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cÖKvk‡Ki K_v

Bmjvwg kwiAvni wewaweavb myôzfv‡e Abyaveb Kivi Rb¨ Bmjvwg AvBb


kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ e¨vL¨vi c×wZ Rvbv AZxe ¸iæZ¡c~Y©| G †ÿ‡Î kvn& Ave`yj
nvbœv‡bi Bs‡iwR‡Z iwPZ Usul al-Fiqh: Principles of Islamic
Jurisprudence MÖš’wU G †`‡k cÖKvwkZ GKwU †QvU A_P †gŠwjK
†idv‡iÝ eB|
mgmvgwqK Bmjvwg wPšÍK kvn& Ave`yj nvbœvb wÎk eQ‡iiI AwaK mgq a‡i
Dm~j Avj-wdKni Ici covïbv I M‡elYv K‡i‡Qb| wZwb G msµvšÍ †ek
K‡qKwU K¬¨vwmK I AvaywbK eB Ges kxl©¯’vbxq ¯‹jvi‡`i †jLv ch©v‡jvPbv
K‡i‡Qb Ges †m¸‡jvi wfwˇZ wkwÿZ mgv‡Ri Rb¨ Bs‡iwR eBwU iPbv
K‡iwQ‡jb- hv cvVKgn‡j LyeB mgv`„Z n‡q‡Q| cvVK gn‡ji cÿ †_‡K
eBwU evsjvq cÖKv‡ki Rb¨I we‡klfv‡e Aby‡iva wQj- hv‡Z K‡i GwUi eûj
cÖPvi I mvaviY gvby‡li eySvi myweav nq| †m we‡ePbv gv_vq †i‡L eBwU
evsjv fvlvq Abyev` K‡iwQ‡jb M‡elK I †jLK W. Iqvwmg nK| Z`ycwi
wZbRb kwiAvn we‡klÁÑ W. †gvnv¤§` nviæb iwk`, gynv¤§` wmivRyj gvIjv
Ges †gvL‡jQzi ingvb hZœ mnKv‡i Abyev`wU wiwfD I kiwq m¤úv`bv
K‡iwQ‡jb hv‡Z eBwU‡Z †Kv‡bv cÖKvi bxwZMZ fzj bv _v‡K| †m wfwˇZ
eBwU cÖ_g cÖKvk K‡i w` cvBIwbqvi I w` DBU‡bm 2011 m‡b|
weAvBAvBwU eBwUi bZzb ms¯‹i‡Yi D‡`¨vM †bq Ges †m Av‡jv‡K eZ©gvb
ms¯‹iYwUi kiqx m¤úv`bv K‡i‡Qb kvqL W. †gvnv¤§` gvb&Ry‡i Gjvnx Ges
fvlv m¤úv`bv K‡i‡Qb W. Gg Ave`yj AvwRR I Avng` †nv‡mb gvwbK|
Zv‡`i mevi cÖwZ iBj K…ZÁZv I `yÕAv|
Avkv Kwi eBwU we‡klfv‡e wek¦we`¨vjq ch©v‡q KziAvb, mybœvn I Bmjvwg
÷vwWR wefv‡Mi wkÿK-wkÿv_©x‡`i Rb¨ Ges mvaviYfv‡e evsjvfvlx
gymwjg‡`i Rb¨ GKwU myLcvV¨ wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡e|

W. Gg Ave`yj AvwRR
31.05.2020
Bmjvwg `vÔIqv‡Zi c×wZ I AvaywbK †cÖ¶vcU

m~wPcÎ

Dm~j Avj-wdKn Kx Ges †Kb 5


KziAvb 8
mybœvn 12
KziAvb I mybœvni e¨vL¨v 17
Av‡`k, wb‡lavÁv I i` 26
BRgvÔ 30
wKqvm 33
Bmjvwg kwiAvn c~e©eZx© cÖZ¨vw`ó AvBb 37
mvnvwe‡`i dZIqv 38
BmwZn&mvb 40
gvmjvnv Iqv gyimvjvn 43
Did Ges BmwZmnve 46
mvÏ& Avj hvivÕB 50
ûKzg kviÕC 52
ZvÕAviæ` 57
ÔBRwZnv` 59

