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A PROJECT REPORT ON IMPACT ON SHOPPER OF STORE IMAGE, SITUATIONAL FACTORS AND STORE LOYALTY A Study on Westside Store
FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENT
OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
SESSION 2008 -2010
MBA IV SEMESTER REGISTRATION NO. 520844782
Under the guidance of Prof. Malay Bhattachariya
I would like to give heartily thanks to Sikkim Manipal University, who have given us an opportunity to learn something practical apart from books by including the inplant training in our MBA Programme. I express my gratitude to Faculty Guide Prof. Malay Bhattachariya who has supported me to complete this thesis. I would like to express my most sincere thanks and gratitude to External guide Mr. Manowar Hossain (Senior Department Manager, Westside- Mani Square Mall) who have given a good support to grab the external exposure and to complete a thesis in Westside.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Acknowledgment………………………………………….…………….1 Introduction…………………………………………………….….…….2 Literature Review…………………………………………….…….……4 Retail Industry: An Overview…………………………………….……...6 Objective of Study……………………………………………………….11 Westside: Retail Giant…………………………………………………...13 Research Methodology…………………………………………………..21 Hypothesis……………………………………………………………….22 Data Analysis…………………………………………….………………27 Consumer Pull Factors……………………………………………….…..35 Recommendations…………………………………………………….….36 Conclution……………………………………………...………….……..37 Bibliography………………………………………………………….…..39
Retailing consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, shopping mall etc .The retailer buys goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers either directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells smaller quantities to the end-user. Retail establishments are often called shops or stores. Retailers are at the end of the supply chain. Manufacturing marketers see the process of retailing as a necessary part of their overall distribution strategy. In the retail outlet various type of good and service are provide to the customer but all the goods and services are generally homogenous in nature through all the other retail outlets. Product and services of every company are available in every retail outlet. It is also find that many customer only used to shopping in own decided outlet rather from every outlets even there is homogenous among the product and service offer by the every retail outlet .So This put the question in the mind of the every retailer that is there is any gap between what customer expected from retailers and what retailer provides to customer during shopping. No two customers have the identical likes and preferences. Delivery value and narrowing down the zone of tolerance is a tightrope walk for marketer in organized retail sector. Especially in market like India the challenges is formidable because organizations need to cater to a wide and diverse group of customers .Thus building equity and generating volumes in such complex market tapers down to the function of managing customer expectation. Customers take their time to first sketch their needs and then arrive at a specific decision. At the end of the day the question is what does the customer expect? How to fulfill the glaring gap between need and expectations? The answers to this question are “by delivering the value “ But in many case retailers are not aware of what their customer expect. Hence they are unable to deliver the right value to the right customer and satisfy them .Especially in this competitive scenario where the customer are well informed, commanding and demanding at the same time it has become imperative for the organization to be updated on the “WHAT”,”WHY”and “HOW” of each and every customer. This calls for empathizing with the customer by indulging into their priorities and decision making.
The various determinants of retail outlet preference include cleanliness. The benefits of taking the customer’s response beyond satisfaction at this level by exceeding expectations. wide aisles. These factors have been divided into three heads. 2001). not exceeded nor disappointed those expectations. Satisfaction in this sense could mean that a supermarket has just barely met the customer’s expectations. Following general expectations of a typical customer • • • • • Value of Money Availability and location Service expectations Quality in Product Need based solution So in other to deliver the value. A daunting task but companies have no option but to offer the expected value. Retailers have to satisfy budding customers. drastically changing customer attitudes and expectation levels. 2000) in which the consumer’s needs. recreational shoppers (shopping as a leisure activity) and apathetic consumers (who dislike shopping). car parking. and all this at an affordable price. It is an affective reaction (Menon and Dubé. They must cater to shoppers need for pleasure and practicality. Retailers need to establish a good image to prevent customers from shopping around. disabled access.Store. older consumers as well as time crunched individuals whose motives all tend to be conflicting as well as different. Situation and Shopper factors. desires and expectations during the course of the service experience have been met or exceeded (Lovelock. herbal or medical benefit. The study would enable us to understand the impact of various factors that influence a consumer’s shopping behavior in a departmental store. multiple billing points and environmentally friendly goods. 3 Pages . customer have versatile expectations like.Even in the case of a product as simple as beauty soap. Retail outlets in addition to providing products and services. is a competitive strategy many retailers aspire to achieve. helpful staff. personalized consumers (concern with relationships). that too by keeping the operating costs low. and range of products. These differing motives arise as retailers cater to different types of shoppers who include economic consumers (concern with value). good packaging fragrance. It would also help in knowing the magnitude and direction of movement of these factors amongst each other. There is a recurrent struggle for existence and survival in the wake of deep competition. well-stocked shelves. need to cater for a wide range of motives. glowing skin etc. If expressed as a calculation. customer satisfaction might look something like this: Customer expectations = Companies Performance/ Companies Satisfaction Satisfaction is a consumer’s post-purchase evaluation of the overall service experience.
