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Level 1, Imperial Version

Completion Systems

Basic Hydraulics

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................... 3 AREAS .................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Area of a Circle ................................................................................................................................................ 3 Cross-Sectional Area ....................................................................................................................................... 5 Annular Area .................................................................................................................................................... 6 VOLUME & CAPACITY ........................................................................................................................................... 8 Volume ............................................................................................................................................................. 8 Casing and Tubing Capacities ........................................................................................................................ 11 Pressure Hydrostatic and Applied ............................................................................................................... 13 Hydrostatic Pressure ...................................................................................................................................... 15 Converting Pressure into Height or Capacity ................................................................................................. 16 Hydrostatic Pressures of Fluid and Sand Mixtures ......................................................................................... 21 Tubing/Casing Differential Pressures ............................................................................................................. 24 Applied Pressure ............................................................................................................................................ 25 Total Pressure ................................................................................................................................................ 26 MATERIALS .......................................................................................................................................................... 28 Strength and Yield .......................................................................................................................................... 28 Tubular Goods Stretch Data ........................................................................................................................ 29 Stretch and Free Point ................................................................................................................................... 31 Threads .......................................................................................................................................................... 34 FORCE .................................................................................................................................................................. 35 Pressure Related Forces ............................................................................................................................... 37 Buoyancy as a Force ..................................................................................................................................... 38 Weighing Casing ............................................................................................................................................ 39 DEFINING K.B. ................................................................................................................................................... 45 RETRIEVABLE TOOLS ......................................................................................................................................... 48 SINGLE GRIP RETRIEVABLE TENSION PACKERS ........................................................................................... 50 How Much Tension on the Packer to Hold Pressure? .................................................................................... 51 How Much Pressure Can be Applied to the Annulus? .................................................................................... 52 Depth Limitation for Swabbing ....................................................................................................................... 53 Circulating Different Weight Fluids with a Tension-Set Packer ....................................................................... 55 Setting Tension-set Packers in Low Fluid Level Wells .................................................................................... 56 SINGLE GRIP RETRIEVABLE COMPRESSION PACKERS ................................................................................ 58 How Much Set-Down Weight to Hold Pressure? ............................................................................................ 59 How Much Pressure Can Be Applied Under a Set-Down Packer? ................................................................. 60 How Much Annulus Pressure to Hold Packer Down? ..................................................................................... 61 Circulating a Different Weight Fluid to the Packer .......................................................................................... 62 Setting in a Low Fluid Level Well ................................................................................................................... 64 SEALBORE PACKER ........................................................................................................................................... 66 When Tubing is Larger Than the Packer Bore ............................................................................................... 66 2-7/8 Tubing in a 2.688 Sealbore Packer ..................................................................................................... 68 When Tubing is Smaller Than the Packer Bore .............................................................................................. 70 Seal Assemblies ............................................................................................................................................. 72 Plugged Tubing .............................................................................................................................................. 75 Packer Plugs .................................................................................................................................................. 77 RETRIEVABLE BRIDGE PLUGS .......................................................................................................................... 79 TUBING ANCHORS .............................................................................................................................................. 81

SECTION 1 - BASIC HYDRAULICS

© 2000 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved

Houston, TX USA

Ph 713/693-4000

800/257-3826

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Basic Hydraulics INTRODUCTION In order for a downhole tool to successfully perform the job for which it was intended, it must be properly selected and properly installed. There are many forces which act upon both the tubing string and the packer during completion, production and workover operations. To insure a successful completion, installation, and retrieval of a packer, the well conditions, and these resulting forces and/or tubing length changes, must be understood and calculated correctly prior to selecting and running the packer. For these analyses it is necessary to understand how to calculate area, volumes and capacities. Most of this information is contained in Technical Manuals, and in the Engineering Tables of this manual. Since most of these area and volume calculations were taught at school, only a brief review is given here. Some sample problems are solved to show how the information in the Engineering Tables was generated. AREAS Area is the surface within a defined boundary: The boundary can be square, rectangular, circular, or any other closed shape. The units of Area is the surface measure (n) are expressed as square n's or n2. within a defined In downhole tool operations, the ability to calculate areas properly boundary. and to use those area calculations daily during the installations, or when preparing a proposal, leads to a better understanding of the tools and their application. AREA OF A CIRCLE Given the nature of the oil industry and the manner in which operations are performed, we are required to work with items such as tubing, casing and packers which are circular in shape and have various areas. Of all the calculations performed during a job or for an installation proposal, the two most frequently calculated areas are total surface area and cross sectional area. The key to determining both of these lies in knowing how to calculate the area of a circle. The area of any circle is determined by multiplying p by the circles diameter squared, then dividing by 4, or: circle area = pD2 ÷ 4

p, an infinite number representing the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, is rounded to 3.14159 for calculations.

Because we know the value of p, we can simplify our circle area calculation by dividing 4 into p to get the constant 0.7854. Our simplified circle area calculation is: circle area = 0.7854 x D2

© 2000 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston, TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 3

All Rights Reserved 4 Houston.7854 x 6.Basic Hydraulics TRY IT Calculate the area of a circle with a diameter of 2.50 ins Calculating the surface area of any circle is similar to calculating the area of bull plugged tubing or tubing with a plug in place to determine the amount of area affected by pressure. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .25 = 4. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. circle area = 0.50 in. It would also be similar to the area of a plunger on a triplex pump to determine volume output of the pump.7854D2 = 0.50)2 = 0.91 in2 Calculate the area of a circle with a diameter of 2.7854 x (2. 2.875 in.

calculate the areas of the two diameters first. areas of the two diameters DO NOT SUBTRACT DIAMETER FROM DIAMETER!! must be calculated To find out how buoyancy will affect an open ended pipe run in a separately then the two well full of fluid. subtracted to find the Tubulars with thicker walls have a greater cross sectional area than difference.00)2 .7854 x 9. casing with an I. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 5 . tubulars with thinner walls.7854 x (49. The formula used to calculate any cross sectional area is Pi (p) times (outer diameter squared minus inner diameter squared ).276)2) = 0.276 in.D.7854 cross sectional area = 0.2) ÷ 4 We can simplify our calculation by dividing p by 4 to get 0. or the area between the tubing and the casing. 1.I.2) = 0. The cross sectional area is the area between two circles.2) REMEMBER: When calculating any cross sectional area. or cross sectional area = p(O. The circles can represent the wall thickness of tubing or casing.00 .D.2 .I. All Rights Reserved Houston. TRY IT Calculate the cross sectional area of 7 in. cross sectional area= 0. then subtract them to When calculating any cross sectional area.375 ins © 2000 WEATHERFORD.D.7854 x (O.D.90 ins 2.D.61 = 7. all divided by 4.39. we need to be able to calculate not only the surface area but also the cross-sectional area. wed need to calculate the cross sectional area.276 in.D.Basic Hydraulics CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA Because were working with tubulars.39) = 0.I. the area between two seal rings. of 4.D.7854 x ( (7.D.7854(O.2. the find the difference.55 in2 Calculate the cross sectional area of 5 in.(6. of 6.2. casing with an I.

the annular area is the difference in areas between the open hole diameter and the pipe (drill pipe or casing). area of the tubing 2.D. .D. 2 . TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . casing with a nominal I. of 6.D.D. the area of the I.D. and the O. All Rights Reserved 6 Houston.D.A tubing O. The formula for determining annular area is expressed as : Annular area = A casing I.875 ins 6.7854(csg I. Annular area is the difference in areas between the area of the casing I. 20 lb. tubing.7854: Annular area = 0. then the area of the O.2 ) 4 Again.D. and the area of the tubing O.456 in.D. 2 . To calculate the annular area between tubing and casing./ft. of the casing is calculated.456 ins © 2000 WEATHERFORD.tbg O.2 ) TRY IT Calculate the annular area between 7 in. In open hole situations. we can simplify our calculation by dividing p by 4 to get 0. of the tubing is calculated and subtracted from it .D.D.D. It can be expressed using diameters: Annular area =ÿÿÿp ( csg I. and 2-7/8 in.D.tbg O.Basic Hydraulics ANNULAR AREA The annular area is the difference between the area of the casing I.D.

TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 7 . 23 lb.907 in2 Tubing String 2 The annular area between the O.D./ft.D. The I.Basic Hydraulics In situations where there are two or more tubing strings inside casing the annular area is found by subtracting the total of the tubing O.907 in2.829 . tubing is 6. 3.D.430 + 6.(4.430 in2 The O. area for the 2-7/8 in.10.(Area tubing 1 OD + Area tubing 2 OD ) Casing Tubing String 1 TRY IT Calculate the annular area of a 7 in.492) = 31.D.922 = 20.492 in2 Annular area = 31. tubing installed.D. of 6. areas from the I. area of the casing is 20. When written it is expressed as : Annular area = Area casing I. area for the casing with a nominal I.D. tubing is 4.366 in.. area of the casing. All Rights Reserved Houston. is 31. 4.829 . 2.829 in2 The O. area of the two strings of tubing and the I. casing with one string of 2-3/8 in.D.D. tubing and one string of 2-7/8 in. area for the 2-3/8 in. 1. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.D. .

VOLUME OF RECTANGLES To determine the volume of a rectangular tank.Basic Hydraulics VOLUME & CAPACITY VOLUME Volume. is defined as the amount of space something occupies. tubing or casing volumes. Different volumes may have to be determined at any point: Tank volumes. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. then multiplying it by the height over which it extends. or cubic unit. high. meters). inches. H W L Volume is calculated by first determining the area. Volume is calculated by first determining the area.0 ft. the units of measurement used to determine the area and the height must always be the same (feet. in3. or open hole volumes are often calculated. The answer will be expressed as unit3. (ft3. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .0 ft. wide and 6. the calculations are based on the area of a rectangle multiplied by the height of the rectangle: Volume = area of the rectangle x height or Volume = length x width x height or V=LxWxH TRY IT Calculate the volume of a tank that is 25. or m3). one of the most important quantities calculated. 8. All Rights Reserved 8 Houston. or volume =area x height When performing a volume calculation. then multiplying the area by the height over which it extends. long.0 ft.

All Rights Reserved Houston.5 ft and the small cylinder has a diameter of 3.0 ft. high. multiply the area of the base by the height of the cylinder: V = area of the base x height of the cylinder or V = 0.V small cylinder or Annular volume = (. The large cylinder has a diameter of 7. The formula for annular volume is : Annular volume = V large cylinder .7854D2 x height TRY IT Calculate the volume of a cylinder with a diameter of 16 ft.D2 small cylinder) D larg e D s ma ll TRY IT Calculate the annular volume between two cylinders 28.Basic Hydraulics VOLUME OF CYLINDERS To calculate the volume of a cylinder.7854 x height) x (D2large cylinder . and a height of 22 ft. Height Base ANNULAR VOLUME Annular volume is the difference in volume between a large cylinder and a small cylinder.75 ft. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 9 .

and a tube with an O. 6. The area of a 2-3/8 in.5 ft.D. 4. of 1. circle.5 ft. 3. Express the answer in square in. long. 2. All Rights Reserved 10 Houston.0 in. circle. high and 6.90 in. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . © 2000 WEATHERFORD. The annular area between a tube with an I. The area of a 7. One cylinder has an inside diameter of 78 in.D.D. The volume of a tank 15 ft. of 7 in. of 5. The annular volume of two cylinders 18 ft. high. of 9. and an I.75 in. 4.0 in. 5. and the other cylinder has an outside diameter of 3 ft.D. wide. The cross sectional area of a tube with an O.Basic Hydraulics AREA AND VOLUME REVIEW Calculate the following: 1.

0222 = 2.500 ft. Tubing capacity data is calculated based on tubing ID. The value listed is the number of barrels of fluid contained in one linear foot of tubing. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 11 .00387 = 48.38 + 2.6 barrels © 2000 WEATHERFORD. Remember to convert this volume to proper units e. which is calculated using casing ID and tubing OD.500) x 0.Basic Hydraulics CASING AND TUBING CAPACITIES The data used to calculate capacity can be found under Engineering Tables in this book.600 ft. Data is presented in a variety of formats for your convenience.38 barrels Capacity of casing = (12. All Rights Reserved Houston.60# tubing to the packer 12. Remember that annular capacity is based on annular area. To calculate the capacity of tubing in barrels.500 x 0. When the capacity data for your particular tubular goods are not given. in the Engineering Tables.22 = 50.0222 = 100 x 0. From the Engineering Tables: Tubing = 0. Note: You cannot find annular volume by subtracting tubing capacity from casing capacity. locate the column Barrels per Lin. Multiply this number by the length of the tubing in feet to get total displacement.22 barrels Displacement = 48.0222 bbl/lin ft Capacity of tubing = 12.00387 bbl/lin ft Casing = 0. Ft.g. to the packer 12. not OD. to the perforations 5-1/2" 20# casing below the packer Find displacement to the perforations. Example Calculations: Using 2-3/8" 4.600 12. it can be calculated using the end area of the inside of the pipe times unit length (usually one foot) to get volume. barrels. The process for casing is the same.

434 in2 And volume = area x length: Volume of a linear foot of tubing = Ai x 12 V = 3.625 = 85.7# PH-6 Hydril Tubing (ID=2. Depth to perforations = 18.187 in3 and: 1 barrel = 9702 in3 the capacity of this tubing = 41.500 x 0.0340 = 6.Basic Hydraulics When data from the tables is not available: Using 2-7/8" 10.625 barrels Displacement from the Packer to the perforations = 200 x 0.432 x 12 V = 41.425 barrels or approximately 86 barrels. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .80 + 78. Capacity of tubing: Ai = (ID)2 x 0.7854 Ai = (2.0340 bbl/lin ft Displacement to the Packer = 18. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.00425 = 78.500 ft.700 ft.091") 7" 38# casing Depth to Packer = 18.372 x 0. All Rights Reserved 12 Houston.7854 Ai = 3.091)2 x 0.7854 Ai = 4.187 ÷ 9702 = 0.80 barrels Displacement to the perforations = 6.00425 bbl/lin ft Using the same method for calculating casing displacement yields: the capacity of this casing = 0.