cwiwkó 62
Dm~j Avj-wdKn Kx I †Kb
cÖv_wgKfv‡e ejv hvq ÔDm~j~j wdKnÕ ( ّ‫طٕل ان ِفم‬ُ ‫ )أ‬Bmjvwg AvB‡bi
Drm ev `wjj wb‡q Av‡jvPbv K‡i| Aek¨ Ôbyiæj Av‡bvqviÕ MÖ‡š’i †jLK
†kL Avn‡g` Beb Avey mvC` (whwb †gvjøvwRDb bv‡g L¨vZ Ges mgªvU
AvIi½‡R‡ei M„nwkÿK wQ‡jb) D‡jøL K‡ib †h, GK`j AvBbwe‡`i
g‡Z Dm~jyj wdKn Bmjvwg AvBb (wdKn) I AvB‡bi (wdK‡ni) Drm
`y‡Uv welq wb‡qB Av‡jvPbv K‡i|
Dm~jyj wdKn [Dm~j (‫طٕ ٌلل‬
ُ ‫ )أ‬n‡jv AvQj (‫)أطم‬-Gi eûePb] n‡jv
Bmjvwg AvB‡bi wfwË| G kv‡¯¿i gva¨‡g Bmjvwg AvB‡bi Drm †_‡K
AvBb cÖYq‡bi c×wZ e¨vL¨v Kiv nq| G A‡_© Dm~j n‡jv c×wZ Ges
wdKn n‡jv Gi DcRvZ ev dj| myZivs Dm~jyj wdKn n‡jv Bmjvwg
AvBb ev kwiAvni g~jbxwZ (Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence)|
Dm~‡j wdKn Bmjvwg AvB‡bi cÖv_wgK Drm KziAvb I mybœvn wb‡q
Av‡jvPbv K‡i| A_©vr Dm~j KziAvb I mybœvni •ewkó¨ wb‡q ch©v‡jvPbv
K‡i Ges KziAvb I mybœvn †_‡K AvBb cÖYqb c×wZ eY©bv K‡i| AvBb
cÖYqb c×wZ e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z Dm~j KziAvb I mybœvni wewfbœ kã
Ôwe‡klfv‡eÕ Ges Aviwe fvlv ÔmvaviYfv‡eÕ ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i _v‡K|
ÔDm~jyj wdKnÕ (ّ‫ )أطٕل انفم‬Bmjvwg AvB‡bi gva¨wgK Drm wb‡qI
ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i _v‡K| †hgb-
BRgvÔ (‫ إجْ ًبعٌل‬Ñ m¤§wZ);
wKqvm (‫ لٍبط‬Ñ mv`„k¨Zvi Av‡jv‡K wm×všÍ MÖnY);
BmwZnmvb (ٌ‫ إسْزذْ سب‬Ñ AvBbMZ cÖvavb¨); Ges
ÔBRwZnv` (‫ إجزِٓبد‬Ñ M‡elYv I hyw³i cÖ‡qvM)|
6 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

