This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
See Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) for a description of the newer 128-bit IP address. Note that the system of IP address classes described here, while forming the basis for IP address assignment, is generally bypassed today by use of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) addressing. In the most widely installed level of the Internet Protocol (IP) today, an IP address is a 32-bit number that identifies each sender or receiver of information that is sent in packets across the Internet. When you request an HTML page or send e-mail, the Internet Protocol part of TCP/IP includes your IP address in the message (actually, in each of the packets if more than one is required) and sends it to the IP address that is obtained by looking up the domain name in the Uniform Resource Locator you requested or in the e-mail address you're sending a note to. At the other end, the recipient can see the IP address of the Web page requestor or the e-mail sender and can respond by sending another message using the IP address it received. An IP address has two parts: the identifier of a particular network on the Internet and an identifier of the particular device (which can be a server or a workstation) within that network. On the Internet itself - that is, between therouter that move packets from one point to another along the route - only the network part of the address is looked at. 2) What is a subnet mask? A subnet mask allows you to identify which part of an IP address is reserved for the network, and which part is available for host use. If you look at the IP address alone, especially now with classless inter-domain routing, you can't tell which part of the address is which. Adding the subnet mask, or netmask, gives you all the information you need to calculate network and host portions of the address with ease. In summary, knowing the subnet mask can allow you to easily calculate whether IP addresses are on the same subnet, or not. 3) What is ARP? ARP is a very important part of IP networking. ARP is used to connect OSI Layer 3 (Network) to OSI Layer 2 (DataLink). For most of us, that means that ARP is used to link our IP addressing to our Ethernet addressing (MAC Addressing). For you to communicate with any device on your network, you must have the Ethernet MAC address for that device. If the device is not on your LAN, you go through your default gateway (your router). In this case, your router will be the destination MAC address that your PC will communicate with. 4) What is ARP Cache Poisoning?
ARP cache poisoning, also known as ARP spoofing, is the process of falsifying the source Media Access Control (MAC) addresses of packets being sent on an Ethernet network. It is a MAC layer attack that can only be carried out when an attacker is connected to the same local network as the target machines, limiting its effectiveness only to networks connected with switches, hubs, and bridges; not routers. 5) What is the ANDing process? Notice that when the resulting AND values are converted back to binary, it becomes clear that the two hosts are on different networks. Computer A is on subnet 192.168.56.0, while the destination host is on subnet 192.168.64.0, which means that Computer A will next be sending the data to a router. Without ANDing, determining local and remote hosts can be difficult. Once you’re very familiar with subnetting and calculating ranges of addresses, recognizing local and remote hosts will become much more intuitive. Whenever you’re in doubt as to whether hosts are local or remote, use the ANDing process. You should also notice that the ANDing process always produces the subnet ID of a given host. 6) What is a default gateway? What happens if I don't have one? In computer networking, a default network gateway is the device that passes traffic from the local subnet to devices on other subnets. The default gateway often connects a local network to the Internet, although internal gateways for connecting two local networks also exist. Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway? 7) Can a workstation computer be configured to browse the Internet and yet NOT have a default gateway? If we are using public ip address, we can browse the internet. If it is having an intranet address a gateway is needed as a router or firewall to communicate with internet. 8) What is a subnet? A subnet is a logical organization of network address ranges used to separate hosts and network devices from each other to serve a design purpose. In many cases, subnets are created to serve as physical or geographical separations similar to those found between rooms, floors, buildings, or cities. 9) What is APIPA? Short for Automatic Private IP Addressing, a feature of later Windows operating systems. With APIPA, DHCP clients can automatically self-configure an IP address and subnet mask when a DHCPserver isn't available. When a DHCP client boots up, it first looks for a DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address and subnet mask. If the client is
103.0 10.192.0. The APIPA service also checks regularly for the presence of a DHCP server (every five minutes. according to Microsoft). 12) What is CIDR? CIDR (Classless Inter-Domain Routing. APIPA is meant for nonrouted small business environments. it uses APIPA to automatically configure itself with an IP address from a range that has been reserved especially for Microsoft. while the second block is a set of 16 contiguous class B network numbers.0 . if it gains enough interest.255.255. An Internet Document can be submitted to the IETF by anyone. and third block is a set of 256 contiguous class C network numbers.0.0.168.0. an RFC never changes.0 .unable to find the information. Once published.255 (10/8 prefix) 172.255 (192. usually less than 25 clients.255.168/16 prefix) We will refer to the first block as "24-bit block".254. If it detects a DHCP server on the network. 13. Modifications to an original RFC are assigned a new RFC number. APIPA stops. and to the third as "16-bit" block. You have the following Network ID: 192.168. Note that (in pre-CIDR notation) the first block is nothing but a single class A network number.255 (172.255.172. As a result. The client also configures itself with a default class B subnet mask of 255. 11) What is RFC 1918? RFC 1918 is Address Allocation for Private Internets The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following three blocks of the IP address space for private internets: 10. The IP address range is 169.0. sometimes known as supernetting) is a way to allocate and specify the Internet addresses used in inter-domain routing more flexibly than with the original system of Internet Protocol (IP) address classes. 10) What is an RFC? Name a few if possible (not necessarily the numbers.What is the IP range for your network? .16. A client uses the selfconfigured IP address until a DHCP server becomes available.255.1 through 169.255. the second as "20-bit block".254. a series of notes about the Internet. but the IETF decides if the document becomes an RFC. Eventually.254.16/12 prefix) 192.64/27. the number of available Internet addresses has been greatly increased. Each RFC is designated by an RFC number.31.0. started in 1969 (when the Internet was the ARPANET). it may evolve into an Internet standard.115. just the ideas behind them) Short for Request for Comments. and the DHCP server replaces the APIPA networking addresses with dynamically assigned addresses.0.
115. DHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configurationDHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configuration 2.11111110. Reduced network administration.1 is the destination ( which.103. 510 usable.115.168. etc. How many networks can you create? What subnet mask will you use? If you need 500 users then 2^9th would give you 512 (remember the first and last are network and broadcast).115.You need to view at network traffic. router.0.103. if the -l parameter is not used. What is DHCP? What are the benefits and drawbacks of using it? Benefits: 1. So of your 32 bits you would turn the last 9 off for host and that would give you give you a 255.168. The default is 4. by the way is a typical default IP address of a router.103.0.You have the following Network ID: 131. 18.It ranges from 192. when this parameter is not used. The 192.103. So you can have 128 subnets with 500 people on them.0 subnet mask (11111111.95 . How do I know the path that a packet takes to the destination? use "tracert" command-line 17.64 192.it is the broadcast address 192. Now that we know that we can see that you have the first 7 of your third octet turned on so to figure out how many subnets you have us the formula 2^7th= 128.112.0. What does the ping 192.1 -l 1000 -n 100 command do? The ping command will send roundtrip packets to a destination ( other PC.will be the ip address of next range we can use 30 hostes in this network 14.96 But the usable address are from 192.94 192.255. ) and see how long it takes.96 . The default is 32. And the -n 100 is saying to send it 100 times.64 .0.115. 15. ) The -l 1000 is how big the packet should be in bytes.115.103. . printer.00000000).115.103.11111111. What will you use? Name a few tools winshark or tcp dump 16.254. You need at least 500 hosts per network.192.
Describe the steps taken by the client and DHCP server in order to obtain an IP address. and management of IP addresses and TCP/IP protocol stack parameters. This should give you a good understanding of DHCP NAK behavior. and the server provides an IP address from its pool of available addresses. which is a pool of IP addresses that the server manages.For simplification purposes. The DNS (Domain Name System) name is associated with your IP address and therefore does change. This only presents a problem if other clients try to access your machine by its DNS name. * DHCP was originally defined in RFC 1531 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. you create a DHCP scope. What is the DHCPNACK and when do I get one? Name 2 scenarios.Disadvantage Your machine name does not change when you get a new IP address. DHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configurationDHCP minimizes configuration errors caused by manual IP address configuration 2. 20. Once the DHCP server software is installed. . 19. * At least one DHCP server must exist on a network. The DNS (Domain Name System) name is associated with your IP address and therefore does change. configuration. This only presents a problem if other clients try to access your machine by its DNS name. When clients log on. The IETF Dynamic Host Configuration (dhc) Working Group is chartered to produce a protocol for automated allocation. Disadvantage Your machine name does not change when you get a new IP address. Benefits: 1. March 1997). October 1993) but the most recent update is RFC 2131 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. I am listing down the possible scenarios in which the server should NOT issue a NAK. Reduced network administration. If it originated from the local segment.When a DHCP server receives a DHCPRequest with a previously assigned address specified. it first checks to see if it came from the local segment by checking the GIADDR field. they request an IP address from the server. Recently I saw a lot of queries regarding when the Microsoft DHCP server issues a NAK to DHCP clients.
23. Traditionally.. is asking for an address that doesn't exist on that subnet. What ports are used by DHCP and the DHCP clients? Requests are on UDP port 68.. Requested address on a different subnet:If the Address is from the same superscope to which the subnet belongs... DHCP server will issue a NAK to the client ONLY IF it is sure that the client. The DHCPInform message received by the remote access server is then forwarded to a DHCP server. In Windows server 2008 ..the DHCP server compares the requested address to the IP address and subnet mask belonging to the local interface that received the request.... Server replies on UDP 67 22. Go to. The remote access server forwards DHCPInform messages only if it has been configured with the DHCP Relay Agent. START-->Administrative Tools --> Server Manager --> Roles (Right Click) --> Add Roles (Here a Add roles wizard will appear) --> Check the box of DHCP Server --> click next --> Next --> In IPv4 DNS settings Give the parent domain Name and DNS server IP address and validate it.. Click Next --> Add the DHCP scopes --> Disable DHCPv6. 24. Similarly. Windows 2000 and Windows 98 remote access clients use the DHCPInform message to obtain DNS server IP addresses. It is about how to install DHCP server. 21. "on the local subnet".. WINS server IP addresses.. Describe the process of installing a DHCP server in an AD infrastructure. the other should not NAK to clients which got an IP from the first server.. and a DNS domain name. While PPP remote access clients do not use DHCP to obtain IP addresses for the remote access connection. click Next --> Finally Click on INSTALL This was the process for installing the DHCP server. DNS and DHCP servers have been configured and managed one at a time. Describe the integration between DHCP and DNS. The DHCPInform message is sent after the IPCP negotiation is concluded. 2. changing authorization rights for a particular user on a group of devices has meant visiting each one and making configuration changes... DHCP integration with DNS allows the . DHCP server will ACK the REQUEST. Requested address from possibly the same subnet but not in the address pool of the server:This can be the failover scenario in which 2 DHCP servers are serving the same subnet so that when one goes down.. What is DHCPINFORM? DHCPInform is a DHCP message used by DHCP clients to obtain DHCP options.The server will send a NAK EXCEPT in the following scenarios:1.
