Solidcam 5 Axis | Machining | Numerical Control

SolidCAM Simultaneous 5-axis Machining User’s Guide

©1995-2005 SolidCAM LTD. All Rights Reserved.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual

5-axis Machining

Contents
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 5 2. User Interface ........................................................................................................................... 6 2.1 Adding a 5-axis Operation....................................................................................................6 2.2 5-axis Operation user interface ............................................................................................8 2.3 Stages of the Simultaneous 5-axis Operations parameters definition ............................... 10 3. CoordSys Page ...................................................................................................................... 11 4. Tool Page ................................................................................................................................ 12 5. Levels Page ............................................................................................................................ 14 6. Geometry Page ...................................................................................................................... 17 6.1 Drive surface selection ....................................................................................................... 18 6.2 Cut Controls: ...................................................................................................................... 20 6.2.1 Parallel cuts .................................................................................................................. 20 Exercise 1:.................................................................................................................... 23 Exercise 2:.................................................................................................................... 25 6.2.2 Cuts along curve ........................................................................................................... 26 Exercise 3:.................................................................................................................... 27 Exercise 4:.................................................................................................................... 28 6.2.3 Morph between two curves ........................................................................................... 30 Exercise 5:.................................................................................................................... 32 Exercise 6:.................................................................................................................... 34 6.2.4 Parallel to curve ............................................................................................................ 36 Exercise 7:.................................................................................................................... 37 Exercise 8:.................................................................................................................... 38 6.2.5 Project curves ............................................................................................................... 40 Exercise 9:.................................................................................................................... 41 Exercise 10:.................................................................................................................. 43 6.2.6 Morph between two surfaces ........................................................................................ 45 Exercise 11:.................................................................................................................. 46 Exercise 12:.................................................................................................................. 48 6.2.7 Parallel to surface ......................................................................................................... 50 Exercise 13:.................................................................................................................. 52 6.3 Flip Stepover ...................................................................................................................... 54 Exercise 14:.................................................................................................................. 55 6.4 Cutting Method ................................................................................................................... 56 6.5 Cut Order ........................................................................................................................... 58 Exercise 15:.................................................................................................................. 60
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SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual

6.6 Direction for One Way machining ...................................................................................... 62 Exercise 16:.................................................................................................................. 64 6.7 Cutting Area ....................................................................................................................... 65 Exercise 17:.................................................................................................................. 67 6.8 Start Point .......................................................................................................................... 69 7. Finish Parameters page: ........................................................................................................ 71 7.1 Tool Contact point .............................................................................................................. 72 Exercise 18:.................................................................................................................. 75 7.2 Lead in / Lead out .............................................................................................................. 79 Exercise 19:.................................................................................................................. 82 Exercise 20:.................................................................................................................. 86 7.3 Round surface by tool radius ............................................................................................. 92 7.4 Stock to leave..................................................................................................................... 94 7.5 Multi Passes ....................................................................................................................... 95 7.6 Surface Quality................................................................................................................... 97 7.6.1 Chaining Tolerance ....................................................................................................... 97 7.6.2 Cut tolerance ................................................................................................................ 98 7.6.3 Distance ........................................................................................................................ 99 7.6.4 Stepover ..................................................................................................................... 100 8. Gaps Page............................................................................................................................ 101 8.1 Gap Along Cut.................................................................................................................. 101 8.1.1 Gap Size as % of tool diameter .................................................................................. 102 8.1.2 Direct .......................................................................................................................... 102 8.1.3 Broken ........................................................................................................................ 103 8.1.4 Retract ........................................................................................................................ 103 8.1.5 Follow Surface ............................................................................................................ 104 8.2 Gaps between cut (Gap Size as % Of Stepover) ............................................................. 105 8.2.1 Gap Size as % of Stepover......................................................................................... 105 8.2.2 Direct .......................................................................................................................... 106 8.2.3 Broken ........................................................................................................................ 106 8.2.4 Retract ........................................................................................................................ 107 8.2.5 Follow surface ............................................................................................................. 107 9. Tool axis control page ........................................................................................................... 108 9.1 Output format ................................................................................................................... 109 9.2 Maximum angle change ................................................................................................... 110 9.3 Tilting strategies (Toll axis direction) ................................................................................ 111 9.3.1 Tool axis is not tilted and stays normal to the surface ................................................ 111 9.3.2 Tool axis will be tilted relative to cutting direction ...................................................... 112 9.3.3 Tool axis will be tilted with the angle .......................................................................... 114
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......5........................... 126 9.............................................................................................. 128 10............................................. Gouge Check page ..........4 Leaving out gouging points ......7 Check Surfaces . Appendix . 115 9.........................................................5...........................................................3..................................... 134 10................................................. 144 10..............5.............1 Retracting tool along tool axis............ 123 9...............3 Gouge pages................................................................................................................................................................ 124 9......5 Tool axis will tilted around axis .. 117 9...............5.. 123 9....................3 Tilting tool away with max angle ..........................................................4 Conical angles from leading curve..............................4 Tool ......................1 Tool Tip and Tool Shaft ...... 133 10............. Stock Page ................................................................................................................................2 YZ Limit.... 114 9..........................2 At the beginning of all: Single Surface 5 Axis Flowline . 116 9........................................................................................................................................SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9..................3...................................................5 Strategy ..............................................................................................................2 Check gouge between positions .................... 131 10.............1 Clearance .............7 Tool axis will be tilted through curve ...............................5.............................8 Stock to leave................................................................................1 Single Surface versus Multi Surface Machining in 5 Axis .. 131 10.....4.....5.1 XZ Limit....................................................................5............................................ 129 10............................................................... 147 13..................................................5 Stop tool path calculation.............................. 132 10.........................................................................4 Tool axis will be tilted with fixed angle to axis ...................................3..5................8 Tool axis will be tilted through lines ......................................6 Tool axis will be tilted through point ..... 126 9........................... 147 Document number: SC5AUG06001 4 ............................. 143 10.3.........2 Moving tool away ...................................3 XY Limit: ................................................................................................ 131 10.................................................... 147 13....................................4 Side tilt definition .......................................... 127 10........................................5................................. 146 13..................................................... Additional parameter Page ................................ 127 9...................................9 Tilted from point away.....6 Drive Surfaces.........................3..................................................................................... 144 11..... 144 10............................................................................................................................................... 128 10................. 141 10..............................................................................................................................5 Tool axis direction limit parameters .. 125 9................................ 132 10..3.................................................................................2 Check Arbor and Check Holder .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 145 12......... 143 10...........................4............................

Introduction Simultaneous 5-Axis machining is becoming more and more popular due to the need for reduced machining time. showing the motion of all rotational and linear axes. provides a solid base for your 5-Axis solution. SolidCAM utilizes all the advantages of Simultaneous 5-Axis machining and together with collision control and machine simulation. 5 . SolidCAM provides a realistic simulation of the whole machine tool. A number of intelligent and powerful 5axis machining strategies enable the use of SolidCAM for machining of such complex geometry parts as turbine blades and impellers. better surface finish and improved life span of tools.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 1.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 2. This operation is available for 3 axis. It is also possible to use the standard tools in this operation in order to create a 3D finish tool path. 6 . mostly for undercut areas. 4 axis and 5 axis CNC-machines. User Interface 2.1 Adding a 5-axis Operation 5-axis (3) This operation performs 3-axis operations using special tools such as Lollipop and T-cutter. in this case the operation generates 3 axis G-Code and it is not possible to tilt the tool.

the output will be performed with the @line_4x and @move_4x commands. For the 4-axis machine. The @line_5x and @move_5x commands will be used in the output. The user has complete control over all the cutting parameters. 7 . The output from this operation depends on the CNC machine type. The tool will be normal to the center line but will not necessarily cross the center line. This operation generates 4-axis G-code and is available for 4-axis and 5-axis CNC-machines. the output will be performed with the @line_5x and @move_5x commands. For the 5-axis machine. 5-axis (5) This operation is used for 5-axis finish and supports all kinds of 5-axis operations. The operation generates 5 axis G-code. This Operation type is unavailable for 3-axis CNC-machine types.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis (4) This operation is used for 4-axis finish operations such as turbine blade profiles on the outside diameter and spiral parts. SolidCAM positions the tool to the proper working angle using 5-axis capabilities and then performs the 4-axis machining. This type of operation is available only for postprocessors that support 5-axis machining. The only tilt strategies that are available are those that support this type of tilting (4-axis). All the tilt strategies are available. With such output. The tool can be tilted to any possible direction that the machine supports.