Oilfield service applications refer to fluid weights as pounds per gallon (ppg). Weather reports give the hydrostatic head of approximately 30. Applied Pressure Pressure applied to a fluid at surface is uniform throughout the entire column of fluid. remember gas is also a fluid. For example. barometric pressure. the formula below can be used: PSI = 0. All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 13 . Flowing fluid has an inherent friction pressure loss that must be subtracted from the applied pressure to obtain true bottom hole pressure.Basic Hydraulics PRESSURE HYDROSTATIC AND APPLIED Both hydrostatic and applied pressure is denoted by the amount of pounds force pushing on a unit area.333 ppg and a fluid gradient of 0.5 ppg and that it has a fluid gradient of 1. if a completion fluid has a specific gravity of 1.052 x (ppg) x depth where 0.650 psi/foot. Applied pressure is usually derived from a pressure gage mounted on a manifold or at the pump.5.433 or 0. Units are commonly expressed as pounds per square inch (psi). The value of applied pressure at the top of the well will be equal at the bottom of the well and into the formation provided there is little or no fluid flowing. Specific Gravity Specific gravity is defined as the density of a given fluid divided by the density of fresh water under the same conditions.696 psi). such as a pump.052 is the number of psi/ft of a fluid having a density of 1 ppg. Tables may give the psi/ft of a fluid.333 or 12. pump rate. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. we know that it weighs 1.000 feet of air measured in inches of mercury (it can also be expressed as 14. Friction pressure calculation is a science unto itself as it is dependent on the rheology of the fluid. Hydrostatic Pressure Hydrostatic pressure is applied by any column of fluid. The most common reference to hydrostatic pressure is that pressure exerted by the column of gas we call our atmosphere.5 x 8. knowing that fresh water has a density of 8. Hydrostatic pressure is that pressure created by the weight of a column of fluid. Multiplying that value by depth will give the hydrostatic pressure at that depth. To calculate hydrostatic pressure.5 x 0.433 psi/ft. Applied pressure is that pressure exerted on the system by an external source. and dimensions of the tubular goods and well.

Basic Hydraulics Example Calculations: 8400 ft to perforations 12. calculate pressure at surface and at the perforations.362 psi/ft Fluid gradient = (0.2 x 0.052 x 8400 = 5329 psi Pressure @ surface = 1500 psi Pressure @ perfs = 1500 + 5329 = 6829 psi Note: There may be a slight difference in pressures calculated using different approaches.052 = 0. Water: 9. ppg mud weight 1500 psi pump pressure Assuming friction loss is negligible.65 x 0.35 x 0.2 ppg water and produces 38o gravity oil. Calculation of the hydrostatic pressure of an oil/water mixture is 65% accomplished from the density data for produced water. the oil and water would be separated but the calculation would remain the same.2 x 0. for Oil produced oil.478 psi/ft.403 psi/ft © 2000 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . = 0. and for the percent water cut. Pressure of a Water/Oil Mixture. All Rights Reserved 14 Houston. This is usually due to rounding of decimals. If the well has been shut in.478) + (0. 35% Water Example Calculation: A well is 35% cut with 9.362) = 0. Applied pressure = 1500 psi Hydrostatic pressure = 12.2. Oil: from table or calc. Calculate the fluid gradient.

The fluid column is essentially being pulled downward toward the center of the earth.000 ft. each columns hydrostatic pressure has to be calculated separately. As a result..000 ft. which is the true vertical height of the fluid column. the hydrostatic pressure is greatest at the deepest vertical point. might be drilled to a measured depth of 10. then added together to arrive at the total hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure exists at every point in the well. A horizontal well. Fluid Col umn Fluid Column True Vertical Depth (TVD) HP = ? True Vertical D epth (TVD) Measured Depth (MD) HP = ? © 2000 WEATHERFORD. When two or more columns of different weighted fluid are present in the well. it acts on all the surrounding areas equally. The fluid column in any perforated well or a well with open hole is supported by the pressure from the formation.Basic Hydraulics HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure created by the weight of a column of fluid acting on a defined area. The hydrostatic pressure of this well would be calculated on the true vertical height of 7. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 15 .000 ft. The fluid column height is calculated on the true vertical height of the column in the well and not on the total length of the column. Hydrostatic pressure is a result of the earths gravitational pull which acts perpendicular to the earths surface. All Rights Reserved Houston. but its true vertical height might be only 7. If there is no means of isolation. for example. Hydrostatic pressure is changed by either changing the weight of the fluid or the height of the fluid column.

Apply the proper amount of pressure to the well using a surface pump. the ft/bbl. Converting Pressure into Height Find. for the fluid you intend to use. The psi/bbl converts directly. and then divide that into the pressure. Sometimes too much pressure will damage the tool. or if it is not available. When the plug is set. while the ft/bbl requires converting pressure into height first (see above). But in the case of a low fluid level well. Hydrostatic pressure generated by loading the tubing would not only set the packer. If the well is full of fluid (hole loaded) the matter of pressure control at the tool is simple. or calculate the fluid gradient (psi/ft). TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . The first step is to consult the Engineering Tables to obtain the psi/bbl. the tubing is not loaded. but could damage the setting mechanism by exceeding the pressure rating of the setting chambers. you need to be able to convert the required pressure into feet or barrels required. For example.Basic Hydraulics CONVERTING PRESSURE INTO HEIGHT OR CAPACITY Tools that require pressure to set (such as hydraulic set packers) are common. It is imperative to get the correct amount of pressure to the tool at the correct time. All Rights Reserved 16 Houston. Height (ft) = psi ÷ Fluid Gradient (psi/ft) Converting Pressure to Barrels Often the desired information is the number of barrels in this size pipe to get the required pressure. or will cause the tool to pre-maturely set while running in the hole. Barrels = psi ÷ psi/bbl © 2000 WEATHERFORD. assume your task is to set a hydraulic set packer in a low fluid level well using a wireline plug seated in a profile nipple below the packer.

= 0.00579 x 4094 = 23.00579 bbl/ft Using the height calculated above (4094 ft). TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 17 .366 psi/ft Calculate feet required: = 1500 / 0.Basic Hydraulics TRY IT How Many Feet to Get Pressure? Using the well schematic at right: 9000 ft to the tool 36° API gravity oil to 7500 ft 2-7/8 6.4# tubing has 0. All Rights Reserved Houston.37 / (131.7 barrels of 36° Oil 9000 ft © 2000 WEATHERFORD.366 = 4094 feet 4094 ft of 36o Oil added 3406 ft (calculated) 7500 ft 36 API Gravity Oil o How Many Barrels to Get Pressure? From the Engineering Tables: 2-7/8" 6.5 + 36) = 0.4# tubing Need 1500 psi to set the tool How much fluid (in barrels) should be pumped? Calculate fluid gradient of 36°oil: = 61.

Packer @ 3500 ft 12 PPG Mud in Tubing & below Packer 1800 psi Pump Pressure Perfs @ 3550 ft © 2000 WEATHERFORD.624 psi/ft Calculate the hydrostatic pressure: = 3550 x 0.052 = 0.: = Phydro + Ppump = 2215 + 1800 = 4015 psi The only pressure at the surface is the pump pressure. 1800 psi.Basic Hydraulics Hydrostatic and Applied Pressure Using the well schematic at right: Pump pressure = 1800 psi Fluid in tubing = 12 ppg mud Packer @ 3500 ft Perforations @ 3550 ft What is the pressure at surface? What is the bottom hole pressure at the perforations? Calculate fluid gradient: = 12 x 0. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . All Rights Reserved 18 Houston.624 = 2215 psi Pressure @ perfs.

007 psi/ft = 0.5 psi/ft = 0.5 + 38) psi/ft = 61.745 If you are given the fluid weight in API Gravity: psi/ft = 61.686 If you are given the fluid weight in specific gravity: psi/ft = S.5 ppg completion fluid psi/ft = 12.650 If you are given the fluid weight in pounds per cubic foot: psi/ft = (#/cu.5 + API Gravity) Example: Oil of 38° API Gravity psi/ft = 61. mud psi/ft = 98 x 0.) x 0.37 ÷ 169. ft.433 Example: Mud with 1. All Rights Reserved Houston.G. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 19 .362 © 2000 WEATHERFORD.37 ÷ (131.72 specific gravity psi/ft = 1.052 Example: 12.433 psi/ft = 0.72 x 0. ft.37 ÷ (131. x 0.007 Example: 98 #/cu.5 x 0.052 psi/ft = 0.Basic Hydraulics How To Calculate Fluid Gradients If you are given the fluid weight in pounds per gallon: psi/ft = ppg x 0.

37 barrels If 2000 psi differential is required to set the tool.2 ppg Packer @ 3800 ft Now. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. Calculated maximum differential with tubing loaded = 3000 x 0.Basic Hydraulics Hydrostatic and Applied Pressure in a Low Fluid Level Well Using the well schematic at right: Packer set @ 3800 ft Pump Pressure? Tubing is 2-7/8" 6.2 ppg salt water Tool is hydraulic set requiring 2000 psi tubing press. All Rights Reserved 20 Houston.4 barrels of fluid.00579 bbl/ft Fluid required = 3000 x 0. hydrostatic and applied.478 = 1434 psi Fluid Level 3000 ft Salt Water 9. we can calculate the required applied pressure: = 2000 . If hydrostatic will not accomplish the task. we must add 17.052 = 0. to the tubing. From the Engineering Tables: 2-7/8" 6. and apply 566psi pump pressure.478 psi/ft Calculate height of fluid required to set = 2000 ÷ 0. we have a fluid level of 3000 feet and cannot get 4184 feet of fluid in this well. we must use applied pressure.4# Fluid level is 3000 ft of 9. there are two sources of pressure.1434 = 566 psi To accomplish the task of setting the packer.4#/ft = 0. What operations are required to set the packer? Calculate fluid gradient of saltwater = 9. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . As discussed earlier in this section.00579 = 17. Calculate amount of fluid required to fill 3000 feet of tubing.2 x 0.478 = 4184 feet BUT.

but rather a percentage of it.65./lb. when the tubing is full or partially full of sand. of sand is added to a fluid to become a slurry mixture. particularly after a screen-out during a frac. With the sand and the fluid each having different densities the percentage of each makes up the density of 1 gal.0456 gal/lb) x (lbs of sand added per gal)] . we need to calculate the hydrostatic pressure of a column of fluid and sand mixtures. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 21 . When 1 lb.0456 gal. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. of the mixtures total volume. is the constant for the absolute volume of sand based on Ottawa silica sand with an absolute density of 22. the sand occupies . of slurry. If a packer is to be unset. the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid mixed with sand has to be determined. it is necessary to balance the pressures of the two fluid columns.1 lb/gal and a specific gravity of 2.0456 gal. As a result. All Rights Reserved Houston. the fluid no longer occupies 100% of the volume or accounts for 100% of the density. Physical properties for other materials such as bauxite are available from an engineering handbook. The formula must be used to calculate the weight of 1 gal of the slurry. To do that.Basic Hydraulics HYDROSTATIC PRESSURES OF FLUID AND SAND MIXTURES Occasionally. The weight of any fluid mixed with sand can be calculated by using the following formula: Slurry Weight (lb/gal) = [(fluid wt) + (lbs of sand added per gal)] 1+ [(.

/gal frac fluid with 3.0 1 + . of tubing sanded off to surface with 9. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . fluid+ 3./gal.0 lbs./gal.0456 x 3.Basic Hydraulics Sample Calculation: What is the hydrostatic pressure of 1500 ft of 9.0 lb. 10.8 psi Calculate the hydrostatic pressure for 6000 ft. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.0 x .1368 12.052 = 826. All Rights Reserved 22 Houston./gal.0 lb/gal sand ] = = = Hydrostatic pressure 12./gal.0 1. = 10.0 lb.5 lb.1368./gal.0 lb./gal of sand added? Slurry weight = [9.5 lb.6 lb. sand ] 1+[ . frac fluid with a sand concentration of 9.6 x 1500.

Basic Hydraulics DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE CALCULATIONS You are the tool man on the well pictured at right. The following information is supplied: Squeeze tool set at 8500 ft. on 2-7/8 6.5# EUE tubing Annulus is filled with 9.2 ppg salt water Cement (16.5 ppg) is followed by 5 barrels of fresh water You need to unset the tool and reverse out the cement. What pressure should be held on the backside to prevent cement from flowing out around the tool? From Engineering Tables: 2-7/8 6.5# has 172.8 lin ft/bbl Calculate fluid gradients: Fresh water = 0.433 psi/ft Salt water = 9.2 x 0.052 = 0.478 psi/ft Cement = 16.5 x 0.052 = 0.858 psi/ft Calculate fluid heights: Starting at the tool Cement = 3 x 172.8 = 518.4 ft Fresh water = 5 x 172.8 = 864.0 ft Salt water = 8500 518.4 864.0 = 7117.6 ft Calculate hydrostatic pressure at tool: Tubing: Cement: (518.4 x 0.858) Fresh water: (864.0 x 0.433) Salt water: (7117.6 x 0.478) Tubing total Casing: Salt water: (8500 x 0.478) Differential at the tool

Salt Water in Annulus & above Fresh Water in Tubing

Fresh Water behind Cement

= 444.8 psi = 374.1 psi = 3402.2 psi = 4221 psi = 4063 psi

Cement: 3 Bbl in Tubing

= 4221 4063 = 158 psi in favor of the tubing. This means that when the tool is released, and the work string pulled from the tool, cement will flow from the tubing to the casing unless 158 psi is applied to, or held, on the casing.

© 2000 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston, TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 23

Basic Hydraulics TUBING/CASING DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURES Differential pressure is the difference in pressures acting across an area, and is calculated by subtracting the pressure on one side of the surface from the pressure on the other side. Differential pressure = total pressure A - total pressure B A substantial differential pressure will result in material failure in the tubular or the downhole tools. When calculating differential pressures it is important to specify the direction in which the pressures are acting. Depending on what side the differential occurs, the end result will either be burst or collapse of the pipe. Burst and collapse pressures are available from the Engineering Tables. The data given in the hand book is based on A.P.I. (American Petroleum Institute) minimum yields. When A.P.I. rates tubing or casing, no safety factor is used; Instead, a calculation factor of 0.875 is used. The A.P.I. calculation for burst and collapse is based on wall thickness derived from subtracting the nominal I.D. from the nominal O.D. and using the 0.875 calculation factor to allow for variances in the wall thickness of the pipe. A dimensional data chart shows the variance in dimensions for casing. For example, 5-1/2 in., 15.5 lb./ft. casing has: Maximum O.D. = 5.555 in. Minimum O.D. = 5.473 in. Nominal I.D. = 4.950 in. Minimum I.D. = 4.923 in. Maximum I.D. = 5.074 in. Because of this variance in dimensions, you will occasionally encounter situations where pressure in excess of the A.P.I. minimum pressures has been applied, and no damage to the pipe has occurred. REMEMBER: A.P.I. NUMBERS ARE MINIMUMS ONLY. When using the Engineering Tables for reference, the pressure ratings for tubing and casing are listed as collapse pressure and internal yield pressure. Remember that the pressure ratings are based on A.P.I. calculations for that particular grade of steel.

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Basic Hydraulics APPLIED PRESSURE Applied pressure is any pressure applied to a system. Typically, the system is the well and the pressure is applied by pump or by the formation. Any applied pressure affects the entire well equally if there is no isolation (a packer). Applied pressure is any pressure applied to a system.