Stephen J.(Moore. Several factors such as age. ‘ A research Note on major Retail Centre Patronage) Customers belonging to different age groups prefer different stores. Location related variables are given importance in analyzing both trade areas and retail patronage behavior (Hubbard. and Douglas 1983.Shopper Related Variables 3. Store image reflects shopper’s perception of a store in terms of functional and psychological attributes.W Sweitzer 1974. good environment etc. Loyalty is also influenced by shopper related variables.’ A review of Selected Factors Conditioning Consumer Travel Behavior’.S. In consumer priorities. There have been researches done which suggests that the greater the congruence between self image and store image. Situation Related Variables Loyalty has been found to be greatly influenced by Store Related Variables. Some of the important store related variables are Shop location.50). This means different customers have different levels of desired consumer benefits which vary according to their own perceived values. (Pathak.E . Store Related Variables 2 .’ Customer Image Versus the Retailers’ Anticipated Image. Vol. Tigert. Charles Thomas .J. Ourn.’ Determining Attributes in Retail Patronage) Shop location is an influencing variable on loyalty as convenience of shopping is among the main criteria of the customers. Raymond 1978..’ Journal of Retailing.The consumers are favorably inclined to revisit a store where they have positive shopping experiences like a great range of assortments . Tae H. 4 Pages . and Joseph Barry Mason 1969. income and social class of the shopper have found to influence on customer’s decisions. assortment and variety come after convenience and price.Crissy.LITERATURE REVIEW The concept of store loyalty is derived from the concept of brand loyalty which refers to the tendency to make repeat purchases of products of the same brand. The image of the store has also great effect on the loyalty of the customers. Products Range and Store Image. Store loyalty refers to the tendency to repeatedly shop at the same store for similar or other products. and R.. W. (Arnold.There is a direct linkage between personal values and desired consumer benefits. journal of Consumer Research) . A loyal customer would give preference to a specific store and would tend to be far more forgiving of errors of the store There are three main set of variables that have been found to have an impact on loyalty of customers: 1. the greater is the probability that the customer is loyal. D.
their needs and buying behavior. These factors include task definition. level of involvement. Recognition of the need for a product or a service is the first stage that may lead to a consumer buying. shopping orientation and usage of information.’ Shopping Orientations and Consumer Uses of Information) Thus we can say that the existence of the customer is integral to the existence of the retailer. The store choice has been found to depend on buying situations that differ with the level of involvement (Moschis. 5 Pages .P . G. and the demographics of this segment.1976. These indicate the intensity of need and the comfort of the shopper in taking a purchase decision. The ability to understand consumers is the key to developing a successful retail strategy. The need may be psychological or functional.Loyalty is also influenced by the situation related variables. which means the target segment. A key factor in understanding customers is identifying the customers for product or service.
969 69. the industry is expected to grow at a pace of 2530% annually. Company Name Wal.591 8.704 7.305 142.125 70.Mart Store Carrefour Tesco Metro Group Seven & I (ii) Kroger AEON (i) Target Schwarz Group Costco Country US France UK Germany Japan US Japan US Germany US Banner Sale 2007E (In (US $ million) No of Outlets 2007 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 395. it also acquired the largest book and music retailer in India ‘Landmark’ in 2005. It is also expected to reach 22% by 2010.750 2.331 13.419 3.000 crore in 2004-05 to Rs. Trent owns over 4 lakh sq. India retail industry is the most promising emerging market for investment.541 22. 35. the industry is getting more popular these days and getting organized as well.672 14. In 2007. it rose to 12%. which operates Westside and Star India Bazaar. 6 Page . ft retail space across the country.633 73. It can be mentioned here that. the retail trade in India had a share of 8-10% in the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the country. Though initially.375 73. the India retail industry is expected to grow to US$ 700 billion by 2010.803 1. 109.942 84.RETAIL INDUSTRY: AN OVERVIEW The Indian retail industry is the fifth largest in the world. The India retail industry is expected to grow from Rs.573 102.590 3. the organized sector will be 20% of the total market share. No.229 103. Top Retailers Worldwide: Rank Retailer Home Country Leading global retail players by revenue Sr.000 crore by the year 2010. Established in 1998. With growing market demand. however with the change of tastes and preferences of the consumers. the share of organized sector in 2007 was 7.575 518 Source – Planet retail According to a report by Northbride Capita. By the same time. According to the 8th Annual Global Retail Development Index (GRDI) of AT Kearney. especially over the last few years. the retail industry in India was mostly unorganized. Tata group is another major player in Indian retail industry with its subsidiary Trent. India retail industry is one of the fastest growing industries in India.5% of the total retail market. In 2009.416 71. Comprising of organized and unorganized sectors.
Malls in India Over the last 2-3 years. It is further expected to reach US$ 1. correct identification of needs. Chennai. the expected demand for quality retail space in 2006 is estimated to be around 40 million square feet. But malls in India need to have a clear positioning through the development of differential product assortment and differential pricing. in order to compete effectively in a growing mall market. quality products at lower prices. now it is the malls which are playing the role. Hyderabad. ft. There is an increased demand for quality retail space from a varied segment of large-format retailers and brands.ft. population densities. Today. would Ensure the success of the ‘mall revolution’ in India. the consumer spending has also gone up and is also expected to go up further in the future. like up-market malls. while a mall in USA is 400. from just 3 malls in 2000. its own definition of a ‘mall’. Kolkata. which include food and apparel chains. but are witnessing quick growth. By the year 2013. By 2005. For example. Compared to other big cities. organized retailers –with their modern. Smaller cities like Pune. As a result. and 500.The Future The retail industry in India is currently growing at a great pace and is expected to go up to US$ 833 billion by the year 2013. Segmentation in malls. consumer durables and multiplex operators.ft. Factors such as availability of physical space. While previously it was the large. Ludhiana. the consumer spending in India climbed up to 75%. Kolkata and Hyderabad are relatively new entrants in the mall segment.000 to 1 million sq. Lucknow.. Jaipur. the India retail industry is expected to grow further in the future days. etc. the organized sector is also expected to grow at a CAGR of 40%. As the country has got a high growth rates. are also expected to see a formidable growth in the growth of malls in the near future. Chandigarh and Indore. India is all set to have over 220 malls by 2005. Gurgaon) is expected to increase to over 21. an Indian version can be anywhere between 80. up-market outlets. Noida. and National Capital Region (Delhi. the Indian consumer market has seen a significant growth in the number of modern-day shopping centers. city planning.1 million sq.ft. mid-market malls. and the right timing. and socio-economic parameters have driven the Indian market to evolve. the right store mix. popularly known as ‘malls’. Shopping-centre development has attracted real-estate developers and corporate houses across cities in India. Bangalore. Ahmedabad. in size. As a result.000 sq. total mall space in the 6 cities of Mumbai.000 sq. In the last four year.who had been a key factor driving the growth of organized retail in the country. proper planning. 7 Page . and direct consumer interface.3 trillion by the year 2018 at a CAGR of 10%. to a certain extent.