2 5-axis Operation user interface The following 5-axis Operation dialog is displayed on the screen: The parameters of the 5-axis Milling Operation are divided into a number of sub-groups. When you click on an item in the tree. • CoordSys Page Define the CoordSys Position for the 5-axis machining. Cuting area. • Levels Page Define Milling levels such as Clearance plane and Safety distance.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 2. the parameters of the selected sub-group appear on the right side of the Operation dialog box. The sub-groups are displayed in a tree format on the left side of the 5-axis Operation dialog box. Cutting method etc. 8 . • Geometry SolidCAM enables you to choose a drive surface for the machining. • Tool Data Page Choose a tool for the operation and define tool-related parameters such as feed and spin. Define the machining parameters such as the Cut control.

• Motion Limit control This page is related to CNC machine definitions. Generally. The defaults are determined by the MAC-file (machine definition parameters). • Tool axis control Define the tool orientation relative to the surface normal. these parameters are defined in the first definition of the postprocessor for this machine and usually it is not necessary to change these values. In such cases you can choose between several options. • Gouge check This page contains all the options to avoid the tool gouging selected drive surfaces and check surfaces. • Stock Page Stock definition can be provided in this page. For example you can choose to have small gaps ignored and milled without the tool retracting and big gaps detected with the tool retracting back to the rapid plane and skipping the gap. Such options are set within this dialog. • Miscellaneous parameters This page contains special functions for custom applications. Run tool etc. 9 . Entry and Exit moves are also defined here. Stock to leave. All tool moves in the air that do not remove material will be trimmed using this given stock definition.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual • Finish Parameters This page enables you to define the machining parameters such as Cut tolerances. • Gaps Page Surfaces defining the work piece can have gaps and holes. The Motion Limit control page enables you to change the parameters locally for the current operation.

2. Tool tilting and gouging are not taken into account at this stage.controls the angle of the tool from the normal vector in every point along the tool path. Tool path generation Tool axis control Gouge check 10 . Tool axis control . Gouge check –the gouge strategies that SolidCAM has to take into account to avoid tool and holder crashes are defined. 3. Finish Parameters and Gaps – the type of finish tool paths generated along the selected faces is defined. Geometry.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 2.3 Stages of the Simultaneous 5-axis Operations parameters definition The process of the Operation parameters definition for the tool path creation is divided into 3 stages: 1.

CoordSys Page Choose the appropriate CoordSys position for the operation.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 3. SolidCAM enables you to generate the G-Code according to the center of the rotation of the machine. SolidCAM enables you to choose only the Machine Coordinate systems. In the 5 axis (3) Operation. SolidCAM enables you to choose both the Machine Coordinate systems and CoordSys Positions for the operation. 11 . After the CoordSys selection. The CoordSys Position can be chosen either direcly on the model or from the list. In 5 axis (4) and 5 axis (5) operations. Therefore. The CoordSys selection operation must be the first step in the Operation definition process. the model will be rotated to the selected CoordSys orientation. The Machine CoordSys definition contains data of the Machine CoordSys location relative to the center of the rotation of the machine.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 4. Tool Page The Data button enables you to choose a tool from the Part Tool Table. 12 .

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Feed Finish This field gets the default from the Feed Finish parameter in the Tool Data dialog. The surface curvature is calculated at each tool path position where the surface contact point of the tool is known. Spin Finish The spindle speed for the cutting operation. This function works only on single surfaces and can’t be used to connect 2 surfaces 13 . If the user changes this value it will not change the related field in the Tool Data dialog. Retract Rate The feed that SolidCAM will use to move the tool from the material to the retract level. Feed Rates If this switch is set. The feed rate optimizer uses the machining feed rate supplied by the user and modifies this feed rate based on the surface curvature. then the feed rate optimizer is utilized. Feed Z The feed that SolidCAM will use to move from the safety position to the depth point.

Levels Page Clearance Plane The clearance plane is a Z coordinate value and presents an absolute plane at this height which is parallel to the XY plane. The tool moves from and to this clearance plane to make major repositionings. 14 . In some cases like turbine blade machining around the X axis.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 5. Setting the clearance plane height in the X axis will make the YZ plane the parallel plane and the given X value will be the clearance value over this plane. it might be better to have the clearance plane defined in the X axis.

The tool then moves in a rapid motion with some orientation to the safety distance. The tool then approaches the surface with the cutting feed rate.). the tool will be moved to the safety distance with the defined Retract Feed (see topic 4. Rapid Retract This option enables you to perform the retract movement with the rapid feed. When this option is not active.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Clearance plane Safety distance Retract distance Retract distance Retract Distance and Safety Distance The tool changes its orientation at the clearance plane (machine tables or spindles are turned) and then it moves down to the part to the retract distance. Rapid feed Retract Rate Retract distance Safety distance 15 .

The start position of the cutting will also be shifted. the retract movement will be performed with the Rapid Feed. This command shifts each point of the tool path in the vector direction of the tool. 16 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining When the Rapid Retract option is active. The gouge control will take out all the gouges that result from this shift. Rapid feed Retract distance Safety distance Depth The Depth defines a further offset of the tool in the axial direction (especially for swarf operations).

17 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 6. the curves have to be part of the surface external boundaries. The different strategies available are: • Parallel cuts • Cut along curve • Morph between 2 curves • Parallel to curve • Project curve • Morph between 2 surfaces • Parallel to surface between 2 curves For all the above strategies. Do not use sketches to define these types of geometries. Geometry Page This page enables you to select the faces to be machined and the machining strategy. In the Morph and Parallel to curve strategies. select the drive surface and the related geometries. and than select the edges. Select the faces first.

18 . The Choose faces dialog will be displayed. use the Unselect option to undo your selection. This dialog enables you to select one or several faces of the SolidWorks model. The selected Face tags will be displayed in the dialog.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6. If you chose wrong entities. You can also right click on the entity name (the object will be highlighted) and choose the Unselect option from the menu.1 Drive surface selection Click on the Define button.

You have to select the faces for the 5 axis operation and calculate the operation. return to the Geometry definition and use the Reverse command. If the tool is machining one of the faces from the wrong direction. The Reverse/Reverse All command enables you to reverse the direction of the surface normals. 19 . Sometimes surfaces are not oriented correctly and you have to reverse their normals.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual SolidCAM enables you to machine surfaces from the positive direction of the surface normals. SolidCAM does not enable you to see the surface direction.

Imagine slicing an apple: You can slice it with a knife parallel from top to bottom or from the left side to the right side.2.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6. The pictures in the dialog show how the desired cutting direction is set using the angles.1 Parallel cuts The Parallel cuts option will create tool paths that are parallel to each other. 6. Y and Z determine the direction of the parallel cuts of the tool path. The direction of the cuts is defined by two angles. The X-distance is constant.2 Cut Controls: The Exercises of the Cut control option are located in the Exercises\Cut_Control folder. With constant X Y X Changing the Machining angle in the Z parameter to 90 degrees creates tool paths parallel to the Y axis. The angles in X. 20 .

Y to 90 degrees creates tool paths parallel to the X axis. The Z-distance is constant. With constant Z Z X Changing the Machining angle in Z and the Machining angle in X. 21 . The Y-distance is constant. Y to 0 degrees creates circular tool paths.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual With constant Y Y X Changing the Machining angle in Z and the Machining angle in X.

22 . The Constant Z button. In this setup you can enter any angle to get the required tool path. The Parallel button.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Fast orientation buttons Th following buttons enable you to expedite the definition of the orientation of the parallel cuts.