For example, if 500 psi is applied at surface in a well full of fluid that is 10,000 ft. deep, the pressure at the bottom of the hole will increase by 500 psi as will the pressure at 4,000 ft. This is because, for all intents and purposes, liquids are incompressible and an incompressible fluid will not experience a volume change when PUMP GAUGE pressure is applied. When a fluid is pumped under pressure, it WELLHEAD GAUGE pushes on the volume next to it, that volume pushes on the next volume and the process repeats itself until the applied pressure affects the entire fluid system equally. When fluid is being pumped and is moving, the applied pressure at surface is greater then the applied pressure at the bottom of the hole. This is because as fluids move there is friction generated between the fluid and the inside diameter of the pipe. As the rate of the fluid flow increases, the amount of friction between the fluid and the surface of the pipe also increases. The pump at surface not only causes the fluid to move but must also generate enough force to overcome the total friction in the system. The loss in applied pressure due to the friction of moving fluids is referred to as friction pressure loss. This pressure loss or reduction is dependent on the type of fluid being pumped, its temperature, its flow rate through the pipe, and the inside diameter of the pipe. Remember that friction pressure loss occurs only when fluid is moving. If a blockage occurs (a sand off at the perforations during a frac, for example), friction pressure loss becomes zero and the full surface applied pressure is felt at the bottom of the well. For this reason, friction pressure loss is typically neglected in calculations so that a worst case design is obtained.

PUMP LINE

CASING

TUBING

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Basic Hydraulics Applied pressure can also be present due to the formation pressure or well head pressure. During the production phase of the well, the formation will create a pressure within the wellbore and this pressure must be considered during the installation of downhole tools. In certain situations the formation pressure can and will create a situation where the pressure capabilities of a tool may be exceeded. Friction loss will also occur in any producing well. As the fluid moves up the tubing, friction is generated between the fluid and the inside surface area of the tubing. How much friction loss occurs during production is also dependent on the type of fluid being produced, the temperature of the fluid, the production rates and the size of the production tubing. TOTAL PRESSURE Total pressure is the sum of the hydrostatic pressure and the applied pressure at any point in the system. The combination of the two can result in a failure in the system. As stated previously, it is generally safer to assume that applied pressure is equal at all points and not reduced by pressure losses. Total pressure is the sum of the hydrostatic pressure and the applied pressure.

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The testing procedures involve variable temperatures. The ratings are primarily based on testing and experience. wall thickness. or some other component in the system. easily done for all components. check with Engineering. etc. For example. rig pump. Typically if a packer does not pressure test. the immediate assumption is that the rubbers are not holding. each particular tool may have a different burst and collapse rating for the rubber element support mandrel. QDG packer and a 4 1/2 in. Each component has a differential pressure rating. All Rights Reserved Houston. then a significant pressure differential is required to damage the element to the point of failure. Keep in mind that proper running procedures and the correct choice of rubber elements will reduce and/or eliminate damage to the elements and optimize the use of the packer. A 4-1/2 in. If the elements on the packer have not been damaged during run in. DGP packer may have different pressure ratings on that particular component. If the information that you need is not in Weatherfords technical manual.Basic Hydraulics DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE RATINGS FOR PACKER COMPONENTS Differential pressure ratings for packer components can be obtained from the Engineering group. The calculations. the environment the element will be used in. affected area etc. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. even though they are made for the same size of casing. This is not always the case. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 27 . Do not rely on a competitors information to be the same as Weatherfords. Again. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE ACROSS PACKER ELEMENTS Differential pressure ratings for the sealing elements on packers are not easily calculated. The rating of a particular component can not be less then the maximum pressure rating for that tool. are based on specifications such as material grade. material composition of the element. The primary sources of information are Engineering and suppliers within the rubber industry. do not rely on a competitors sealing parameters to be the same as Weatherfords. In situations where there is small bleed off during a pressure test consider the possibility of tubing.

I.000 pounds exerted on one square inch of J-55 material is the minimum required pull for that one square inch of material to yield. iron.I.I.P. Tensile or ultimate yield is the point at which material parts. A. phosphorus. Use this procedure to calculate material strengths: 1. The number in the A. and copper can comprise a percentage of a blend. molybdenum. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . and sulphur are always present.I. When any steel yields. REMEMBER: MINIMUM YIELD IS THE POINT AT WHICH MATERIAL DEFORMATION BEGINS. These specifications are outlined in A. designation J-55 is an abbreviation for 55. The number 55 in the A. manganese. N-80 and L-80. the chemical composition and the mechanical properties requirements necessary to meet a certain specification.I. Specification 5 CT. L -80 has a yield strength of between 80.P.D. This variety allows for selection and appropriate use in a range of environments and loading conditions. Examples of the A.I. or the blend of elements. The tensile strength is specified as a minimum of 95.I.000 psi. designations for pipe grades are J-55. Although N-80 and L-80 material have the same minimum yield rating. Multiply the cross sectional area of the material by the minimum yield in psi (lbs.7854 = As 2.P. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. In addition. The A. nickel. the chemical composition of the L-80 material makes it softer and better suited for use in a sour service environment. carbon.2) x . Minimum yield is the point at which permanent material deformation occurs. The letter in the A.000 psi.I. The tensile rating of any material (also referred to as ultimate yield) has a specified minimum. of which the steel is comprised. the memory is lost. By varying the composition of the alloys and selecting an appropriate manufacturing process (particularly in the heat treating of the steel) the manufacturer can produce a variety of A. grade designation specifies the process of manufacture.D.(O. chromium./in2) to determine the material strength in pounds. Pipe Grade Specification refers to the chemical composition. grades of steel.I.000 pounds per square inch.P.P. For example.P.P. TENSILE RATING IS THE POINT AT WHICH THE MATERIAL PARTS.000 .Basic Hydraulics MATERIALS STRENGTH AND YIELD The tensile rating of any tubing or casing is based on the grade of the material from which the pipe is manufactured and the cross-sectional area of the material. Pipe Grade Specification identifies the minimum yield strength in pounds for one square inch of that particular grade of material to yield.P. A pull of 55. and it will not return to its original shape. All Rights Reserved 28 Houston. Determine the cross sectional area of the material . Typically. has set an acceptable range for the yield rating of a material grade.2 .95.

all carbon steels have the same modulus of elasticity). though some have higher elastic limits before permanent deformation starts. Example: Determine the amount of stretch for 30. and assumes the tubing has a modulus of elasticity equal to that of steel (remember.441²) x 0. All Rights Reserved Houston.Basic Hydraulics TUBULAR GOODS STRETCH DATA The stretch or elongation of oil well tubular material resulting from an applied tension force is a commonly required determination. The amount of stretch that will occur when a tension force is applied varies with the magnitude of the applied force.811 in² Stretch. Hookes Law is commonly expressed as: DL= (F x L) ÷ (AS x E) Where: DL F L AS E = stretch (in) = Tension force (LB) = Depth (in) = Cross sectional area of tubing (in²) = Modulus of elasticity (psi) = 30 x 106 for carbon steel Note: There is a misconception that rate of stretch varies with grade of steel (J-55. P-105. From engineering tables. To obtain stretch using this constant.875² .000# pull on 7000 ft of 2-7/8 6. All grades of carbon steel have essentially the same elastic modulus. and its cross sectional area. strain or distortion is proportional to stress or force providing the elastic limit of the material has not been exceeded.).811 x 30 x 106 = 46. we find the ID of the tubing is 2. DL = 30. The elastic limit is that amount of strain or distortion that would cause permanent deformation.7854 = 1. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 29 . etc.2.441 AS = (2.38 inches Some engineering tables contain a value called a stretch constant. the length of the tubular string being stretched. This constant applies to a particular tubing size and weight. the equation would appear: © 2000 WEATHERFORD. Robert Hooke (1635-1702) discovered the law (Hookes Law) that states. the elasticity of the material.000 x 7000 x 12 1.40# tubing.

= Free Point Constant F.P.) can also be used to estimate free point according to the following formula: Where: L = DL x F.Basic Hydraulics Where: DL = F x L x S. neglecting any friction forces F = pull force. is usually located in an engineering table.P.C. per thousand feet of tubing. When the amount of stretch is known and the amount of tension force is known. E = 30.C. per thousand pounds of tension.000. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .C. we can change the equation to yield: Where: L = (DL x E x AS) ÷ (12 x F) L E AS F DL = Length of free pipe (ft) = Stretch (in) = Modulus of Elasticity (for steel.C.000 psi) = Cross sectional area (in²) = Tension Force (lb) Free Point Constants (F. All Rights Reserved 30 Houston. in thousands of pounds F.P. = stretch (in) = Tension force (1000#) = Length (1000 ft) = Stretch Constant Note: Stretch constants are usually presented in units of inch stretch. Determining Free Point Calculating free point. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. ÷ F L = minimum length of free pipe (ft).P. is easily calculated by manipulating the variables of the general stretch formula. DL F L S. but can be calculated. that point at which stuck or anchored pipe becomes free to move.C.C.

875² . = 2500 x AS = 4527.40# AS S. free point calculations should be considered with a certain margin of error based on well configuration.7854 = 1. = Stretch Constant F.P.C.C. These forces would give the impression of a calculated free length shorter than the actual free length.60# tubing 2-7/8 6. = 0.C.2. For this reason. All Rights Reserved Houston. there are friction forces acting on the string which cannot be determined.8111 in² = 0.C.P.P.Basic Hydraulics STRETCH AND FREE POINT Calculation of Stretch & Free Point Constants For any pipe size commonly used or not found in any chart.4 ÷ AS F. = Free Point Constant AS = Cross Sectional Area (in²) Where: Note: When calculating free point of stuck or anchored pipe.P.C.441²) x 0. = (2.C.1. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 31 .7854 = 1.40# tubing 2-3/8 4.75 Stretch and free point constants can also be used for casing and drill pipe when dimensional data is known.3068 F. = 2500 x AS = 3260 2-7/8 6. Example: Determine the stretch constant and free point constant for: 2-3/8 4.995²) x 0.C.60# AS S. = (2.4 ÷ AS = 0.375² . © 2000 WEATHERFORD. constants can be calculated as follows: S.2209 F. = 2500 x AS S.C.3036 in² = 0.4 ÷ AS = 0.

Example: Apply 15.40# 2-3/8 4. the third can be read from the graph.50# 3-1/2 9.4.40# 1.900 2.0 = 8041 feet © 2000 WEATHERFORD.60 . Should your tubing weight differ from these examples. Charts are based on: 1. How long is the free pipe in the hole? Length (L) = (DL x F.) ÷ F = (37 x 3260) ÷ 15. A more comprehensive discussion of these charts and their application will follow. tension force.P.70# 2-7/8 6.20# Each stretch graph involves only three variables. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .Basic Hydraulics STRETCH GRAPHS Stretch charts are included on the following pages for tubing in the most common weight for each size.000# tension to 2-3/8 4. Measure 37 stretch.60# tubing. you should either make calculations based on the previous formula. length. All Rights Reserved 32 Houston.660 2.6.C. When two of the variables are known.40 .90# 2-1/16 3. and amount of stretch. or consider the charts as a rough estimate.

The maximum amount of weight of tubing is hanging on the top one foot of tubing Top The average weight of tubing will be one half the maximum Bottom There is zero weight hanging on the bottom one foot of tubing This means that the tubing will shorten 100 inches.000-foot line until you intersect with the 32. you may put 110 inches of additional seals on bottom. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. reading up from the 11.000# upward force. find the average weight of the string. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 33 .000 feet deep with a 32.00-tension line. All Rights Reserved Houston. Stretch of Tubing Hanging in Well Sometimes it is necessary to calculate the stretch in a tubing string that is hanging in a well to determine the true length. This may be necessary to place a tool between two sets of closely spaced perforated zones. the tension force varies throughout the string. For example. this force can be converted to inches (or inches to force) by use of the stretch charts. If you are calculating the amount of force exerted up or down due to a temperature or ballooning change. If you refer to the stretch chart for 2-3/8 tubing. or if you have a locator seal assembly. This procedure will assure the tubing stays packed off during the treatment.Basic Hydraulics STRETCH CHARTS The use of stretch charts is well known. you are injecting cold fluid inside 2-3/8 tubing creating a 25. Associated with the injection pressure is a 7. You are 11. To obtain the true length. Apply this amount to the stretch chart to obtain the number of inches the string has elongated due to its own hanging weight. Stretch charts will give stretch if the tension force is known. In this case. you will see a value of 110 inches.000# upward force. You either need to put 110 inches of additional tubing into the well to compensate.000# contraction in the string. This is the weight of the string (adjusted for buoyancy) divided by two.

U.700 lbs.700 lbs.600 lbs.5 lb.E. which may be lower than the body and and thus be the limiting factor for tensile loading. but also at the yields of the threads to determine the limiting factor.E.) or casing threads are not machined on a upset portion of the body. All Rights Reserved 34 Houston. typical thread form shows why the thread is as strong as the body of the tubing. The yield point of any thread is calculated on the dimensions from the root of the thread to the inside diameter of the body and also the minimum yield of the material that the thread is machined on./ft. 6. Thread yield: 72. or an installation proposal.E.Basic Hydraulics THREADS Threads machined on tubing or casing also have their own yield point. : N.. and N. J-55 E. Body yield: 99. By machining the thread on the upset portion of the body the cross sectional area from the root of the thread is equal to the cross sectional area of the body. material is removed from the body and the resulting cross sectional area under the thread is less than the cross sectional area of the body or tube. it is important to look not only at the minimum body yields of the pipe.E. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . When NUE threads are machined.E.U. tubing: E. An examination of an E.: Body yield: 99. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. The substantial difference between the two is a result of the thread dimensions. When doing a job.U.600 lbs.E.U.U. Thread yield: 99. Compare the yield of 2 7/8 in. Non upset threads (N.U.

Tension is created by anchoring the bottom of the string and pulling at surface. All Rights Reserved Houston. To determine the string weight of tubing or casing the weight of the blocks must be subtracted from the total value shown on the weight indicator. x 4000 ft. To determine the string weight in air of 4000 ft. For example. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. Weight in air = 11. The instrument used to measure the force on the top joint of the string (commonly referred to as string weight) is the rig weight indicator. a string of 4-1/2 in. This device simply displays the force or load carried by the rig ( hook load ). It should be remembered however that tubing or casing hanging under its own weight is by definition in tension throughout its length.400 lbs. Force on a tubing or casing string is either tension or compression./ft. To calculate the string weight of a tubing string. In addition to the force of the tubing or casing the weight indicator also shows the load of the travelling blocks. The force of the tubing string suspended from the travelling blocks is increased by anchoring the tubing string at bottom and pulling on it. multiply the tubing weight by its length. Tubing or casing forces are typically known as string weights.6 lb.. of casing. = 46. casing has a given weight of 11./ft. on the top joint. multiply the total length of the casing by its weight. As the pull increases at surface so does the reading on the weight indicator.6 lb.400 lbs. When setting a packer or a tubing string in tension the setting force is generated by pulling on the tubing string.Basic Hydraulics FORCE Force is the total amount of push or pull acting on a object. the casing string would weigh 46. or exert a downward force of 46.400 lbs. Each joint must support the weight of the joints of tubing or casing below it. String weight creates force If it was measured in air. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 35 .

