Containerization

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Shipping containers at a terminal in Port Elizabeth, New Jersey, USA

A container freight train in the UK

A container ship being loaded by a portainer crane in Copenhagen Harbour

in the US. railroad cars. Wisconsin and Chicago.[dubious ± discuss] [edit] History [edit] Origins Although having its origins in the late 1780s or earlier.[citation needed] From 1926 to 1947. By the 1840s. on places like the Bridgewater Canal. By the 1830s. thus [citation lowering costs and helping lower freight charges and. Seatrain Lines carried railroad boxcars . planes. Containerization (or containerisation) is a system of intermodal freight transport using standard intermodal containers as prescribed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Beginning in 1929. several railway companies were using similar containers by the beginning of the 20th century and in the 1920s the Railway Clearing House standardised the RCH container. the Chicago North Shore and Milwaukee Railway carried motor carrier vehicles and shippers' vehicles loaded on flatcars between Milwaukee. in turn. Originally used for shipping coal on and off barges. 'loose boxes' were used to containerize coal from the late 1780s. needed] Almost every manufactured imported product humans consume spends some time in a container. wooden and non-stackable. Illinois. boosting trade flows. Five or ten-foot long.Twistlocks which capture and constrain containers. The introduction of containers resulted in vast improvements in port handling efficiency. Forklifts designed to handle containers have similar devices. The early 1900s saw the adoption of closed contain boxes er designed for movement between road and rail. the global standardisation of containers and container handling equipment was one of the important innovations in 20th century logistics. and trucks. railroads on several continents were carrying containers that could be transferred to trucks or ships. iron boxes were in use as well as wooden ones. In the United Kingdom. but these containers were invariably small by today's standards. these early standard containers were a great success but the standard remained UK -specific. These can be loaded and sealed intact onto container ships.

The first major shipment of C NEXes (containing engineering supplies and spare parts) were shipped by rail from the Columbus General Depot in Georgia to the Port of San Francisco. Shipment times were cut almost in half. Most cars were surplus flatcars equipped with new decks. The challenge was not just to design a shipping container. In addition to helping McLean make the engineering breakthrough to create a successful design. By the time of the Vietnam War the majority of supplies and materials were shipped with the C NEX.98 in) thick corrugated steel. for shipping household goods of officers in the field. In 1952 the army began using the term C NEX. allowing the container to be easily secured and lifted using cranes. The end result was a 8 feet (2. Theft of material and damage to wooden crates. the United States Army began using speciali ed containers to speed up the loading and unloading of transport ships. After the U. then by ship to Yokohama. was approved for broader use.25 feet (1. Tantlinger was also able to convince McLean to give the patented designs to the industry. Japan.[1 Toward the end of World War II. A "Transporter" was a reusable container. in late 1952. an additional 25 railroads had begun some form of piggy-back trailer service.83 feet (2.on it sea vessels to t ansport goods bet een New York and C ba. [citati Even the railways of the USSR had their own small containers.6 m) long. 6. but also to devise a method of loading and locking them onto ships.91 m) wide. and then to Korea. businessman (and former trucking company owner) Malcolm McLean teamed up with engineer Keith Tantlinger to develop the modern intermodal container which we recogni e today. During the Korean War the transporter was evaluated for handling sensitive military equipment. By 1953. The design also incorporated a twist-lock mechanism situated atop each of the four corners. The army used the term "transporters" to identify the containers.S. the CB&Q.4 m) tall by 8 ft (2. made of rigid steel with a carrying capacity of 9. By 1955.4 m) wide box in 10 ft (3. short for "Container Express".[citati proved to the army that steel containers were needed.[citati In t e mid1930s. and 6. and proving effective. the Chicago and Eastern Illinois and the Southern Pacific railroads had joined the innovation. In 1955.08 m) high.5 feet (2. by stevedores at the Port of Pusan. beginning the process of international standardi ation of shipping containers. in addition to handling time.[4 ¤ ¢ ¢¢¡ ¡  ¤£ £ ¢ ¢¢¡ ¡  ¤£ £ ¤ ¤ ¤ [edi P e-buil i ¢ ¢¢¡ ¡  ¤£ £ . t e C i ago Great Western Railway and t en t e New Haven Railroad began "piggyback" service (transporting highway freight trailers on flatcars) limited to their own railroads.[2 [3 These standards were adopted in the United Kingdom for containers and rapidly displaced the older wooden containers in the 1950s.0 m) long units constructed from 25 mm (0. 8.000 pounds. Department of Defense standardi ed an 8'×8' cross section container in multiples of 10' lengths for military use it was rapidly adopted for shipping purposes.