3. Use the Parallel Cuts strategy and define the necessary parameters in order to cut the cylinder normal to the direction of the center line. In order to cut the cylinder and the top face you have to use a different angle (inclination). Create some operations to practice this task. 23 . Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\parallel_cuts. 4. Simulate the operations and check the parameters used to control the Machining angles for the Parallel Cuts strategy.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 1: 1. Add operations for the machining of other cylinders.prt 2.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Change Parallel cuts to spiral This option enables you to substitute the parallel cuts with the spiral cuts with the pitch equal to the defined Step over. The option is not chosen The option is chosen 24 .

Simulate the operations and check the parameters used to control the Machining angles for the Parallel Cuts strategy. 5. 3.prt 2. choose the Change parallel cuts to spiral option. 4. Note that the parallel cuts of the operation were changed to spiral movements. Calculate and simulate the operation.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 2: 1. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\parallel_cuts. Edit the operation rotate around z 45 deg. 25 . In the Geometry page.

so the cuts do not have to be parallel to each other.2. Curve Tool path 90° 90° 90° 26 . The generated tool path is orthogonal to this leading curve. This kind of tool path is popular for milling engines ports or internal curved surfaces. The selected chain could be a planar or a 3D sketch. If a wrong leading curve is selected. SolidCAM creates a plane nornal to the curve.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6. the cuts can cross over each other and the result will be unacceptable. The tool path will be created at the intersection of this plane with the drive surface. In each point of the leading curve. The curve geometry does not have to be located on the surface or on the edges of the surface.2 Cuts along curve The Cuts along curve option enables the user to select a leading curve.

sldprt 2. Calculate and Simulate the Operation. use the home_ definition sketch. 4. Use the Fanuc_4x_x postprocessor. 3. Define the Machine CoordSys with the X-axis directed along the cone centerline and the Z-axis directed upwards. 27 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 3: 1. 5. Define a new CAM-Part. Load the SolidWorks document: Exercises\Cut_control\cone. For the CoordSys definition. 6. Start a new 5-axis Operation and choose the Cuts Along Curve strategy. Define the conical face as the drive surface. Choose the circle segment contained in the Lead_ curve sketch as a lead curve.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 4: 1. 4. Define the internal face of the manifold as the Drive Surface and the sketch segment containd in the Center_line sketch as a Lead curve. 3. 5. Define the CoordSys on the top face of the model. Create a new CAM-Part. Use the Fanuc_5x CNC controller.sldprt 2. Load the SolidWorks document: Exercises\Cut_control\cone. Start a new 5-axis Operation and choose the Cuts Along Curve strategy. 28 .

29 . The simulation can be performed using either 3D or HostCAD simulation modes.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 6. Calculate and Simulate the Operation.

the better this function works. To select the first (upper) and second (lower) curve.3 Morph between two curves The Morph between two curves option will create swarf cuts morphing between two leading curves. First curve Tool path Second curve 30 .2. The more accurate the guiding curves are to the real surface edges. This option is very suitable for machining steep areas for mould making. click on the Upper and Lower button.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6.

Upper Edge curve It is recommended to select the edges of the surface as the geometry of the Upper and Lower Edge curves. The reason for these jumps is that SolidCAM did not find a point on the surface after creating a circle with the tolerance size on a plane normal to the point on the curve. SolidCAM will check the distance from the curve to the surface and if Lower Edge curve the distance is bigger than 0. tool jumps can result.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual It is very important to define the geometry for the Upper and Lower Edge curves correctly.03 and the option that moves the tool exactly on the edges of the surface is used. SolidCAM generates the tool path from the Upper Edge curve till the Lower Edge curve. 31 .

32 . Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Morph between two curves strategy. 3.prt 2. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\air_console. Select the model edge for the Upper Edge curve geometry as shown. 4. Define the Drive Surface as shown.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 5: 1.

Select the model edge for the Lower Edge curve geometry as shown. Make a note to select the short edge as shown. 33 . 6. Save. Calculate and Simulate the operation.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5.

prt 2. Make a note to select the geometry accurately without gaps. This option is used due to the inequality of the distance between the upper and lower curves of the blade. 34 . 3. The accurate selection results in a more accurate tool path without tool jumps. Select the model edge for the Upper Edge curve geometry as shown. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Morph between two curves strategy. 4. Define the Drive Surface as shown.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 6: 1. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\impeller.

Calculate and Simulate the operation. Select the model edge for the Lower Edge curve geometry as shown. 35 . Select the short edge as shown .the absence of this edge in the geometry causes an inaccurate tool path. Save.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5. 6.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6.2. Tool path Curve 36 .4 Parallel to curve The Parallel to curve option will align the cut direction along a leading curve. Click Single Edge and select the curve.

Save. 3. Define the Drive Surface as shown. 5. Select the model edge as shown as the Curve geometry.prt. 2. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Parallel to curve strategy.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 7: 1. 4. calculate and simulate the operation. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\air_console. 37 .

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 8: 1. 3.prt 2. Define the Drive Surface as shown. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Parallel to curve strategy. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\impeller. 4. Select the model edge for the Lower Edge curve geometry as shown. 38 .

calculate and simulate the operation.the absence of this edge in the geometry causes an inaccurate tool path. 39 . 5. Save.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Select the short edge as shown .

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6.5 Project curves Project curves generates a single tool path along a curve. If the point is not on the surface the point will be eliminated from the tool path and handled like a gap. The calculation algorithm tries to retrieve the vector to each point of the curve according to the surface normal in this point. Click on the Projection curve button to define a curve. Curve & Tool path The projected curve is a result of the projection of the specified curve onto the selected surface. It is not possible to get the tool path in the left or the right side. The tool will move with the center on the selected geometry.2. SolidCAM will not check the curve against the surface to check if it is a good curve. 40 .

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 9: 1. Define the Drive Surface as shown. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Project curves strategy.prt. 3. 41 . Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\Solidcam. 2.

Save.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 4. Select the model edges of the text for the Projection curves geometry as shown. calculate and simulate the operation. 42 . 5.

Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Project curves strategy. Define the Drive Surface as shown. 43 . Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\3D_engraving. 3. 2.prt.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 10: 1.

calculate and simulate the operation. Save. Select the curve in the middle of the surface as the Projected curve geometry. This curve has to be created in the middle of the selected face and projected on the surface or created exactly on the surface. 44 . 5.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 4.

Lower edge surface For proper machining.6 Morph between two surfaces Upper edge surface Drive surface This option is similar to the Morph between two curves option.2. If the calculation is not based on the tool center. 45 . the Morph between two surface option enables you to choose two surfaces adjacent to the drive surface. The common boundaries of these surfaces and the drive surface will be used as the leading curves. SolidCAM will create tool path morphing between two leading curves. In contrast to the Morph between two curves option where the leading curves are directly selected on the model. The option is located on the Misc. the Calc based on tool center option must be enabled. Parameters page.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 6. a wrong tool path will be generated.

Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\insert.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 11: 1. Define the Drive Surface as shown. 3.prt. 46 . 2. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Morph between two surfaces strategy.

47 . 6. 5.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 4. Save. calculate and simulate the operation. Select the lower fillet as shown to define the Lower Edge surface geometry. Select the upper fillet as shown to define the Upper Edge surface geometry.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual

5-axis Machining

Exercise 12: 1. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\air_console.prt.

2. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Morph between two surfaces strategy. 3. Define the Drive Surface as shown. Select all the tangential side faces of the pocket.

4. Select all the adjacent top faces as shown to define the Upper Edge surface geometry.

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5. Select all the faces of the lower fillet as shown to define the Lower Edge surface geometry.

6. Save, calculate and simulate the operation.

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SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual

5-axis Machining

6.2.7 Parallel to surface

Drive surface

Edge surface

This option is similar to the Parallel to curve option. SolidCAM will align the cut direction along a leading curve. In contrast to the Parallel to curve option where the leading curve was directly selected on the model, the Parallel to surface option enables you to choose the surface adjacent to the drive surface. The common boundary of this surface and the drive surface will be used as the leading curve.