Windows Me. MSFT 98 Microsoft Windows 98 options Class that includes all Windows 98 and Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (Me) DHCP clients. while reducing administrative operations and costs. Collapse this tableExpand this table Class Data Class Name Description MSFT 5. Creating a DHCP network automatically creates an associated DNS zone. What are User Classes and Vendor Classes in DHCP? Microsoft Vendor Classes The following list contains pre-defined vendor classes that are available in Windows 2000 DHCP server. Back to the top User Classes The following list contains pre-defined user classes that are available in Windows 2000 DHCP server.0 Microsoft Windows 2000 options Class that includes all Windows 2000 DHCP clients. And integration of DNS and DHCP in the same database instance provides unmatched consistency between service and management views of IP address-centric network services data. reducing the number of tasks required of network administrators. and Windows 2000 DHCP clients. Collapse this tableExpand this table . you can define other vendor-specific classes on the DHCP server. make sure the vendor class identifier that you define matches the identifier used by the clients.What options in DHCP do you regularly use for an MS network? Automatic providing IP address Subnet mask DNS server Domain name Default getaway or router 26. for example. enabling a company's network services to scale in step with the growth of network users.aggregation of these tasks across devices. This integration provides practical operational efficiencies that lower total cost of ownership. and policies. When you define such classes. MSFT Microsoft options Class that includes all Windows 98. If you have non-Microsoft DHCP clients. devices. 25.
and beyond 40-50 clients.Class ID Class Type Description Unspecified Default user class All DHCP clients that have no user class specified. use gigabit switches. The facility allows the Admin to maintain a selected set of configurations as boot images and then assign sets of client systems to share(or boot from) that image. What is the BOOTP protocol used for. but the productivity of 1 BootP server per 50 clients is undeniable :) Sunmicro. . For example Accounting. where might you find it in Windows network infrastructure? ootP (RFC951) provides * a unique IP address to the requester (using port 67) similar to the DHCP request on port 68 AND * can provide (where supported) the ability to boot a system without a hard drive (ie: a diskless client) Apple OS X 10. but which can be unique from other departments. and AIX RS/600 all support BootP. This will expand the number of BootP servers and multiply the number of images.How do I configure a client machine to use a specific User Class? The command to configure a client machine to use a specific user class is ipconfig /setclassid "<Name of your Network card>" <Name of the class you created on DHCP and you want to join (Name is case sensitive)> Eg: ipconfig /setclassid " Local Area Network" Accounting 28. When you configure such classes. RRAS. you can also add custom user classes for Windows 2000 DHCP clients. and host the images local to the clients to avoid saturating the network.* Server supports BootP (albeit) renamed as NetBoot. you must specify a custom identifier that corresponds to the user class defined on the DHCP server. Management.Microsoft Default Routing and Remote Access class All Dial-Up Networking (DUN) clients. Linux. 27. Performing upgrades and maintenance on three images is far more productive that working on all client systems individually. the Admin needs to carefully subnet the infrastructure. Startup is obviously network intensive. Bootp Default Bootp class All Bootp clients In addition to these pre-defined classes. and Engineering departments have elements in common.
Chat Server NS Identifies DNS name servers. 31. Maps hostname to IP(ipv4) PTR Maps IP to hostname (Reverse of A (Host) AAAA Maps hostname to ip (ipv6) Cname Canonical name. 29. Important for forwarders MX Mail servers. you may want to set up your control panel's DNS . _SRV Required for Active Directory. Describe the process of working with an external domain name Serving Sites with External Domain Name Servers If you host Web sites on this server and have a standalone DNS server acting as a primary (master) name server for your sites. Windows does not support booting "diskless clients". NS record and a Host (A) record. ii)Reverse Lookup Zones :This zone is responsible to resolve ip to host name.but it contains only 3 records viz the SOA for the primary zone. 30. Type of Record What it does A (Host) Classic resource record. particularly for other domains.MX records required to deliver internet email. gc = global catalog.Todate. for example. SOA Make a point of finding the Start of Authority (SOA) tab at the DNS Server. Dns zone is actual file which contains all the records for a specific domain.such as Web Server.FTP Server. i)Forward Lookup Zones :This zone is responsible to resolve host name to ip. DNS zones – describe the differences between the 4 types. iii)Stub Zone :Stubzone is read only copy of primary zone.records. Whole family of underscore service. DNS record types – describe the most important ones. in plain English an alias.
Click Switch Off the DNS Service in the Tools group. Turning the DNS service off for the zone will refresh the screen. If you host Web sites on this server and rely entirely on other machines to perform the Domain Name Service for your sites (there are two external name servers . 1. If you wish to validate the configuration of a zone maintained on authoritative name servers: 1. Note: The listed name server records have no effect on the system. so that only a list of name servers remains. switch off the control panel's DNS service for each site served by external name servers. The records will appear in the list. To switch off the control panel's DNS service for a site served by an external name server: 1. 2. 2. They are only presented on the screen as clickable links to give you a chance to validate the configuration of the zone maintained on the external authoritative name servers. 5. Go to Domains > domain name > DNS Settings (in the Web Site group). To make the control panel's DNS server act as a primary for a zone: 1. Go to Domains > domain name > DNS Settings (in the Web Site group). Specify the IP address of the primary (master) DNS server. Click Switch DNS Service Mode. 2. Repeat steps from 1 to 5 for each Web site that needs to have a secondary name server on this machine. Click Switch DNS Service Mode. Add to the list the entries pointing to the appropriate name servers that are authoritative for the zone: click Add. . Go to Domains > domain name > DNS Settings (in the Web Site group).server to function as a secondary (slave) name server: To make the control panel's DNS server act as a secondary name server: 1. specify a name server. Click Add.a primary and a secondary). The original resource records for the zone will be restored. 3. Repeat this for each name server you would like to test. Go to Domains > domain name > DNS Settings (in the Web Site group). and click OK. 2. Repeat the steps from 1 to 3 to switch off the local domain name service for each site served by external name servers. 4.