AvBb cÖYq‡bi GmKj gva¨wgK Drm Aek¨ cÖZ¨ÿ ev c‡ivÿfv‡e


KziAvb I mybœvni Ici wbf©ikxj| D`vniY¯^iƒc ejv hvq, wKqvmÕi
wZbwU g~j Dcv`vb ÔAvQjÕ (g~j NUbv), ÔûKzgÕ (AvQ‡ji †cÖwÿ‡Z ivq)
Ges ÔBjøvnÕ (Kvh©Ki KviY) cÖv_wgK Dr‡mi Ici wbf©ikxj| ÔDm~jyj
wdKnÕ Bmjvwg AvBb msµvšÍ Ab¨vb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq welqvw` wb‡qI Av‡jvPbv
K‡i _v‡K| †hgb AvB‡bi Ici cÖ_vi cÖfve wKsev AvB‡bi Drm wn‡m‡e
cÖ_vi f‚wgKv|
GQvov ¸iæ‡Z¡i w`K †_‡K Bmjvwg AvB‡bi ¯Íi web¨vm n‡jv:
dih (‫;)فشع‬
IqvwRe (‫;)ٔاجت‬
gv›`ye (‫;)يُذٔة‬
nvivg (‫ ;)دشاو‬Ges
gvKiƒn (ِٔ‫|)يكش‬
Dm~‡ji KwZcq cy¯Í‡K we¯ÍvwiZfv‡e Aviwe fvlvi e¨vKiY
Av‡jvwPZ n‡q _v‡K| wbtm‡›`‡n ejv P‡j Bmjvwg AvBbwe`‡`i
(Dm~wjDb) Rb¨ Aviwe fvlvi Ávb I e¨vKiY Rvbv AZ¨vek¨Kxq Z‡e
GwU Dm~‡ji welqe¯‘ bq|
Dm~j cvV †_‡KB Avgiv Rvb‡Z cvwi, KziAvb I mybœvnmn mKj
gva¨wgK Dr‡mi e¨vL¨v c×wZ, eZ©gvb I AZxZKv‡ji Bmjvwg
we‡klÁ‡`i Dm~j wel‡q g‡bvfve, wKqvmÕi gva¨‡g cÖ`Ë iv‡qi weeiY,
ÔBRwZnv`-Gi Ab¨vb¨ c×wZ, Bmjvwg AvBb Ges AvBbwelqK ZvwË¡K
welqvw`i weKvk msµvšÍ BwZnvm| Dm~j cv‡Vi gva¨‡g Gme wel‡q ÁvZ
GKRb e¨w³ Bmjvwg AvBb cÖ‡qv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î m‡PZb _vK‡e| G e¨w³
†hgb AZx‡Zi AvBbwe`‡`i iwPZ c×wZ m¤ú‡K© kÖ×vkxj _vK‡e †Zgwb
eZ©gv‡bi bZzb ev¯ÍeZvi Av‡jv‡K AvBb cÖYqb I e¨vL¨vi e¨vcv‡iI
m‡PZb n‡e| †m ZLb Am‡PZb K_v I KvR †_‡K weiZ _vK‡e| Dm~jyj
wdKn-Gi g~j jÿ¨ n‡jv ÔBRwZnv`‡K wbqš¿Y Kiv Ges AvBbwe`‡`i
AvB‡bi Drmmg~n †_‡K AvBb cÖYq‡b c_ cÖ`k©b Kiv|
Bgvg kvwdC‡K Dm~jyj wdKn ev wdKn Áv‡bi RbK (cÖ_g
msKjK) ejv †h‡Z cv‡i| K_vwU G A‡_© mZ¨ †h, Dm~jyj wdKni
g~jbxwZ¸‡jv Bgvg kvwdC cÖ_‡g cÖYvjxe×fv‡e web¨¯Í K‡ib| Bgvg
kvwdCi c~‡e©i AvBbwe`iv bxwZi Av‡jv‡KB AvBb cÖYqb Ki‡Zb- Z‡e
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 7