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Parameters page. The tool has to be a sphere mill and the Calc based on tool center option has to be activated in the Misc. Tool center Margin Margin 51 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual You can work with margins.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 13: 1. 3. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\insert. Create a new 5-Axis Operation using the Parallel to surface strategy. Define the Drive Surface as shown. 2.prt. 52 .

SolidCAM finds the common edges between the drive and edge surfaces and defines the leading curve for the tool path.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 4. 5. The tool path is a result of the offset of the leading curve along the drive surface. Switch to the Finish parameters page and set the Step Over to 5. Save. 53 . Select the lower fillet as shown to define the Single Edge surface geometry. The jumps in the top side of the face are created because SolidCAM did not find a vector from the surface in the geometry point. calculate and simulate the operation. All these points are eliminated and the gap control handles this gap in a later step of the calculation. 6.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6. This can change the machining direction from the outside to the inside or from the left to the right. 54 . begins at the edge.3 Flip Stepover changes the start cutting direction. Flip step over The machining begins at the top of the With the Flip Step over option the machining workpiece.

Simulate the Operation. Activate the Flip step over checkbox. 5.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 14: 1. calculate and simulate the Operation. In the Geometry page make sure that the Flip step over checkbox is not activated. Note that the cutting direction was changed: the cutting was performed from the lower boundary of the drive surface upwards. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Cut_control\insert. Do not close the CAM-Part. 4. note that the cutting is performed from the upper boundary of the drive surface downwards. 55 . 3. Save.prt prepared in Exercise 11. During the simulation. 2. 6.

4 Cutting Method SolidCAM enables you to choose the following Cutting methods: • One way • Zig Zag If you have a closed geometry and you select one way machining. the tool will always move around the part in the same direction. One Way Zig Zag 56 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6.

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual If the geometry is not completely closed. 57 . then it is recommended to set the option Enforce closed contours.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6.The machining begins in the center of the surface.5 Cut Order In the cut order menu you can choose between three options: • Standard . 58 .Sets a default cut order. • From Center Away .

The machining begins from outside the surface.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual • From outside to center . 59 .

You will see that the tool path starts from the center and moves sequentially one step up and one step down. 2. 5. Make sure that the Flip step over checkbox is not active in the Geometry page.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 15: 1. 3. Use the CAM-Part prepared in Exercise 14. 4. Calculate and simulate the operation. Edit the 5-axis operation. 60 . Set the Cut order to the From center away option.

Do not close the CAM-Part. 61 . Calculate and simulate the operation. Set the Cut order to the From outside to center option. 8. As you can see the tool path starts from the top. 7. moves to the bottom and then moves to the second top and so on.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 6.

• Ccwise This option enables you to perform the machining in counter clockwise direction. The Clockwise and Counter clockwise options are not for the spindle rotation.6 Direction for One Way machining This option is available only for the One way Cutting method.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6. They are used to determine whether the tool should move around a closed surface model in clockwise or counter clockwise direction. 62 .

Tool rotation Tool movement direction 63 . • Climb The tool movement and the tool rotation have the same direction. Climb milling is preferred when milling heat treated alloys. Otherwise chipping can result when milling hot rolled materials due to the hardened layer on the surface.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual • Cwise This option enables you to perform the machining in clockwise direction. Conventional milling is preferred for milling of castings or forgings with very rough surfaces. Tool rotation Tool movement direction • Conventional The tool movement is opposite to the tool rotation.

Calculate and simulate the operation. Use the CAM-Part prepared in Exercise 15. As you can see the tool path works in the opposite direction. 3. 2. 4. it is not so clear what is the conventional or climb milling direction. So you can use the CW or CCW to get the requested tool path direction. Edit the 5-axis operation. When the tool path is normal to the surface. 64 . Switch to the Geometry page and choose the Cwise for the Direction for one way machining option.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 16: 1.

The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises/Cutting_area folder. Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise18. the tool path will be generated on the whole surface and exactly to the surface edge or to the nearest possible position. Edge Edge 65 . start and end at exact surface edge If this option is chosen.7 Cutting Area SolidCAM enables you to choose the following options for the Cutting area: • Full.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 6.

Point 2 66 . avoid cuts at exact edges With this option the tool path will be generated on the whole surface but avoids the surface edges. Edge Edge • Limit cuts by one or two points This option enables you to limit the machining between one or two points. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises/Cutting_ area folder. Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise18. Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise18.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining • Full. This dialog enables you to define point coordinates Point 1 or pick the points from the workplane. The Data button displays the Limit cuts between two points dialog. The CAM-Part located in the Exercises/Cutting_ area folder.

avoid cuts at exact edges. Simulate the operation.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Exercise 17: 1. 2. start and end at exact surface edges. 3. Note that the tool path does not reach the edges of the drive surface because of the Cutting area option. 67 . Switch to the Geometry page and set the Cutting area option to the Full. 4. This option is set to Full. Edit the 5-axis operation. Use the CAM-Part prepared in Exercise 16.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 5. Calculate and simulate the operation. Note that the first and last cuts are performed exactly on the drive surface edges. 68 .

The coordinates will be calculated with the stepover and the angle you set.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 6. Y and Z coordinates for your new point or select a point in your geometry. 69 . In this window you can enter X. Click on the Data button.8 Start Point Examples of the Start Point option are located in the Exercises\Start_Point folder. 5axmsurf tries to find the nearest possible position next to your point. With the Rotate by option you can relocate the start position for the following cut. Depending on the geometry. The Start point option enables you to choose a new start point where the machining begins.

Simlate operations of Exercise4 . The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Start_Point folder.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Original start point New start point Default tool path start position Tool path start position with new start point 20° 20° 20° Start points This is a tool path start position with a new start point and a 20 degrees rotation angle. 70 .

Finish Parameters page: 71 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 7.

Move direction Radius Center Front You can see the touching points in the above picture. but only in the move direction.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 7. Front is the point where the flat part of the tool ends and the radius starts. At a surface point with a given surface normal direction. Radius is every point on the round radius surface. Center is exactly in the middle of the tool. 72 .1 Tool Contact point Examples of the Tool Contact point option are located in the Exercises\Tool_Contact_point folder. This parameter defines the contact point of the tool and drive surfaces. the tool can always be placed tangentially.

If the tool axis orientation is changed due to tilting options. In such a case. then the tangentiality is maintained like in the case of AUTO. the tip of the tool is never used as the touch point on the drive surfaces. then the tool will be tilted around this tip point. Move direction Tool Path Tool Radius 73 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual AT CENTER If this parameter is set to AT CENTER. the difference is that for a bull nose tool. then the tip of the tool touches the surface’s contact point. the tool and surface are not tangential anymore and the tool will gouge the surface. Move direction Tool Center AT RADIUS If this parameter is set to AT RADIUS. This situation must be avoided by setting the first gouge check strategy to retract the tool from the drive surfaces.

then the surface contact point remains and the contact point on the tool moves from the tip of the tool to the radius of the tool still maintaining the tangentiality between the tool and the surface. Simulate Move direction Touch points 74 . All changes to the tool orientation are done around this pivot point which can cause gouging of the drive surfaces. the tool can be placed tangentially at a surface point with a given surface normal direction. In this case. Setting the gouge control is critical when working with this option.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining AT FRONT The option AT FRONT is similar to AT CENTER and forces the tool touching point to be always a fixed point on the tool. Move direction Tool Front AUTO If the AUTO option is chosen. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tool_ Contact_point folder. the operations of Exercise13. this fixed point is the beginning of the radius of a bull nose tool in the direction of the tool motion. If the user changes the orientation of the tool.

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Exercise 18: 1. Load the CAM-Part: Exercises\Tool_Contact_point\blade.prt.