a DNS server authoritative for the domain that you specified either cannot be located on the network or does not support the DNS dynamic update protocol. On the Advanced tab you will find the confusingly similar option Disable recursion (also disables forwarders). Recursion refers to the action of a DNS server querying additional DNS servers (e. The results will be interpreted and displayed on the screen. • Client computers and domain controllers that joined to single-label domains require additional configuration to dynamically register DNS records in single-label DNS zones.If during this process. • Client computers and domain . Describe the importance of DNS to AD. In order to find MX Records for SMTP domains you can use Command-line tools such as NSLOOKUP or DIG. What could cause the Forwarders and Root Hints to be grayed out? Win2K configured your DNS server as a private root server 36.Describe a few methods of finding an MX record for a remote domain on the Internet. under a server's Properties -> Forwarders tab is the setting Do not use recursion for this domain. you promote the server to the role of a domain controller for a specified domain. This option is provided because a DNS server is required to locate this server or other domain controllers for members of an Active Directory domain 33. you are prompted with the option to install a DNS server.1.msc). 32. Click the records that you have just created. When you install Active Directory on a server. local ISP DNS or the root DNS servers) to resolve queries that it cannot resolve from its own database 35. 34. you are prompted to specify a DNS domain name for the Active Directory domain for which you are joining and promoting the server. What does "Disable Recursion" in DNS mean? In the Windows 2000/2003 DNS console (dnsmgmt. When completing this process. What is a "Single Label domain name" and what sort of issues can it cause? Single-label names consist of a single word like "contoso". You can also use online web services that allow you to perform quick searches and display the information in a convenient manner.g. Parallels Plesk Panel will retrieve the zone file from a remote name server and check the resource records to make sure that domain's resources are properly resolved. • Single-label DNS names cannot be registered by using an Internet registrar.
or support may be dropped in a future release. and hence can guarantee that the appropriate data can be located without an exhaustive search of the domain space.com or . • Some server-based applications are incompatible with single-label domain names. After all.arpa is actually a TLD like . they appear to be unreachable through DNS. . it is an important zone and an integral part of the inner workings of DNS.arpa zone containing PTR records matching your A records? And who should be making those PTR records--you or your provider? Let's start by defining in-addr. Note that both of these services are similar to functions that could be performed by inverse queries. For example.org. • Some server-based applications are incompatible with the domain rename feature that is supported in Windows Server 2003 domain controllers and in Windows Server 2008 domain controllers. Application support may not exist in the initial release of an application. The name of the TLD comes from Address and Routing Parameter Area and it has been designated by the IANA to be used exclusively for Internet infrastructure purposes. why does there have to be a separate in-addr. and Windows 2000-based domain members do not perform dynamic updates to single-label DNS zones. a missing PTR record may or may not impact on the DNS .controllers may require additional configuration to resolve DNS queries in single-label DNS zones. • By default. 37. If you already have a zone file. the difference is that this part of the domain name space is structured according to address. These incompatibilities either block or complicate the use of the domain rename feature when you try to rename a single-label DNS name to a fully qualified domain name. it appears to be unallocated. Windows Server 2003-based domain members." In other words. and to facilitate queries to locate all gateways on a particular network in the Internet. how can the world find your mail server unless the IP address of that server is associated with its hostname within a DNS database? However. A records make sense. Assuming an A record exists for a host. The intent of this domain is to provide a guaranteed method to perform host address to host name mapping. And if your hosts don't have a PTR record in this database.arpa domain. Other classes may employ a similar strategy in other domains. The RFC for DNS (RFC 1035) has an entire section on the in-addr. What is the "in-addr. The first two paragraphs in that section state the purpose of the domain: "The Internet uses a special domain to support gateway location and Internet address to host mapping. Microsoft Exchange Server 2007 is not supported in environments in which single-label DNS is used. this zone provides a database of all allocated networks and the DNS reachable hosts within those networks. If your assigned network does not appear in this zone. PTR records aren't as easily understood. Windows XP-based domain members.arpa.arpa" zone used for? When creating DNS records for your hosts. In other words.
