Tourism, and preserved areas in Brazil and United States. © Copyright by Victor Aquino, 2001, 2006 WEA Books & Publishing Inc. Monroe, LA USA

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The herewith reflections were motivated from an apparent need on reviewing tourism concept, tourism market and tourism services, coming to light, not only from this study context, but also from implications that tourist use of certain areas brings out to environmental conservation. And the use of preserved areas has been more and more evident by causing, sometimes, debatable transformations, which most of the time simply contribute with the spread of environment depredation. That is the reason why there is a need of a conceptual review of this field of study, of course, emphasized more towards the study of the behavior from those who use these services to the exploration of it as business. Since, as noticed, that is the data known from this who is considered the “leading role character” in which the process tourism process cycle is developed, that is the tourist him/herself, who justifies more and more the awareness of this process as a whole. Thus, the understanding of tourist process originates from the data collected from the leading character, bringing to conclusion that they not only make improvements on defining tourism as a field of study, but also modify certain postures regarding some areas


transformation in turning them into places for tourist purposes. Some orthodox academic postures, of course, when analyzing the whole process in which environmental areas are included in the tourist consumption purposes, tend to do so by taking into consideration as priority those areas potential. When, in the other hand, they should concern about the use purposes of these areas centered in the consumers/users or, as already mentioned above, the leading character of such process. Mario Beni1 characterizes the man as the subject of tourism, the subjective element of such process. Unnecessary, of course, to mention that being the man mainly the center of a business in which the proportions not only alter the environment, but mainly the culture and behavior before coming to the main character of such process, should the human being understand that the sense of a fundamental entity that determines market reasons, destination of politics incentive for exploration of spaces as well as reasons for generating opportunities of tourism among them. By leaving intentionally sideways the treatment of the data that are usually referred not only to differences among the amount of


people which leave or come to the country in such conditions as to politics implication (existent or not) for the development of the section, an approach is searched to facilitate the justification of a field of study even more committed to the so called marketing-demands. Therefore, it must be taken into consideration that the mechanisms which qualify the market, by justifying areas exploration and eventually necessary investments for its ad equation and development, place the interest of the user in the main observation line in such locations. Centering the basis of such reflections on plans of interests concerned to areas on which, perhaps thank to media, or maybe to implications on the particularly-correct, or probably to a feedback of the taste for the unusual or for the exotic, more and more often in all sectors of contemporary life, a series of inquires that leads to new discussion of the concept of tourism is unchained. More and more, as noticed, a tendency of the use of the so called natural patrimonies has guided toward a diametrically opposed direction of whatever is practiced so far in this context. That means, exploration for the exploration, typically of commercial characteristics, of the spaces figured all over the world as mechanisms of promotion from something named “Ecological Tourism”.


But, in fact, that is an excuse for the indiscriminate use of something that should deserve reservation for a total protection. Tourism is basically a process that involves five activity cycles in which its interdependence results of materializing the respective business. Such interdependence cycles can be represented by the business of transportation, housing, restoration, support services, and entertainment of those who need to move for a variety of reason. There might be many explanations leading to definitions and concepts of area. However, as tourist business has been far so long guided since the beginning of transportation cycle, it should be understood that the respective process has assumed a much stronger sense with the dimension of the meaning of displacement (the condition of something that can be represented by the act of “going somewhere”) than the dimension of the meaning of physical foundation of those who have already been displaced (the condition of something that can be represented by the event of “being”). The other cycle of this process such as restoration, supporting services and consumer's entertainment, they turned out to be considered somehow too late without incorporating meaningful data and the inclusion


of its study, as well as admitting a lack of an understanding of those activities real meaning. Therefore, reflections presently purposed are more than just appropriate, once they concern consumer's point of view while addressee of all cycles and as the object of study from his/her own behavior. So, from this point of view, all and any approach of this process is referred as based on the consumer's behavior dimension, and also as being responsible for all changes in the conception and use of tourist business.2 So, it would be convenient and adequate to assume that the study of space usage in preserved areas, with tourist exploration purposes, can be determinant to introducing reflections which brings to the conclusions that a change in business concept, observing the nature of new places to be explored, or being used as tourist business only, also drive to a new model of concept in tourism study. The introduction of a new cycle, previously absent of this process, results in a treatment posture regarding this matter. A new cycle is already known, regards to nature of the “place” as object of tourism exploration. Because of previously it had never had a great importance, for establishing a concept of tourism process, to knowing the “place” as it was Tokyo, Paris, Bogota, London or New York,