2. Simulate the CAM-Part. This part is machined using the 4 axis CNC machine. The blade is twisted and if the tool is positioned tangentially to the surface, the tool path will not be parallel. It is possible to define a parallel tool path by using the Run tool option. 3. Edit the 5-axis operation and switch to the Finish parameters page. 4. Set the Tool Contact point option to At center.

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5. Calculate and simulate the operation. It is recommended to use 3D simulation mode to perform the simulation of the tool path with the tool displayed.

The tool center is coincident to the drive surface along the whole length of the tool path. This causes gouges, so this option has to be used together with the gouge control options.

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6. If a flat tool is used for rough face milling, the At Front option enables you to mill the front part of the tool. Change the Tool Contact point option to At Front.

7. Calculate and simulate the operation. It is recommended to use the 3D simulation mode to perform the simulation of the tool path with the tool displayed.

The front of the tool is placed on the point and the angle results from the vector of this point. (Later on we will see how we can tilt the tool more in the cutting direction to get better cutting conditions). 8. To use the At radius option we have to define the tool with corner radius for the operation. Change the Corner Radius to 2.

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SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9.Calculate and simulate the operation. Make a note that the corner radius of the tool is tangent to the surface. 78 . Set the Tool Contact point option to At radius. It is recommended to use the 3D simulation mode to perform the simulation of the tool path with the tool displayed. 10. Note that the tool corner radius is tangent to the drive surface along the whole length of the tool path. Note that the tool path is not parallel because SolidCAM tries to put the radius tangential to the surface normal.

The Lead in / Lead out dialog enables you to define the parameters of Lead in / Lead out.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 7. 79 .2 Lead in / Lead out This switch turns on and off the tangential entry and exit moves.

Lead in Tool Path Lead out Tool Path 90° Lead in 80 . The approach/retreat movements are performed by an arc with the following parameters: – The sweep angle of the lead in/out arc from the entry point on the tool path.This parameter specifies the ratio of the lead in/out arc diameter to Don’t plunge with tool This option enables you to perform the arc approach in the plane normal to the tool vector in the entry point. Arc sweep Arc sweep Lead in point Tool path Lead in arc the tool diameter.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Lead in/Lead out– These checkboxes enable you to define the lead in/out. Arc diameter / Tool diameter % .

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual When this option is not chosen. the approach arc plane will be normal to the previous plane. Tool Path Lead in Lead in Tool Path 90° Lead in Lead out 90° 81 .

Choose the Morph between 2 surfaces option in the Cut Control field. Upper edge and Lower edge surface as shown.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 19: 1.prt Now we will see how to use the entry and exit arc moves. 2. Set the following parameters in the Finish page. Choose the Drive. Drive surface Upper edge surface Lower edge surface 82 . Load the CAM-Part Exercises\Lead_in_Lead_out\insert.

Activate the Lead in/Lead out checkbox and click on the Lead in/Lead out button in order to define the Lead in/Lead out parameters. 3. 83 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Choose the Zigzag option in the Cutting method field. 4. Switch to the Finish parameters page and set the following parameters: Set the Step Over value to 3. Choose the Standard option in the Cut Order field.

Switch to the Gaps page and set the following parameters: 84 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 5. Set the Arc Sweep to 90 and Arc diameter/Tool diameter to 200 in both sections. 6. In the Lead in/Lead out dialog activate both the Lead in and Lead out sections.

9. The arc size is double the tool radius. As you can see the entry and exit arc are rotated 90 degrees and are now normal to the tool path direction in the Lead in/Lead out point. Calculate and simulate the operation. As you can see. The arcs are parallel to the tool path direction in the entry point. the entry and exit movements are performed by arcs. Calculate and simulate the operation. Display the Lead in/Lead out dialog and activate the Plunge with Z-Axis option.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 7. 85 . 8.

Click on the Constant Z button to define the Machining Angle.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Exercise 20: 1.prt We will now see how the gouge checking affects the entry and exit arcs. Choose the One Way option in the Cutting Method field. Set the following parameters in the Geometry page: Choose the Parallel Cuts option for the Cut Control. Start a new 5-axis Operation and choose Tool #1 from the Part Tool table. 2. Load the CAM-Part Exercises\Lead_in_Lead_out\Undercut. 3. 86 .

Switch to the Finish parameters page and set the following parameters: Set Step Over to 6. Check the Lead in/Lead out checkbox.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 4. 87 . Define the Drive surface as shown below. 5.

Switch to the Gouge 2 page and define the following parameters: Activate the Enable/Disable checkbox. Inactivate the Check surfaces option. In the Strategy field. 7. The Gouge check options will be explained later. choose the Tilting tool away with max. angle option. Switch to the Gouge check page and define the following parameters: Activate the Enable/Disable checkbox.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 6. 88 . Inactivate the Drive surfaces option.

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8. Define the Check surfaces as shown below.

Check surfaces The chosen strategy enables the user to avoid gouging by retracting the tool along the tool axis.

9. Switch to the Tool Axis Control page.

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10. Set the following options: Choose the Tilted relative to cutting direction option in the Tool axis direction combo-box. Set the Tilt angle at side of cutting direction value to 90. Choose the Follow surface iso direction option in the Side tilt direction combobox.

11.Calculate and simulate the operation.

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We can see arcs in every tool path depth in the right side approach and only one in the left side. This is because the gouge check sees that the tool will gouge to the left wall and moves the tool along the vector of the tool center till this gouge is finished. In this part all the paths move to a safe point (in the same point in this part) and then adds the exit arc. The gouge algorithm and the Entry/Exit algorithms protect the part from gouging. 12.Close the simulation. 13.Choose the Leaving out gouging points option in the Strategy field of the Gouge check page. 14.Calculate and simulate the operation.

As you can see the arc is mirrored and moved out from the corner and the part is gouge protected.

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92 . lollipop cutter or a conical cutter with a ball tip. This flag can also be considered as a fillet generator. If swarf machining is applied (side cutting). Such fish tails are removed by turning on this switch. Such areas will be left out from the tool path generation. this switch is used in the presence of a ball cutter. Inside corners can cause “fish tails” in tool paths. The Round surface by tool radius option is not active. In most cases.3 Round surface by tool radius This switch can be set to find small radius areas and inner sharp edges in the surface model. The surface model is rounded (filletted) in the direction of tool path slices with a radius to avoid small radii and inner sharp corners. The fillet generation is independent of the tool type and shape. The applied radius is the main tool radius plus the current stock to leave value. then also cylinder or torus cutters are used together with this switch.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 7.

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual The Round surface by tool radius option is active. 93 .

The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Stock_to_leave folder. Simulate the operations of Exercise14.g.4 Stock to leave The Stock to leave parameter describes the stock to be left on the finishing surfaces. there will be remaining stock on the surface of about 0. Stock to leave For example.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 7. e.2 units. then the tool will not come closer than 0. after the machining. for cutting electrodes. if this value is set to 0.2 units to the surface.2 units. Therefore. This parameter can also be negative. 94 .

5 Multi Passes This switch can be turned on to calculate multiple tool path passes on the same geometry. 95 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 7. The Finishing passes section enables you to define a number of finishing passes. The Multi passes dialog enables you to define the following parameters: The Roughing passes section enables you to define a number of rough passes (specified by the Number parameter) with the specified spacing (the Spacing parameter) between them.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Constant step over at each pass roughing and finish passes. With the Constant Stepover option Without the Constant Stepover option 96 . all the rough and finish passes will be done at the current height level before moving to the next height level. Simulate Exercise16. each pass will be finished for all height levels before moving to the next pass. pass 1 pass 2 pass 3 pass 4 – this option enables you to define the order of execution of the 1 2 3 4 pass pass pass pass With Constant Stepover Without Constant Stepover When this option is turned off. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Multi_Passes folder. When the Constant step over at each pass option is not selected.