6. but rather is in compression at the bottom. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . When calculating string weights of two different sizes of tubing or casing. TRY IT What is the total string weight of 2500 ft. tubing and 4050 ft. All Rights Reserved 36 Houston.7 lb. neutral at some point part way up the string and in tension at the top. calculate each size separately then add them together to obtain the total string weight. 4. A tubing string in compression is not fully in compression throughout its length. of 2-3/8 in. which is the weight supported by the bottom of the string./ft. tubing? © 2000 WEATHERFORD. A weight indicator does not show compression but rather a loss of tension at surface.5 lb. for example./ft. of 2-7/8 in. is created by lowering the tension carried at surface so that the bottom of the string supports some of the weight.Basic Hydraulics Compression in a tubing string.

24 in2 = 1208. the box will remain stationary or in a neutral point. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 37 . the pressure must be greater than 1208. An example of how the effects of pressure and area result in a force is a hydraulic lift system on a dump truck. The force created by the hydraulic system on the truck would be acting upward.000 lb. and it is expressed by the formula: where. The hydraulic pressure system on the truck generates a pressure that acts on the area of the lift cylinder and the combination of the two creates a force sufficient to raise the box to dump the load. In the previous example the force of the load is down and is illustrated with a down arrow.000 lbs. If it is not. pressure and area. When calculating forces it is necessary to keep track of. All Rights Reserved Houston. and the lift cylinder has an area of 24 in2.33 psi To raise the truck box. The net force acting on any object is determined by keeping track of the direction (identifying which is positive or negative) of all the forces and if the net force is not zero then the object must move.Basic Hydraulics PRESSURE RELATED FORCES Pressure was defined earlier as the force acting on a unit of area. In order for the box of the truck to be raised to a sufficient height to dump its load the downward force from weight of the material in the box must be overcome. and illustrate. the direction in which the forces are acting to determine the net force. typically one square inch or one square meter. p p =pxa = p x 24 in2 = 29. There is a direct relationship between force. If the maximum weight of the load to be lifted is 29. F=pxa F = force (pounds) p = pressure (psi) a = area (in2 ) 500 lb s 10 in 2 50 0 psi 100 If a pressure of 50 psi acts on an area of 10 in2 the resulting force would be 500 lbs.000 lb. what pressure is needed to raise the box? F 29. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.33psi.

Rather than calculate tubing displacement volumes to determine the buoyancy force. This buoyant force is always in an upward direction and will result in a reduction of the string weight. All Rights Reserved 38 Houston. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. the shallower the water becomes the heavier the rock becomes. In an oilwell. An object will become buoyant when the pressure created by the fluid acts on the objects area. of fresh water. weighing 164 lbs. A rock with a volume of 1 cubic ft. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . and a reduced weight indicator reading.Basic Hydraulics BUOYANCY AS A FORCE Buoyancy is defined as the tendency for a submerged object to float in the fluid in which it is immersed. . The weight of the rock in fresh water would be (164 lbs. An example is a large rock on the bottom of a lake. displaces 62 lbs. If the weight of the rock is great enough. we can approximate the buoyancy force as if all the force is present at the end of the tubing and pushing up on the cross-sectional area of the tubing wall.). the object will remain submerged however it will weigh less.62 lbs. For example a block of wood will float when the buoyancy force created by the water is greater then the weight of the wood. The buoyancy force is equal to the weight of fluid displaced by the submerged object. To accurately calculate how buoyancy affects the string weight of pipe in fluid. the string weight in air must be calculated first. the tubing string is affected by buoyancy due to the wellbore fluid. As the block of wood rises in the water the volume of wood above the water is no longer affected by buoyancy and the wood reaches a balance point and floats. we may reach a point at which we can no longer carry the rock. or 102 lbs. If we pick up the rock and walk with it to the shore. In situations where the objects weight is greater than the buoyancy force. and then the buoyancy force calculated to obtain the buoyant string weight of the pipe.

you cannot simply multiply the weight per foot by the length of the string. However. by the hydrostatic pressure at the bottom of the shoe acting on this end area. and calculating the end area of the string. affect the buoyant force and its calculation. none of the wellbore fluid is allowed to enter the casing and the string acts as if it were plugged at the bottom. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.Basic Hydraulics WEIGHING CASING To find the hookload of different strings of casing. When different weights of casing are used. To calculate casing weight. or lightened. and multiplying by the inside area of the casing.D. you can add the number of feet of casing times the weight per foot for each section. such as friction in areas of high build angle.D. The difference is the buoyant force which is equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced by the metal in the casing. Some engineering tables give the displacement of the metal in the string along with the displaced fluid per 100 couplings. In highly deviated and horizontal completions there are many other variables affecting string weight. Everything inside the shoe will cancel out. acting against the cross sectional end area of the casing. Guide Shoe With a guide shoe. Float Shoe When a float shoe is run on the end of the casing string. Remember to add the casing weight in air to obtain correct hookload. multiply the #/ft by the depth of that weight casing. where its weight rating is calculated. While this rather exacting method is technically correct. there can be no negative hookload.D. The hydrostatic head of the column of fluid is then calculated and the resultant force applied as to lift the string from the well. All Rights Reserved Houston. Also. Casing weight is estimated by calculating the end area of the casing using casing O. changes in casing I. The required calculation method will be covered later in this section. from the engineering tables. that is. remember that the buoyant force estimated cannot exceed the weight of casing in air. The buoyant force is calculated by multiplying the end area of the casing by the hydrostatic pressure at the shoe. Casing weighs less in fluid than it does in air. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 39 . a very close approximation can be made for straight holes by using the hydrostatic head of the fluid at the bottom of the string. then multiplying by the hydrostatic pressure at the shoe. then subtract your estimate of the buoyant force. and the casing is being pushed upward. Any fluid inside the casing (sometimes the rig crew will fill the casing using a mud hose) should be taken into account by first estimating the amount of fluid inside the casing (in ft. If casings of different weight (and I. the only area affected is the cross sectional area of the casing itself. Calculations are done by first obtaining the casing inside and outside diameters. then estimating the hydrostatic pressure at the shoe (remember the fluid inside the casing may be of different density than that outside). the same rules apply as those used in the Guide Shoe example.s) are used.).

with two pieces (collar and shoe) 81% full. The only difference is that you have a somewhat more accurate estimate of the height of the fluid column inside the casing. your calculations should be made exactly as you would a float shoe with the casing partially filled. At this point. Practice is to calculate the casing weight when the casing has stopped filling and the valve has closed. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved 40 Houston. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . you should know that the fluid is the same as the fluid outside the casing. the casing will be 90% full.Basic Hydraulics Differential Fill Equipment The general rule for running differential fill float equipment states that when one piece of differential equipment is used.

Basic Hydraulics Guide Shoe Calculations: Using the well schematic on the right: 8700 feet of 5-1/2 23 # casing Mud at 12.052 = 0.5 psi Calculate the end area of the casing = 0.6 ppg Calculate the weight of casing in air = 23 x 8700 = 200.5 x 6. All Rights Reserved Houston.781 # Drilling Mud 12.7854 x (5.100 # ÿ¯ Hookload of casing = 200. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 41 .100 37.6 #/gal Example calculation of hookload: Calculate fluid gradient = 12.630 = 37.318 # ¯ uide Shoe © 2000 WEATHERFORD.6702) = 6.655 psi/ft Calculate the hydrostatic pressure = 8700 x 0.630 in2 Estimate the buoyant force = 5698.655 = 5698.781 = 162.52 4.6 x 0.

All Rights Reserved 42 Houston.000 # ¯ Hookload of casing = 96.7854 x 7.0002 = 38.Basic Hydraulics Float Shoe Calculations Using the well schematic on the right: 4800 feet of 7 20 # casing Mud at 9.362 # Drilling Mud 9.485 = 88.2#/gal Example calculation of hookload: Calculate the fluid gradient = 9.2 ppg Calculate the weight of casing in air = 20 x 4800 = 96.362 = 7.638 # ¯ Float Shoe © 2000 WEATHERFORD.478 psi/ft Dry Calculate the hydrostatic pressure = 4800 x 0.478 = 2296 psi Calculate the end area of the casing = 0.000 88. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .2 x 0.485 in2 Estimate the buoyant force = 2296 x 38.052 = 0.

223 # Differential Fill Shoe Casing Weight in air= 96.562 = 2428 psi Outside casing = 4800 x 0.Basic Hydraulics Differential Fill Calculations Using the well schematic on the right: 4800 feet of 7 20# casing Mud at 10. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 43 © 2000 WEATHERFORD.7854 x 6.8 x 0.258 # ¯ Houston.8 ppg 90% Fill Calculate the hydrostatic pressures: Inside casing = 4320 x 0.485 in2 Calculate the weight of casing in air = 4800 x 20 = 96.052 = 0.735 in2 Outside = 0.4562 = 32.0002 = 38.735 = 79. All Rights Reserved .485 = 114.562 = 2968 psi Calculate the areas of the casing: Inside = 0.000 + 79.8 #/gal Differential fill shoe on bottom Example calculation of hookload: Calculate the fluid gradient = 10.223 = 61.90 x 4800 = 4320 feet Drilling Mud 10.481# ¯ = 2968 x 38.000# ¯ Hookload = 96.481 114.562 x psi/ft Calculate the depth of fluid inside the casing: Using a single piece of differential equipment means that 90% of the casing will be filled Fluid Depth in casing = 0.7854 x 7.000 # ¯ Balance forces: Inside casing Outside casing = 2428 x 32.

314 in2 = 0.314 x 3078 = 4044 # ¯ = 0.655 = 4716 psi = 8700 x 0.7854 x (4.7782 4.350 # ¯ Hookload of casing = 157. All Rights Reserved 44 Houston.801 x 4716 = 3776 # ¯ Guide Shoe 7200 ft 8700 ft = 6.7854 x (4.50# Mud at 12.6702) = 6.350 + 4044 + 3776 37.7782) = 1.655 = 5700 psi = 0. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .6 #/gal Remember: Casing schedules read from the bottom up: Calculate hydrostatic pressure: At 4700 ft: At 7200 ft: At 8700 ft: = 4700 x 0.379 # ¯ © 2000 WEATHERFORD.791 # Calculate weight of casing in air: = (1500 x 23) + (2500 x 20) + (4700 x 15.D.791 = 127.7854 x (5.000 + 72.801 in2 Drilling Mud 12. modify the casing schedule to read: 1500 ft of 5-1/2 23# 2500 ft of 5-1/2 20# 4700 ft of 5-1/2 15.500 + 50.9502 4.6 ppg Calculate areas at casing I.850 = 157.end area of casing: = 0.Basic Hydraulics Calculation Using More Than One Casing Weight in the String Using the Guide Shoe example from a previous page.50) = 34.52 4. changes: At 4700 ft: At 7200 ft: 4700 ft At 8700 ft .655 = 3078 psi = 7200 x 0. changes: At 4700 ft: At 7200 ft: At 8700 ft: = 1.D.6702) = 0.630 x 5700 = 37.630 in2 Calculate forces acting at casing I.

Because the ground level can change as the lease matures.B.F. or S. to C. This is known as K.B.B. or K. All Rights Reserved Houston. we are given the measurement from the service rig slips to the casing flange. The problem develops when the drilling rig is moved off the well and a service rig or other piece of equipment is moved on. The term kelly bushing. K EL LY BUS HI NG 1 4 ft. can best be defined as a base reference point for depth measurement of the well. The measurement is made from the top of the kelly bushings on the drilling rig to ground level or to the casing flange (surface casing). When this change occurs the point at which measurements are taken changes and depth measurements can be inaccurate unless K. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.R. provides a basis point from which all depth measurements are made. As well operations progress from drilling to logging to completion to production.B.6 ft.F. Service rigs are not as a rule the same size as a drilling rig and as a result the working floor height changes. to C. the most accurate and preferred method is to use the measurement to the casing flange. When working on a service rig the setting depths of tools are measured from either the top of the rig slips or the tubing hanger. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 45 . is considered and is used accurately. the K.B..B..F. 6. expressed as service rig slips to C.S. GR OU N D LE VEL C ASIN G F LA NG E D R IL LIN G R IG D R ILL IN G RIG W ITH C AS IN G SET W EL LH EAD INS TALLE D The industry has standardized measurement procedures for the K. If the tubing is to be set in the slips.Basic Hydraulics DEFINING K.

If the tubing is to be landed in the tubing hanger.B. to C. = SLIPS to C.9 + 6815 + 16. add the K.3 ft.B. = K. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. the setting depth of any tool.9 ft.B.F.F. to C. is expressed as ft. measurement and subtracting the measurement from the top of the service rig slips to the casing flange will determine K.b. k. K.5 ft. difference Tubing tally Tool tally = 5.8 ft. = 6815 ft. to C. or the tubing bottom.7 ft.B.F.B.B. To accurately determine the setting depths of the tools. 6.B. This measurement can be expressed as: T. difference to the tubing and tool measurements. What is the landed depth of the tubing if : K. DIFFERENCE = 13. Tbg bottom = 5. kb.S. When calculating setting depths and a K. difference is added to the pipe and tool tally if you are setting a packer and landing the tubing in the rig slips to accurately determine the setting depth of the packer or the bottom of the tubing. difference.F. The example provided makes no allowances for packer setting stroke.B. All Rights Reserved 46 Houston. KB The term ft. is an abbreviation for feet k.b. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . = 16.8 ft.Basic Hydraulics When the setting of tools and the landing of the tubing in the service rig slips is required taking the original K. tubing compression or tension all of which must be considered to truly calculate accurate setting depths. measurement is used in the calculation.8 = 6837. 6. K.3 ft. then the measurement we need to determine is the casing flange to tubing spool. The 6.