38. it probably is not you. 10. The in-addr. In other words.0 or 192.e. • If you are configuring an internal DNS server within the private address ranges (e. you are responsible for hosting your PTR records. authoritative for) the network address. When in doubt. Remember. which are necessary for the successful functionality of the domain controller locator (Locator) mechanism. the in-addr.arpa with these types of network allocations. Here is a summary regarding PTR records: • Don't wait until users complain about DNS unreachability--be proactive and ensure there is an associated PTR record for every A record. the member server is promoted to a domain controller. the owner of the network address is authoritative (i. you are responsible for your own internal PTR records.0).arpa zone assumes a classful addressing scheme where a Class A address is one octet (or /8). Depending upon your web server configuration.e.arpa zone is concerned with delegated network addresses. a mail server will definitely be impacted as PTR records are used in mail header checks and by most anti-SPAM mechanisms.0. the provider you purchased those addresses from needs to host your PTR records as the provider is the owner of (i. • If you own an entire network address (e. If you only own one or two host addresses within a network address space.g. it may also depend upon an existing PTR record. they should also host your PTR records. CIDR allows for delegating address space outside of these boundaries--say a /19 or a /28. a Class B is 2 octets (or /16) and a Class C is 3 octets (or /24). • Remember: the key to PTR hosting is knowing who is authoritative for the network address for your domain. To find domain controllers in a domain or forest. This is why the DNS RFCs recommend that every A record has an associated PTR record. a Class C address ending in 0). • If you only have one or two assigned IP addresses. which provide the client with the names and IP addresses of the domain .e.0. • If your provider hosts your A records. During the installation of Active Directory. depending upon the applications running on that host. Active Directory uses DNS as the location mechanism for domain controllers. 254 host addresses) the answer was easy: you. For example. enabling computers on the network to obtain IP addresses of domain controllers. But who should make and host those PTR records? Twenty years ago when you could buy a full Class C network address (i. your provider should host your PTR records as they are authoritative for the network those hosts belong to.reachability of that host. the service (SRV) and address (A) resource records are dynamically registered in DNS. responsible) for the host PTR records associated with that network address space.168. Things are a bit more interesting if you have been delegated a CIDR block of addresses. RFC 2317 provides a best current practice for maintaining in-addr. What are the requirements from DNS to support AD? When you install Active Directory on a member server.g.0. a client queries DNS for the SRV and A DNS resource records of the domain controller.
When adding a domain controller to a forest.controllers. AD integrated zoned all for incremental zone transfers which on transfer changes and not the entire zone. 2. Unauthorized access . DNS supports Secure Dynamic updates. How do you manually create SRV records in DNS? this is on windows server go to run ---> dnsmgmt. For this reason. Name 3 benefits of using AD-integrated zones.. AD Integrated zones suport both secure and dmanic updates. 5. contact your DNS administrator to determine if the DNS server supports the required standards. 1. If the server does not support the required standards. If the DNS server hosting the authoritative DNS zone is not a server running Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003.integrated zone you can also trace hacker and spammer by creating reverse zone. 1. 3.. 4. In this context. the DNS zone must allow dynamic updates (RFC 2136) and the DNS server hosting that zone must support the SRV resource records (RFC 2782) to advertise the Active Directory directory service. 40. AD integrated zones are stored as part of the active directory and support domain-wide or forest-wide replication through application pertitions in AD. then modification is required to your existing DNS infrastructure..msc rightclick on the zone you want to add srv record to and choose "other new record" and choose service location(srv).. For more information about RFCs. By creating AD. you can give easy name resolution to ur clients. see DNS RFCs. With the help of SRV records client machines can find domain controllers in the network. or the authoritative DNS zone cannot be configured to allow dynamic updates. This reduces zone transfer traffic. 41. 39. you are updating a DNS zone hosted on a DNS server with the Locator DNS resource records and identifying the domain controller. What are the benefits of using Windows 2003 DNS when using AD-integrated zones? Advantages: DNS supports Dynamic registration of SRV records registered by a Active Directory server or a domain controller during promotion. the SRV and A resource records are referred to as Locator DNS resource records.
Necessity to traverse network in order to obtain individual records hosted on the remote Name Servers is mitigated to some extent by caching process. which keeps . If you have more than one domain controller (recommended) you need not worry about zone replication. Its main purpose is to provide name resolution in domains. Active Directory Integrated Zone.is denied. which are authoritative for the DNS domain represented by the stub zone. Name a few possible causes.corresponding A records for each of the NS entries (providing IP addresses of the servers). It is because DHCP server is authorized in AD and will be the only server to participate on network to provide IP Address information to client machines. While you can also provide name resolution for a remote domain by either creating a secondary zone (which was a common approach in Windows Server 2000 DNS implementation) or delegation (when dealing with a contiguous namespace).Start of Authority (SOA) record pointing to a remote DNS server that is considered to be the best source of information about the target DNS domain. If your network use DHCP with Active Directory then no other DHCP will be able to service client requests coming from different network. Exchange server needs internal DNS or AD DNS to locate Global Catalog servers.one or more Name Server (NS) records (including the entry associated with the SOA record). Moreover. The stub zone contains only a few records: . 2. for which a local DNS server is not authoritative. If you want to integrate DHCP with DNS for Low-level clients to register their Host records in Zone database. 4. If you want to take benefit of Active Directory replication. which are not needed when stub zones are used. . 42. you can use NT4 DNS with Service Pack 4 or later. It supports both SRV record registration and Dynamic Updates. 5. What are the benefits and scenarios of using Stub zones? One of the new features introduced in the Windows Server 2003-based implementation of DNS are stub zones. Using Microsoft DNS gives the following benefits: If you implement networks that require secure updates. such approach forces periodic zone transfers. You installed a new AD domain and the new (and first) DC has not registered its SRV records in DNS. The machine cannot be configured with DNS client her own The DNS service cannot be run 43. . 3. Active Directory replication will take care of DNS zone replication also.