The tool path will not be as good.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 7. but the calculation time will be faster. then this value can be set to 100 times of the cut tolerance and will increase the calculation speed drastically. If you have untrimmed simple surfaces. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Chaining_tolerance.6. Using higher values in the chaining tolerance can cause inaccuracies.6 Surface Quality 7.1 Chaining Tolerance The chaining tolerance is an internal value for the tool path generation and should be 1 to 10 times the cut tolerance. 97 . Simulate Exercise5.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 7.2 Cut tolerance The Cut tolerance is the tolerance for the accuracy of the tool path. Loose Cut tolerance Tight Cut tolerance 98 . The result of the machining is a very good surface quality but the calculation time is increased. A loose Cut tolerance generates less points on the tool path.6. A tight Cut tolerance gives you more tool path points on the drive surface. Therefore the generated tool path is more accurate. the surface is rougher but the calculation time is much faster. After the machining.

6. Result without distance Result with distance 99 . You have more points on round surfaces because the tool path always changes direction. Setting a small value gives more points whereas a high value gives fewer points.3 Distance Whether you have more or less points depends on the Cut tolerance. Although the Cut tolerance is the same you get more points on straight or flat surfaces.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 7. Use the Distance option to get more points on flat surfaces.

Small stepover Big Stepover 100 .4 Stepover The Stepover is the distance between two neighboring parallel cuts.6.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 7.

8.1 Gap Along Cut If gaps along a tool path are detected.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 8. 101 . An example of the Gap Along Cut option is located in the Exercises\ Gap_Along_Cut folder. then come back from the rapid plane to the other side of the gap and pursue the machining. The plane of the arc is automatically determined perpendicular to the surface. The limit for ignoring the gap can be entered as the gap size as a % of the tool diameter. Gaps Page The tangential entry and exit switch add 90° arc moves to the beginning and end of each tool path section. then you can ignore the gap and move the tool connecting the two sides of the gap or retract the tool to the rapid plane and skip the gap. The diameter of this arc is determined in relation to the currently used tool diameter.

The gap size is set to 50% of the tool diameter. The tool path in the gap is a straight line and the tool moves in machining speed. All other gaps that are larger than this value are larger gaps and the action defined for large gaps is performed. 8. All gaps along the tool path segment. if the tool diameter is 20mm and the gap size is set to 10%. All gaps smaller than 2mm are considered small gaps. All gaps greater than 2mm are considered large gaps.1 Gap Size as % of tool diameter The value in the field Gap Size as % of tool diameter sets the threshold for small and large gaps along a tool path segment.1. which are smaller than this threshold value. the tool uses the shortest way to the other side of the gap without any retracting movements. the tool path is set to “broken”. then the threshold is 10% of 20mm. Tool path Tool path > Gap size Tool path < Gap size Here you can see that if the motion is bigger than the gap size. the tool will go back from the end to the start and connect the tool path to closed loops. If the motion is smaller than the gap size.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 8. The value is defined as the percentage of the tool diameter.1. the tool movement is Direct. which is 2mm. 102 . If the Gap size is bigger than the tool path length.2 Direct If you choose Direct.g. The tool diameter is 20 mm so the small gaps are 10 mm and smaller and the big gaps are over 10 mm. are considered as small gaps and the action defined for small gaps is executed. E.

Simulate Exercise19 The CAM-Part is located Exercises\Gap_Along_Cut folder. the appropriate Operation of Exercise19 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gap_Along_Cut folder.4 Retract With the Retract mode the tool moves back to the rapid plane. The tool movement has rapid speed.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Here you can see the Direct tool path between the two drive surfaces. As you can see the short retraction is way above the gap. 103 .1.3 Broken If you choose Broken and a gap is detected. With rapid speed.1. Only the return to the drive surface has machining speed. the tool retracts a litt le bit. the tool leaves the drive surface and moves over to the next tool path point with machining speed. The retracting direction is the tool axis. Simulate 8. the appropriate operation of in the 8.

5 Follow Surface SolidCAM performs the machining of the gap area tangentially to the surfaces close to the gap.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Here you can see the tool retracting to the rapid plane. Simulate Exercise19 The CAM-Part is located Exercises\Gap_Along_Cut folder. It leaves and enters the drive surfaces along its axis. the appropriate Operation of in the 104 .1. 8. Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise19 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gap_Along_Cut folder.

2. the gap threshold is 0. E. if this value is set to 150% and the maximum step over value is 0.2 Gaps between cut (Gap Size as % Of Stepover) If gaps between a tool path are detected. skip the gap and then come back from the rapid plane to the other side of the gap and pursue the machining.15 mm and it is then determined whether the gap is smaller or larger than this value.g.15mm. That means all step over moves from one tool path slice to the next slice are checked against 0. the gap is the step over move).5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 8. 8.1mm.1 Gap Size as % of Stepover This value defines the threshold value to recognize a gap as a percentage of the user given maximum stepover value (in this case. you can ignore the gap and move the tool connecting the two sides of the gap or retract the tool to the rapid plane. 105 . The limit for ignoring the gap can be entered as the gap size as a % of the maximum stepover.

2. 106 . the tool retracts a little bit.2 Direct If you choose Direct. As you can see the short retraction is way above the gap. The retracting direction is the tool axis.2. the tool uses the shortest way to the other side of the gap without any retracting movements.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 8. Here you can see the Direct toolpath between the two drive surfaces.3 Broken If you choose Broken and a gap is detected. The tool path in the gap is a straight line and the tool moves in machining speed. With rapid speed the tool leaves the drive surface and moves over to the next tool path point with machining speed. 8.

4 Retract With Retract the tool moves back to the rapid plane. Here you can see the tool retracting to the rapid plane.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 8. Only the return to the drive surface has machining speed.2. The tool movement has rapid speed.5 Follow surface 107 . 8. It leaves and enters the drive surfaces along its axis.2.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9. Tool axis control page 108 .

the simultaneous 5-axis output will be performed. 109 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 9. top view is 0. the rotary axis must be selected. This output can be used with 4.1 Output format The output format can be set to 3. the tool axis direction must be defined by the user. In case of 4-axis Operation type.1. In case of 5-axis Operation type. the tool axis direction is defined according to the Machine CoordSys and the Position used for the Operation. In case of 3 axis.0.and 5 axes-CNC Machines. In case of 3-axis Operation type. The output format is the property of this operation.g. In case of 4 axis output. As explained previously. 4-axis and 5-axis. 4 or 5 axis. Y or Z. around X.g. e. SolidCAM generates the output for simultaneous 4-axis movement. the G-code will set the 5-axis to the correct position and then simultaneous 4-axis tool path will be performed. SolidCAM has three types of 5-axis Operations: 3-axis. e. If you use this output with z 5-axis CNC machine.

The number of points generated depends on the surface blending and the maximum angle step. Increasing the maximum angle step generates more points.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9.2 Maximum angle change The maximum angle step is the maximum angle value between two tool path points on the surface. decreasing the value generates less points. Big maximum step angle Small maximum Step angle 110 .

9. Tool Axis: Surface normal 111 .3.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 9.3 Tilting strategies (Tool axis direction) Exercises of the Tilting strategies are located in the Exercises\Tilting_strategies folder.1 Tool axis is not tilted and stays normal to the surface Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder.

2 Tool axis will be tilted relative to cutting direction This option enables you to change the lag angle of the cutting direction as well as the lag angle at the side of the cutting direction. 45° Surface Normal Tool Axis tti Cu ng tion rec di Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_strategies folder. Both are shown below. The tool axis is tilted only with a lag angle of 45° to the cutting direction and 0° at the side of the cutting direction.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9.3. 112 .

113 . The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder. The tool axis is tilted with a lag angle of 45° to the cutting direction and 45° at the side of the cutting direction.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Tool Axis Cutting direction 45° Surface Normal 45° Z-Axis 45° Tool Axis Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9.

The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder. In the above case.3.3. 114 . Surface Normal 9. Z Axis 15° Tool Axis The tool axis is tilted 15 degrees towards the main Z axis.3 Tool axis will be tilted with the angle Tool Axis 45° Tilt Axis Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder. the tool axis is tilted 45 degrees from the surface normal direction towards the Y axis.4 Tool axis will be tilted with fixed angle to axis Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9.