in the major metros of the country. Despite the presence of the basic ingredients required for growth of the retail industry in India. and monitoring customer needs constantly. it still faces substantial hurdles that will retard and inhibit its growth in the future. Organised retailing in India is gaining wider acceptance. Retail marketing efforts have to improve in the country . and coping up with new challenges in an ever-changing marketplace. • Absence of developed supply chain and integrated IT management. The development of the organised retail sector. and cumbersome local laws. While the industry and the government are trying to remove many of these hurdles. • Lack of trained work force. The retailers in India have to learn both the art and science of retailing by closely following: How retailers in other parts of the world are organizing. managing. are some of the aspects which Indian retailers need to focus upon on a more pro-active basis.Challenges of Retailing in India Retailing as an industry in India has still a long way to go. • Taxation. • Intrinsic complexity of retailing – rapid price changes. • Low skill level for retailing management. has begun to change the face of retailing. especially. This has largely limited capital investments in supply chain infrastructure. Indian retailers must use innovative retail formats to enhance shopping experience. which is a key for development and growth of food retailing and has also constrained access to world-class retail practices. Multiplicity and complexity of taxes. some of the roadblocks will remain and will continue to affect the smooth growth of this industry. One of the key impediments is the lack of FDI status. efficiently managing high-value customers. which favors small retail businesses. retailing needs to cross the following hurdles: • Automatic approval is not allowed for foreign investment in retail. however. and try to understand the regional variations in consumer attitudes to retailing.advertising. constant threat of product obsolescence and low margins. not be at the same rapid pace as in other emerging markets. Experiences in the developed and developing countries prove that performance of organised retail is strongly linked to the performance of the economy as a whole. 8 Page . during the last decade. and campaigns to attract customers. building loyalty by identifying regular shoppers and offering benefits to them. promotions. this growth would. To become a truly flourishing industry. Fitch believes that while the market share of organised retail will grow and become significant in the next decade. • Regulations restricting real estate purchases. lack of proper infrastructure and relatively high cost of real estate are the other impediments to the growth of retailing.
which have stymied its growth.This is mainly on account of the reach and penetration of this business and its scientific approach in dealing with customers and their needs. Indian retailing faces some major hurdles (see Table 1). While these retailers gave the necessary ambience to customers. little effort was made to introduce world-class customer care practices and improve operating efficiencies. the industry remained in a rudimentary stage. Viveks (consumer durables) and Nallis (sarees) started their operations. most of these modern developments were restricted to south India. In spite of the positive prospects of this industry. Moreover. Early signs of organized retail were visible even in the 1970s when Nilgiris (food). 9 Page . which is still regarded as a ‘Mecca of Indian Retail’. as a result of the roadblocks (mentioned in Table 1). However.
Diwali. Halloween. Women • “Tween” girls represent a lucrative opportunity for retailers. ‘Post teen” girls spend more on jewellery and household items and thus they contribute a lot more in terms of revenue . Fall Season • • August and September are important months. Retailers are provided a good opportunity to increase their share.SEASONS OF RETAILING Summer Season • • It’s usually from May to July. but the whole look that the teen girls aspire to define. Christmas and New Year Eve bring more customers. “rightlook” and the “dude” image is still important to them. They are going to become the future buyers. Holiday Season • It begins usually at the end of October and carries through the fourth quarter ending in January. • Festivals like Dusherra. Low sales are recorded during this period. sports goods and music. It’s not just the clothes and accessories. • Usually it’s the best time for retailers. • “Teen” girls are more trend savvy. food. • Boys tend to spend more money on electronic gadgets. CUSTOMERS Men • While guys tend to prioritize fashion to a lesser degree than girls. Spring Season • • It lasts from February to May Fewer footfalls are recorded in malls. • This season is good for promotions and launching new advertisement campaigns.
‘socio-economic status. as the location of the store conveys a fair amount of its image. Over the years. the retail location is an important part of the retail strategy. If a retail store was located in the right place. However. which has the highest impact on ‘store image’? STORE FACTORS 1) How convenience and location influences a shopper’s loyalty for a store? 2) How differentiation in type and quality of assortment offered by a store affects the buying behavior of shopper? 3) How similarity between self-image and store-image leads impacts store loyalty? 4) How store image impacts store loyalty and how it influences store satisfaction in shaping shoppers’ overall store loyalty? The location of the retail store had. with advent of non-store retailing and the rise in web-based retail. it was considered to be adequate assurance for success. merely choosing the right location can’t be considered adequate.’ and ‘store format’ of shoppers. ‘mall image’ (tenancy mix). It also influences the merchandise mix and the interior layout of the store 11 Page . for a long time.OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDT SHOPPER FACTORS 1) What influences a shopper to patronize a National Brand or Private Label? 2) Which of the two ‘manifest satisfaction’ or ‘latent satisfaction’ has stronger impact on store loyalty? 3) Does the similarity between retail mix-elements and desired benefits of customer lead to higher shopper loyalty? SITUATIONAL FACTORS 1) Is there any impact of ‘recency of purchase experience’ and ‘frequency of visit to a store’ on probability of repurchase from that store? 2) Is there any impact of ‘buying situations’ and ‘level of involvement’ on the store choice? 3) Of the three. been considered the most important ‘P’ in retailing.