and as it turned out to be fundamental today. So the idea of transportation, housing, support services and entertainment of those who travel changes a lot with the exaltation of preserved areas as places for tourist exploration. An idea accepted by a great number of specialists in tourism today is that this is the industry which processes natural resources without deteriorating them and it cannot be generalized as a definition, for most general that is. And that is because tourism is a matter of business and this condition has established the process in which it is produced, advertised, sold as tourist services for consumers. It is not important, however, the nature of the business: being it a water fountain, a great convention center, sightseeing and transatlantic, or students monitored trips to a great ecological reservation. Such business will always represent, in the group of resource processing, a certain degeneration. A single fact can be used as indicator of the caution regarding to environmental preservation: it is known that a great number of people, above the natural and constant levels of any area, always generate a large amount of dejection that can commit its integrity.


So, neglecting the treatment of those dejection, area access inconveniently opened to users without due preparation or improperly, neglecting the control of the use, it can damage, or prematurely deteriorate the “place”, as well as the commitment of the users attitude who will incorporate this way of using it as natural as possible and will wind up endangering the market integrity, while being consumer of such process. Nevertheless, it is important to point out that tourism shall not be misunderstood while preservation ideas only, environmental valuation or cultural contact. Although of great importance, those ideas also have a great content dimension which is explained only from a global market understanding. If, in a way, they should guide development and tourism product use, in the other, they do not get to be enough for establishing an understanding of an specific process of offer & consumption. That occurs because a similar process involves, above all this, the behavior factor, especially because it rests in the consumer of such product the articulation mechanism between the offer and consumption of preserved areas.


While consumer, the tourist is placed in the market as the agent who seeks for advantages of well accomplished business, being predisposed to an attitude in larger or smaller scale in the understanding of what natural patrimony really is; and also the necessity of its preservation, but only if such components have deserved a forecast in the course of business. As it is noticed, from a very practical point of view, tourism can be preserved as this process by means of which transportation services, housing, feeding, purchasing, and entertainment take place for those who need to go somewhere. It is not important, however, the distance it the need has been pure business, study or leisure. Likewise, the tourist is the leading character and the predominant of the process who establishes the nature and dimension of the necessary services. From this point of view tourism can also point out, besides a field of study of users' behavior, to innumerous scenarios of study and research. Of course, different understandings can be presented not only in the tourism process when a phenomenon of consumption production, widespread today, but also in the elaboration of tourist products.


Nevertheless, it is important to understand the economic function of an activity that properly inserted can represent notable instruments for local and regional development. Likewise, some social aspects, coming from the economic function of this activity contribute to redefining service and dimensioning its offer by making it somehow dynamic, a market in constant mutation.3 The institutional precautions to insert preserved areas in the cast of tourist exploration have been many. In Brazil, and all over the world, efforts have been made to the exploration of such areas possible. In the United States, for instance, most of all National Parks are object of that utilization. However, of course, they undergo a rigorous use control in order to decrease deterioration effects from the users' affluence. The economic parameters of Brazil and the United States, in terms of tourism, are obviously different. In spite of the respective physical area are equally large and possessors of an ideal diversity for tourist4 exploration, the condition in both countries vastly differ. When in the United States the springs have been a matter of planning and controlling for decades, in Brazil the development of efforts


to protect and use environmentally protect areas is sort of recent. The fact of being located in Brazil the only rainforest, five of great proportions, still remaining in the planet, it contributes significantly so that there is a concern as being one of the main attribute of government plans in tourist exploration. Nevertheless it is important to point out that abundant natural resources themselves are not enough in the United States, Brazil, or any other place for establishing large scale tourist projects. It should be taken into consideration that natural resources is one of the tourism raw material and it turns out to be useful in this market when it is transformed into tourist product. The Brazilian Amazon, for instance, as many other of places considered ecological patrimonies, has elicited discussions and controversies all over the planet. Likewise, little by little, it begins to be noticed that such patrimonies should not depend only on government decisions from the regions they are located. Anyway, rainforest, grottos, springs, waterfalls, natural nurseries of classified fauna, as well as geographical accidents specifically determined, areas of intangible minerals and


other natural resources tend to transform themselves into sacred objects non available for tourist exploration in the name of environmental conservation and preservation.4 Would that be, however, a rational political attitude? In the United States, as well as in countries where the policy for rational use of preserved areas, these initiatives occur from local communities concerns which are directly involved to preservation and use of such areas. Most of the time, in the behalf of progress, lots of rainforest contents, fauna and constant flora of entire areas that did not even undergo through preservation were decimated. Community initiatives might then have been the only means of instrument in which their intangibility was guaranteed. However, concerning Brazil, there is no similarity at all because places such as Amazon and Pant anal, for instance, begin inspiring caution much earlier to its utilization in large scale like tourist areas. When it does not remain much of the old trails, rural landscapes, bucolic roads to the most distant interiors of the country, the man finds out that he is still looking for places where his likeness to make natives resist the harmful effects of progress.