B.0 ft. measurement.5 ft. = 7410 ft. Tubing spool height Tubing tally NCR seating nipple Tubing hanger = 18.75 ft.25 ft. to the tally. = 1.B. to C. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 47 . Tubing spool height = K.25 ft.F. 2. to C.775 ft. This example does not make allowances for packer setting stroke or tubing compression etc. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. Add the difference to the tally to obtain setting depths of the tubing and the tools.25 ft. Add the 12. = .5 ft. Measure the height of the tubing spool from the casing flange and subtract that measurement from the original K.F. 3. from the K. particularly when setting packers between two zones. measurement of 13.F. to C. 1.B. In addition the length of the tubing hanger would also be added to the tally to be accurate. 13.25 ft. = . TRY IT Calculate the bottom of a tubing string if the tubing is landed in the tubing spool and the following information is provided : K. Subtract the tubing spool height of 1. to obtain a difference of 12.Basic Hydraulics When setting tools and landing the tubing in the tubing hanger the setting depth of tubing or tools can be measured as follows.65 ft. = 1.B. All Rights Reserved Houston.

the string would be shorter. Bled pressure from a specific area. set-down weight. All Rights Reserved 48 . change fluids. pull or pressure that can be applied to a tool. The spring compresses only until its stored force equals the hydrostatic pressure multiplied by the bottom area. or the well. weights. but only until it reaches its initial length. Removal of hydrostatic pressure from either tubing or annulus. or pump pressure used to balance a column of heavier fluid between tubing and casing. the string would not get longer if it were run in a well filled with helium at atmospheric pressure. Under some circumstances. as the tool is no longer free to move and build up a resisting force. If the fluid were heavier. these stored forces must be considered. If a packer is set in heavy fluid. No differential implies there is no force. and bringing in the well is a common example. you only need to consider the forces across the tool itself. and that the tubing weight was present when the tool was set. Once the packer is set. or pressures. To determine the amount of push. Setting a packer with TCP (Tubing Conveyed Perforation) guns. Things done since that time usually fall into the following categories: l l l l Pulled tension or set-down compression of a known value on the packer. Any pressure above hydrostatic held at the time the tool was set such as high formation pressure held by a valve. just because the helium were lighter than air. This topic will be covered in some depth in the Tubing Movement section of this book. consider the entire string as a long spring. due to the additional buoyancy of the heavier fluid displaced by the steel in the string. the packer is balanced. there is no pressure differential across the tool. We can summarize that if you run a retrievable tool in a well with a lighter fluid. Remember that we originally stated that we are concerned only with changes at the tool. that is. forces are locked into the tool at the time it is set. any forces changed by you or the well must be taken into account and/or balanced. Houston. Swabbed. If the heavier fluid is displaced in either tubing or annulus after the packer is set. When hydrostatic pressure decreases. Pressure applied on a specific area by either pump or well. they must be included in your calculations. and the amount of pressure that is applied to a tool. For example. the string would be longer. and all that is required is an analysis of what has been done to the tool since it was set. the tubing string is shorter than if it was set in lighter fluid. Since the forces in the tubing string are identified and their presence definitely known. This spring is slowly compressed by hydrostatic pressure acting on its bottom surface. they are considered to be balanced. To help visualize this. Retrievable tools concern themselves with the amount of pull. the spring relaxes. There is no differential across the packer until it is set and you. You may be inclined to add the weight of the tubing string to your calculations. firing the guns.Basic Hydraulics RETRIEVABLE TOOLS Situations on the previous pages concerned themselves with the calculation of the hookload. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 © 2000 WEATHERFORD. When tools are first run and set. It is easier to assume that the tool was balanced when set.

some conditions may require an initial value higher than the tech manual. but locking the setting energy into the tool by some mechanical means. and. Situations involving each of these tools are covered in this section of the calculation handbook. The logic behind the tech manual amount is that it takes a certain amount of force to obtain proper pack-off. These tools allow the tubing to be left in tension. calculate the weight of the string in air. There are four basic types of retrievable tools: l l l l Tension-set tools: requiring tension for initial set. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. If you are calculating hookload. All Rights Reserved Houston. Combinations of these situations are easily handled by first assuming the tool was balanced when set.000 # ¯. use the larger figure. and its effect. all dealing with the same run on the same tool. then calculate what was done to the tool since that time. when calculating the amount of weight required to set the tool. calculated as it is performed. When you want to determine the forces across the tool itself. For example. use the larger amount. then calculate the forces due to pressures and areas that act on the string. setting forces are usually locked in the tool allowing tubing to be left in tension. then each subsequent operation. this will be covered later in this chapter. assume the tool was balanced when it was set. In actual practice. you may have two or more of these situations. Thes tools can be left in compression. or what the weight indicator will read. with tubing manipulation after setting. Intermediate conditions may overstress a tool or cause it to unset or leak. Remember. Be careful not to calculate an initial and final condition without considering intermediate steps. Compression-set tools: requiring set-down weight for initial set. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 49 . In most cases these packers are set after the tubing has been landed. or neutral. or neutral. and continued tension to maintain set.Basic Hydraulics If. and continued compression to maintain set. Remember. Add forces and directions to obtain hookload. Neutral Set: requiring either tension or compression for initial set. compression. therefore. if you calculate that you need 5000 # ¯ for a particular situation and the tech manual says the tool requires 10. you arrive at an amount smaller than the amount stated in the tech manual. giving false results. Hydraulic Set: requiring force generated by hydraulic means to set either by well hydrostatic pressure or applied pressure.

This type of packer has no bypass to allow provision for equalizing differential pressure. The packer is set and packed off with tension pulled into it with the tubing string. You must calculate based on what was done from that point. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . Divide this area into the upward strain on the tool. It will remain packed off as long there is sufficient tensile force on the packer. you are accounting for all operations done after the tool was set. pull the larger amount. and the third depth. Any time you circulate a fluid of different weight down to the tool. This will be the number of feet you can swab (not the depth you can swab to) before the tool will start to move downhole. There are three basic questions concerning tension type packers: · How much strain must be pulled to hold a given amount of annular pressure? · For a given amount of strain. All Rights Reserved 50 Houston. when releasing it. This will assure adequate tension to get a good packoff. and you intend to apply pressure. Any forces due to pressure. How deep can you swab? First. then set the tool and bleed off back pressure. calculate the downward force this pressure will exert. non-equalizing tension set packers. Convert hydrostatic pressure to depth by dividing pressure by the fluid gradient (psi/ft) for the fluid removed. how much annular pressure can be applied? · For a given amount of strain. in the second pressure. Divide this amount by the annular area of the tool to obtain pressure. forces are balanced across the tool. Remember at the time the tool is set. The result gives the amount of hydrostatic pressure you can remove from under the packer with a given amount of upstrain. How much pressure? First determine the amount of upstrain on the tool. How much strain? Since the tool is balanced to start. the area acted on by hydrostatic pressure.Basic Hydraulics SINGLE GRIP RETRIEVABLE TENSION PACKERS There are different types of tension packers. which place a compressive load on the packer will try to release the packer. or temperature. determine the area below the packer. which is activated by increased tubing tension. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. This upstrain is in addition to the amount used to set the tool. and also perform the operation in question. to what depth can you swab? In the first situation. These packers usually have a secondary shear release. calculate the effect of bleeding pressure and apply it to future calculations. Remember. the desired quantity is force. Whenever your calculations result in an upstrain less than the recommended amount required for initial pack-off. Multiply the intended pressure by the annular area and provide at least that much more upstrain. but here we are going to deal with single grip retrievable.

2 # salt water in the hole Pressure annulus to 1500 psi Annulus Casing I.5# Casing 1500 psi Pump Pressure in Annulus Salt Water 9.2ppg 2-3/8" 4.209 # when there is 1500 PSI annulus pressure. Packer @ 3800 ft © 2000 WEATHERFORD.Basic Hydraulics How Much Tension on the Packer to Hold Pressure? Non-equalizing Tension Set Packer 5 ½ Set at 3800 feet in 5 ½ 15. All Rights Reserved Houston.806 in² Force down = 1500 x 14.806 = 22.234 in² 2-3/8 Tubing O. You must pull at least this amount of upstrain to keep the packer stationary.D. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 51 .7# Tubing The tool will be pushed down by 22.428 = 14.70 # tubing 9. = 19.234 4.D.209 # ¯ 5-1/2" 15. = 4.428 in² Annular area = 19.50 # casing 2-3/8 EU 4.

234 4. All Rights Reserved 52 Houston.000 lbs Pulled on Packer Packer @ 3500 ft © 2000 WEATHERFORD. 12.70 # tubing 9.000 # put into the tool.D.806 in² Salt Water 9. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .000 ÷ 14.Basic Hydraulics How Much Pressure Can be Applied to the Annulus? Non-equalizing Tension Set Packer 5 ½ Set at 3500 feet in 5-1/2 15.000 # pulled on the tool Annulus Casing I. 2-3/8 Tubing O.5# Casing The 810 PSI can be put in the annulus before it will overcome the initial 12.806 = 810.5 psi 5-1/2" 15.50 # casing 2-3/8 EU 4.234 in² = 4.2 # salt water in the hole 12.428 in² = 19.D Annular area Pressure = 19.2 ppg 2-3/8" 4.7# Tubing = 12.428 = 14.

D.000 ÷ 28.2 ppg 2-7/8" 6. = 4.2 # salt water in the hole 15.000 # .056 in² Hydrostatic Removed Height of 9.056 = 535 psi = 535 ÷ (9. the well can be swabbed to a fluid level of (4300 1118) 3182 feet 15. All Rights Reserved Houston.735 in² Tubing I.735 4.Basic Hydraulics Depth Limitation for Swabbing Non-equalizing Tension Set Packer 7 Set at 4300 feet in 7 20# casing 2-7/8 6.2 # fluid = 15.679 = 28.2 x 0.D.pulled on the tool Casing I.052) = 1118 feet Salt Water 9.000 lbs Pulled on Packer Packer @ 4300 ft © 2000 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 53 .40 # tubing 9.679 in² Area under packer = 32.4# Tubing 7" 20# Casing Feet of fluid to be swabbed = 1118 feet Or. = 32.

After setting the tool (15. 2000 psi is held on the tubing while setting the tool. you have reduced the amount of pressure you can apply to the annulus or the depth that can be swabbed.000 # or more. When the setting operation was complete. if the removed force was in the annulus. you must be holding pressure somewhere as the hole is out of balance. The tool is broken loose and fluid is circulated to the tool. If it is less. then set the packer.000 # ). When you bled off this pressure. consequences of that operation must be calculated and considered. Removing pressure from an area is treated just like applying pressure to that same area.000 lbs Pulled on Packer 2000 psi Hydrostatic + 2000 psi Pump Pressure © 2000 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . For example. the packer will fail immediately. it is an upward force. The first step is to consider what takes place when a fluid of different weight is circulated. The same rule applies if you perform an operation subsequent to setting the packer. bleed 2000 psi from the tubing. If the fluid was different weight.Basic Hydraulics CIRCULATING A DIFFERENT WEIGHT FLUID TO THE PACKER Consider the condition where you circulate a different weight fluid to the packer. When you finish circulating. you would ordinarily bleed off pressure. or fluid would flow from the annulus to the tubing. You might be holding pressure on the tubing if you are circulating a lighter fluid down tubing. You will be removing a force (2000 x area underneath packer). you unbalanced the system by the amount pulled on the tool. Since the force was removed. Forces across the tool were balanced when you started to set it. it acts in the opposite direction. All Rights Reserved 54 Houston. 4000 psi Hydrostatic Pressure in Annulus 15. it acts as a downward force. you removed a force from the packer. if it was under the packer. If this force is 15. In the illustration at right.

6 ppg 2-7/8" 6. = 30.242 in² Force = 1044 x 26.145 psi/ft = 7200 x 0. Casing I.678 = 26. or the packer will move downhole.678 in² Area under the packer = 30.145 = 1044 psi 42o API Oil Salt Water 9. All Rights Reserved Houston.397 # If you set the packer and plan to bleed-off the 1044 psi.499 psi/ft = 0. as it would be held as you set the packer.354 psi/ft = 0. you will be removing an upward force of 27. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 55 .4# Tubing This differential pressure is observed as pump pressure.6# salt water in annulus 42° API oil circulated down tubing How much tension will have to be pulled on the packer to bleed off the circulating pressure after the packer is set? Annular fluid Tubing fluid Differential Differential pressure = 0. with the exception of the upstrain you apply during setting. = 4.920 .920 in² Tubing I.40# tubing 9. 7" 26# Casing Packer @ 7200 ft © 2000 WEATHERFORD.D.242 = 27. The tool is balanced as long as this pressure is maintained.4.D.Basic Hydraulics Circulating Different Weight Fluids with a Tension-Set Packer Non-equalizing Tension Set Packer 7 Set in 7 26# casing at 7200 feet 2-7/8 6.397 # and will have to have at least this amount pulled.

It was balanced at that time. After the packer is set and fluid is added. forces across the packer are balanced when the tool is set. the tool was set with fluid A in the hole.Basic Hydraulics SETTING TENSION-SET PACKERS IN LOW FLUID LEVEL WELLS This section serves to remind you of the difference between having fluid in the hole when the packer is set. Tubing shortens when exposed to a buoyant force. and adding fluid after it is set. As you remember. All Rights Reserved 56 Houston. additional forces are added to the annulus and underside of the packer due to the change in hydrostatic pressure on those areas. When the hole is filled with fluid B. as the tubing was free to move. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . Fluid ’A’ Fluid ’B’ © 2000 WEATHERFORD. In the example shown. The force generated must be calculated and accounted for. the tubing is fixed and not free to shorten.