†m mKj bxwZ GKwÎZ Ges myweb¨¯Í wQj bv| Bgvg kvwdCi c‡i cÖPzi
weÁ e¨w³ Dm~j cv‡Vi e¨vcv‡i Ae`vb †i‡L‡Qb| Zv‡`i g‡a¨
D‡jøL‡hvM¨ n‡jb, Aveyj nvmvb Avj evmwi (B‡šÍKvj 436 wn.), Bgvg
Avj nvivgvBb Avj RyqvBwb (B‡šÍKvj 487 wn.), Avey nvwg` Avj
Mv¾vwj (B‡šÍKvj 505 wn.), dLiæwÏb Avj ivwR (B‡šÍKvj 606 wn.),
mvBdzwÏb Avj Avwgw` (‫)ػًٍذي‬, Aveyj nvmvb Avj KviwL (B‡šÍKvj 349
wn.), dLiæwÏb Avj evR`vIwq (B‡šÍKvj 483 wn.), Avey evKvi Avj
Rvmmvm (B‡šÍKvj 370 wn.), mv`i Avj kvwiqvn (B‡šÍKvj 747 wn.),
ZvRDwÏb Avj myewK (B‡šÍKvj 771 wn.) Ges Bgvg Avj kvwZwe
(ً‫ )شطٍج‬cÖgyL|
cÖv_wgKfv‡e Dm~j cv‡Vi `y‡Uv aviv weKvk jvf K‡iÑ ZvwË¡K I
Av‡ivnx| ZvwË¡K c×wZi weKvk N‡U Bgvg kvwdCi gva¨‡g whwb
mymse×fv‡e KwZcq bxwZ cÖYqb K‡ib Ges Zvi wfwˇZ ÔBRwZnv`
K‡ib Ges dvZIqv †`b| Ab¨w`‡K cÖv_wgK nvbvdx cwÐZMY KziAvb I
mybœvni wfwˇZ dvZIqv †`b Ges †m me dvZIqvq †hme bxwZ AbymiY
Kiv n‡qwQj Zvi wfwˇZ Dm~j cÖYqb K‡ib| hv‡nvK, cieZ©x ¯‥jviMY
`y‡Uv aviv‡K mgwš^Z K‡ib Ges eZ©gv‡b G mgwš^Z aviv cÖPwjZ
i‡q‡Q
8

KziAvb
Dm~‡ji KwZcq cyiv‡bv ¯^xK…Z MÖ‡š’ (†hgb †kL Avng` Beb Avey mvC`
iwPZ Ôbyiæj Av‡bvqviÕ ev †kL Aveyj evivKvZ Beb Avng` bvmvwd iwPZ
ÔgvbviÕ MÖš’Øq) Dm~‡ji †ewkifvM Ask n‡”Q ÔwKZveyjøvnÕ A_©vr KziAvb
wk‡ivbv‡gi Aax‡b| G wk‡ivbv‡gi Aax‡b Av‡jvwPZ welqmg~n n‡jvÑ
KziAv‡bi k‡ãi †kÖwYweb¨vm (A_ev Aviwe fvlv), KziAvb I mybœvni
e¨vL¨vi cÖ‡qvR‡b cÖ‡qvRbxq Aviwe e¨vKiY|
Av‡jvP¨ MÖ‡š’ KziAvb Aa¨v‡q Aviwe fvlv ev e¨vKiY Av‡jvwPZ n‡e
bv| eis KwZcq AvaywbK Dm~j we‡kl‡Ái Av`‡j Ôe¨vL¨vi c×wZÕ G
wk‡ivbv‡gi Aax‡b KziAvb I nvw`‡mi kã e¨vL¨v I †kÖwYweb¨v‡mi c×wZ
wb‡q Av‡jvPbv n‡e| AvMÖnx cvV‡Ki cÖwZ Aby‡iva iBj Zviv †hb Aviwe
fvlv I e¨vKiY wfbœfv‡e cvV K‡i †bb| Av‡jvP¨ cwi‡”Q‡` KziAv‡bi
KwZcq •ewkó¨ I Gi f‚wgKv wb‡q ch©v‡jvPbv Kiv n‡e|
KziAvb n‡jv Ggb MÖš’ hv Avjøvni evYx wn‡m‡e imyj gynv¤§` m.-Gi
wbKU bvwRj n‡q‡Q| KziAv‡b †gvU 114wU Amg AvqZ‡bi myiv i‡q‡Q
Ges myiv¸wji m~wP welqvbymv‡i web¨¯Í bq| Avjøvni evYx ev Iwn `yB
cÖKvi| h_vÑ Iwn Rvwni Ges Iwn evwZb|
Iwn Rvwni (‫ ٔدً ظبْش‬Ñ cÖKvk¨ Iwn): KziAvb cÖKvk¨ Iwni (Iwn
Rvwni) mgwó hv Avjøvni fvlvq gvby‡li mv‡_ Zvi mivmwi †hvMv‡hvM|
Iwn evwZb ( ٍ‫ ٔادً ثبط‬Ñ AcÖKvk¨ Iwn): Iwn evwZb (AcÖKvk¨
Iwn) Iwn Rvwni †_‡K wfbœ G A‡_© †h Iwn evwZb Aby‡cÖiYvwfwËK| imyj
m.-Gi nvw`m Iwn evwZb ch©vqfz³|
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 9