hence the designation container ship or "box" ship. U. the Matson Navigation Company had a fleet of 24-foot (7. moved by rail. ships and railroad cars. Instead. known as broken stowage.S.[5] What was new in the USA about McLean's innovation was the idea of using large containers that were never opened in transit betweenshipper and consignee and that were transferable on an intermodal basis. ships began carrying containers between Seattle and Alaska in 1951. he modified his original concept into loading just the containers. before any shipper could carry different items in the same vehicle. McLean had initially favored the construction of "trailerships"²taking trailers from large trucks and stowing them in a ship¶s cargo hold.S. container shipping industry dates to April 26.S. The world's first truly intermodal container system used the purpose-built container ship the Clifford J. There were dozens of incompatible container systems in the U. European railroads. in Skagway. and by the 1960s. This method of stowage. among trucks. 1956. container sizes and corner fittings from one country to another. The standard sizes and fitting and reinforcement norms that exist now evolved out of a series of compromises among international shipping companies. 1955. which impeded containerization and other advances in shipping. built in Montreal in 1955 and owned by the White Pass and Yukon Route. Among the b iggest operators. the containers were unloaded to purpose -built railroad cars for transport north to the Yukon. alone.S. dimensions and ratings July 1968: R-790 defined the identification markings January 1970: R-1161 made recommendations about corner fittings October 1970: R-1897 set out the minimum internal dimensions of general purpose freight containers In the United States.S. Alaska. on November 26. to their consignees. railroads. The U. in the first intermodal service using trucks.[6][7] (See also pantechnicon van and trolley and lift van. when trucking entrepreneur Malcom McLean put 58 containers aboard a refitted tanker ship. The United States' .3 m) containers while Sea-Land Service. Southbound containers were loaded by shippers in the Yukon. ships and railroad cars. referred to as roll-on/roll-off. onto the ships. Inc used 35-foot (11 m) containers. was not adopted because of the large waste in potential cargo space onboard the vessel. ship and truck.) [edit] Towards standards During the first twenty years of growth containerization meant using completely different. In the U. and sailed them from Newark to Houston. not the chassis. British Columbia and Skagway. and U.Containers waiting at the South Korean port of Busan. trucking companies. This first intermodal system operated from November 1955 for many years. the shipper had to have ICC approval. Main article: Container ship The first vessels purpose-built to carry containers began operation in Denmark in 1951. without opening. Four important ISO (International Organization for Standardization) recommendations standardised containerisation globally[8] y y y y January 1968: R-668 defined the terminology. and incompatible. but fell victim to regulatory capture. or change rates. the Ideal-X. the Interstate Commerce Commission was created in 1887 to keep railroads from using monopolist pricing and rate discrimination on customers. especially rural Western farmers. Its first trip carried 600 containers between North Vancouver. Rodgers.