records residing in a stub zone are periodically validated and refreshed in order to avoid lame delegations. It does not however. DNS hands out different resolutions to different requesting local DNS servers. and in some cases performance). DNS caching. TTL. multiple DNS servers [authoritative or cached]). In addition. From the standpoint of scalability and performance. static in nature (does not take into account anything but the resource is a member of the resource pool and each member is equal). and ranges from DNS to the default static load balancing method on every hardware device in the market. almost all hardware load balancing solutions are superior to this and other less known software load balancing solutions [e. and scenarios for each use? I will make a few assumptions here: 1) By "Windows Clustering Network Load Balancing" you mean Windows Network Load Balancing software included in Windows Server software a. Bright Tiger circa 1998].k. "Round Robin". What are the differences between Windows Clustering. performance.g.6) of Windows Servers and a low to moderate number of new connections per second. meant for small groups of Windows servers only on private networks. to provide distribution of web server requests to multiple servers in a virtual resource pool.g. is more generic.them on the local server for the duration of their Time-to-Live (TTL) parameter. but there are suttle differences between a clustered group of devices and a more loosely configured virtual pool. DNS or otherwise. DNS Round Robin is an inherent load balancing method built into DNS. or any other metric and is completely static. Network Load Balancing and Round Robin.a NLB. . or the concept of the Round Robin algorithm available in just about every load balancing solution. 44. you mean DNS Round Robin meaning the absence of a software or hardware load balancing device. Some would call this a "cluster".. What are the benefits and scenarios of using Conditional Forwarding? 45. Although there are several factors effecting the exact resulting algorithm (e. and 2) By Round Robin. and is dynamic in nature (takes into account availability of a server. consider availability. I stress the term "roughly" when I say it roughly results in an even distribution of resolutions to each of the addresses specified for a particular URL. NLB is based on proprietary software. When you resolve an IP address that has more than one A record. The basic RR algorithm is available in many software and hardware load balancing solutions and simply hands the next request to the next resource and starts back at the first resource when it hits the last one. Microsoft NLB is designed for a small number (4 .
Open DNS. What is the 224. see WINS replication overview WINS server group address. Used to support autodiscovery and dynamic configuration of replication for WINS servers. As a security best practice. clients that use older versions of Windows. 2. Where? * DNS/applicable DNS server 3. such as Windows NT 4. How do I work with the Host name cache on a client computer? 47. Notes * To perform this procedure. What is WINS and when do we use it? In the Windows Server family. double-click Administrative Tools. How do I clear the DNS cache on the DNS server? To clear the server names cache * Using the Windows interface * Using a command line Using the Windows interface 1.24 address used for? WINS server group address. click Start. For more information. Type the following command and then press ENTER: Dnscmd ServerName /clearcache 48. use network basic I/O system (NetBIOS) names for network communication. Using a command line 1. consider using Run as to perform this procedure. However.1. members of the Domain Admins group might be able to perform this procedure. click Control Panel. Used to support autodiscovery and dynamic configuration of replication for WINS servers.46. click Clear Cache. 2. * To open DNS. you must be a member of the Administrators group on the local computer. Some . or you must have been delegated the appropriate authority.0. the primary means for client computer to locate and communicate with other computers on an Internet Protocol (IP) network is by using Domain Name System (DNS). If the computer is joined to a domain. On the Action menu. 49. click the applicable DNS server.0. In the console tree. and then double-click DNS. Open Command Prompt.
marked locally as extinct and immediately released from active use by the local WINS server. * A pull partner is a WINS server that pulls WINS database entries from its push partners by requesting any new WINS database entries that the push partners have. you must configure each WINS server as a pull partner.applications that run on Windows Server 2003 may also use NetBIOS names for network communication. the WINS server sends (pushes) copies of its new WINS database entries (also known as replicas) to the requesting pull partner. If the WINS records deleted in this way exist in WINS data replicated to other WINS servers on your network. Can you have a Microsoft-based network without any WINS server on it? What are the "considerations" regarding not using WINS? 51. When the tombstoned records are replicated. records that are simply deleted on only one server can reappear after replication between the WINS server where simple deletion was used and any of its replication partners. or both with the other WINS server. that is. To use WINS services. Each . the tombstone status is updated and applied by other WINS servers that store replicated copies of these records. When a WINS server's pull partner responds to the message with a replication request. * A push partner is a WINS server that sends a message to its pull partners. Also. To replicate database entries between a pair of WINS servers. these additional records are not fully removed. What is the difference between tombstoning a WINS record and simply deleting it? Simple deletion removes the records that are selected in the WINS console only from the local WINS server you are currently managing. notifying them that it has new WINS database entries. 50. In addition. Tombstoning marks the selected records as tombstoned. you must insert into your TCP/IP networking configuration the IP address of the WINS servers you wish to use. Using NetBIOS names requires a method of resolving NetBIOS names to IP . 52. Describe the differences between WINS push and pull replications. using a WINS server is essential for any Windows client computer at Indiana University that intends to use Microsoft network resources. The pull partner requests the new WINS database entries that have a higher version number than the last entry the pull partner received during the most recent replication. This method allows the tombstoned records to remain present in the server database for purposes of subsequent replication of these records to other servers. a push partner. Using a WINS server is essential for any Windows client computer to work with other Windows computers over the Internet.