Moreover. the new location may not always have the benefits of the earlier one. adjust prices. it is fairly difficult to change the location. for choosing the location of this store. the location of a convenience store would not be suitable for that of an expensive jewellery boutique.Part of a Shopping Center. The choice of the location of the store again. Typically. or 3. Moving from one location to another may result in the loss of customers and employees. For ex. Types of Locations Various options are available to the retailer. The availability of parking is an important feature of every shopping center. 2.A shopping center has been defined by the International Council of Shopping Centers as “a group of retail and other commercial establishments that is planned. depends on the target audience and the kind of merchandise to be sold.Mani Square Mall in Kolkata is a part of the shopping center. improve communication with consumers and offer better services. developed. owned and manager as a single property”. 12 Page . Part of a business district. Westside . Freestanding/ Isolated Store. once a store comes into existence.While a retailer can change his merchandise mix. a store maybe 1.
In a rapidly evolving retail scenario.000 square feet each) in Ahmedabad. Kolkata.000-30. the company has 46 Westside stores measuring 15. Footwear. beverages.000-30. Vadodara. Ludhiana. 13 Page . Mumbai. stationery. and greeting cards. This story began circa 1998 when The Tatas acquired Littlewoods – a London based retail chain. Well-designed interiors. Star Bazaar also includes a large range of fashionable in-house garments for men. Rajkot. Gurgaon. Pune. Perfumesand Handbags. fruits. Trent recently acquired a 76% stake in Landmark. Chennai. Delhi. vegetables. artifacts. Littlewoods was subsequently renamed Westside. aptly exemplifying its ‘Chota Budget.000 sq. Landmark began operations in 1987 with its first store in Chennai with a floor space of 5500 sq. providing an ample assortment of products made available at the lowest prices. everything at Westside is exclusively designed and the merchandise ranges from stylized clothes. dairy products. Gurgaon. Mumbai and Bangalore. sprawling space. Lambi Shopping’ motto. ft.000 sq. Currently.WESTSIDE – RETAIL GIANT Established in 1998 as part of the Tata Group. This acquisition was followed by the establishment of Trent Ltd (a Tata enterprise that presently operates Westside). Pune. footwear and accessories for men. This store offers customers an eclectic array of products that include staple foods. Jaipur. to 45. Women’s wear. lingerie. Until 1996. What separates Landmark from other stores of its kind is the range and depth of its stock. The Westside stores have numerous departments to meet the varied shopping needs of customers. These include Menswear. and Gifts. Lucknow and Ahmedabad. women and children. ft. Gurgaon. operates Westside. Lucknow. With a variety of designs and styles. ft. Nagpur. Kid’s wear. varying in size from 12. prime locations and coffee shops enhance the customers’ shopping experience. consumer electronics and household items at the most affordable prices. The company hopes to expand rapidly with similar format stores that offer a fine balance between style and price retailing. At present Landmark have 10 stores. Landmark’s product portfolio comprised books. 3 in Chennai and 1 each in Bangalore. It was later that music was added to it. Indore. exclusively available at the store. Mysore. women and children to well-co-coordinated table linens. Westside has carved a niche for its brand of merchandise creating a loyal following. toys and other gift items. Surat. The company has already established 36 Westside departmental stores (measuring 15. Bangalore. Cosmetics. one of the largest books & music retail chains in the country. home accessories and furnishings. Hyderabad. Trent Ltd.000 square feet each across 20 cities. Household Accessories. Trent ventured into the hypermarket business in 2004 with Star Bazaar. Vadodara and Jammu. Mumbai. At present Star Bazaar has 4 stores in 3 cities located in Ahmedabad. one of India's largest and fastest growing chains of retail stores. health and beauty products. In addition. Landmark also sparked the trend of stocking curios. Ghaziabad & Noida (to be considered as 1 city).
consistently profitable lifestyle retailer “ By this vision statement it is very clear that company wants to express yourself the most prefer retailer to the people. we will understand their needs. win their confidence. in an atmosphere which encourages creativity and innovativeness. MISSION STATEMENT “Our mission is to be seen by our customers as the most relevant retailer in the country To achieve the goal. Our leadership will be the product of our styling. as well as company wants to be constantly profit gainer by providing lifestyle product. It means when people will think about shopping people will think about Westside. quality and service consciousness.” 14 Page . We will continue to scale new heights of excellence through teamwork. Not only this.VISION STATEMENT “To be the most preferred. and offer best in class products and services at affordable price. We shall always be in the forefront of fashion and services by anticipating and exceeding the expectations of our customer.
range of product. 15 Page . For unused merchandise please return the items together with your receipt within 30 days we will change them or give you a complete refund. Company is very confidence an honest in their product quality. Customer satisfaction is more important for the company in terms of quality of product. We have very confidence in the quality of our merchandise but should you have a problem. please bring it our attention. stitching problem within a year. company will exchange the product or give them complete salling price.” By the customer service policy it is very clear that the company give more importance to their customer. we will give you an exchange or refund to the current or last known selling price. However. if you are not satisfied with any item that you have purchased we will be happy to assist you. Company give their loyal customer one year quality assurance.CUSTOMER SERVICE POLICY “It is a policy to satisfy our customers with the range. we will change the item or give you complete refund. price of product. If you don’t have receipt. If you have receipt. It means in case of any manufacturing problem like colour bleeding. If you don’t have a receipt we will give you an exchange or a gift voucher to current or last known selling price. quality and value of our offer.
STORE LAYOUT PRIVATE BRAND IN WESTSIDE • • • • • • • • • NUON SRC GIA URBAN ANJEL INTIMA ASCOT RICHMOND DAVID JONES AZZUREO 16 Page .