= 4.936 in² Tubing I. = 30. = 6.40 # tubing 42° API oil at 6360 feet 20.354 = 2251 psi Force Down = 2251 x 24.4# Tubing 7" 26# Casing 42o API Oil 42o API Oil 6360 ft 20.000 lbs Pulled on Packer Packer @ 7430 ft Force Balance = 20. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 57 .023 # ¯ Net force on Tool = 24.000 # pulled to set the packer Hole to be filled with 42° oil after packer is set What force exists across the tool when the hole is filled? Annulus Casing I. = 30.D.023 # ¯ Tubing Casing I.000 # ÿ+ 59.680 in² Area = 26.55. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.Basic Hydraulics Setting Tension Packers in Low Fluid Level Wells: Non-equalizing Tension Set Packer 7 Set in 7 26# casing at 7430 feet 2-7/8 6.D.444 = 55.256 in² Hydrostatic Pressure = 2251 PSI Force up = 2251 x 26.256 = 59.102 # ÿ. All Rights Reserved Houston.D.102 # 2-7/8" 6.492 in ² Area = 24.D.444 in² Hydrostatic Pressure = 6360 x 0.936 in² Tubing O.079 # Note: That filling the annulus first would create a downward force that would cause packer failure.

how much pressure will be required on the annulus to hold the packer down? The additional situation exists. This type of packer has no bypass to allow provision for equalizing differential pressure across the tool. Calculate what is done to the tool from that point. how much pressure can be put underneath? · With a given amount of set-down weight. A compression packer will remain packed off as long there is suitable compression force on the packer. when a fluid of different weight is circulated down to the tool. as with the tension tool. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . The examples are intended to illustrate principles of the piston effect only .Basic Hydraulics SINGLE GRIP RETRIEVABLE COMPRESSION PACKERS There are different types of compression packers. This will ensure an adequate amount of weight to seal.in practice slack-off tables should be consulted for compression set packers. Quite often you will determine that the tool requires a holddown to keep it in place. and a certain pressure underneath. Set down this amount to hold the tool in position. Any forces that work against this compressive load will tend to try and release the packer. non-equalizing compression set packers. you must use the higher amount. How much to set down? The tool is balanced to start. but here we are going to deal with single grip retrievable. and to do the job calculated *There are definite limitations on the amount of weight that can reach packers by slacking off. Whenever you calculate an amount of set-down weight less than the recommended amount of weight required to obtain initial pack-off. There are three basic situations encountered when running set-down. when releasing it. Calculate the upward force caused by pressure under the tool by multiplying the area under the packer by the pressure. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. Divide the annular area into this net force to obtain the amount of pressure required on the annulus to hold the tool down.* How much pressure can be exerted under the packer? Use the known amount of set-down force to calculate maximum permissible pressure. Some of the following problems may not consider these particular limitations for all weights of a particular work string. A certain amount of pressure will be applied under the packer. How much annulus pressure to hold the packer down? Again the set force (down) is known. The packer is set and packed off with tubing weight. All Rights Reserved 58 Houston. The net force will be upward where annulus pressure is required. Calculate the force by multiplying the area under the packer by the pressure exerted. Divide this downward force by the area under the packer to obtain the maximum pressure under the tool. or compression type tools: · What weight is required on the packer to hold a given pressure under the tool? · With a given amount of weight on the tool. Remember forces across the tool are balanced at the time the tool is set.

5# Casing Salt Water 9.2 # salt water in the hole Treating pressure = 2000 psi Note: This problem will first be calculated as if the Nonequalizing Compression Set Packer did not have the holddown feature of upper slips. the 29. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 59 .Basic Hydraulics How Much Set-Down Weight to Hold Pressure? Non-equalizing Compression Set Packer 5-1/2 Set in 5-1/2 15. Note that the slack-off charts indicate that this amount of slack-off is not practical for 2-7/8 tubing.112# ¯ to hold the packer in place.D. In this case.40# tubing 9. Packer @ 7800 ft 2000 psi Treating Pressure © 2000 WEATHERFORD.112 # 5-1/2" 15.556 = 29. use a packer with the hold-down feature such as the upper slips found on the Non-equalizing Compression Set Packer.2 ppg 2-7/8" 6. Remember.4# Tubing You will have to set at least 29.D Area Force up = 19. . You must. Casing I. Tubing I.678 in² = 14.556 in² = 2000 x 14. as some packers feature a single-grip design without hold-downs.the packer is balanced when set. .234 in² = 4.112# force would be transferred through the upper slips into the casing. therefore.50# casing at 7800 feet 2-7/8 6. All Rights Reserved Houston.

TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .000 lbs Set-Down Weight on Packer Packer @ 6900 ft © 2000 WEATHERFORD.7# Tubing Salt Water 9. the feature force will be transmitted to the upper slips.560 in² = 3.Basic Hydraulics How Much Pressure Can Be Applied Under a Set-Down Packer? Single Grip Compression Set Packer 4-1/2 Set in 4-1/2 11.D. 10.000 ÷ 9.70 # tubing 9.2 ppg Any pressure below the packer that exceeds 1060 psi would move a single grip packer up the hole. when a hold-down is used.2# salt water in the hole 10.436 = 1060 psi 4-1/2" 11. Again. area Differential Area Pressure = 12.6# Casing 2-3/8" 4.60# casing at 6900 feet 2-3/8 4.124 in² = 9. All Rights Reserved 60 Houston.D. area Tubing I.436 in² = 10.000 # ¯ at the packer Casing I.

132 = 2020 psi 10. area Differential Area Force up Force balance = 12.428 in² = 8.D.420 # 4-1/2" 11. Differential Area Annulus Pressure = 12.Basic Hydraulics How Much Annulus Pressure to Hold Packer Down? Single Grip Compression Set Packer 4-1/2 Set in 4-1/2 11. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 61 .420 # Annular area: Casing O.2# salt water in the hole 10. 2800 psi Treating Pressure © 2000 WEATHERFORD.000 #ÿ¯ÿset on the packer Treating pressure = 2800 psi Casing I.6# Casing Salt Water 9.6# casing at 8000 feet 2-3/8 tubing 9.000 lbs Set-Down Weight on Packer Packer @ 8000 ft 2020 psi should be applied to the annulus in this single-grip packer application.124 in² = 9.436 = 26.420 # = 10. All Rights Reserved Houston.7# Tubing = 26.436 in² = 2800 x 9.132 in² = 16.560 in² = 4. to hold the packer in place.D.D. area Tubing I.2 ppg 2-3/8" 4.000 # ¯ Force to be Balanced = 16.560 in² = 3.420 ÷ 8.D. Tubing O.

you will be bleeding pressure. the rule applies that the tool is balanced when set. you unbalanced it by the amount of set-down force. remember it acts in the opposite direction. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . figure what is done when circulating a different weight fluid to the packer. bleed off 2000 psi from the tubing. Once again. After setting the packer with 15. All Rights Reserved 62 Houston. when the tool is set. Since it is a removed force. Bleeding pressure from an area is one of these operations. In the illustration. or fluid would flow from the annulus to the tubing. This action removes a force (2000 x area under the packer) and will put that much more downward force into the tool. 4000 psi Hydrostatic Pressure in Annulus 15. and any subsequent operation must be taken into account. as the hole is now unbalanced. 2000 psi must be held on the tubing while setting the packer. When the tool was set. Forces across the packer were balanced when you began to set it.Basic Hydraulics CIRCULATING A DIFFERENT WEIGHT FLUID TO THE PACKER Consider the condition where you circulate a different weight fluid to the packer. Because you are circulating a different weight fluid. then set the tool. Break the packer loose and circulate to the tool. Either way. you removed a force from the packer. or back pressure on the annulus if you circulated a heavier fluid.000 lbs Set-Down Weight on Packer 2000 psi © 2000 WEATHERFORD. you must be holding pressure somewhere. First. You might be holding pressure on the tubing if you circulated a lighter fluid. When you bled pressure. This force will be equal to the pressure multiplied by the area upon which it acts.000 # ¯.

094 psi/ft = 0.796 in² = 4.116 in² = 681 x 14.2 # salt water in the annulus 28° API oil circulated down the Tubing I. Area Tubing I. 9.D.40 # Tubing I.478 psi/ft = 0. All Rights Reserved Houston.613 # ¯ created by bleeding off tubing pressure 25. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 63 .000 # ¯ set on the packer 9.D.000 lbs Set-Down Weight on Packer Packer @ 7240 ft 5-1/2" 17# Casing 2-7/8" 6.384 psi/ft = 0.Basic Hydraulics Circulating A Different Weight Fluid to the Packer: Single Grip Compression Set Packer 5-1/2 Set in 5-1/2 17# casing at 7240 feet 2-7/8 6.D.116 = 9613 # 16.4# Tubing Salt Water 9.680 in² = 14.613 # ¯ Net force after bleeding pressure © 2000 WEATHERFORD.D.094 x 7240 = 681 PSI = 18. Set the tool with 16.2 ppg 28o API Oil 16. Area Differential Area Force = 0.000 # ¯ Bleed off the Tubing Pressure What will the forces be on a single grip packer? Fluid Gradient H2O Fluid Gradient Oil Differential Pump pressure Casing I.

All Rights Reserved 64 Houston. The tubing is not free to move to build up a resisting force against these changes. and any shortening effects were counterbalanced by the resisting force in the tubing.Basic Hydraulics SETTING IN A LOW FLUID LEVEL WELL This explanation serves as a reminder of the difference in conditions caused by having a low fluid level in the hole before setting the tool. and then filling it up after the tool is set. The forces generated on the tubing must be calculated by working out the hydrostatic pressures and multilpying them by the areas that they affect. the tubing is fixed and not free to shorten and counter the force upwards. the tool was set with fluid A in the hole. Once the hole was filled with fluid B. Fluid ’A’ Fluid ’B’ In the example shown. additional forces were added to the annulus and to the underside of the tool due to the change in hydrostatic pressure acting on those areas. Tubing shortens when exposed to a buoyant (or upward) force. Remember that the forces across the tool are balanced when the tool is set. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. At that time the tubing was free to move. After the packer is set and fluid is added. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .

936 in² = 9.000 # ¯ set on packer Hole is filled with 42° Oil after the tool is set.315 in² = 3599 x 0. area Tubing I.315 = 27.D. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 65 .354 = 1274 psi = 1274 x 21.867 = 30. area Area Hydrostatic Pressure Force down Tubing Casing I.936 in² = 7. Annulus Casing I. area Area Hydrostatic Pressure Force up Force balance: = 30.407 # tubing = 16.000 lbs Set-Down Weight on Packer Packer @ 5800 ft 42o API Oil 3-1/2" 9.000 # ¯ set-down weight = 27.407 # = 20.155 # ¯ annulus = 30. All Rights Reserved Houston.Basic Hydraulics Setting a Single Grip Compression Packer in a Low Fluid Level Well: Single Grip Compression Set Packer 7 Set in 7 26# casing at 5800 feet 3-1/2 9.621 in² = 21.748 # ¯ 20.D.3# Tubing 7" 26# Casing 3599 ft 42o API Oil Net force © 2000 WEATHERFORD.D.155 # ¯ = 30.069 in² = 23. area Tubing O.20# tubing 42° API oil at 3599 feet 20.D.867 in² = 1274 psi = 1274 x 23.

All Rights Reserved 66 Houston. is the estimation of the hookload. or weight indicator reading. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . Calculate the area from the I. Pressure acting on surface e (the packer itself. inward to the packer bore. of the seal assembly. Calculate the area from the O. Area c. Hook Load Calculate the weight of the tubing string in air.D. of the tubing to the packer bore. and their respective areas. take the following steps: Annulus Calculate the total pressure in the annulus at the packer. area b. total pressure in the tubing will act downward on the area from the tubing I.D. between the packer bore and the seal nipple O. The schematic at right is a sealbore packer with the tubing larger than the bore of the packer. Add this downward force to the downward force in the tubing. and then subtract the upward force created in the annulus to obtain hookload. which is set in the casing) transmits forces into the casing.Basic Hydraulics SEALBORE PACKER Hookload to Release From a Sealbore Packer: When Tubing is Larger Than the Packer Bore The objective of this calculation. of the tubing inward to the seal bore of the packer.D. first calculate the weight of the tubing string in air. and does not play any part in tubing calculations. Multiply the total pressure by the area and assign an upward force to the value. This results in tubing pressure applied to area b against annulus pressure applied to area a. Total pressure in the annulus pushes up on area a which is from the O.D. is balanced by area d below the packer and they cancel themselves out of this calculation. Multiply the total pressure by the area and assign a downward force to the value.. Pressure acting on area f. b c c b a e f f a e e d d e Tubing Calculate the totalpressure inside the tubing at the packer. of the tubing to the packer bore. from the packer bore inward to the I. To make the required calculation. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. creates both upward and downward forces. and assign a downward force to the value. then calculate the total pressures (the sum of hydrostatic and any surface applied pressure) acting on the tubing string. Since the bore of the tubing is larger than the bore of the packer. To find this value.D. and cancels itself out. under a neutral condition at the packer.D.

194 in² Hydrostatic Pressure = 12.1# Casing From the tech manual for sealbore packers.5 = 81.680 in² = 4.492 in² = 0. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.8 ppg Tubing 2-7/8 I.486 = 0.052 = 5070 psi Force up = 5070 x 2.006 = 10.10# casing 7.2 x 0.170 # = 4.50# P-105 tubing There is no applied pressure to either the tubing or the annulus Salt Water 9.500 x 6.D.486 = 2.170 = 72.390.500 x 7.006 in² Hydrostatic Pressure = 12.500 ft Hook load Tubing weight Annulus Tubing Hook load Hookload required to reach a neutral point at the packer. Annulus 2-7/8 O.486 in² = 4.390² = 4.5# Tubing Completion Fluid 7. All Rights Reserved Houston. area Packer bore area = 6.2 ppg 4-1/2" 15.D. area Packer bore area Area b Packer @ 12.500 feet 4-1/2 15.Basic Hydraulics Hookload to Release from Packer When Tubing is Larger Than Packer Bore Using the well schematic at right: 4-1/2 Sealbore Packer set at 12.239 # ¯ 2-7/8" 6.159 # ¯ = 81.486 in² Area a = 6.170 # = 1.D.194 = 1159 # ¯ = 12.441. is 2.7854 x 2. the packer bore is 2.250 + 1.680 4.492 .250 # ¯ = 10.159 10.8# completion fluid in annulus 9.2# salt water in tubing Seals set on 2-7/8 6.8 x 0.4. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 67 .500 x 9. and from the Engineering Tables the tubing I.052 = 5980 psi Force down = 5980 x 0.

In this case.D. To solve for hookload.D. of the tubing is larger than the bore of the packer. remember that force due to pressure in the annulus and tubing are additive. and O. which is smaller than the 2.688 Sealbore Packer This section calls particular attention to a common tubing/ packer combination where the packer bore is between the tubing I.D. of the tubing is smaller than the packer bore. The I. tubing pressure will also result in an upward force. Since the I. pressure in the annulus will result in an upward force because the O. a a Note that in the schematic at right.688 bore. and upward. of the most common weight 2-7/8 tubing is 2.D.D. b b © 2000 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . All Rights Reserved 68 Houston. and the resulting sum will be subtracted from the downward weight of the tubing string in air.441. pressure in both the tubing and the annulus will act on area a and b to lift the tubing.Basic Hydraulics 2-7/8 Tubing in a 2.

