20 November (Bucha 1940): 1. More assimilation. the Dacian perpetuated which has awakened the deepest echoes of our na gionary movement. 4. P. 72. (1943): nr. to engage the interwar period was to focus on physical and. a race that is race. racial characteristics upon emphasis placed to their connection of national mechanisms identification specific were and classification. nos.109 expected fully embrace categories a new The "blood and soil" rhetoric formulate helped biopolitical one whose was to prepare the "chosen race" (the Ro program. sau de and Gheorghe etnic? Transilvania 8 (1941): Vornica. See AI. no. at the expense for the onset of a racial manians) ethnic the Romanian state. also associated with all the other processes They to discussions intrinsic about national such as national identity. reproduced See also Eugen Dimitrie ?tnica (Bucharest. and minister confirmed this in 1940 on University of the introduction the occasion of antisemitic racial laws in Romania: as a fundamental "We consider Romanian blood in the founding element of the nation." Buletin "S?nge eugenic biopolitic :370-92. and 107. "Inrudirea de s?nge." Monitorul 183 situajiei (9 August juridice glementarea Official in Martiriul si m?rturii din Romania. Manuil?. Gruia. and this reason. 7-8 220-37. 38 sa 87 to tali "Se (28 De For tar?. cember 1940): 2. P."107 In the 1940s it thus became to see the possible fascination with race as a glorification of the national revival that was most movement. essence in discussions about national and racial character over. (1940): eugenic si biopolitic stat ?n noul ?i politica populatiei legionary. Romanian anthropology more a resembled than a scientific program serology closely political In the dialogue science and politics. particu historical ethnic and racial supremacy. con during descriptions on the nation as a an in sequently. ."111 was In interwar Romania. destiny. 2650/1940 de motive la decretul la re 111. "Noi suntem de aici. Petru "M?suri de R?mneafu." 589-91.110 loan V. tional being. The Le in us. no. larity. professor of law at the utopia: of Bucharest of justice. (Bucharest. carried out by the Legionary As the historian P. has also raised to a place of honor. ?i glie. 14-21. exemplarily Panaitescu declared: "We are not only the sons of the earth. as the nation was now to immortal of identity. toward the end of the 1930s. 17. physical entity?as object?existing its exchanges with other nations and through and races. . 1940-1944: evreilor Documente 1940).440 Slavic Review "the faith of the citizens with in the future of the nation" and "the insti tution of the family.

" in Interwar Romania. belonging. Trees. the contested within championed can over the nature in interwar Romania of national Debates identity on never be concentrates if attention addressed. of parliamentary de sought "critiques im and liberal politics" but more (as Maria Bucur has argued) mocracy a new national to achieve in the attempt do body amid alleged portantly to crisis" according mestic decline ("modernity's spiritual ontological and unfavorable international conditions losses (territorial Roger Griffin) of the nation and war). comprising in a new ethnic ontology. Eugenics and Mysterious 133. only literary adequately essence. To be sure. serology. cultural histories often of national the intersected with racial narratives Indeed. and Biopolitics in Interwar Romania 441 racial anthropology that universalized also nationalized it. Blood. and its fulfillment tions 112. the same and other anthropom?t that made craniometry. are to be not only in this article. anthropological and about the national arguments do not make other debates definitions of national belonging serological on the nation that the origins of eu less important. sions and Modernization Bucur. developments to rie experiments also gave rise to their being fundamental anthropology field of national identification. need for the rejuvenation of the ethnic shared by most Ro community at the time was based on the manian intellectuals of "palingenetic myth" both the idea of spiritual metamorphosis national renewal.112 During the interwar period. 222. but they do indicate as those described of biopolitical in such genic programs rejuvenation. Griffin.Race. "Tunnel Vi .

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