Describe the role of the routing table on a host and on a router. You must keep in mind that a 10Mb Ethernet interface is the only kind of Ethernet interface called Ethernet. disseminating information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network. Name the NetBIOS names you might expect from a Windows 2003 DC that is registered in WINS. from Ethernet. decisions of hosts and routers are aided by a database of routes known as the routing table. Interfaces are configured in interface mode which you get to from global configuration mode after logging in. two major classes are in widespread use in the Internet: link-state routing protocols. such as BGP. as well as obsolete routable protocols such as IPX. Although there are many types of routing protocols. This way. A 100Mb Ethernet interface is called a FastEthernet interface and a 1000Mb . Serial. Each router has a prior knowledge only of networks attached to it directly.IPX). A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate with each other. Host-based routing tables are optional for the Internet Protocol. 55. For a discussion of the concepts behind routing protocols. Fast Ethernet. RIP and EIGRP. Depending on the routable protocol. bandwidth. What are router interfaces? What types can they be? Routers can have many different types of connectors. GigabitEthernet. media types.replicating WINS server then updates and tombstones 53. Some of the available configurable items are logical addresses (IP. Many routing protocols used in the public Internet are defined in documents called RFCs. FastEthernet. 54. such as OSPF and IS-IS. and path vector or distance vector protocols. and Token Ring to Serial and ISDN ports. The routing table is not exclusive to a router. routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network. and administrative commands. and then throughout the network. hosts may also have a routing table that may be used to decide the best router for the packet to be forwarded. The term routing protocol may refer specifically to one operating at layer three of the OSI model. which similarly disseminates topology information between routers. The media type is Ethernet. During the process of routing. What are routing protocols? Why do we need them? Name a few. see: Routing. or other media types. A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors. the choice of the route being done by routing algorithms. 56. Token-ring.
59. In Windows 2003 routing. Configure dynamic IP address assignment for private network clients You can configure your Network Address Translation computer . that uses Routing and Remote Access NAT technology to enable computers on the internal corporate network to connect to resources on the Internet without having to deploy a proxy server. What is the real difference between NAT and PAT? Take NAT (Network Address Translation) and PAT (Port Address Translation). Click Start. Click Use this public interface to connect to the Internet. Right-click your server. At this stage you have the option to reduce the risk of unauthorized access to your network.windowsnetworking.Ethernet interface is called a GigabitEthernet interface. 2. 60. 5. click Next. To do so. Examine the selected options in the Summary box. 57.com/articles_tutorials/NAT_Windows_2003_Setup_Configurati on. click Network address translation (NAT). point to All Programs. or a medium-sized business. How do you configure NAT on Windows 2003? http://www. What is NAT? Windows Server 2003 provides network address translation (NAT) functionality as a part of the Routing and Remote Access service. 3. In a PAT system you have a single or group of public IP addresses that are translated to multiple internal ip addresses by mapping the TCP/UDP ports to different ports.to medium-sized organizations with private networks to access resources on the Internet or other public network.html Configure Routing and Remote Access To activate Routing and Remote Access. and then click the network adapter that is connected to the Internet. and then click Next. follow these steps: 1. A typical deployment is a small office or home office (SOHO). 4. point to Administrative Tools. and then click Routing and Remote Access. click to select the Enable security on the selected interface by setting up Basic Firewall check box. rarely at present. PAT on the other hand is what is most commonly referred to as NAT. This means that by using some "magic" on a router or server you can get around problems that you might have with two web browsers sending a request out the same port. and then click Configure and Enable Routing and Remote Access. the computers on a public network are configured with globally unique IPv4 (or. Internet Protocol version 6 [IPv6]) addresses. what are the interface filters? 58. NAT allows you to translate or map one IP address onto another single ip address. In the Routing and Remote Access Setup Wizard. and then click Finish. NAT enables computers on small. The computers on a private network are configured with reusable private Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses.
Click to select the Automatically assign IP addresses by using the DHCP allocator check box. Your authentication strategy must be well defined and implemented for the potential security provided by IPSec to be realized.exclude those IP addresses from the DHCP pool. 3. Right-click NAT/Basic Firewall. You can keep the default values. click to select the Connect to the public network when a name needs to be resolved check box. point to All Programs. Click OK. 4. Configure name resolution To configure name resolution. 2. and then click the appropriate dial-up interface in the list. follow these steps: 1. 4.168. 61. and then expand IP Routing. If you use a demand-dial interface to connect to an external DNS server. 3. point to All Programs.such as for domain controllers or for DNS servers -. If your internal network requires static IP assignment for some computers -. Repeat step b for all addresses that you want to exclude. because authentication verifies the identity and trust of the computer at the other end of the connection. 2.0. and then click Properties.0 with the subnet mask of 255. because it cannot protect against attacks from within established and trusted communication paths. click Add. 6. follow these steps: 1.0. or as a network-layer foundation of a defense-in-depth strategy. .0 is automatically added in the IP address and the Mask boxes. click the Address Assignment tab. and then click Routing and Remote Access. point to Administrative Tools. type the IP address. 5.255. click the Name Resolution tab. 3. Click Exclude. point to Administrative Tools. In the Exclude Reserved Addresses dialog box.to act as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server for computers on your internal network. Do not use IPSec as a replacement for other user and application security controls. and then click OK. How do you allow inbound traffic for specific hosts on Windows 2003 NAT? You can use the Windows Server 2003 implementation of IPSec to compensate for the limited protections provided by applications for network traffic. In the NAT/Basic Firewall Properties dialog box. Click Start. To do so. and then click Routing and Remote Access. In the NAT/Basic Firewall Properties dialog box. Expand your server node. Notice that default private network 192. To do this. Click to select the Clients using Domain Name System (DNS) check box. 2. and then click Properties. or you can modify these values to suit your network. Click Start. 4. follow these steps: 1. Right-click NAT/Basic Firewall.