.Ladies wear Kids wear 17 Page .EXTERNAL BRAND IN WESTSIDE • • • • • • • • LEVIS KILLER PROVOGUE LEE WRANGLAR MUFTI SPYKAR BLACKBERRY .
Paint has a luster in itself i. paint is having mirror finish so that light gets reflected and clothes and other stuff are clearly visible. Lighting. Lights are focused on clothes Color. Color is also such that it doesn’t get dirtier easily due to people leaning against the wall and resting thei5r foots on the wall.The signage and graphics are put all over the place to promote various brands. Alteration facilities.Wall color is cream so that light can be reflected easily and visibility is good in store. Westside customers can alter their garments which they purchased from Westside store. Also 18 Page .e. The brand names are clearly mentioned on boards.Stores are very brightly lit from inside and CFL tubes are put all over the store. Visual communication. Staffs are always informing their customer correct product care instructions. Promotional schemes are displayed by posters hanging over the various product ranges.Westside store are give free alteration service for better fit. Special care for customer demand.Westside store are very careful for their customers. They always suggest their customer correct perfect fit and combination. on customer demand the store bring that particular product from other store.Mens wear SERVICES & STORE ATMOSPHERE IN WESTSIDE Helpfulness of the store staff – Store staff are always ready to help their customer. in any Westside store in India. They always attain their every customer with very polite behavior. If customer are not found their size or pattern of any product in a particular store.
Point Of Sale (POS) signages and departmental signage are present in many numbers. It gives a pleasant experience to customer and is refreshing. These mirrors are also cleaned at regular intervals. drinking water. The other challenge for Westside is that the retail fashion business in the country is becoming increasingly crowded with new players. Among the new entrants have been Wills Sport. All the 3 floors are connected through escalators.Basically english as well as hindi songs are put inside the store but normally english songs are put up which are famous and are latest. Infrared detectors are put at the entrance and exit which alerts gaurds if person is trying to steal the things. watches. Security guards specially take care outside the trial rooms so as to stop people from hiding things inside their clothes.Security of the store is pretty good. Mango and the latest. Security.directional signage are there showing the way to washrooms. Escalators. Smell. Marks & Spencer. jewelry etc. Westside’s name. Mirrors. Indian and foreign. 19 Page . Cc TV’s are put all over thestore to keep check on notorious customers. Lifestyle. Each and every floor has a security manager and 3 security guards are appointed for each floor. They are also put inside the trial rooms for customer’s convenience. Nike. Continous announcement of schemes are done in between this music playing to draw the attention of customers and lure them for impulse buying. exit etc. The volume is kept low so that people can talk among themselves and can easily interact with store personnel’s. Raymond’s (Be). Category signages. looks on them.they are put one at each floor for going down and going up at a normal speed that makes shopping convenient without making the people getting tired. Crocodile. Primus Globus. FACING THE CHALLENGE The greatest challenge for Westside in its quest for a place in the retail sun is not the competition from similar organized players.A fragrant is put in the air conditioning duct so as to spread good smell inside the store and remove any bad odours present in air.They are put all over the store so that people can see how the clothes. but from the unorganized sector (98 per cent of India’s retail garment industry operates in the unorganized sector).logo and store identity is very clear from the posters Music.
Club west card program An assured return-and-exchange policy reinforces customer confidence in the chain. The promotions are mostly theme based. Fashion Logy Westside has launched a new ad campaign titled 'Fashion Logy'. special shopping hours on the first day of any discount sales event organized by the chain. but also guides and aid on dressing smart. home delivery of alterations. Diwali and Christmas. with decorations to match. styling and accessorizing. live bands and other attractions. The campaign is designed to provide the buyer with not just clothing. Another winning Westside idea is Club West.PROMOTIONS 1. 20 Page . Important benefits of clubwest card • • • • • Most attractive rewards shopping Instant use of the card Easy to operate Extra convenience Validity at all stores Westside does its regular brand building through advertisements in the media with brand ambassador Yuvraj Singh and other young models. 2. which peak during the three main festive seasons: summer.000-plus members of this club get rebates at restaurants and on holiday packages from the Taj Group of Hotels. girls wear. and best of all. a customer loyalty programme launched in May 2001. more important are its in-house promotions. The 30. The campaign sees on-ground activities and promotions designed to interact with the consumer about their style It includes women’s corporate wear. and glam denim.
an IT skills coach and a product knowledge coach.Self service is the corner stone of all discount operations. clothes and accessories are mixed and matched in a manner that creates harmony between the person and the clothes he or she wears. Self selection. was the outcome of one such need. Some things may take longer. Customers who like to be waited own prefer these types of stores . merchandizing etc. cannot be realized immediately.THE THREE Cs Corporate clothing is a major component of Westside merchandise. each store has three kinds of coaches — a customer service coach. Full Service.Customer find own goods. The emphasis here is on the three Cs: Comfort. and the goal is to provide the complete corporate look. a tool for customers to let Westside know their preferences. The success of this programme has made it a benchmark for all Tata Group companies WESTSIDE PROVIDES FOUR LEVELS OF SERVICE Self service. although they can ask for assistance Limited Service. The wish list. where color.Sales people are ready to assist to any phase of the locate compare select process. Only if there is an optimum demand can the store look at fulfilling it. Many customers are willing to carry out their own locate compare select process to save money. Gia. The company identifies star employees in each store and designates them as coaches responsible for the training of their own store staff.Westside also offers services like credit. Westside employees are given regular training for better interaction. Today. Crispness and Coordination. Westside’s brand for larger-sized requirements.