5 Tool axis will be tilted around axis Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9.3. Z Axis Tool Axis 45° Z-Axis 45° Tool Axis 115 . The tool axis direction is the same like the surface normal but tilted with a 45 degrees angle around the main Z axis.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 9. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder.

The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder. Tool Axis direction Point The tool axis is always aligned to the point above the work piece.3. 116 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9.6 Tool axis will be tilted through point Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9.

The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_ strategies folder. Curve Curve tilt type SolidCAM enables you to choose the following options for the Curve tilt type: • Closest point • Angle from point • Angle from spindle. The tool axis is always aligned to the curve above the workpiece. main direction • From start to end • Automatic curve 117 .3.7 Tool axis will be tilted through curve Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 9.

Curve Tool path point Tool Axis direction 118 . So the 3D-length is used. The following example shows a wavy surface with a tilt curve above.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Closest point The direction of your tool axis here is the same like the shortest distance between your present tool path point and the tilt curve. You can see that the tool axis has the same direction like the shortest 3D distance between the surface and the present tool path point.

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Fixed tilt angle You can set an additive tilt angle to your present tool axis direction. Maximum tilt is reached when the tool axis is parallel to the main axis. Curve 25º Maximum angle Tool Axis direction 119 . With negative angles the tool axis tilts from the main axis. The Positive angle lets the axis tilt against the main axis. The main axis is usually the Z-axis.

The following example shows a wavy surface with an tilt curve above. Shortest 2D distance Curve Tool Axis direction 120 . So the 2D distance is used.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Angle from curve The direction of your tool axis here is the projected length between your present tool path point and the tilt curve. You can see that the tool axis has the same direction like the projected distance between the surface and present tool path point.

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The view from the top shows the shortest 2D distance between the tilt curve and the tool path point. The tool axis always has the same direction.

Tool Path point

st te or Sh 2D s di ta nc e

Curve

Tool Axis direction

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From Start to end This tilt type is used for generating tool paths for tube milling. The tube milling is usually machined in z-constant cuts and the result is cut slices. The amount of the z constant cuts depends on the maximum stepover. Now the tilt curve will be divided by the number of slices of the tool path. Every slice is now aligned to its point on the curve. Make sure that the beginning of the curve is on the right side. Click the tilt curve and select the curve from your geometry. The curve tilt type is from the start to the end .

Tool Axis direction Tilt curve Curve points

In this example the maximum step over is 10 mm. The tool path for the tube has 10 slices. So the curve has 10 points. Now every cut is aligned to its point on the curve..

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9.3.8 Tool axis will be tilted through lines

Simulate the appropriate Operations of Exercise9 and Exercise8 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_strategies folder. Line Tool Axis Tool Axis Line

Line Tool Axis Line

Tool Axis

9.3.9 Tilted from point away

Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise9 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Tilting_strategies folder. The tool axis is always aligned from the point.
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Point

Instead it is set for a complete contour segment. The difference is that the side tilt direction is not individually defined at each tool path position.g. E.4 Side tilt definition This parameter defines the side tilting direction when the tilt strategy is set to relative to cutting dir. The side tilt direction is determined by an orthogonal line from the current surface contact point to the lower edge curve. then the tool axis orientation is 124 . The function Approximate sets the formula to calculate the side direction at each position of the contour. if the spindle main direction vector is the z axis and side tilting of 90 degrees from surface normal takes place.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9. Use the Ortho to cut dir at each pos if the side tilt direction should be defined by the tool path moving direction and orthogonal direction to this move direction. The side tilting always happens from the view defined by the spindle main direction vector. If any surface does not have a compatible u and v direction with the neighboring surfaces. The option Ortho to cut dir at each pos can be used only if the Cut strategy is Parallel cuts or Morph between 2 curves. Multiple surfaces can be used here. then this function tries to correct this automatically. Side milling is aimed to get a line contact between the tool and the surface. The definition of the side tilt direction is a user option with the following interpretation: The option Follow surface iso directions is a good choice if linear surfaces are present. The option Use spindle main direction uses the machine definitions spindle main direction vector definition as the reference for finding the side tilt direction. The Ortho to cut dir at each contour option is similar to Ortho to cut dir at each pos. Side tilting definition is an important setting to define a proper side milling with the tool.

125 .5 Tool axis direction limit parameters The Data button displays the Limits dialog. In practical terms. This option gives the user the freedom of defining the side tilting direction manually by just passing lines.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual the surface normal rotated 90 degrees towards the spindle main direction. The only difference is that the user can set any user defined direction instead of the spindle main dir. The option Use tilt line definition utilizes user given tilt line elements as the side tilt direction. 9. The next option Use user defined dir is the same like the previously described spindle main direction option. such a rotation can be handled by a machine tool without utilizing the C axis.

You can use any angle between 0 and 360 degrees.2 YZ Limit This switch is set to true to limit the tool on the YZ plane between angle a1 and a2. B2=120° B1=30° Z X 9.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 9. B2=95° B1=40° Z X 126 . Tool axis In this example you can see that the minimum tool limit angle is a1 = 40 degrees and the maximum angle is a2 = 95 degrees. Tool axis In this example you can see that the minimum tool limit angle b1 = 30 degrees and the maximum angle b2 = 120 degrees.5.1 XZ Limit This switch is set to true to limit the tool on the XY plane between angle b1 and b2.5.

imagine 2 cones with different opening angles w1 and w2. This function works especially for tube milling. C1=40° C1=40° Y X 9. In other words. You can use any angle between 0 and 360 degrees. In this example you can see that the minimum tool limit angle c1 is 40 degrees and the maximum angle c2 is 95 degrees. You can use any angle between 0 and 180 degrees.3 XY Limit: This switch is set to true to limit the tool on the XY plane between angle c1 and c2. The angles start from the tool path slice normal vector.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 9. In this example you have a limit angle w1 = 10° and w2 = 10°.5. The tool axis direction is between these 2 cones. Slices Surface normal w1 w2 127 .4 Conical angles from leading curve This switch is set to true to limit the tool between two angles which are orthogonal to the leading curve. The orientation of the cones is redefined by subsequent tool path slices.5.

1 Clearance Clearance is a virtual stock added to your holder and arbor diameter. conical and bull nose). ball. 10. The check is done at each calculated tool position. Further check surfaces can be selected to avoid gouges with surfaces that are not going to be machined. Holder Arbor Holder clearance Arbor clearance 128 . Gouge Check page The gouge checking option looks at the generated tool path and the end surfaces to decide whether the tool tip or shaft is gouging the surfaces.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 10. Gouge checking for complicated swarf motions between two tool positions is under development. The gouge checking is supported for all tool types (flat.

False True 129 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 10.2 Check gouge between positions Exercises of Check gouge between positions option are located in the Exercises\Gouge_Check folder. The 5 axis sweep moves from one position to the next position and is then used to check for collisions with drive and check surfaces. This switch is set to true to activate the collision check between tool path positions.

If the option is not checked. the checking will be done at every end point of the tool path. Using this option will slow down the calculation but it is important if you are using check surfaces. 130 . If the tolerance is 0.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Position 1 Position 2 Position 2 Position 1 No gouge check between positions With gouge check between positions SolidCAM sets this field as the default to avoid problems of gouging check surfaces along movements. If the option is checked.01 of mm (or inch) along the tool path.01. the gouge check will be done in steps of the Cut tolerance defined in the Finish Parameters page. the check will be performed every 0.

1 Tool Tip and Tool Shaft Both switches are set to true if collision checking should be performed with the tool tip and shaft. Gouge of holder switch is used to turn on gouge checking of tool holders and arbors defined within the tool definition page.4 Tool Here you can activate the gouge check for the Tool Tip. the collision checking will be performed with the defined parameters. Please note that the holder and arbor are considered cylindrical. Please note that the gouge checking is only from the tool tip up to the shoulder and not overall. 10. 131 .5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 10. 10. When the page is enabled. It is also possible to give a clearance to the arbor and the holder.4. Both switches are set to false to turn off collision checking with the tool tip and shaft. Tool Shaft. Arbor and Holder. The non-cylindrical holder shape of the backplot function can mislead the user.3 Gouge pages SolidCAM enables you to set a number of parameter sets for the gouge check.

