Sleeping Matters

By  Colvin  Chan  (4),  Vanessa  Law  (16),  Chun  Hei  Li  (20)  



1.  Introduction   2.  Survey  results   3.  Implications  from  the  results   4.  Importance  of  sleeping   5.  Methods  to  grasp  more  time  to  sleep   6.  Conclusion  and  Reflections  

P.1   P.2-­‐5   P.5   P.6-­‐9   P.10   P.11  

1.  Introduction  
    Everyday  we  sleep.  Actually  researchers  state  that  we  would  spend  about  one   third  of  our  lifetime  sleeping.  But  why  sleeping  is  that  essential?  What  would  be  the   consequences  if  we  don't  sleep  enough  every  night?     Hong  Kong  is  a  well-­‐known  dynamic  metropolis.  People  living  here  are   particular  about  efficiency.  It  is  common  to  see  employees  sacrificing  their  lunch   hours  or  even  sleeping  time  for  paper  works,  or  students  staying  up  late  to  prepare   for  exams  or  finishing  assignments.  As  a  result  of  the  fast  pace,  citizens  are  often   suffering  from  the  lack  of  sleep.   We  titled  our  project  “Sleeping  Matters”  and  we  aim  at  exploring  more  about   sleeping  matters  –  sleeping  behaviors  of  people,  the  importance  of  sleeping,  the   mechanism  of  sleeping,  and  more…        

Sleeping  Matters   1    

 What  is  your  age?     Most  of  the  interviewees’  age  lies  between  “14-­‐17”   and  “18-­‐25”.         3. How  many  hours  do  you  sleep  every  night  (on  average)?     Most  people  sleep  6  to  7  hours  every  night.  We  guess  this  is   because  these  are  the  ones  who  surfs  Internet  the   most.  We  received  82  responses  from  the  survey. What  is  your  gender?     60%  of  the  interviewees  are  male.  which  is  about  2  hours  less  than  the   optimum  8-­‐9  hours  of  sleep  every  night.  From  the  survey.  we   hope  to  gather  information  on  interviewees’  sleeping  pattern  and  whether  they  think   they  sleep  enough  or  not.   while  40%  are  female.             2.     There  are  about  10%  of  the  interviewees   who  get  less  than  5  hours  of  sleep  every  day.  who  are  quite  young.   2.  Survey  results     We  hosted  a  10-­‐questioned-­‐survey  online  at                       Sleeping  Matters   2     .  Here  are  the   results:       1.

 working.  and  are  the  main  reasons   resulting  in  the  lack  of  sleep.               4. When  do  you  usually  go  to  bed?     5. What  is/are  the  reasons  for  not  having  enough  sleep?         We  asked  the  interviewees  to  identify  the   reasons  of  their  lack  of  sleep.  10=absolutely  enough)     This  question  asks  people  to  rate  whether   they  sleep  enough  or  not.     As  we  could  see. Do  you  think  you  get  enough  sleep?   (1=absolutely  not  enough.     Almost  half  of  the  interviewees  go  to  bed  at   12am.  while  11pm  and  1am  comes  as  the   second  popular  option.     Studying.  people  don’t  really  think   they  get  enough  sleep.  which  means  they  think   they  get  really  insufficient  sleep.                 Sleeping  Matters   3     .             6.  There  are  even  12   people  chose  “1”.  web-­‐surfing  and   chatting  with  friends  were  popular   choices.

Do  you  feel  energetic  when  you  wake  up   every  morning?   (1=strongly  disagree.       7.  10=just  perfect)     It  is  surprising  that  quite  a  number  of  people   think  they  enjoy  good  quality  of  sleep.  How  would  you  rate  the  quality  of  sleep?   (1=extremely  poor.                     9.                 Sleeping  Matters   4       .  “5”  was  the  most   popular  choice. Do  you  know  the  optimum  number  of  hours  of  sleeping?       Most  of  the  interviewees  could  identify  8-­‐ 9  hours  as  the  optimum  number  of  hours   for  sleeping.     with  “7”  as  the  most  popular  option.                       8.  10=strongly  agree)      The  results  are  quite  average.