nvw`‡m Kz`wm: †hLv‡b Avjøvn‡K imyj m. DׄZ K‡i‡Qb, hv


KziAv‡bi ch©vqfz³ bq, cÖK…Zc‡ÿ GmKj nvw`‡mi mb` (nvw`m
eY©bvKvix‡`i AvbyµwgK) h_v_© wKbv Zv hvPvB mv‡cÿ welq| hw` mb`
(AvbyµwgK) `ye©j _v‡K Z‡e nvw`mwU `ye©j e‡j we‡ewPZ n‡e hw`I
nvw`mwU nvw`‡m Kz`wm ch©vqfz³ nq| GwU D‡jøL Kiv cÖ‡qvRb †h imyj
m. nvw`‡m Kz`wm I Ab¨vb¨ nvw`‡mi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wbiƒcY K‡ib wb|
KziAv‡bi ïay A_© (ًُ‫ يؼ‬Ñ gvÔbv) wKsev ïay cvV ev text (‫ َظى‬Ñ
bvRg) KziAvb bq| Bmjvwg AvBbwe`MY G e¨vcv‡i m¤§Z n‡q‡Qb †h
A_© I cv‡Vi mgwóB KziAvb|
KziAvb bvwRj n‡q‡Q av‡c av‡c (KziAvb, 17: 106) Ges
avivevwnKfv‡e (KziAvb, 25: 32)| Iwni avivevwnK AeZiY (‫)َُ ُضٔل‬
Iwn‡K ü`q½g Ki‡Z I gyL¯’ Ki‡Z mnvqZv K‡i‡Q| mKj Bmjvwg
we‡klÁ mgMÖ KziAv‡bi weï×Zvi e¨vcv‡iI HKgZ¨ †cvlY K‡i‡Qb|
KziAv‡bi e„nr Ask bvwRj n‡q‡Q g°v‡Z (30 fv‡Mi cÖvq 19 fvM)
Ges evwK Ask gw`bv‡Z| g°vq bvwRjK…Z AvqvZmg~‡n ewY©Z n‡q‡Q GK
Avjøvn‡Z wek¦vm, Awek¦vmx‡`i mv‡_ we‡iva, m‡Z¨i w`‡K Awek¦vmx‡`i
cÖwZ AvnŸvb BZ¨vw` welqmg~n| wKš‘ gw`bvq AeZxY© myivmg~‡n
Dc‡ivwjøwLZ welqvw`i AwZwi³ cwievi, mgvR, A_©bxwZ, †`Iqvwb I
†d․R`vwi `Ðwewa BZ¨vw` welqK AvBwb aviv Av‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q| †Kv‡bv
myiv hw` cÖ_‡g g°vq bvwRj nq Ges Gi Ab¨vb¨ AvqvZmg~n cieZx©‡Z
hw` gw`bv‡ZI bvwRj n‡q _v‡K †mB myiv‡K gw° myiv ejv n‡e| Avi
†Kvb myiv gw° Ges †KvbwU gv`vwb Zv wbiƒcY Kiv n‡q‡Q mvnvwe I
Zv‡ewqb‡`i eY©bvi †cÖwÿ‡Z|
wewfbœ wnmve †_‡K †`Lv hvqÑ KziAv‡b cÖvq 500wU AvBb msµvšÍ
welqvw` wee„Z n‡q‡Q| GmKj wewaweavb msµvšÍ Avqv‡Z e¨³ n‡q‡Q
ÿwZKviK cÖ_v †hgbÑ wkï nZ¨v, my`, Ryqv, mxgvnxb eûweevn, ÿwZc~iY,
†g․wjK Bev`‡Zi †ÿ‡Î bvgvR, †ivRv, nR, RvKvZ BZ¨vw` cÖm‡½| Av‡iv
ewY©Z n‡q‡Q `vb, kc_, weevn, ZvjvK, BÏZ, †gvni, fiY‡cvlY, wkïi
cÖwZcvjb, `yacvb, wcZ…Z,¡ DËivwaKvi Ges †nev msµvšÍ welqvw`|
GQvovI Av‡Q e¨emvwqK Av`vbcÖ`vb †hgbÑ µq, weµq, avi, eÜK,
abx-Mwi‡ei gv‡S m¤úK©, b¨vqwePvi, mvÿ¨, hy× Ges kvwšÍ BZ¨vw` welq|
10 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