and FTP (file transfer). This high level protocol then processes the request through the Secure Sockets Layer.62. So if you want high level security with all the advanced feature then change the AD to Native mode. It's used by for configuring centralised authentication using RADIUS server. 64. And some of the RRAS policies are also disabled. What is IAS? In what scenarios do we use it? IAS is called as Internet Authentication Service. How does SSL work? Internet communication typically runs through multiple program layers on a server before getting to the requested data such as a web page or cgi scripts. SPAP. What are Conditions and Profile in RRAS Policies? The conditions and profiles are used to set some restrictions based on the media type. What is VPN? What types of VPN does Windows 2000 and beyond work with natively? L2TP (layer 2 tunneling protocol ) vpn server is also know as L2TP server in native mode & in PPTP in mixed mode PN gives extremely secure connections between private networks linked through the Internet. connection method. What's the difference between Mixed mode and Native mode in AD when dealing with RRAS? When you are in Mixed mode certain options in the dial-in tab of the user proeprties are disabled. 67. If the request is for a non-secure connection it passes through to the TCP/IP layer and the . This is the high level protocols such as HTTP (web server). Determining which outer layer protocol will handle the request depends on the type of request made by the client. So if used matches those conditions mentioned in the profile then he can allowed / denied access to RAS / VPN server. EAP. IMAP (mail server). local network. ( You can check it by going to properties of your server in RRAS ) 68. 63. 65. What is the "RAS and IAS" group in AD? Used for managing security and allowing administration for the respective roles of the server. 66. It allows remote computers to act as though they were on the same secure. group membership and lot more. MSCHAP. Digest authentication. What types or authentication can a Windows 2003 based RRAS work with? It supports authentication methods like MSCHAPv2. The outer layer is the first to be hit by the request.
A packet is a data bundle that is organized for transmission across a network. Depending on the SSL setup on the server. and confidentiality as data is transferred between communication points across IP networks. it may require that a secure connection be made before allowing communication to pass through to the TCP/IP layer in which case a non-secure request will send back an error asking for them to retry securely (or simply deny the non-secure connection). If the client requested a secure connection the ssl layer initiates a handshake to begin the secure communication process. IPSec emerged as a viable network security standard because enterprises wanted to ensure that data could be securely transmitted over the Internet.server application or data. 69. How does IPSec work? IPSec is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard suite of protocols that provides data authentication. 70. How do I deploy IPSec for a large number of computers? Just use this program Server and Domain Isolation Using IPsec and Group Policy 71. IPSec protects against possible security exposures by protecting data while in transit. integrity. What types of authentication can IPSec use? Deploying L2TP/IPSec-based Remote Access Deploying L2TP-based remote access VPN connections using Windows Server 2003 consists of the following: * Deploy certificate infrastructure * Deploy Internet infrastructure * Deploy AAA infrastructure * Deploy VPN servers * Deploy intranet infrastructure * Deploy VPN clients Implantando L2TP/IPSec-based Acesso Remoto Implantando L2TP com base em conexões VPN de acesso remoto usando o Windows Server 2003 é constituída pelos seguintes elementos: * * * * Implantar certificado infra-estrutura Implantar infra-estrutura Internet Implantar infra-estrutura AAA Implementar VPN servidores . IPSec provides data security at the IP packet level. and it includes a header and payload (the data in the packet).
* Implantar intranet infra-estrutura * Implementar clientes VPN 72. The authentication header (AH) protocol creates an envelope that provides integrity. It authenticates every packet as a defense against session-stealing attacks. The encapsulating security payload (ESP) protocol provides the features of AH (except for IP header authentication). which modify packet headers at the point of NAT). However. 74. How do I monitor IPSec? To test the IPSec policies. ESP packets use IP protocol 50. without encryption or IP header authentication. since the term perfect has been controversial in this context. IPSec Monitor (Ipsecmon. What is PFS (Perfect Forward Secrecy) in IPSec? In an authenticated key-agreement protocol that uses public key cryptography. Although the IP header itself is outside the AH header. AH also provides limited verification of it by not allowing changes to the IP header after packet creation (note that this usually precludes the use of AH in NAT environments. 75. Looking at IPSec-encrypted traffic with a sniffer. Forward secrecy has been used as a synonym for perfect forward secrecy . perfect forward secrecy (or PFS) is the property that ensures that a session key derived from a set of long-term public and private keys will not be compromised if one of the (long-term) private keys is compromised in the future. What can you do with NETSH? Netsh is a command-line scripting utility that allows you . It can also be used in a null encryption mode that provides the AH protection against replay attacks and other such attacks. data origin identification and protection against replay attacks. plus encryption. 73. at least one reference  distinguishes perfect forward secrecy from forward secrecy with the additional property that an agreed key will not be compromised even if agreed keys derived from the same long-term keying material in a subsequent run are compromised.exe) provides information about which IPSec policy is active and whether a secure channel between computers is established. but you can not see its contents IPSec Packet Types IPSec packet types include the authentication header (AH) for data integrity and the encapsulating security payload (ESP) for data confidentiality and integrity. What packet types do I see? You can see the packages to pass. This can allow for achieving some of the benefits of IPSec in a NAT environment that would not ordinarily work well with IPSec. use IPSec Monitor. AH packets use IP protocol 51.
display. and type: netstat -a Linux: Open an SSH session and type: netstat -an . How do I look at the open ports on my machine? Windows: Open a command prompt (Start button -> Run-> type "cmd").to. either locally or remotely. modify or script the network configuration of a computer that is currently running. 76.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.