 yet  it  is  not  encouraged  to  use  sleeping  hours  in  surfing  the   web  or  chatting  with  friends.  it  is  even  more  to  have   enough  sleep  every  night.  work. Most  people  know  the  optimum  number  of  sleeping  hours.      Sleeping  is  important  in  keeping  our  body  healthy.   Sleeping  Matters   5     .     It  is  great  that  about  74%  of  interviewees  know  that  8-­‐9  hours  of  sleep   is  needed  every  day. The  main  reasons  for  the  lack  of  sleep  are  things  related  to  study.  It  is  bad  for  our  health.       3. Could  you  identify  the  health  problems  associated  with  the  lack  of  sleep?                           It  is  a  pity  that  most  interviewees  could  not  identify  the  health  problems  caused   by  the  lack  of  sleep.  Implications  from  the  results   10.  but  most  of  them   do  not  sleep  enough.  the  following  implications  could  be  derived:     1.    Probably  because  they  don’t  sleep  enough.  Within  the  6  options.     2.  although  most  of  the   interviewees  enjoy  good  quality  of  sleep.  web   surfing  and  chatting  with  friends. People  enjoy  good  quality  of  sleep. People  do  not  feel  rejuvenated  in  the  morning  when  they  wake  up.  People  could  read   more  about  impacts  on  health  caused  by  the  lack  of  sleep.       4.  but  most  of  them  failed  to  do  so.     3. People  lack  knowledge  on  the  health  problems  associated  with  the  lack  of   sleep.   while  14  of  them  even  chose  short  sight!     From  the  survey.     It  is  understandable  that  people  sacrifices  their  time  in  things  related  to   study  and  work.  Yet  44  people  chose  low  back  pain.  only  heart  disease  is  a  direct  problem   associated  with  having  not  enough  sleep.     5.

 and  muscles  are  not  paralyzed. The  Five  Sleep  Stages     In  mammals  and  birds.  Each   type  has  a  distinct  set  of  associated  physiological.          N1  -­‐>  N2  -­‐>  N3  -­‐>  N2  -­‐>  REM   B.  Importance  of  sleeping   Before  we  investigate  the  bad  impacts  on  sleeping  deprivation(  the  lack  of  sleep).  and  N3.  There  is  usually  little  or  no  eye  movement  during  this  stage.  In  addition.  lets   have  a  brief  look  on  our  body’s  sleeping  mechanism.     A.  and  psychological   features.   Dreaming  is  rare  during  NREM  sleep.  N2.  a   descending  muscular  atonia  is  seen.     REM:  This  stage  accounts  for  20–25%  of  total  sleep  time  in  most  human  adults.  neurological.   there  is  a  parasympathetic  dominance  during  NREM.  The  American  Academy  of  Sleep  Medicine  (AASM)  further  divides  NREM   into  three  stages:  N1. Optimal  Sleeping  Hours     Age  and  condition   Newborn   1–12  months   1–3  years   3–5  years   5–12  years   Adolescents   Adults.  and  the  order  normally  being       NREM:  There  are  distinct  electroencephalographic  and  other  characteristics   seen  in  each  stage.  including  elderly   Pregnant  women         Average  amount  of  sleep  per  day   up  to  18  hours   14–18  hours   12–15  hours   11–13  hours   9–11  hours   9–10  hours   7–8(+)  hours   8(+)  hours   Sleeping  Matters   6     .  sleep  is  divided  into  two  broad  types:  rapid  eye   movement  (REM)  and  non-­‐rapid  eye  movement  (NREM  or  non-­‐REM)  sleep.  Such  paralysis  may  be  necessary  to  protect   organisms  from  self-­‐damage  through  physically  acting  out  scenes  from  the  often-­‐ vivid  dreams  that  occur  during  this  stage.   Most  memorable  dreaming  occurs  in  this  stage.     Sleep  proceeds  in  cycles  of  REM  and  NREM.   4.  At  least  in  mammals.

    Here  is  a  graph  illustrating  the  bad  impacts  of  sleep  deprivation  on  our  health.           From  the  graph.     We  are  going  to  investigate  the  some  of  the  problems  above.     A) Obesity   B) Weaker  immunity   C) Memory  lapses  and  loses   D) Depression         Sleeping  Matters   7     .  we  could  see  that  sleep  deprivation  is  responsible  for  quite  a  number   of  health  problems.