This is done thru primary survey. A sample of 100 respondents would be used in the research. as a function of the store they attended most frequently. The sample would be surveyed on the basis of questionnaire and data would be quantified for further analysis. For 70 percent of the interviews. 22 Page . websites. because certain retailers prohibit the interviewing of their clients exiting their stores. For the remaining 30 percent. These would be further divided amongst the stores for an evenly distributed data collection. The study provides a representative sample of the main Shopping centre in Delhi. Data Sources Both Secondary and Primary Sources of data will be used. The major type of information used is primary data. The literature review is a secondary data type. periodicals. loyalty and behavior were asked for the regular main store visited (at least once a week). In order to reckon with possible multi-loyalty. data were collected in face-to-face interviews of customers coming to Westside while exiting point-of-sale venues.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Sample and data collection This survey was conducted in the context of retail. interviews. interviews took place in the subjects' homes. printed literature etc. questions related to satisfaction. The sources include books. Research design The research design would be descriptive and cross sectional Data collection The data would be collected from primary source through questionnaires. observations etc. Sample size The sample would be selected on random basis at the store itself.
Huff’s model has subsequently been studied by introducing trade overlap areas for effects on store patronage . including- a. These studies assume that convenience is the primary reason for loyalty. These studies most often count the benefits of locating a store in a shopping center/ mall to increase the store’s ‘destination’ traffic rather than just stay with the convenience pull. several other factors such as income and social class perceptions have also been studied from the perspective of retail center patronage decisions. Generally speaking. Location-related factors are given importance in analyzing both trade areas and retail patronage behaviour (Hubbard. . Trade Area Related Convenience is the primary reason that customers show patronage towards a particular store. The limits to enhancing loyalty are essentially seen as limited centripetal pull of a store/ shopping center. situation related factors and shopper related factors.HYPOTHESIS The various hypotheses are based on the store related factors. The Huff Model states that consumer patronage is directly proportional to utility factors given by square feet and inversely proportional to disutility factors given by physical distance. Apart from distance. 1978). In fact these studies determine shopping center traffic more accurately than single store traffic. Most work in this area stems from a model proposed by Huff (1964). these studies have resulted in the formation of the Theory of Gravitational Pull in the field of retailing patronage studies. Hypothesis Based on Store Related Factors Loyalty is affected by factors that are related to the store.
Tae. The orientation of the shopper also impacts the preference of a store. In consumer priorities. It has been found that shopper seeking more hedonic gratification from the shopping tends to patronize ‘new’ format stores that focus on experimental marketing and offer better ambience and service (Sinha. b. these stores suggest that competing stores need to differentiate themselves based on type and quality of assortment offered. Louviere and Gaeth. Product RelatedWithin a given trade area. Given that consumers are favourably inclined to revisit a store where they have had positive shopping experiences (found something they could not find anywhere else). Craig. source credibility. Several studies have found a correlation between shopping orientations and lifestyle and with store loyalty and preference for stores. The emphasis here is on tailoring the environmental clues using retail mix elements to foster patronizing. One of the used strategies is to develop own store Private labels. 1978. It has been observed that the impact of the store brands on the consumer loyalty is lower in product categories where the ‘quality believability’ of national brands is higher. studies emphasize the ‘uniqueness of assortment’ as a way of influencing store loyalty and patronage. private brands are found in more than fifty percent of stores. 1987). assortment and variety comes after convenience and price (Arnold. plastic and wraps. Categories such as paper. Consumers have distinct perceptions of national and local brands vis-à-vis the retail private store brands. 26 October 2003). 2003).Convenience is the main motive for shoppers repeat buying at a store. and food products have high penetration of private brands. and Douglas. Category such as grocery and washing products show a higher presence of such brands (Business Today. Shopping orientation correlates differently with the information mix elements. varying with source. 24 Page . In India. income and social class of the shopper have been found to influence retail patronage decisions (Moore and mason. Hypothesis Based on Shopper Related Factors Several factors such as age. 1984. The lowest share is observed in case of cosmetics and baby foods. Gosh. and McLafferty. and preference for a source by some consumers and usage of such information. 1969).
The more recent the purchase experience and more frequent the visits to the store. the consumer has to process vast amounts of information before making a choice. Another set of theories hold that the process happens sequentially. 1971). The third set of theories states that consumers use a limited set of evaluative criteria when making a choice and this varies depending on personality. context and product. There is a direct linkage between personal values and desired consumer benefits.The aspect of congruity between the retail mix elements as designed by the retailer and the self-image/ self-concept of the consumer has received much attention. Several theories can be applied to study information processing by consumers. 25 Page . It is generally agreed that as dimensions of comparison among stores increase and.first there are certain factors used to make a choice among clusters and then. the more is the likelihood of repurchasing that product in that store (Aaker and Jones. the hierarchical process becomes more relevant (Black. 1984). other parameters are used for decision-making (Fotheringham. Research has shown the greater the congruence between self-image and storeimage. It acts as an influencer in forming expectations about desired benefits from purchasing at a store (Guttman. it results in customer loyalty (Osman. This theory states that consumers do not distinguish between objective and subjective evaluation criteria. 1993). They tend to use both simultaneously when arriving at a decision (Hirschman and Krishnan. within the chosen cluster. These theories draw significantly from automatic cognitive information processing models and the threshold model of consumer behaviour and examine how attitude leads to behaviour/ patronage). the greater is the probability that the customer is loyal. One set of theories assumes that evaluation criteria are considered simultaneously. A consumer’s selection of a store is not completely random. 1988). It has also been found that if retail mix elements are in congruence with the desired benefits. To assess store perception on attributes that are meaningless to consumers can be misleading to a retailer. Past experience with the outlet has also emerged as one of the major drivers of loyalty. 1981). 1990).