7854 x 2.995 in² Hydrostatic Pressure = 12.052 = 5070 psi Force up = 5070 x 0.143 # = 5.680 = 0.675 4. we confirm that the packer bore is 2.2 x 0.5# Tubing Completion Fluid 7.951 # = 80.D.8 x .2 ppg From the tech.143 5. area Packer bore area Area b Packer @ 12.40 # tubing There is no applied pressure to either the tubing or the annulus 5-1/2" 20# Casing Salt Water 9.000 # ¯ = 4.995 = 5951 # = 12. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 69 .D. is 2.817 in² Hydrostatic Pressure = 12.Basic Hydraulics 2-7/8 Tubing in a 2.688.000 4. Annulus 2-7/8 O.500 x 7.4 = 80.500 ft Hookload Tubing weight Annulus Tubing Hookload Required hookload to reach a neutral point at the packer.675 in² = 5.2 # salt water in tubing Seals set on 2-7/8 6.D. manual for sealbore packers. area Packer bore area = 6.688 Sealbore Packer Calculation: Using the well schematic at right: 5-1/2 Sealbore Packer set at 12.441.675 in² Area a = 6.500 x 6.817 = 4143 # = 4.8 ppg Tubing 2-7/8 I.492 in² = 0.951 = 69. and that the tubing I.680 in² = 5.906 # ¯ 2-7/8" 6. All Rights Reserved Houston.500 feet 5-1/2 20 # casing 7.500 x 9.688² = 5.8 # completion fluid in annulus 9. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.052 = 5980 psi Force up = 5980 x 0.492 5.675 = 0.

calculate the weight of the tubing string in air. to obtain hookload for neutral conditions at the packer. a a b b © 2000 WEATHERFORD. Calculate the area for the packer bore to the O.. Tubing Calculate the pressure inside the tubing at the packer. to calculate hookload when the tubing is in neutral at the packer. of the tubing. Multiply the pressure by the area and assign an upward force to the value.D. pressure inside the tubing pushes up on the area from the packer seal bore to the tubing I. Pressure in the annulus pushes down on the area a from the packer seal bore to the O.D. and subtract the upward force from pressure in the tubing. Calculate the area from the packer bore to the O. and does not play a part in this calculation. Add this downward force together with the downward force created by annulus pressure. Multiply the pressure by the area and assign a downward force to the value.D.D. take the following steps: Annulus Calculate the pressure in the annulus at the packer. of the tubing is smaller than the packer bore. To make the required calculation. of the tubing. area b. The procedure is again the same. then the pressures and areas that would change that weight as seen by hookload. The schematic at right shows the tubing OD smaller than the bore of the packer. All Rights Reserved 70 Houston. of the tubing.Basic Hydraulics Hookload to Release from a Sealbore Packer: When Tubing is Smaller Than the Packer Bore The objective remains the same. Again any pressure outward of the seal bore would go into the casing through the packer. and assign a downward force to the value. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . Hookload Calculate the weight of the tubing string in air. Since the I.D.

126 in² = 5. the packer bore is 2.7854 x 2.8 ppg Tubing 2-3/8 I. Annulus 2-3/8 O.2# salt water in tubing Seals set on 2-3/8 4.430 in² = 0.243 = 49.245 in² Hydrostatic Pressure = 12. area Packer bore area Area b Packer @ 12.500 x 9.995.2 x 0.Basic Hydraulics Calculation of Hookload to Release from Packer When Tubing is SmallerThan Packer Bore Using the well schematic at right: 4-1/2 Sealbore Packer Set at 12.549 = 15. All Rights Reserved Houston.675 3.549 in² Hydrostatic Pressure = 12.750 # ¯ = 6.430 = 1. is 1.052 = 5980 psi Force up = 5980 x 2.675 in² Area a = 5.243 # = 58.126 = 2.675 in² = 5.D.688.8# completion fluid in annulus 9.D.245 = 6312 # ¯ = 3.7# Tubing Completion Fluid 7.052 = 5070 psi Force down = 5070 x 1.750 + 6.2 ppg 2-3/8" 4.675 4.500 x 4.688² = 5.243 # = 12.819 # ¯ 4-1/2" 13.312 15.500 x 7.D. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 71 .5# Casing Salt Water 9.500 feet in 4-1/2 13. and from the engineering tables the tubing I.500 ft Hookload Tubing weight Annulus Tubing Hookload Hookload required to reach a neutral point at the packer.8 x 0. area Packer bore area = 4.50# casing 7.312 # ¯ = 15.70 = 58.70# P-105 tubing There is no applied pressure to either the tubing or the annulus From the tech manual for sealbore packers.

with no tension or compression forces in the tubing at the packer. The calculated hookload gives a neutral point at the packer. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . All Rights Reserved 72 Houston.Basic Hydraulics SEAL ASSEMBLIES All of the hookloads in the preceding examples calculated the weight indicator reading to reach a neutral point. An Anchor Seal (or latched) Assembly is locked to the sealbore packer. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. and prevents tubing movement in either up or down directions. A Locator Seal (or landed) Assembly allows tubing movement in one direction only. There are basically three types of seal assemblies used in sealbore packer completions: If a Spacer Seal (or stung thru) Assembly is used. Depending on the type of seal assembly the calculated hookload tells the conditions of the packer and tubing string. A locator seal assembly is retrieved by picking up on the tubing string. With a spacer seal assembly the hookload is the weight indicator reading at a neutral point. A landing NoGo shoulder at the top of the seal assembly sits down on top of the packer and prevents the tubing moving downwards. To know the hookload when releasing the seal assembly is an important piece of information. In all of the previous sealbore packer examples the seal assemblies have been of this type. the tubing is free to move upwards or downwards. just prior to release.

and the addition of tubing weight equal to this upwards force should keep the seal assembly in the packer. and the packer bore. Pressure on Annulus to Hold the Seal Assembly in Place These calculations are based on the assumption that the tubing O. subtract from it the amount of setdown force.D. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. subtract the annulus hydrostatic pressure from the total annulus pressure. is smaller than the packer bore.D. For deep wells. then calculate what loads are applied to the seal assembly from that point onwards. With this type situation. Calculation is the straightforward application of total tubing pressure to the differential area between the tubing I. shallow.D. Procedures for calculating tubing movement can be found in a later section of this manual. In certain instances. This force acts upward. is larger than the packer bore. is larger than the packer bore. consult your Technical Service representative or Engineering.Basic Hydraulics Weight on a Locator Seal Assembly to Hold Pressure Hookload is not a consideration in this operation. or the tubing O. tubing movement calculations should be made and applied where relevant. This is the amount of total annulus pressure required to keep the seal assembly in the packer. which is usually the case. To calculate the applied annulus pressure required. and the packer bore. moderate temperature wells. Calculate the upward force generated by total tubing pressure beneath the seal assembly. Should your work involve a critical well.D.D. You may also wish to determine the amount of pressure to apply to the annulus to hold the seal assembly in the packer. All Rights Reserved Houston. depending on whether the tubing I. and divide it into the upward force. The only forces in question are those across the seal assembly. This approach to locator type seal assemblies is considerably simplified and is accurate only on low pressure. causing the tubing to be lifted with increased tubing pressure. is smaller than the packer bore. In this type of application pressure in the tubing can cause either an up or a down force. Calculate the differential area between the tubing O. or you are unsure of your results. assume that the seal assembly will be balanced when you sting into the packer. high temperature wells.D. you may want to determine whether the application of pressure to the annulus tends to hold the seal assembly in the packer. Since you are not calculating hookload. which again is usually the case. Addition of annular pressure would result in a downward force tending to keep the seal assembly in the packer. leaving you with an upward acting force. or high pressure wells. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 73 . you may wish to know how much weight to set-down (or slack-off) on the packer to hold a certain amount of pressure. Set-Down Weight to Hold the Seal Assembly in Place These calculations are based on the assumption that the tubing I. or pump it out.

500 ft 15.375 # 5000 psi Treating Pressure Completion Fluid 8. area Area Total Pressure Force down Tubing Packer bore area 2-7/8 I.Basic Hydraulics Calculation of How Much Weight to Set-Down on Locator Seal Assembly to Hold Pressure Using the well schematic at right: 7 Sealbore Packer set at 8500 feet 7 29# casing Seals run on 2-7/8 6.296 4.375 pounds must be set down at the packer to keep the seal assembly in place. packer bore is 3.492 = 1.296 6.8 # fluid in both tubing and annulus After packer is set & seals are spaced out in packer: Treatment expected at 5000 psi Max.296 in² = 4. area Area Total Pressure Force up Net Force at Packer: = 8.250 and from the engineering tables.616 in² = 5000 psi = 5000 x 3.081 . casing pressure 1500 psi How much weight will have to be set on the seals? From the Sealbore Packer tech manual.50 # tubing 8.706 = 15.D.D.296 in² = 6.680 = 3.081 # = 18.8 ppg Annulus Pressure 1500 psi 7" 29# Casing 2-7/8" 6.D.680 in² = 8. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.804 = 2706 # ¯ = 8.2. All Rights Reserved 74 Houston. Annulus Packer bore area 2-7/8 O. tubing I.5# Tubing F Packer @ 8. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . is 2.616 = 18.804 in² = 1500 psi = 1500 x 1.492 in² = 8.441.

and modify the answer with values calculated in the annulus. acting both up and down. Hookload Calculate the weight of the string in air. Again. subtract the force due to pressure under the packer. area a. cancel each other out. annulus pressure again acts on the area between the packer bore and the tubing O. area a. the tubing pressure will be acting downward on the full I. pressures at the packer. In addition to knowing the tubing and annulus pressure the pressure below the packer must also be given. of the tubing.D. The pressure below the plug is either hydrostatic or formation pressure. The procedure for calculating hookload to place the tubing in neutral would be: Annulus Determine pressures and areas. and the areas they act upon. All Rights Reserved Houston. Inside.Basic Hydraulics PLUGGED TUBING The most common method of creating plugged tubing.. Tubing Multiply the area of the inside of the tubing by the tubing pressure. Pressure below the packer acts upward on the entire packer bore area d. The same principles apply whether the tubing is plugged by accident or by design. This force always acts upward. area b. Areas c. multiply to obtain the resultant force and determine whether it acts upward or downward. In schematic #1. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 a a c c b d CASE #1 c c a a b d CASE #2 Fax 713/693-4227 75 .D. this time the sum of areas b and c. The two schematics at right show the tubing smaller than the packer bore (case #1) and larger than the packer bore (case #2). Under the Packer Multiply the area of the packer seal bore by the pressure trapped under the packer. pushing downward. we must find both the weight of the string in air.D. is to run a blanking plug in a profile nipple below the packer. notice that the annulus pressure acts on the area between the packer bore and the tubing O.. This force always acts downward. Pressure trapped under the packer pushes upward on the entire packer bore area d. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.D. Tubing pressure again results in a downward force created by tubing pressure acting on the full tubing I. In schematic #2. add the force due to tubing pressure. but results in an upward force.

and from the engineering tables the tubing I.866 = 15. area Hydrostatic Pressure Force down Under the Packer Packer bore area Force up Net Force at Packer Tubing weight Annulus Force down Tubing Force down Under Packer Force Net Force = 8.484 # ¯ = 8.2 x 0.995.357 = 3034 PSI = 3034 x 3.116 # ¯ Required pick up load to reach neutral at the packer is 36.126 in² = 8500 x 0.430 in² = 8.D.2 ppg From the tech manual for sealbore packers.2 # salt water in the annulus 40°API oil in the tubing Seals set on 2-3/8 4.70# tubing 3500 psi under the packer 7" 26# Casing Salt Water 9.7 = 39.866 in² = 8500 x 9. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .D.116#. is 1.484 29.052 = 4066 psi = 4066 x 3.036 # 2-3/8" 4.718 + 9.D.950 # ¯ = 15.036 = 36.296 in² = 3500 x 8.Basic Hydraulics Calculation of Releasing From a Packer With Plugged Tubing Small Tubing Larger Seal Bore: Using the well schematic at right: 7 Sealbore Packer set at 8500 feet 7 26# casing 9.718 # ¯ = 3.950 + 15.296 = 29.296 in² = 4.296 4. Annulus Packer bore area 2-3/8 O.430 = 3.126 = 9.7# Tubing 40o API Oil Packer @ 8.718 # ¯ = 9.484 # ¯ = 29. area Area a Hydrostatic Pressure Force down Tubing 2-3/8 I.036 # = 8500 x 4. the packer bore is 3.250. All Rights Reserved 76 Houston.500 ft 3500 psi = 39.

you must calculate the pressure above the plug. Multiply the same area by the pressure above the plug to determine downward force. Multiply the area of the seal bore of the packer by the amount of pressure beneath the plug to determine upward force. All Rights Reserved Houston. you may have to ask the customer for his estimate of bottom hole pressure. hydrostatic pressure at the plug when it was run would be a good estimate. If the plug was recently run. Pressure from above acts downward on an area equal to that of the bore of the packer (the area being sealed). Be advised that while obtaining an accurate value for downhole pressure is not always possible.Basic Hydraulics PACKER PLUGS A packer plug is simply a small bridge plug that is designed to fit into the bore of a packer. Subtract to obtain the net force on the plug and its direction. If the hole was full and the possibility of the well coming in exists. your educated estimate is better than no information. You must overcome this force plus or minus a small amount of seal drag to retrieve the plug. estimate the pressure below the plug. Remember. especially if the well had a low fluid level. Any part of the plug above the packer bore is balanced as essentially equal pressure is exerted on both upward and downward facing surfaces. If you wish to calculate the amount of force required to retrieve the plug. pressures above and below the plug must first be determined. © 2000 WEATHERFORD. Pressure from above acts downward on it and pressure from below acts upward. some plugs seat on a shoulder transferring the downward force directly into the packer. and calculate the net force on the plug. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 77 . To determine the amount of upward or downward force.

What if you cant get more than 8.800 ft 40o API Oil 7" 29# Casing Calculate hydrostatic pressure at top of plug: = 0. i.000 # down to the tool? Need to increase hydrostatic above tool to obtain 13.e.296 = 1579 psi Fluid column height = 1579 ¸ÿ0.296 = 21.984 # = 21. fill to 5800 .984 . All Rights Reserved 78 Houston. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .296 in2 Casing Swabbed to 5. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.100 # down = 13.2502 = 8.4423 = 1377 ft depth.8885 = 13.100 # to equalize plug.250 Calculate seal bore area = 0.357 x (8800 5800) = 1071psi Calculate force down on plug= 8.099 # Need to set-down 13.800 ft 2650 psi Add 400 API oil to obtain 4423 feet additional fluid column.296 x 1071 = 8885 # ¯ Calculate force up on plug Net force on plug = 2650 x 8.Basic Hydraulics Packer Plug Calculations Using the well schematic at right: 7 Sealbore Packer set at 8800 ft 7 29# casing Casing swabbed to 5800 ft Bottom hole pressure = 2650 psi 400 API oil in the hole Want to equalize forces before releasing plug.357 = 4423 ft of oil Packer @ 8.7854 x 3. From the tech insert we know that the sealbore packer has a seal bore of 3.100 ¸ 8.