They are solitary places, where we should have never been, but the lack of preparation and commercial greed are of great attraction. The phenomenon of nature are, as well as great human facts, reference points all over the world and, therefore, points to be seen in this research of the unknown, or not well known, still part of worldwide tourism. Sometimes, the man himself goes to certain areas for religious reasons. These are the cases of the Islamic Pilgrims to Mecca, the Pilgrims in Tibet; the view of the Holy Grave is Jerusalem, Lourdes Sanctuary in France, the Temple of “Nossa Senhora de Fatima” in Portugal, or others in Brazil, like “Nossa Senhora Medianeira” and “Nossa Senhora Aparecida”. This entire not to mentioning more bizarre places such as “Vale do Amanhecer” in Brasilia, or the mystic place of “Sao Tome das Lertas” in Minas Gerais, as well “Machupichu” in Peru, or “Isla de la Pascua” in Chile. These places are visited by million of people throughout the year. These visits may occur due to aesthetic, religious reason, or simply sightseeing. Places such as Taj Mahal or The Wall of China, mentioning two great places only. Sometimes the Grotto of Ban that fascinated the Roman Emperors also exercises


this fascination on tourists from all over the world. Likewise, the incline Tower of Pisa, the Pyramids of Egypt, or the runners of the Louvre Museum. These places translate another dimension of tourism to million of people, which justify a lot the concern by focusing this study field from user behavior and the nature of the place used. The Brazilian tourism was systematized by Federal Government's initiatives since 1996, when a series of measures and incentives were put into practice. The recording of these data brings out to a certain perplexity only due to the date that the State Government decided to consign importance to the sector, an so essential and so neglectful economic activity. Twenty years after that initiative, the incentives became instinct by leaving the sector completely neglected. Besides the fact that the so called tourism industry has produced in Brazil, direct or indirect transactions, in 1994, of about US$ 45 billion (making it possible to collect about US$ 8billion in taxes), the country still receives fewer tourists than Uruguay. This is due to the fact that, thank to weakness, specialists begin to engender mechanisms of use from preserved regions as


an alternative of appealing and attracting local and abroad users. In spite of the inferiority conditions found by the Brazilian tourism in the South America context, this sector employs around 6 million workers, with an annual income transaction of US$ 16 billion. These data, provided by the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), also shows that, in Brazil, 1 out of 6 workers has his/her work directly or indirectly linked to that activity.5 However, as all government publication is highly promotional, such data itself can be considered an exaggeration. The document with the data mentioned says that “in spite of being responsible alone for more than 50% from the total income of tourism and trips in South America and possessing the largest tourism potential of the continent, Brazil's participation in the world tourist market was of 0.3% out of the total international trips in 1993. So, it will be worthless, for instance, all the investment efforts made by institutions of the second cycle. As said before the first activity cycle is transportation. Without vast improvement in this area success in the second cycle, accommodation, is daggered.


Hatch of balance and harmony among the face activity cycles, transportation, accommodation, conservation, support services and entertainment can only result in tourist dissatisfaction. Tourist behavior is indicative of the nature of the demand for which the infrastructure must be prepared. New York and Paris represent different ways of dealing with the tourist. Long before, it has been noticed that there is a great unbalance and lack of harmony among all these process members. As seen in the country, transportation policy itself does not match tourist reception potential nor places considered as more prepared to absorb tourist's contingents that annually occur. To develop tourist implementation plans, tourism has to be focused as a matter of problem. Problem because it has in its center the illustration of the user who, as human being, behaves him/herself and reflects behavior. These behaviors have been for long seen as indicative of demand (and also serving as market condition explanatory) than of what should be changed in order to adapt him/her into environment. And to locate the problem of tourism in Brazil, we should previously understand