 as  species  with  the  longer  sleep  times  have  higher  white  blood   cell  counts     Sleep  serves  to  ‘restore’  what  is  lost  in  the  body  while  we  are  awake.   Several  large  studies  using  nationally  representative  samples  suggest  that  the   obesity  problem  in  the  United  States  might  have  as  one  of  its  causes  a  corresponding   decrease  in  the  average  number  of  hours  that  people  are  sleeping.  protein   synthesis  carries  on  and  is  particularly  active.           Sleeping  Matters   8   .  When  compared  with  a  control  group.  leading  to  weight  gain  and   ultimately  death.  complete  sleep  deprivation  increases  both  food  intake  and  energy   expenditure.  The  findings   suggest  that  this  might  be  happening  because  sleep  deprivation  could  be  disrupting   hormones  that  regulate  glucose  metabolism  and  appetite.       A) Obesity     Prolonged.   The  association  between  sleep  deprivation  and  obesity  appears  to  be   strongest  in  young  and  middle-­‐age  adults.  however  a  hormone  imbalance  is  observed."  and  it  has  been   suggested  that  mammalian  species  which  invest  in  longer  sleep  times  are  investing  in   the  immune  system.  In  a  study  by  Zager  et  al.  in  2007.  reduce  an   individual's  chances  of  getting  a  good  night's   sleep         A   comparison   of   a   mouse   resulting   in   obesity   (left)   and  a  normal  mouse  (right)       B) Weaker  Immunity       Sleep  deprivation  affects  the  immune  system.  such  as  sleep  apnea.  a   significant  change  in  the  immune  system.   rats  were  deprived  of  sleep  for  24  hours.  Other  scientists  hold  that  the  physical   discomfort  of  obesity  and  related  problems.  different  kinds  of  anabolic  hormones  (growth  hormones)  release.  When   we  sleep.  It  is  now  possible  to  state  that  "sleep  loss   impairs  immune  function  and  immune  challenge  alters  sleep.  These  procedures  facilitate  our  muscle   growth  and  tissue  repair  which  help  us  to  restore  and  recover.  the   sleep-­‐deprived  rats'  blood  tests  indicated  a  20%  decrease  in  white  blood  cell  count.

 providing  additional  evidence  for  a   link  between  mood  and  sleep.  many  tricyclic   antidepressants  happen  to  suppress  REM  sleep.  When  we  sleep.  Drummond.  when  sleep-­‐deprived.  stress  will  be  accumulated  to  a   higher  level.     Momories  seems  to  be  affected  by  stages  of  sleep  such  as  REM.  Salamat.  These  dendrites  are  responsible  for   presenting  and  transmitting  messages.  these  nerve  cells  can  be   reorganized  into  neuronal  connections.  Subjects  were  given  initial  cognitive  tests  while  well-­‐rested.  and  thus  causing  anxiety  and  depression.   C) Memory  lapses  and  loss     Scientists  have  shown  numerous  ways  in  which  sleep  is  related  to  memory.  working  memory  was   shown  to  be  affected  by  sleep  deprivation.  Such   impairment  of  ability.  In  a   study  conducted  by  Turner.  On  the  final  test.  The  study   allowed  18  women  and  22  men  to  sleep  only  26  minutes  per  night  over  a  four-­‐day   period.  During  sleep.   memories  and  knowledge  are  solidified  and  organized.  No  external  information  is   presented  to  dendrites*.  reasoning.  Incidentally.  The  incidence  of  relapse  can  be  decreased  by   combining  sleep  deprivation  with  medication.  and  then  were   tested  again  twice  a  day  during  the  four  days  of  sleep  deprivation.  60%  of  patients.  the  neurotransmitters.  and  episodic  memory.     D) Depression     Recent  studies  show  sleep  deprivation  has  some  potential  in  the  treatment  of   depression.  if  not  improved  promptly.   the  average  working  memory  span  of  the  sleep-­‐deprived  group  had  dropped  by  38%   in  comparison  to  the  control  group.   Due  to  physical  overexertion.  show  immediate  recovery.  sleep  deprivation  will  cause  impairment  of  ability.  with   most  relapsing  the  following  night.  improving  and  refreshing  our  memory  and   learning  ability.  Working  memory  is  important  because  it   keeps  information  active  for  further  processing  and  supports  higher-­‐level  cognitive   functions  such  as  decision  making.  and  Brown.         Sleeping  Matters   9              *  A  dendrite   .