. trucking and rail were deregulate in the 1970s d [9] and maritime rates were deregulated in 1984. [edit] Today A converted container used as an office at a building site Containerization has revolutionized cargo shipping. It has even been predicted that. Most economic studies of containerization merely assumed that shipping companies would begin to replace older forms of transportation with containerization. but did not anticipate that containerization might make it cheaper to import such goods from abroad. Today. but did not predict that the process of containerization itself would have some influence on producer and the extent s of trading.[7] The widespread use of ISO standard containers has driven modifications in other freight moving standards. launched August 2006.present fully integrated systems became possible only after the ICC's regulatory oversight was cut back (and later abolished in 1995). and changing completely the worldwide use of freight pallets that fit into ISO containers or into commercial vehicles. at some point. container ships will be constrained in size only by the depth of theStraits of Malacca²one of the world's busiest shipping lanes²linking the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean.500 Twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU). for example the Emma Mærsk.[7] However. This so-called Malaccamax size constrains a ship to dimensions of 470 m in length and 60 m wide (1542 feet by 197 feet). In the 1950s. 26% of all containers originate from China. Harvard University economist Benjamin Chinitz predicted that containerization would benefit New York by allowing it to ship industrial goods produced there more cheaply to the Southern United States than other areas. some 18 million total containers make over 200 million trips per year. gradually forcing removable truck bod or swap bodies into the standard ies sizes and shapes (though without the strength needed to be stacked). . approximately 90% of non -bulk [10] cargo worldwide moves by containers stacked on transport ships. few initially foresaw the extent of the influence containerization would bring to the shipping industry. There are ships that can carry over 14. 396 m long.[11] As of 2005.

[edi i er standards [edit] ISO standard Main article: Intermodal freight shipping container There are five common standard lengths. [edi i i Main article: Car shipping Containers have become a popular way to ship vehicles overseas.000 kg for 20 ft (6. personal effects can be loaded into the container with the vehicle.480 kg. India. With the arrival of even taller containers. The maximum gross mass for a 20 ft (6.435 mm (4 ft 81»2 in) gauge track known as standard gauge but many countries (such as Russia. The cargo is not visible to the casual viewer and thus is less likely to be stolen and the doors of the containers are generally sealed so that tampering is more evident. the height of the box is not considered.[12 The original choice of 8 foot height for ISO containers was made in part to suit a large proportion of railway tunnels. 20-ft (6. Cars can be loaded into 20 or 40 foot containers.9 m) Hi h cube and the 4-ft 3-in (1.87 m (9 ft 6 in) high cube container). Use of the same basic si es of containers across the globe has lessened the problems caused by incompatible rail gauge si es in different countries. for instance the 9 ft 6 in (2. Finland. Container capacity is often expressed in tw ty-f t q ivalent nit (TEU.[13  §§ ¦¥  © ¨  [edit] Air frei t containers  ¨ ¥ .3 m) half hei ht 20 ft (6.1 m) containers are also called one TEU. As this is an approximate measure. or sometimes teu). This has reduced the "falling off the truck" syndrome that long plagued the shipping industry. United States domestic standard containers are generally 48 ft (15 m) and 53-ft (rail and truck).2 m). and Lithuania) use broader gauges while many other countries in Africa and South America use narrower gauges on their networks. Allowing for the tare mass of the container.000 kg for 40 ft (12 m) containers. An equivalent unit is a measure of containeri ed cargo capacity equal to one standard 20 ft (length) × 8 ft (width) container. it is 30.1 m).2 m). 48-ft (14. Unlike rollon/roll-off vehicle shipping. the maximum payload mass is therefore reduced to approximately 22.1 m) dry cargo container is 24. 45-ft (13. allowing for easy international relocation. further enlargement is proving necessary. though some had to be deepened.Improved cargo security is also an important benefit of containeri ation.7 m). and for a 40-ft (including the 2. 40-ft (12. and 53-ft (16.6 m). The use of container trains in all these countries makes trans-shipment between different gauge trains easier.1 m). The majority of the rail networks in the world operate on a 1. and shipped to most countries. loaded onto container ships.000 kg. and 27.