international tourism great realities. As it was said, New York and Paris alone represent different ways of dealing with the tourist. The subway system of the French capital must be excellent for its inhabitants. But would that be of attendance solution to tourists? The New York Yellow Cabs, also, apparently sufficient, became an object of dispute among tourists and local citizens. And as the local trade universe has been a tough object of dispute among them as well. By keeping this in rationally mind, it should be questioned what the best receptive posture is: charge for toilet use, usually rare and unavailable, or even offer them in sufficient quantity and clean? All this can be compatible with mass tourism, contributing a lot more to increasing trade due to the tourism flow. Because, as it is known, the key of such business is the person him/herself. The posture of the “avoid the tourists”, last ironic New Yorkers store owners' joke can be latent in other postures worldwide, although yet not declared. One good example of it is the lack of success in tourist business from the Inns in Portugal. They can, circumstantially, represent some commercial success within Europe after this pasteurization of nationalities coming from


the European Union. However, a not qualified way of treatment of avoiding the tourist that has taken place in these countries, by giving the excuse that lodging is not necessarily a hotel, is now established. The mistakes of the Inns, imposition to local taste and habits, together with cultural hypocrisy of aiming the money of the tourists only, turns the picturesque into bizarre, the native into primitive, and the simple man into illiterate. The thing is that all over the world there are internationalized ways of “Avoiding the Tourist”, by making the user incompatible to environment and by confusing these business enterprises. Aberrances such as “Sexual Tourist” in Brazil, whose client reception by European companies transform the natural scenarios into a huge bawdy-house; significantly contribute to deform the country image and other attractiveness in campaigns of international promotion. Other aberrations are sometimes found out later on only. That's the case, for instance, of Carioca' tourist guides who crowd the tourist support service for Brazilian tourists in New York. It should always be consideration that cultural taken into insertion of


professionals acting in certain realities. That is, the origin of the guides does not matter, but it is extremely necessary that they do know the reality the are acting in. The experiences faced by Brazilians who, in the last few years, tried to discover other scenarios in other geographies in several cultures has been innumerous. By the end of this century - we say that as a saying - Brazilian are discovering the world. But it is also said that first they haven't discovered their own country yet. However, Brazil, this huge country of great geographic and culture varieties, should be prepared to be discovered, either by Brazilians or citizens from all over the world. Therefore, a tourist exploration policy regarding environmental preservation and non saturation of spaces should be formulated properly. Reflections like these can be a start point to understanding the causes and reasons why Brazilians are doing, little by little, what Americans used to do long in the past. When they travel throughout the world looking for new horizons and personal satisfaction, they are touched by the instigating contact with other cultures and by doing this they increase their own knowledge horizons.


But what kind of phenomenon is that in which, in 1995, would had taken 54% of the tourist who left Brazil to the United States and not to monuments of the world? A good explanation would be that leisure tourism, pure and simple, is not the one particularly chosen by those Brazilian tourists, by leading at least to one question: What do they do during their trips to New York, Florida and other parts of North America? In the 50's, it was emphasized the idea that American citizens were living their consumer's dreaming moment, right after the difficulties faced during the 30's and 40's. Would postwar have consecrated that ideal, by making reflections to human happiness based on the new conquest of him/herself after the high profits of the war? The same war that by chance approached Brazilians and Americans. That approached based, however, in the utilization of military bases in Brazilian territory would consecrate a coexistence strategy, still consecrated today. From this point on, however, together with the influence of cinemas, it is established in Brazil a new cultural entail fundamentally marked for consumption icons: blue jeans, coca cola, rock'n'roll, and all new linguistics


established by American advertising companies that also began to settle down in the country. Suddenly, the culture and American fashion invade the Brazilian ideal, by moving aside the elements of European culture, more and notably the French one in the perfected elements of consumption, allowed by that time only to wealthy consumers. Such situation developed by making that youth's excesses were transferred to a common natural root. Today, however, it is very difficult to establish distinctions among what is purely behavior Brazilian in the tourist universe. Therefore, hostelry pattern has as reference the American hotel standard. Also, in the same manner, the standard of fast foods is originated from it. Not mentioning other habits, expressions, and behavior used in the tourist universe that practically integrates semantics and grammar of American origin. By taking those details into consideration, with geographic approach and pricing conditions, we can better understand the nature of this popular tourism appeared in the last few years in brazil which has as a destination the purchasing paradises of Orlando and Miami. Not mentioning other destinations such as California, Chicago, Washington or new York.