4.2 Check Arbor and Check Holder Both switches should be set to true if the collision checking is performed with the arbor and holder. 10. Both switches are set to false to turn off collision checking with the arbor and holder.5 Strategy Examples of the Check gouge between positions option are located in the Exercises\Gouge_Check folder. 132 . This function sets the collision elimination strategy for the first collision checking block.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 10.

The resulting tool path is then gouge free.5. that is not the case. Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise11.1 Retracting tool along tool axis If control by retracting tool along tool axis is selected. 133 . The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. Another line connects the calculated tool position before retraction and the surface point used for calculating the tool position. You can turn the find and report option on and off. because there is a surface area that ought to be machined but after retraction. The retract distance is shown to the user.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 10. Retracting direction Tool axis Check surface Drive surface Here you can see the tool retracting along the tool axis. Also a red line is drawn which shows the retraction move. then the gouge is avoided by retracting the tool. Actually this surface point may indicate remaining stock.

X. From the point a gouge is detected. and Z axis. the tool moves away only in the selected retracting direction. retracting the tool away from the origin and retracting the tool to cut center. retracting the tool along the surface.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 10. the tool always uses the shortest distance to go around the check surface.5. Y. If you select “move tool in –X “ the affected tool path points will be moved away only in –X direction until the check surface ends and the tool is able to pass.2 Moving the tool away This option assigns the direction in which the tool has to move away. New tool path points X-direction Check surface Old tool path points Drive surface Here a gouge is detected. 134 . Parameters: Here you can choose between the following available retracting options. When retracting.

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Retract tool in XY: Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise11 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. Retract tool in XZ: Simulate the appropriate Operation of Exercise11 The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. Here the tool retracts in X or Z. Here the tool retracts in X or Y. 135 .

Here the tool retracts in Y or Z. Here the tool retracts only in +Z. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Retract tool in YZ: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11. Retract tool in +Z: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11. 136 . The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder.

The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. 137 . The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. Here the tool retracts only in -X. Retract tool in –X: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11. Here the tool retracts only in -Z.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Retract tool in –Z: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11.

138 . Here the tool retracts only in -Y. Retract tool in –Y: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11. Here the tool retracts only in +X (Operation 7). The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Retract tool in +X: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11.

Here the tool retracts only in +Y. Retract tool along surface normal: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. Tool axis Surface normal 139 . The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual Retract tool in +Y: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11.

The green drive surface is machined in parallel Z-cuts. To avoid the gouge the cutter will be tilted to the cut center. The red surface is the check surface. With the gouge check the cutter retracts along the check surface to the cut center. This drawing shows a simple cutout through a tube. Cut center Drive surface Check surface 140 . The cut center is the center point of your enclosed geometry. The CAM-Part is located in the Exercises\Gouge_ check folder. Tool axis Surface normal Origin Retract tool cut to center: You need this gouge check option for Tool path tube milling.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Retract tool away from orign: Simulate the appropriate operation of Exercise11.

5. to create a gouge free tool path and use the gouge checking find and report option just to prove that there are no gouges. tilt angles etc. Tool Axis +65° -65° Surface normal 141 . then the gouge is avoided by tilting the tool. Below you can see the options that are given with the option with tilting tool away with max.3 Tilting tool away with max angle If control by tilting tool away with max. angle is selected. angle to prevent gouging: The gouge checking requires a lot of computing time. Parameters Use side tilt angle: The tool tilts horizontally with a 65 degrees angle orthogonal to the surface normal. So the best approach is to use limit angles. This main parameter contains a std vector of 4 independent collision control operations where each of them can be defined individually by the user.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 10.

142 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Use lead/lag angle: The tool tilts horizontally with a 90 degrees angle orthogonal to the surface normal. -90° Surface normal +90° Tool Axis Use lead/lag angle and side tilt angle -90° Tool Axis +90° Surface normal +90° -90° The tool tilts horizontally and vertically with a 90 degrees angle orthogonal to the surface normal.

The tool path was created until the stop position.5.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 10. First gouge Here you can see that the next cut would cause contact with the check Check surface surface.5 Stop tool path calculation If you select the option Avoid by leaving out the tool. Drive surface Stop position Tool path 143 . Check surface 10.5.4 Leaving out gouging points Activating this option will cause the tool path to be trimmed when a collision is detected. the tool path will be created only until the first gouge is detected.

6 Drive Surfaces This switch should be set to true if collision control is performed with the drive surfaces passed by the user.7 Check Surfaces This switch should be set to true if collision control is performed with the check surfaces passed by the user.5 mm Check surface 144 . 0.g. 10. if collision control operation Nr.8 Stock to leave Stock to leave defines a minimum distance between the tool and check surface. 3 is used. 10. E. then the user needs to pass Check Surfaces 3 as geometry to the interface.SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 10.

This information is then used to allow only tool path segments that are removing chip (material) from this given stock. if multiple cuts are used.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 11. E.g. then the surfaces or triangle meshes must be provided to the library to define the stock or remaining stock from the last operation. 145 . All the tool path segments out of the stock definition will be filtered out. Stock Page If this switch is set to true. the stock definition will allow the library to eliminate air cuts.

Additional parameter Page The following parameters in this page are implemented to handle very exceptional cases. In such a case 5axmsurf is used to modify the tool angles or to do a gouge checking. Set Y axis machining limit restricts the angle output of SolidCAM calculation to a certain machine limit. This “base operation” can be any 3 axis or 5 axis operation. Please ignore this page unless you are advised otherwise. Create multiple pockets creates several pocket operations with tilted tool planes for each tool section instead of one 5axmsurf operation. 146 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining 12. Ignore all closed contours switch ignores all closed shapes in the geometry and machines only open areas. Read last operation flag reads the last operation in the operation manager and creates a 5 axis tool path based on that.

Surface XYZpoints in CAD/CAM-systems are afterwards usually defined by a 2-Parameter representation.1 Single Surface versus Multi Surface Machining in 5 Axis Due to increased availability and lower pricing of 5 Axis Milling machines and recent developments from the controller side (Fanuc etc. the need for information about 5 Axis machining has recently increased dramatically.and Z-coordinate can be calculated from a unique pair of U and V.2 At the beginning of all: Single Surface 5 Axis Flowline Machining CAD surfaces are generally built on customer-defined interpolation points.). Appendix 13. There are more issues to explain but it seems to be more reasonable to deal with one point of interest. Y. 13.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 13. 147 . This publication tries to as easily and clearly as possible address one common question about 5 Axis machining of multiple surfaces.V) Interpolation points Parameter V Parameter U Each surface point s X-. These parameters are called U and V: Surface point (U.

SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining Each surface point is associated with a surface normal that is always perpendicular to the surface at that point. Surface Normal In 3 axis machining this surface normal for a ball end mill points to the cutter center. In some rare cases the cutter is aligned with the Y axis. The cutter axis always comes from one direction. Z 148 . usually it is aligned with Z.

the tool axis direction is changed in every single point of the tool path according to the local surface normal. a 5 axis flow line tool path is shown which is mainly calculated in the u-direction.5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual In 5 Axis machining the surface normal may not only determine the cutter center but the cutter orientation as well (there are other ways to control the tool axis to achieve a 5 axis machining tool path. Tool movement in V-direction Tool movement in U-direction Parameter V 149 Parameter U . This kind of machining is called a single-surface 5 axis flow line tool path. In the subsequent figure. During movement. but this will be discussed later): A Flowline 5 Axis tool path follows only the u-direction and v-direction of the surface. As soon as the surface edge is reached the tool steps in v and then continues movement in reversed udirection to achieve a Zig-Zag tool path.

150 .SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 5-axis Machining On a real machine the machine has to move its axis to rotate the tool to the required direction as shown below.

5-axis Machining SolidCAM2005 Milling Manual 151 .

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