Spanish Conquest of the Philippines The Philippines was accidentally discovered by the European powers in their continuous search

for a route to the Indies where they imported the much coveted spices. On March 17, 1521, Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese naval captain under the service of Spain, landed in the small island of Homonhon in Samar in the southern Philippines to look for food and water. Due to hardships in the heretofore unknown and unnavigated sea, and mutiny by his sailors, Magellon had only three ships (out of 5) left when he landed in the Philippines. Magellan befriended the Sultan of Cebu and succeeded in Christianizing the natives. To prove the military might of his soldiers and to champion the cause of his new vassals, he decided to "punish and teach a lesson" to Lapu Lapu, a chieftain of the island of Mactan who did not acknowledge the sovereignty of Cebu over his island. Thus leading to the battle of Mactan. The battle was fought on April 25, 1521, during low tide in the shallow shores of Mactan. The Spaniards, burdened with their heavy metal armors, were no match to Lapu Lapu and his men who were armed only with bamboo spears, bows and arrows, and kampilans (native machetes). Magellan was hit by a poisoned arrow and eventually died from the wound. The victorious natives drove back the rest of the invaders to their boats. Lapu Lapu thus became the first Filipino to rise against western aggression and domination. Permanent Spanish settlement was finally established in 1565 when Miguel López de Legazpi, the first royal governor, arrived in Cebu from New Spain (Mexico). He gave the islands their present name in honor of king Philip II of Spain. Six years later while moving north, he defeating a local Muslim ruler, Rajah Sulayman. Legazpi's conquest of Maynilad (on the site of modern Manila) in 1571 extended the area under Spanish control. He established his capital at Manila, a location that offered the excellent harbor of Manila Bay, a large population, and proximity to the ample food supplies of the central Luzon rice lands. Manila remained the center of Spanish civil, military, religious, and commercial activity in the islands. Spain had three objectives in its policy toward the Philippines, its only colony in Asia: to acquire a share in the spice trade, to develop contacts with China and Japan in order to further Christian missionary efforts there, and to convert the Filipinos to Christianity. Occupation of the islands was accomplished with relatively little bloodshed, partly because most of the population (except the Muslims) offered little armed resistance initially. Church and state were inseparably linked in carrying out Spanish policy. Responsibility for conversion of the indigenous population to Christianity was assigned to several religious orders: the Dominicans, Franciscans, and Augustinians (known collectively as the friars) and to the Jesuits. Religion played a significant role in Spain's relations with and attitudes toward the indigenous population. The Spaniards considered conversion through baptism to be a symbol of allegiance to their authority. Although they were interested in gaining a profit from the colony, the Spanish also recognized a responsibility to protect the property and personal rights of these new Christians. The church's work of converting Filipinos was facilitated by the absence of other organized religions, except for Islam, which predominated in the south. The missionaries had their greatest success among women and children, although the church had a wide appeal, it was reinforced by the incorporation of Filipino social customs into religious observances. The eventual outcome was a new cultural community of the main Malay lowland population, from which the Muslims (known by the Spanish as Moros, or Moors) and the upland tribal peoples of Luzon remained detached and alienated. Indirect rule helped create in rural areas a Filipino upper class, principalía or the principales (principal ones). This group had local wealth; high status and prestige; and certain privileges. The principalía was larger and more influential than the preconquest nobility, and it created and perpetuated for Spanish control. As time went on, many uprisings occurred to protest the Spanish maltreatment of the natives such as forced taxes and labor, and indiscriminate incarceration for no major reasons at all. Both the clergy and the government officials were guilty. These early "disturbances" were dealt with effectively by the Spanish authorities by employing the divide and conquer strategy. Ilocanos or Kapampangans from the north, for instance, were sent to quell the rebellion in the Bicolanos or the Visayans in the south, or Bicolanos were dispatched to troubled areas in the north or in the Tagalog region. Taking advantage of the clannishness of the Filipinos, this shrewd tactic served the Spaniards well and for a long time. It was only much later that a gradual awakening of latent nationalism took place among the Filipino people. Spain ruled the country for 327 years. In the 1800's a movement was born to revolt against the Spainards. Jose Rizal was one of the men that was in the movement for reform and anti-clerical learning. Rizal was executed, which started the Philippine Revolution in 1896 that was lead by Andres Bonifacio. Bonifacio was the founder of a secret anti-Spanish organization called Katipunan which stood for Brotherhood. On June 12, 1898 Philippine republic was proclaimed independent. The republic was short-lived and the Spanish-American war broke out. The Spanish found neither spices nor exploitable precious metals in the Philippines. The ecology of the islands was little changed by Spanish importations and technical innovations, with the exception of corn cultivation and some extension of irrigation in order to increase rice supplies for the growing urban population. The colony was not profitable, and a long war with the Dutch in the seventeenth century and intermittent conflict with the Moros nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury. Annual deficits were made up by a subsidy from Mexico. Among the most significant and enduring changes that occurred under Spanish rule was that the Filipino idea of communal use and ownership of land was replaced with the concept of private, individual ownership and the conferring of titles on members of the principalía. Spain also laid the foundation for a feudal health care system. Why the Philippines were easily conquered? Through largely outnumbered, the Spaniards who came to colonize the Philippines easily took control of our country. How did this happen?The best possible explanation is that the natives lacked unity and a centralized form of government. Although the barangays

already functioned as units of governance, each one existed independently of the other, and the powers that each Datu enjoyed were confined only to his own barangay. No higher institution united the barangays, and the Spaniards took advantage of this situation. They used the barangays that were friendly to them in order to subdue the barangays that were not

Americans Conquest of the Philippine In the nineteenth century, America pursued a policy of imperialism in the Philippines under the guise of protecting the world from the oppression of Spanish rule. This caused much controversy both in the political arena as well as among the citizens. Throughout its development, America has crafted its expansionist policies; this expansion, however, had always been confined to the North American continent. The philosophies of the ordinances of 1784, 1785 and 1787 as well as the Monroe Doctrine and the Manifest Destiny governed the acquisition of new territory. In the Ostend Manifesto, America looks to acquire Cuba. Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, there was an urge to expand outside of the continent for various reasons. y y y y y y y y Americans believed themselves to be racially superior to others. America wanted a favorable balance of trade. America needed to make exports exceed imports. America was looking for fresh land to conquer (islands in warm oceans). America sought to spread Christianity. America sought to expand foreign markets. There was the necessity of annexing some property. America had a strong sense of nationalism during the era known in Europe as the Race for Empire. When the issue of the Philippines arises, there is a stark break with past forms of imperialism. Instead of seeking to add the Philippines as a state, America sought the conquest of the Philippines as an imperialist colony that they would rule either formally or informally. y y y Administration of the Philippines. y The American administration of the Philippines was a completely new experience for the nation that was once itself colonized by another nation. y After the election of 1900 debates over Philippine policy ensued. War with Spain. Domestic motives for expansionism. Debates over the issue of imperialism.

The Philippines gains its independence in 1946 after being an imperial territory of America.

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