co-shoppers and other psychosocial factors are difficult to measure and hence manage (Martineau). he or she elaborates on the evaluation of a store. Malls. This definition is within the tradition of conceptualizations of satisfaction that are used in the product literature. The study propounds that store image should be seen as a result of an interaction between the mall image. which anchor stores tend to. location. 1980). Manifest satisfaction is the result of an evaluation. We label it as manifest satisfaction. These can also be classified as tangible and intangible attributes. such as merchandise. Store image reflects shoppers’ perception of a store in terms of functional and psychological attributes. 1990. The tangible attributes of the store.Hypothesis Based on Store Satisfaction Satisfaction has often been regarded as an antecedent of store loyalty (Bitner. the consumer is likely to be aware of the outcome of this evaluation. the greater is the degree of loyalty. However. The more positive the store image. in some cases it may be very hard for consumers to generate expectations to evaluate store performance and to compare the expectations and performance as if they were independent elements. satisfaction is believed to occur through a matching of expectations and perceived performance. A mall with a department store as an anchor reflects an image of high quality merchandise and customer service. The retail literature also discusses the congruence between self-image and store image. The basis for the definition forms the disconfirmation paradigm (Oliver. It has also been found that shopping at an upscale mall is more likely to create high level of self-congruity. The intangible aspects. and displays. 481) as: The outcome of the subjective evaluation. Hypothesis Based on Store image The image of store is found to drive loyalty. are explicit and observable. Shoppers select cues from the store environment and draw inferences about the characteristics of a typical shopper of the store. Store satisfaction can be defined (Engel et al.. In order to do so. that the chosen alternative (the store) meets or exceeds expectations. The tenant mix also affects the store image. and store type. absorb the image of the store. Studies show that this congruence leads to loyalty. 26 Page . 1990). A mall a price format store as an anchor has an image of a low service mall. Several studies report direct linkages between store image and intensity of store loyalty. such as ambience. According to this paradigm. Shoppers belonging to high economic strata are more likely to perceive stores housed in downscale mall to have a lower quality image. which is well elaborated on.. p. sales people. socio-economic status of shoppers. In case a consumer makes this comparison. 1983). to the extent that an explicit comparison is made between expectations and performance. However. a consumer must both have the motivation and the ability to evaluate the store relative to the reference point employed (Petty et al.
as we expect. hypothesis 61 can be formulated as follows: The fact that the amount of consumer satisfaction and store loyalty in general are positively related. Customers’ patronage behaviour towards a particular store is dependent on their image of that particular store . but less strongly than manifest satisfaction. However. Nevertheless. the higher the valence of the store to the customer. Although a number of studies address the relationship between satisfaction and loyalty as related to products and services. latent satisfaction may also be positively related to store loyalty.The Relationship between Image. Manifest store satisfaction means that an explicit evaluation of the store is made. is hardly supported by the literature. manifest satisfaction will be positively related to store loyalty. which in case of a positive evaluation leads to store commitment. which is not elaborated on and of which the consumer is not fully aware. the exact relationship between store image and store loyalty has remained inconclusive. manifest satisfaction is directly and unequivocally related to store loyalty. which will not necessarily lead to commitment. Latent satisfaction means mere acceptance of the store. So. The more favourable the store image.there is little empirical evidence to support the explicit relationship between store satisfaction and store loyalty . Satisfaction and Loyalty In our view. Therefore. There is both evidence for a direct relationship and an indirect relationship whereby store satisfaction acts as a mediator. 27 Page . Latent satisfaction is the result of an implicit evaluation of the store choice.
DATA ANALYSIS Price of the item Statement Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Moderate Satisfied Very Satisfied Total Percentage 1 16 28 44 11 100 Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Moderate Satisfied Very Satisfied 28 Page .
Store Ambiance Statement Dissatisfied Moderate Satisfied Very satisfied Total Percentage 11.0 52.0 100 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Dissatisfi Moderate satisfied V Satisf 29 Page .0 17.0 20.
0 40.Ease of availability Statement Dissatisfied Moderate Satisfied Very satisfied Total Percentage 11.0 27.0 100 Dissatisfied Moderate Satisfied Very Satisfied 30 Page .0 22.
0 23.0 4.Sales Promotion Offers Statement Very Dissatisfied Dissatisfied Moderate Satisfied Very Satisfied Total Percentage 12.0 28.0 33.0 100 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 V Dissfi dissatified moderate Satisfied V Satisfie 31 Page .
Ambience would be an important factor Statement Not at all Week Moderate Strongly Very Strongly Total Percentage 10 27 26 10 27 100 Not at all Week Moderate Strongly Very Strongly 32 Page .
0 20.0 100 Not at all Week Moderate Strongly Very Strongly 33 Page .0 34.0 20.Convenience would be given special attention Statement Not at all Week Moderate Strongly Very Strongly Total Percentage 6.0 20.
0 100 Not at all Week Moderate Strongly Very Strongly 34 Page .0 14.0 24.0 48.Word of mouth is important Statement Not at all Week Moderate Strongly Very Strongly Total Percentage 6.0 8.
Consideration to Rebate and Discounts on Purchase Statement Not at all Week Moderate Strongly Very Strongly Total Percentage 7.0 21.0 16.0 100 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 not at all weak moderate strongly Very Stro 35 Page .0 22.0 34.