0 96.0 64.0 186.4 80.0 Max load (lb) 3500 2700 3500 5400 7000 7000 13300 5400 13300 7000 7000 13300 Max load (kg) ~1588 ~1225 ~1588 ~2449 ~3175 ~3175 ~6033 ~2449 ~6033 ~3175 ~3175 ~6033 Shape Type A Type A Type A Rectangular Rectangular Type B Rect.0 Base (In) 61. [edit] Other container system standards Some other container systems are: y y y y y y PODS Haus-zu-Haus (House to house) (Germany)[citation needed] RACE (Australia) SECU (Sweden.0 125.4 60. -4.0 125. the LDdesignation sizes are shown below: Designation LD-1 LD-2 LD-3 LD-4 LD-5 LD-6 LD-7 LD-8 LD-9 LD-10 LD-11 LD-29 Width (in) 92.4 60.0 64.0 64.0 60.0 64.0 64. UK) ARKAS[citation needed] Japanese railway containers (japanese) Containers used by Japan Freight Railway Company .4 80.0 64. or Contoured Type B Rect.5 n/a n/a 125.0 160.0 60.0 60. Finland.0 64. and -8 are those most widely used.0 64.0 64.0 Depth (in) 60.0 125.0 64.0 125.A number of LD-designation Unit Load Device containers Main article: Unit Load Device While major airlines use containers that are custom designed for their aircraft and associated ground handling equipment the IATA has created a set of standard container sizes.0 n/a n/a n/a 125. together with the rectangular M3 containers.0 Height (in) 64.5 61.0 n/a 96. -2.0 64.4 60.0 125.5 79.0 61. -3. or Contoured Contoured Rectangular Type B LD-1.0 125.4 47.4 88.5 61.4 60.

synthetic webbings and Dunnage Bags. [citati n needed] On railway the capacity of the container is far from its maximum weight capacity. The U. [edit] Issues [edit] Increased efficiency Although there have been few direct correlations made between containers and job losses. [edit] Additional fuel costs Containerisation increases the fuel costs of transport and reduces the capacity of the transport as the container itself must be shipped around not just the goods. Conventional Load Securing methods and materials such as steel banding and wood blocking & bracing have been around for decades and are still widely used. relatively new and unknown options that have become available through innovation and technological advancement including polyester strapping and -lashing. For most goods the increased fuel costs and decreased transport efficiencies are currently more than offset by the handling savings. In recent years there have been increased concerns that containers might be used to transport terrorists or terrorist materials into a country undetected.[edit] Load securing in containers Application in Polyester Strapping and Dunnage Bag container application See also: Load Securing Polyester Lashing Application There are many different ways and materials available to stabili e and secure cargo in containers used in all modes of transportation. also known as air bags or inflatable bags. [edit] Hazards Containers have been used to smuggle contraband.S. For certain bulk products this makes containerisation unattractive. and the weight of a railcar must be transported with not so much goods.[14 The new system of shipping also allowed for freight consolidating jobs to move from the waterfront to points far inland. there are a number of texts associating job losses at least in part with containeri ation. The vast majority of containers are never subjected to scrutiny due to the large number of containers in use. Present Load Securing methods offer several. government has advanced the Container   . which also decreased the number of waterfront jobs. In some areas (mostly USA and Canada) containers are double stacked. A 1998 study of post-containeri ation employment at United States ports found that container cargo could be moved nearly twenty times faster than pre-container break bulk. but this is usually not possible in other countries.

[edit] Empty containers Containers are intended to be used constantly. Containers lost at sea do not necessarily sink.[16] In 2007 the International Chamber of Shipping and the World Shipping Council began work on a code of practice for container storage. it is [15] estimated that over 10. being loaded with new cargo for a new destination soon after having emptied of previous cargo. preferably at the port of departure.000 containers are lost at sea each year. making them a shipping hazard that is difficult to detect. usually during storms. intended to ensure that high-risk cargo is examined or scanned. Freight from lost containers has provided oceanographers with unexpected opportunities to track global ocean currents. the cost of transporting an empty container to a place where it can be used is considered to be higher than the worth of the used container. However. and in some cases. but seldom float very high out of the water. Shipping lines and Container Leasing Companies have become expert at repositioning empty containers from areas of low or no demand. safer stacking and marking of containers and security for above -deck cargo in heavy swell. [edit] Loss at sea Containers occasionally fall from the ships that carry them. 2006. For instance. along with thousands of bags of its cargo of Doritos Chips.[17] [edit] Double-stack containerization Part of a United States double-stack container train loaded with 53 ft (16. notably a cargo of Friendly Floatees. a container washed ashore on the Outer Banks of North Carolina USA. to areas of high demand such as China. including crew training on parametric rolling.15 m) containers A spine car with a 20 ft tanktainer and an open-top 20 ft container with canvas cover . This is not always possible. or the steel content salvaged.Security Initiative (CSI). such as US West Coast. damaged or retired containers may also be recycled in the form of shipping container architecture. on November 30.