hbœx (ًُ‫ ظ‬Ñ AbygvbMZ) Ges KvZÕC (ً‫ لطؼ‬Ñ wbwðZ) `yÕwU wel‡q
Dm~j cv‡V Av‡jvPbv nq| KvZÕC Ges hbœx welq `yÕ‡Uv Av‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q
cvV (text) Ges cv‡Vi A_© †evSv‡Z| KziAv‡bi mg¯Í cvVB KvZÕC,
A_©vr KziAv‡bi eY©bv m‡›`nvZxZ| KziAv‡bi evB‡i Avi †h cvV‡K
KvZÕCi gh©v`v †`qv nq Zv n‡jv gyZvIqvwZi nvw`m Ges mybœvn| Ab¨vb¨
nvw`m Ges ÔBRwZnv` hbœx ch©vqfz³|
KvZÕC: KziAv‡bi †hmKj cv‡V my¯úó k‡ã Avj-Avjdvh Avj
Iqvw`nv (‫ )األنفبظ انٕاضذخ‬wee„Z n‡q‡Q Ges k‡ãi GKwU gvÎ A_© enb
K‡i GmKj cvV‡K A_©MZ w`K †_‡KI KvZÕC e‡j we‡ePbv Kiv nq|
hbœx: hv KvZÕCi msÁvi g‡a¨ c‡o bv Zv-B hbœx| KvZÕC Ges hbœxÕi
¸iæZ¡ wbf©i K‡i AvwK`vMZ wel‡qi †ÿ‡Î Ges AvnKvgMZ welqvewji
¯Íiweb¨v‡m- dih (‫)فشع‬, IqvwRe (‫)ٔاجت‬, mybœvn (‫)سُخ‬, nvivg
(‫)دشاو‬, gvKiƒn (ِٔ‫ )يكش‬BZ¨vw`| AvwK`v (‫ )ػمٍذح‬ev wek¦vm msµvšÍ
welqvewj wba©vwiZ nq KvZÕC cvV I KvZÕC A‡_©i mgš^‡q| GKRb e¨w³
Kv‡di e‡j we‡ewPZ n‡e hw` †m KziAv‡bi KvZÕC cvV‡K A_ev
gyZvIqvwZi mybœvn‡K A¯^xKvi K‡ib, Ab¨_vq bq| GKBfv‡e dihI
wba©vwiZ nq KvZÕC cvV I cv‡Vi KvZÕC A_© mnKv‡i (`ªóe¨: cwi‡”Q`
17, W. nvwkg Kvgvwj, wcÖwÝcjm Ae BmjvwgK RywimcÖæ‡WÝ)|
KziAv‡bi AwaKvsk cvV A_©MZ w`K †_‡K KvZÕC| A_©MZ w`K
†_‡K hbœx G iKg k‡ãi D`vniY myiv Avb wbmvi (evbvZzKzgÑ †Zvgv‡`i
Kb¨viv) kã (myiv Avb wbmv, 4: 23) Ges myiv Avj gv‡q`vi (BqybdvD
wgbvj Avi`Ñ c„w_ex †_‡K wbe©vmb) kã| Gme kã ev evK¨vsk ¯^ZtB
my¯úó bq, ZvB G¸wj hbœx|
KvZÕC I hbœxÕi Av‡jvPbvq KziAvb I mybœvn G‡K Ac‡ii
cwic~iK| †h †Kv‡bv GKwU hbœx AvqvZ KvZÕC e‡j cwiMwYZ n‡Z cv‡i
Ab¨ †h †Kv‡bv GKwU KvZÕC AvqvZ ev KvZÕC mybœvni gva¨‡g| GKBfv‡e
hbœx mybœvn KvZÕC mybœvn‡Z cwiMwYZ n‡Z cv‡i Ab¨ †Kv‡bv KvZÕC AvqvZ
ev KvZÕC mybœvni mg_©‡b|
hZ`~i m¤¢e KziAvwbK AvB‡bi e„n`sk e¨vcK Avw½‡K (Broader
Outlines) cÖ`vb Kiv n‡q‡Q| ejv P‡j Lye Kg †ÿ‡ÎB KziAvb
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 11