Force down on the plug is calculated by multiplying the plug top area. using the O. of the plug. by the pressure acting above the plug. and equalize pressure across the plug.D. so again the complete outside area of the valve is used. All Rights Reserved Houston. Pressure from above will not only be pushing down on the valve. Forces are calculated as above. (casing I. using the plug O. Subtracting one from the other to find whether push or pull is required. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 79 . and the amount. Area is calculated on the complete outside area of the valve.). WRP BRIDGE PLUG © 2000 WEATHERFORD.Basic Hydraulics RETRIEVABLE BRIDGE PLUGS Opening Valves to Equalize Pressure and Release Plug Calculating the forces across the plug itself is quite simple. Force up is calculated by multiplying the same area by the pressure below the plug. Force down is the valve area multiplied by the pressure above. Pressure from below also pushes up on the rod. The problem encountered when retrieving a bridge plug is how much to push or pull to open the valve. but also on the control rod.D.D.D. as well as the valve. of the valve instead of the O. and force up is the valve area multiplied by the pressure below. Subtracting one force from the other yields net force acting on the plug.

Basic Hydraulics Retrievable Bridge Plug Calculation Using the well schematic at right: Bridge Plug 5-1/2 13 . All Rights Reserved 80 Houston.405 psi/ft) Pressure below plug is 2850 psi From the tech manual.1342 = 2155 # This implies that you must set down 2155 lbs at the tool to open the valve and equalize pressure. If tension were required to equalize.405 x (5200 2500) = 1094 psi Balance forces: Force down: = 1.D. if the Net Force were quite large.200 ft 2850 psi © 2000 WEATHERFORD.2502 = 1.250 Valve area = 0. consult the technical manual insert for the maximum tension rating for the single and/or double pin retrieving head. There should be no problem getting this weight to the tool.227 x 2850 = 3497 # Net Force: = 3497 . you may want to consider adding fluid to increase the hydrostatic pressure on top of the tool. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . is 1.227 in2 20o API Oil Fluid Level @ 2.50 # casing Set at 5200 feet 200 API Oil above to 2500 feet (0.227 x 1094 = 1342 # ¯ Force up: = 1.17 # Set in 5-1/2 15. however. Bridge Plug @ 5.7854 x 1.5# Casing Calculate pressure above = 0.500 ft 5-1/2" 15. valve O.

TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 81 © 2000 WEATHERFORD. Tubing elongation is caused by three factors: · · · BA TUBING ANCHOR Tubing string filled with warm fluid Loss of buoyancy caused by pumping down the annulus Weight of fluid inside the tubing when the standing valve is closed Tubing tension requirements calculated from the tables include all three of these factors. beyond the point where it would be stretched by fluid induced loads and temperature increases. Without this pre-stretching.Basic Hydraulics TUBING ANCHORS The purpose of a tubing anchor is to pre-stretch the tubing string. All Rights Reserved . tubing has a tendency to buckle producing the following effects: · · · · As tubing buckles. As a result. The following formula is used with the tables: Where: FT = F1 + F2 F3 FT = Total tension required in pounds F1 = Result of table #1 F2 = Result of table #2 F3 = Result of table #3 Houston. and to anchor it to the casing wall. in a pumping well. This tension is placed on the tubing string at the time of installation by anchoring the bottom of the tubing string. Tables provided later in this section permit the calculation of the distance free tubing will elongate from the time tubing is landed until the fluid level has been pumped down to operating level. pump efficiency increases while wear and friction are decreased. it rubs against the sucker rods causing rod wear and tubing wear resulting in rod and/or tubing failure Friction caused by the rod to tubing contact requires an increase in power at surface Buckled tubing can contact casing causing additional wear Buckling action forces rods out of alignment with the pump causing excessive pump wear Tension required: The amount of tension required to eliminate buckling is the tension that exists in the fully elongated free tubing string of a rod pumped well on the downstroke.

70# EUE J-55 Tubing Yield Strength: 71. and comes from the Engineering Tables ).800 = 27.800 # Rod String Weight: 8. + Rod Wt.730 # (71.000 = 35. A greater prestrain than calculated is usually recommended as a safety factor.) Shear Value of Anchor: 50.730 # is the joint yield strength of the tubing string.000 # (est. Tubing Loads Maximum anticipated tubing loads should be determined and compared with string strength to prevent tubing damage. © 2000 WEATHERFORD.000 # Determining Tension Using the well data above. FT + Tubing Wt. and tables on page 83: F1 (from Table #1) = 6300 # F2 (from Table #2) = 4050 # F3 (from Table #3) = 1220 # FT Tension required to eliminate buckling = 6300 + 4050 1220 = 9130 # = 9130 # Note: The value calculated represents the minimum tension required and it is presumed well data is accurate. All Rights Reserved 82 Houston.730 lb Pump & Anchor depth: 4000 feet Fluid Level when Anchor Set: 3000 feet Operating Fluid Level: 4000 feet Fluid temperature @ surface: 70°F Mean Yearly Temperature: 37°F Tubing String Weight: 18.Basic Hydraulics Tubing Anchor Example Calculations Using the example well profile for all of the following calculations: Tubing Size: 2-3/8 4. This weight will not affect the anchor unless it is released with the rods still in the tubing string.800 + 8. Top Joint Load: FT + String Weight = 9130 + 18.930 # This value is well below the safe string load of 71.000 # Pump Plunger Size: 1-1/2 Weight of Fluid in Tubing: 6. = 9130 + 18. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .930 # Tubing Load @ Anchor: Maximum load on a tubing anchor will occur when the weight of the rod string is added. and the tool can be released normally.

In the preceding example. the type of donut or tubing hanger used as some types require tension higher than FT to install. it may be impossible to use the shear release without damaging the tubing.000# 10-20.000# Min. Force to shear release tubing anchor = 74. plus the weight of the column of fluid. Our options include a lighter shear value or a stronger tubing string.000# 50.800 + 50. The following table lists minimum recommended shear values. The table does not take into account. Force to shear release tubing anchor = Tubing Wt + Shear + Fluid Wt = 18. you would be required to pull the weight of the string plus the shear value of the tool. For this application. We must now add the weight of the rod string to the answer directly above. In the previous case: Force to shear release tubing anchor = Tubing Wt. the shear value should have been reduced to allow for all operational contingencies.000 + 6000 = 74. + Shear Value = 18.800 # Tubing damage is now certain with this configuration. Assuming the worst case. In the unlikely event that the sucker rods are pulled. Shear value 25. pump.800 + 50. It is usual practice to run anchors with a high shear value to insure against accidental or pre-mature releasing. This release is a secondary or safety release and is not used unless the anchor cannot be released normally.000# 30-40. you must now pull the weight of the tubing plus the shear value of the tool.000 = 68.000# 20-30. If too high a shear value is used.000# 40. If too low a value is used. If the rods. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 83 . it is suggested a lighter shear value be used as the required tension is considerably less than the shear value.800 # Caution: We are now within 5% of the joint yield strength of the tubing. All Rights Reserved Houston.800 + 8000 = 82. you run the risk of pre-mature release. where the rods and pump cannot be pulled and the tubing is trapped full of fluid.000# 30. but the tubing remains full of trapped fluid. Minimum Shear Values Tubing Anchors are shipped with all shear screws installed (maximum shear value). and standing valve are pulled from the well and the anchor must be sheared to release.800# We now risk tubing damage by pulling over the joint strength.Basic Hydraulics Tubing Anchor Example Calculations: Shear Release Tubing Anchors are furnished with an adjustable shear release.000# © 2000 WEATHERFORD. FT 0-10.

150 13.370 7500 10.270 11.200 To obtain F2: Subtract the mean yearly temperature for the area in which the well is located from the temperature of the well fluid at surface. Read F2 immediately below.Basic Hydraulics TUBING ANCHORS Tension Force Charts – 2-3/8” Tubing O.800 12.850 16.550 10.500 14.200 17. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 .TEMPERATURE INCREASE FACTOR F 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 F2 1350 2700 4050 5400 6750 8100 9450 10.000 460 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 OPERATING FLUID LEVEL (feet) Table #2 F2 . Locate your answer in theF row.850 1520 2100 2730 3400 4120 4870 5660 6510 7380 8300 9260 10. Table #3 F3 – INITIAL WELL FLUID LEVEL FACTOR PUMP AND TUBING ANCHOR DEPTH (Feet) 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 180 150 150 140 140 140 140 140 140 460 360 330 310 300 290 290 280 280 280 610 540 500 480 460 450 450 440 430 910 780 720 680 650 630 620 610 600 1060 1370 960 890 850 820 800 780 770 1220 1510 1820 1130 1390 1670 1960 2290 1070 1310 1560 1830 2130 2430 2740 1030 1250 1490 1740 2010 2290 2580 2880 3200 1000 1210 1430 1670 1920 2180 2450 2730 3030 980 960 1170 1390 1610 1850 2100 2350 2620 2900 1150 1350 1570 1800 2030 2270 2530 2790 3340 3180 3060 7500 10.790 9450 10.850 20.310 1500 2060 2670 3310 4010 4720 5470 6270 7100 7970 8870 1480 2040 2630 3520 3910 4600 5320 6090 6870 7700 8550 9820 10.000 130 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 FLUID LEVEL WHEN ANCHOR IS SET (feet) © 2000 WEATHERFORD.D. Table #1 F1 – OPERATING FLUID LEVEL FACTOR PUMP AND TUBING ANCHOR DEPTH (Feet) 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 610 1550 520 1220 2080 3100 500 1110 1830 2660 3590 4640 480 1060 1700 2430 3250 4140 5130 6300 470 1020 1630 2300 3040 3840 4730 5670 6670 7750 470 1000 1580 2210 2900 3650 4450 5310 7220 7200 8210 9300 460 460 460 980 970 960 960 1540 2150 2800 3500 4260 5060 5900 6800 7740 8730 9760 10. All Rights Reserved 84 Houston.

530 12.630 680 1440 2250 3150 4110 5130 6240 7410 8640 680 1420 2210 3080 4000 4980 6030 7130 8300 680 1410 2180 3020 3920 4850 5870 6920 8020 9960 11.400 26.560 9180 10.TEMPERATURE INCREASE FACTOR F 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 F2 1880 3750 5630 7500 9370 11. Table #3 F3 – INITIAL WELL FLUID LEVEL FACTOR PUMP AND TUBING ANCHOR DEPTH (Feet) 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 250 210 200 200 190 190 190 190 190 630 500 450 430 410 410 400 390 390 390 850 740 690 660 640 630 620 610 600 1260 1080 1470 1910 990 940 900 880 860 840 830 1330 1700 2100 2540 1240 1580 1940 2320 2730 3170 1180 1500 1830 2170 2550 2940 3360 3800 1140 1440 1750 2070 2420 2780 3160 3570 3990 4440 1110 1400 1690 1990 2320 2660 3020 3390 3790 4210 1090 1360 1640 1930 2240 2560 2900 3260 3630 4020 1070 1330 1600 1880 2180 2490 2810 3150 3500 3870 4630 4420 4250 7500 10.890 9520 10.800 20.370 15.300 690 1460 2310 3240 4250 5340 6530 7790 9110 10.680 13.580 15.900 18.400 11.000 16. Read F2 immediately below.500 24. Locate your answer in theF row.800 8910 10.600 22.190 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 10.040 16.Basic Hydraulics TUBING ANCHORS Tension Force Charts – 2-7/8” Tubing O.000 190 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 FLUID LEVEL WHEN ANCHOR IS SET (feet) © 2000 WEATHERFORD.100 15. Table #1 F1 – OPERATING FLUID LEVEL FACTOR PUMP AND TUBING ANCHOR DEPTH (Feet) 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 890 2180 770 1790 3040 4540 730 1630 2670 3890 5270 6800 710 1540 2490 3560 4760 6070 7520 9090 700 1500 2380 3370 4460 5630 6930 8310 9770 11.800 15.290 12.100 To obtain F2: Subtract the mean yearly temperature for the area in which the well is located from the temperature of the well fluid at surface.100 28.040 13.080 11.790 14.320 15.D.250 13.810 12.000 14.000 670 1400 2160 2980 3850 4760 5630 6740 7800 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 OPERATING FLUID LEVEL (feet) Table #2 F2 . TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 85 . All Rights Reserved Houston.160 13.550 13.340 12.

Locate your answer in the F row.D. All Rights Reserved 86 Houston. Table #1 F1 – OPERATING FLUID LEVEL FACTOR 1000 1323 3367 PUMP AND TUBING ANCHOR DEPTH 2000 1142 2645 4509 6733 3000 1082 2405 3968 5772 7815 10100 4000 1052 2285 3697 5291 7064 9018 11152 13467 5000 1034 2212 3535 5002 6613 8369 10268 12313 14501 16834 6000 1022 2164 3427 4809 6312 7936 9679 11543 13527 15631 17855 20201 7000 1013 2130 3349 4672 6098 7626 9258 10993 12831 14772 16816 18963 21213 23567 8000 1007 2104 3292 4569 5937 7395 8943 10581 12310 14123 16037 18036 20125 22304 24574 26934 9000 1002 2084 3246 4489 5811 7214 8697 10260 11904 13627 15431 17314 19278 21322 23446 25650 27935 30300 10000 998 2068 3210 4425 5711 7070 8501 10004 11579 13226 14946 16737 18601 20537 22545 24625 26777 29002 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 OPERATING FLUID LEVEL (feet) Table #2 F2 .Basic Hydraulics TUBING ANCHORS Tension Force Charts – 3-1/2” Tubing O.TEMPERATURE INCREASE FACTOR F 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 F2 2680 5362 8043 10724 13405 16086 18767 21448 24129 26810 24491 32171 34852 37533 40214 42895 45576 48257 50938 53619 To obtain F2: Subtract the mean yearly temperature for the area in which the well is located from the temperature of the well fluid at surface. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 . Read F2 immediately below. Table #3 F3 – INITIAL WELL FLUID LEVEL FACTOR PUMP AND TUBING ANCHOR DEPTH (Feet) 1000 356 906 2000 307 712 1214 1813 3000 291 642 1068 1554 2104 2719 4000 283 615 995 1424 1901 2427 3002 3625 5000 278 596 952 1346 1780 2253 2754 3314 3903 4531 6000 275 583 922 1295 1699 2136 2605 3107 3641 4208 4806 5438 7000 273 573 902 1258 1641 5053 2492 2959 3454 3976 4527 5105 5710 6344 8000 271 566 886 1230 1598 1991 2407 2848 3313 3803 4317 4855 5417 6004 6615 7250 9000 270 561 874 1208 1564 1942 2341 2762 3204 3668 4154 4661 5189 5739 6311 6905 7520 8156 10000 269 557 864 1191 1537 1903 2288 2693 3117 3560 4023 4505 5007 5528 6069 6529 7208 7807 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 FLUID LEVEL WHEN ANCHOR IS SET (feet) © 2000 WEATHERFORD.

Basic Hydraulics © 2000 WEATHERFORD. All Rights Reserved Houston. TX USA Ph 713/693-4000 800/257-3826 Fax 713/693-4227 87 .

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