Decision Making

Decision making can be regarded as the mental processes (cognitive course decision of process) action resulting among in the a selection of a several produces alternatives. final Every The




output can be an action or an opinion of choice.

Decision Making Stages:
Developed by B. Aubrey Fisher, there are four stages that should be involved in all group decision making. These stages, or sometimes called phases, are important for the decision-making process to begin Orientation Stage: This phase is where members meet for the first time and start to get to know each other. Conflict Stage: Once group members become familiar with each other, disputes, little fights and arguments occur. Group members eventually work it out. Emergence Stage: The group begins to clear up vague in opinions is talked about. Reinforcement while decision. Stage: Members finally that it make was a decision, the right



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Decision Making Steps:
1. Identifying the Problem: The first step is for you to identify and define the problem. A problem is a question that requires appropriate solution. Here, you find the limiting factors and obstacles. 2. Analyzing the Problem: In the second Gather step the you are supposed to analyze or the data




regarding that problem. 3. Develop a List of Alternative Solutions: After analyzing the problem, you should develop a list of the alternative answers that solves the problem. There are resources that are of great help in developing the list such as browsing the internet etc. 4. Selecting the Best Alternative: From the list of alternative choices, select the best choice. From the list, compare the effects of each choice. When selecting the best choice, bear in mind the risk element of each choice against your expected gain. Do proper timing of your decisions.

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5. Execution of the Best Choice: In this step, and in you an put the best choice on action.

Communicate properly to your subordinates by being clear, concise choice. 6. Follow up: Keep following up with the progress on how the decision is being implemented. You exercise this through proper control. require This helps you or in detecting the areas the that whole improvement modification before understandable manner regarding the

decision comes to halt. 7. Monitoring and Feedback: The last step is to get feedback. Feedback from your subordinates helps you to determine the effectiveness of the implemented decision. If possible, you should come up with a mechanism that gives you periodic reports on the success of its implementation.







Individual Decision Making:
A major advantage of team decision making is that more information is brought to bear identifying and evaluating alternatives. The more diverse the team's composition, the more likely it is that creative ideas will be forthcoming.

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1. Diversity: Varied cultures, age teams, gender, etc all add to the diversity of team which gives us varied perspectives and enhances the kind of ideas the team can come up with.

2. Varied Experiences: There are difference in fields of experience and amount of experience and there differences in the life experiences and the kind of experiences people have had even with the same problem. This pool of experience can be a great advantage.

3. Enhanced Memory for Facts: An individual may forget a particular piece of information, but as there are a number of people involved here, there is the combined memory of all members to recollect data.

4. Greater Acceptability of Decisions: As everyone has made some contribution to the decision, people tend to be more accepting of the decision. Also those who may not have contributed still support it as "the team" has come to this decision.

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5. Error Detection: When there are many people working together, mistakes and errors that may have accidentally gone unnoticed and had serious consequences are spotted by other team members.

6. Collective Understanding: The members together come to a decision after much deliberation and discussions and so everyone has a better understanding of the course of action to be followed.



Influence and



Individual may have to



be and




eliminate them.

8. More Creative Solutions: With so many people involved, more creative and innovative solutions to problems may emerge than an individual may have been able to develop.

9. Shared Responsibility: There are a number of people involved, so no one person has to shoulder the burden of work or of single-handedly making a decision.




The team decision making may

even have a motivational effect on the team if the team is a successful one.

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11. Simplifies Complex Decisions: Many complex decisions can be made by the team decision making process which an individual may not have been able to tackle. 12. More information and knowledge are available 13. More alternatives are likely to be generated

14. More acceptances of the final decisions is likely 15. Enhanced communication of decision making may result 16. Better decision generally emerge

While team decision making has numerous advantages there are times when individual members may outperform the team. In fact, at times, what are the very advantages of team decision making become disadvantages? 1. Diversity: is Too not much needed, diversity, can or diversity cohesiveness when and



affect the team decision making process. 2. Time Used: With too many people involved, more time is required to reach a decision which reduces efficiency. 3. Team Think: If members strive for agreement at the cost of accurate assessment of required information, the

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team decision making falls prey to the problem of team think teams. 4. Diffusion of Responsibility: As numerous people are involved, no one person wants to assume responsibility which may lead to lesser results. and individual performances may reflect better results. This is particularly true for highly cohesive

5. Potential for Conflict: If the team is too large or low on cohesiveness or too diverse, and sometimes even if none of these factors are present, there is the potential for conflict which may reduce output. 6. Team Polarization: People sometimes tend to make more extreme or radical decisions in a team than individually. This is an advantage so far as it offers new solutions but extreme solutions may present more problems than anticipated. 7. Cost to Organizations: The cost in terms of time, money and resources is high where team decision making is involved which may not always be viable. 8. team Competition: decision If individual may performance is lead also to

rewarded in teams in a manner that is not motivational, making inadvertently competition among individual members.

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Objective may be

Direction: a lack

In of



without and






decisions arrived at may be vague or ambiguous.

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