we¯ÍvwiZfv‡e wewawb‡la eY©bv K‡i‡Q| myZivs G msµvšÍ Ach©vßZv `~i


Ki‡Z Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq e¨vL¨vi Rb¨ Avgv‡`i‡K Aek¨B mybœvn Ges
ÔBRwZnv`-Gi Dci wbf©ikxj n‡Z n‡e|
fveevi welq n‡jv, AvnKv‡gi Kvh©KviY (ZvwjjÑ ‫ )رؼهٍم‬wK Zv
wb‡q AbymÜvb Kivi †Kv‡bv GLwZqvi Avgv‡`i Av‡Q wK bv? AwaKvsk
Dm~j we‡klÁ‡`i gZ G wel‡q ïay nu¨v †evaKB bq, AwaKš‘ ÔBRwZnv`-
Gi gva¨‡g Bmjvwg AvB‡bi AvaywbKvqb AZxe RiæwiI e‡U|
hv‡nvK, Aí msL¨K we‡klÁ g‡b K‡ib ZvÕwjj Aby‡gvw`Z bq Ges
GKB hyw³‡Z wKqvmI mg_©bxq bq| Z‡e G avivi gZwU `ye©j Ges
m¤¢eZ ZvÕwj‡ji D‡Ïk¨ bv †evSvi Kvi‡YB G avivi m„wó n‡q‡Q| Ab¨
Av‡iKwU we‡eP¨ welq n‡jv Avmeve Avj-byh~j (‫)أسجبة انُضٔل‬Ñ AvqvZ
bvwR‡ji †cÖÿvcU| KziAv‡bi †Kv‡bv AvBb Avmeve Avj-byh~j Øviv
mxgvwqZ bq| Z‡e Avmeve Avj-byh~j KziAvb I Gi AvBb eyS‡Z
mnvqZv K‡i
12