but if the rail line has been built with sufficient vertical clearance. [edit] Wagons Railways have flat wagons and well cars that can hold 40' ISO containers. provided that the loading gauge allows it. has been built with tunnels that do accommodate double-stacked wagons so as to keep the option to economically rebuild the route for double stacking in the future. started working with the SP and that same year. These are diesel only lines with no overhead wiring. either as temporary housing or permanent.000 mm (3 ft 33» 8 in) gauge can take ISO containers. Narrow gauge railways of 610 mm (2 ft) gauge have smaller wagons that do not readily carry ISO containers. Australia: Double stacking is also used in Australia between Adelaide.[21][22] At first it was slow to become an industry standard. then in 1984 American President Lines. This usually precludes operation of double-stacked wagons on lines with overhead electric wiring. Tunnels prevent extension of service to Melbourne. Wider narrow gauge railways of e.Most flatcars cannot carry more than one standard 40-foot (12. Sun Microsystems was one of the first to do this with their . and either as a main building or as a cabin or workshop.[19] [edit] History of double-stacking y y y y United States/ Canada/ Mexico: Southern Pacific Railroad (SP). India: Double stacking in India is used for selected freight-only lines. Along the way the train transferred from the SP to Conrail. California for South Kearny. a double-stack car can accept a container and still leave enough clearance for another container on top. Sydney and Brisbane. which was planned with overhead wiring from the start. in part due to the generous vertical clearances used by U.S.g. New Jersey. The overhead wiring would then have to be changed to allow double stacking.[6][20] SP then designed the first car with ACF Industries that same year. although these are normally specialized containers. Parkes.19 m) container. on electrified lines with specially high overhead 25kV AC wiring. [edit] Other uses for containers Shipping container architecture is the use of containers as the basis for housing and other functional buildings for people. with Malcom McLean. the first all "double stack" train left Los Angeles. However. Containers can also be used as sheds or storage areas in industry and commerce. 914 mm (3 ft) and 1. It saved shippers money and now accounts for almost 70 percent of intermodal freight transport shipments in the United States. These lines are diesel operated with no overhead wiring.14 m) long and 7-foot (2. Containers are also beginning to be used to house computer data centers. under the name of "Stacktrain" rail service. China: using double stacked container trains under 25kV AC overhead lines. Perth and Darwin. came up with the idea of the first double-stack intermodal car in 1977.13 m) wide wagons of the 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) gauge Kalka-Shimla Railway. railroads.[18] Lower than standard size containers are run double stacked under overhead wire in China. nor do the 30-foot (9. the Betuweroute.

428 128 Hanjin Shipping 448.051 98 China Shipping Container Lines 440.604 52 Pacific International Lines 227. 18 May 2010 Company TEU capacity[24] Number of ships A.725 152 Hapag-Lloyd 541.638.100.338 77 Hamburg Süd 338.007 384 American President Lines 589.379 77 Hyundai Merchant Marine 271. Hewlett-Packard introduced the HP Performance Optimi ed Datacenter (or POD).879 147 Evergreen Marine Corporation 554.A.082 50 .193 82 Yang Ming Marine Transport Corporation 313.045. In 2010.K. a Russian company released a cruise missile system that can be shipped in containers.685 96 K Line 318.188 94 Orient Overseas Container Line 353.S.[23] [edit] Companies [edit] Biggest ISO container companies Top 20 container shipping companies in order of TEU capacity.P.811 124 COSCO 498.778 109 Zim Integrated Shipping Services 322.Sun Modular Datacenter.776 545 Mediterranean Shipping Company S. Lines 363. 1.034 95 Mitsui O.236 122 NYK Line 365.437 134 CSAV 469.649 126 UASC 199. Moller-Maersk Group 2.962 414 CMA CGM 1.

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