But the destination port that attracts Brazilian more from south to south of the country is Florida. The communication means are responsible for the dilatation of the Brazilian aesthetic values and the approaches of those with the Americans. Under the same point of view, it can be noted the most different values of cultural assimilation. It can be verified, by means of studies from tourism and hostelry from American universities, that the workability of tourist business in Brazil depends on the little government initiative and lots of investment. Government initiative in this meaning means to be just one: turning investments in the sector economically viable without restrictions nor reserves, nor protectionism. Also including the ones from transportation. Therefore, with this condition guaranteed, investments will come up. And that is due to an old market law that attracts the interests about all apparent advantage, and it consecrates investments in all consequent business. All kind of business should be pure business only. And to make it more profitable it should be developed making progress to the ones who maintain it, including the country itself, which can not stop hypocrisy or avarice.


However, they contribute to spoiling it much earlier. Tourism, as business focused on the person him/herself such as health, living etc., is highly vulnerable to eventual hypocrisy and avarice to whom explore it - even in terms of government. These are the main plagues to be pulled by the root from this kind of business. On the other hand, globalization has made, partially, tourist business loose some of its delight, surprise, divine disclosure and discovery because mostly everything is known, it has already been seen on TV, and we all know how it works already. And with globalization, media effects have made tourism attractions change in a so powerful dimension that we can barely understand its real effect. What are going to do in Rome, Stockholm, Tokyo, Buenos Aires, Johannesburg or Istanbul if we already know what is to be seen there? Worse, if we already know that everything to be seen is exactly the same we have in our country? Or more, When we know in advance that we will fight with the crowd who will simultaneously go to theaters, museums, restaurants, or will be overcrowding ferryboats, endless lines inside cathedrals, monuments, malls, and whatsoever.


The greatest globalization aberrance is the commercialization of innumerous merchandizes which are turned into modern consumption icons in the tourist market like the unending electronics list (most of them completely useless) manufactured in many different places and simultaneously sold in Rome, London, New York, Abidjan, Sidney and Moscow. It is extremely necessary to know these realities so we can distinguish new areas asset utilization that, with a greater contact to nature, modify the usual behavior of tourists in a process where conservation concern is priority. Therefore, what it is to be modified does not matter, what it has to be taken into consideration is the tourist process main character: the tourist him/herself. A large amount of users and values itself from them derived,6 are more than enough to establish an exploration criteria for new areas. In 1996, the Brazilian GDP was of US$ 750 billion, with a participation of 2.6% represented by tourism section. In the same period the American GPD was of US$3.6 trillion, with a participation of 1.8% represented by the tourism section. It is not difficult to observe that tourism is not a priority business in the United States. Even so, the amount of money coming from it is


absurdly larger than in Brazil where, in spite of the conditions, it can become an expensive economic activity. It is, therefore, extremely necessary to study this phenomenon beginning with behavior point of view mainly, to fundamentally establish a human insert in the process. Because, if in one way, the publication examples of relevance of this matter are more than enough, by justifying one area that since the 50's plays a special role in worldwide economy; in the other, it is urgent that studies in the psychological field is stimulated concerning user's participation, specially from preserved areas, little by little including it as spaces of tourism utensils. Of course, it is true, and it shall be mentioned that Brazilian bibliography, more and more abundant in this matter, has justified such demands. Mario Canlos Beni, Doris Ruschmann, Celia Dias and Mario Jorge Pines, among others, have already thoroughly consecrated this matter. And with the whole world crowed of travelers day by day, with traditional places packed, no more adequate thought should come to mind that finding out a rational way of exploring virgin areas without neglecting the danger they will be going through if preventive measures of controlled use is not taken.


Attached bibliography


Beni, Mario Canlos. Analise estrutural do turismo. Sao Paulo, Senac, 1998, p. 39. Bennett, L. “Advertising psychology and research”. In Review of Tourism and Recreation, 1, 1976. Harssel, J. Tourism: an exploration. Elmsdorf, NPBH, 1988. Ruschmann, D.M. “Equipos e servicios para el turismo ecológico en el Aazonas brasileño”, in Estudios y Perspectivas en Turismo, 1, 2, 1992. Ministerio da Industria, do Comércio e do Turismo. Embratur, Instituto Brasileiro de Turismo. Politica nacional de turismo: diretrizes e programas 1996-1999. Brasilia, 1996. Lage, Beatriz H. G. & Milone, Paulo Cesar. Economia do turismo, Campinas, Papirus, 1998, 3S ed.







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