At Westside sofas have been placed in the women section so as to make the females more comfortable. • Westside has been able to create a brand image and is consistently maintaining its brand identity by new additions in products and catering to the market need. etc. This way a customer who enters Westside just to buy one or two items usually ends up buying a lot more. In having understood the pulse of the customers in India. • Over the years Westside has also developed and successfully introduced a range of new brands especially suited to the Indian palate. These brands like NUON (earlier 2F 4U) have been a tremendous success amongst the new generation. • Women’s need more space and look for comfort. • All the two floor floors are carefully structured. perfumes. Thus giving them privacy and more freedom to look into their products. They have bed sheets. For ex. kitchenware.CONSUMER PULL FACTORS • A critical factor in Westside’s success has been its strategy to attract shoppers & keep them in stores. . What has also given Westside a competitive edge is that in addition to an extensive range of internationally renowned brands like Spykar. Ground floor floor and First floor caters exclusively to Women and Men respectively. . They are less likely to buy if the place is congested and makes them feel uncomfortable. Lee and Fast Track they also offer the option of a less known brands for low budget customers. baby products. household items. This way they are able to build a huge customer loyal base. Westside has clearly established itself as a brand with an Indian heart. jewellery. On the 1 floor which is men’s section both formal and college wear is available. • They are catering to different age groups under one roof. st Westside caters to not only the clothing needs and desires of its customers.the amount of time shoppers spend in a store is perhaps the single most important factor in determining how much they will buy.
• Install more full length mirrors inside the store so as to assist the customers to make better purchase decisions. For this Westside can either offer more discounts or increase their advertisements. • The number of trial rooms available at Westside is very less as compared to the number of people coming. Music items. • Baskets should be scattered throughout the store. • They can also exhibit their new line of clothing through events like fashion shows. • Allowing more space between the entrance of a store and a product gives it more time in the shopper’s eye as he or she approaches it. • Play light music inside the store to make the shopping a pleasurable experience. It builds a little visual anticipation. • Since Westside is not only catering to apparel need of the society a few additions like Books. Electronic gadgets etc can also be added to the products available inside their store.RECOMMENDATIONS • To increase more footfalls more promotional activities must be carried out. wherever shoppers . The demand for the above products is always in the market. Increase in the number of footfalls will lead to increase in sales. This usually results in long queues and waiting by customers.
• Secondly. satisfaction. The results of this study doesn’t indicate that consumers expect the purchase experience to offer hedonic qualities such as excitement. the results of this study are limited to a specialty retail branded purchasing context. and word of mouth communication. This study doesn’t identify two types of benefits mostly desired by the consumer: utilitarian and hedonic. loyalty. Retailers should understand this if they expect to provide utilitarian benefits to consumers by way of having the right product on hand at the right place and time. escapism. but customer loyalty (favorable relative attitude) must be present to mediate the relationship. word of mouth communication).e. In order to be competitive. the sample used for this study consisted mostly of college students. The results also indicate that customer repurchase is positively associated with customer loyalty and word of mouth communication. All of the hypotheses in the study were supported by the data. the pursuit of consumer loyalty is paramount. Lastly. customer loyalty. these results may not be applicable to the wider population in general. Therefore. • First. In addition. fantasy.CONCLUTION This research has a number of limitations that must be acknowledged. In the increasingly competitive environment faced by today's retailers. it must be acknowledged that there may be numerous other variables that contribute to the development of customer satisfaction. Retailers that utilize the store-as-the-brand strategy should recognize this and work to deliver hedonic value throughout the purchase experience. In addition. There are studies which have contributed for extending the consumer benefit/loyalty framework to the retail branding context. retailers must identify the key ingredients of consumer loyalty and the relationships between the benefits delivered to the consumer and important outcomes (i. and word of mouth communication which are briefly touched upon below. retailers should recognize that performance in the delivery of these consumer benefits is linked to important outcomes such as satisfaction. they must recognize that the consumer also desires a hedonic benefit in terms of the shopping experience. loyalty. The hypothesis test results indicated that both utilitarian and hedonic shopping benefits have a positive effect on customer satisfaction. entertainment. This finding is important for theory building in this and other marketing and consumer contexts. 38 Page . and fun. Customer satisfaction is an antecedent of word of mouth communication.
39 Page . and word of mouth communication). they must satisfy the desires and needs of the consumer. it is important to continue to examine the relationships between consumer benefits and outcome variables that are crucial to the success of the retail firm (e. contribute to the development of better measures to capture each type of benefit. word of mouth communication) because satisfaction contributes to these outcomes. A particularly important area of investigation is the role of attitudinal loyalty as a mediator between customer satisfaction and word of mouth communication. customer loyalty. The extant body of literature on the consumer benefits/loyalty framework is in an early stage of development. Therefore. it is important for retailers to understand this relationship and the associated implications. attitudinal loyalty. loyalty. Retailers should recognize that they must meet or exceed the consumer's expectations in terms of the benefits the consumer is seeking. In their pursuit of customer loyalty. This qualitative research would. that attitudinal loyalty can lead to the consumer engaging in word of mouth communication about the retail store brand. A large survey of consumers of various backgrounds in various geographic areas could help to make the findings of this study more generalizable to the overall population.Another important finding not undertaken in this study indicates that consumer satisfaction is linked to attitudinal loyalty. and in turn. In turn. One way that retailers can provide satisfaction to the consumer is through the delivery of value in the form of utilitarian and hedonic benefits associated with the purchase experience. The primary goal for future research should be to identify and examine the various types of consumer benefits that influence consumers' satisfaction. and word of mouth communication. It is also important for retailers to understand the link between satisfaction and other important outcome variables (i. satisfaction appears to be an important antecedent. Although one could argue that other variables not examined in this study contribute equally to attitudinal loyalty. customer satisfaction.g. Delivering a satisfying purchase experience can lead to attitudinal loyalty. The finding of this study doesn’t talk about the attitudinal loyalty which serves as a mediator between consumer satisfaction and consumer word of mouth communication. It is reasonable that attitudinal loyalty would mediate the relationship between these constructs because it is a more enduring concept when compared to consumer satisfaction. in turn. Future research should also focus on replicating this study with a different target respondent. In-depth qualitative research in the form of personal interviews and focus groups would provide a better understanding of the benefits desired by consumers.e. retailers should recognize that in order to create a loyal customer base.
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