 As  a  result.  provoking  a  lack  of  sufficient  and  healthy   sleeping.  Yet.  it  is  highly  advised  to  attain  a  regular  balance  of  sleeping.         To  solve  this  problem.  In   addition.  For  example.  In  addition.  they  always  suffer  from  a  lack  of   sufficient  sleeping  and  cannot  concentrate  in  school  next  Monday.   Therefore.     Sleeping  Matters   1 0     .       To  overcome  this  problem. To  have  a  regular  lifestyle       Students  in  Hong  Kong  always  point  out  that  the  heavy  workloads  they  are   facing  often  cause  them  to  have  not  enough  time  to  sleep.  they  may  not  get  used   to  this  sleeping  pattern  and  can’t  get  into  sleep  easily.  and  the  next  day  they   have  to  get  up  at  6.  it   can  help  us  make  use  of  our  time  more  efficiently  and  earn  more  time  for  sleeping.  They  think  that  the   homework  from  school  or  other  tutors  cause  them  to  spare  some  time  from  sleeping.  playing  sports.     5.  it  is  highly  advised  that  a  clear  work  schedule   should  be  formulated.  Sleeping  till  late  hours  can  most  probably  cause   sleeplessness  in  the  following  night.  they  can  make  good   use  of  their  time  on  studying  and  enjoy  sufficient  sleeping.  For  example.  As  a  result.  students  would  easily  fall  asleep  in  school  and  cannot  concentrate.  they  may  have  to  sacrifice  some  time  for  leisure  if  they  cannot  attain  a   balance  between  school  workload  and  sleeping.  they  should  sleep  before  12  every  day  to  ensure   they  can  have  a  sleep  of  at  least  7  to  8  hours.  teenagers  are   guaranteed  to  have  enough  sleep  every  day.  especially  to   sleep  early  at  nights  and  wake  up  early  in  non-­‐school  days.  Then.  they  will  most  likely  spend  the  whole   night  and  sleep  at  the  very  late  hours.  work  should  be  divided  to  many  parts.  they   stay  till  2  or  3  at  night.  In  other  words.  chatting  with  friends  or  surfing  the  net.  a  more  regular  lifestyle  should  be  formed  among  these   Hong  Kong  teenagers.  With  this  schedule.   Everyday’s  work  should  be  finished  within  the  same  day.  Through  this  regular  lifestyle.  we  need  not  to   face  the  heavy  and  accumulated  workload  every  Sunday  night.  it  is  healthier  and  more  beneficial  to  the  teenagers  as  they   can  be  more  attentive  at  school.  For  example.     2.  studying  for  constant  tests  and  examinations  also  cause  them  to  have  a  lack  of   sufficient  sleep.  with  the  everyday  practice   of  this  sleeping  pattern. To  have  a  better  management  of  work     1.   Also.  it  is  wiser  not  to  sleep  till   afternoon  during  weekends.  etc.  Methods  to  grasp  more  time  to  sleep         Young  people  in  Hong  Kong  often  have  an  irregular  lifestyle.  the  teenagers  can   sacrifice  their  time  spent  on  shopping.  Moreover.  Then.  At  the  very  first.  at  weekends.

 we  really  have  a  thorough  understanding  about  sleeping.       6.  We   understand  the  urgent  need  of  twisting  our  lifestyle  a  little  bit  so  we  developed   measures  to  grasp  more  time  to  sleep.  we  are  enlightened   that  it  is  our  body  to  bear  the  severe  consequences  of  the  lack  of  sleeping.  we  really  think  that  this  project  is  very  rewarding  and  fruitful.     After  this  project.     As  teenagers.  we  would  opt  for  the  option  of  forgoing  our   sleeping  time  to  finish  our  undone  assignments  or  to  have  revision.  Conclusion  and  reflections   At  the  beginning  of  the  project.  Yet.  we  acquire  the  knowledge  that  there’s  no  reason  for  us  to  sacrifice  out   precious  sleeping  time.  But.  In  order  to   maintain  our  body  fitness  and  to  prevent  any  serious  illness.  we  may  not  realize  how  our  health  is  threatened  by  the  lack  of   sleeping  and  still  live  an  unhealthy  lifestyle.  we  figured  out  that  there  are  some   misunderstandings  about  sleeping  among  our  classmates  and  friends.  Only  by  doing  so  can  we  learn  efficiently  and  healthily.  after  the  project.  we  may  face  heavy  pressure  from  academic  fields  and  very  often   suffer  from  sleeplessness.  it  is  an  essence  for  us  to   improve  our  lifestyle  by  allowing  more  hours  of  sleep.                         -­‐  The  END  -­‐   Sleeping  Matters   1 1     .     As  students.  We   learn  much  about  sleeping  and  can  really  benefit  ourselves.  we  should  remind  ourselves  the  utmost   importance  of  sleeping  and  manage  out  time  well  in  order  to  attain  a  balance   between  sleeping  and  studying.   we  decided  to  explore  more  about  sleeping  matters  through  the  project.  Normally.  On  the  other  hand.  Because  of  this.     All  in  all.   We  now  understand  the  fundamental  importance  of  having  sufficient  sleeping  of  8-­‐9   hours  and  realize  the  potential  health  risks  as  a  result  of  inadequate  sleeping.  after  this   project.

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