mybœvn
Aviwe fvlvq mybœvn k‡ãi kvwãK A_© n‡jv c`wPý (beaten track) ev
AvPi‡Yi cÖwZwôZ aviv| Bmjvgc~e© Avieiv mybœvn kã Øviv cÖvPxb A_ev
cÖPwjZ Abykvmb‡K eySv‡Zv| nvw`‡mi Av‡jg‡`i g‡Z imyj m. n‡Z
ewY©Z e³e¨, Kg© Ges bxie m¤§wZÑ G wZ‡bi mgwóB n‡jv mybœvn| Dm~j
ev AvBbkv‡¯¿ AvB‡bi Drm wn‡m‡e mybœvn kãwUi e¨envi †`Lv hvq|
D`vniY n‡jvÑ imyj m.-Gi we`vq nR Ges gyqvR Be‡b Rvevj (iv.)-†K
Bqvgvb cvVv‡bvi eY©bvq|
AvBbZ‡Ë¡ mybœvn kãwUi m~Pbv nq wnRwi cÖ_g kZ‡Ki †k‡l| D‡jøL
Kiv `iKvi †h wØZxq kZ‡Ki †klv‡a© Bgvg kvwdC mybœvn kãwU imyj m.-
Gi mybœvn‡Z mxgvwqZ K‡i †`b| Dm~jyj wdKn‡Z mybœvn‡K kwiAvni
wØZxq Drm wn‡m‡e †evSv‡bv nqÑ KziAv‡bi ci hvi ¯’vb| wKš‘ wdKvni
D‡jgv‡`i Kv‡Q mybœvn ej‡Z cÖv_wgKfv‡e kwiq‡Zi †mB Ask‡K †evSvq
hv Aek¨ KiYxq ch©vqfz³ bq, Z‡e Zv gv›`ye ev Aby‡gvw`Z ch©vqfz³|
G wel‡q ûK‡g kviC Aa¨vq †`Lyb| wKš‘ kwiq‡Zi Drm wn‡m‡e mybœvn
†Kv‡bv wKQz‡K IqvwRe, nvivg ev gvKiæn e‡j †NvlYv Ki‡Z cv‡i|
mvaviY e¨env‡i mybœvn Ges nvw`m Dfq kãB imyj m.-Gi AvPi‡Yi
mgv_©K wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq| mybœvn †Kv‡bv wKQz cÖwZôvi Rb¨ GKwU cÖgvY
(û¾vn)| KziAvb mvÿ¨ †`q †h, mybœvn Avjøvni wbKU †_‡K †cÖiYvg~jK
(KziAvb, 53: 3)| KziAvb imyj m.-†K gvb‡Z wb‡`©k K‡i‡Q (myiv Avb
wbmv, 4: 59, 80; myiv Avj Avnhve, 33: 36; myiv nvki, 59: 7)| imyj
m.-†K wePviK gvb‡Z Avjøvn wek¦vmx‡`i‡K Av‡`k w`‡q‡Qb|
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 13

GK ai‡bi †kÖwYweb¨vm Abyhvqx mybœvn‡K wZbfv‡M fvM Kiv hvq:


KvDwj (ً‫)لٕن‬Ñ †g․wLK D”PviY;
†dBwj (ً‫)فؼه‬Ñ ev¯Íe Kg©; Ges
ZvKwiwi (‫ )رمشٌشي‬Ñ bxie Aby‡gv`b|
wewaMZ Ges AwewaMZ mybœvnÑ G `yÕfv‡MI GQvov mybœvn‡K fvM Kiv
hvq|
wewaMZ mybœvn ev mybœvn ZvkwiBq¨v ( ‫ )سُخ انزششٌؼٍخ‬ej‡Z GKRb
bwe, kvmK I wePviK wn‡m‡e imyj m. KZ„©K mKj e³e¨ I K‡g©i
mgwó‡K †evSvq|
AwewaMZ mybœvn ev mybœvn Mvqi ZvkwiBq¨v (‫ )سُخ غٍش رششٌؼٍخ‬n‡jv
imyj m.-Gi Lv`¨vf¨vm, wb`ªvhvcb, cwi‡aq †cvlvK-cwi‡”Q` Ges Giƒc
Ab¨vb¨ AvPiY hv kwiq‡Zi Ask e‡j we‡ewPZ bq|
Ôb~iæj Av‡bvqviÕ bvgK Dm~j MÖ‡š’ imyj m.-Gi Gme Kvh©Kjvc‡K
Af¨vm (‫ ػذد‬Ñ Av`Z) wn‡m‡e D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q| wKQz wKQz AvPiY
Aek¨ `y‡Uv As‡kB c‡o e‡j g‡b n‡Z cv‡i| GKRb †hvM¨ we‡kl‡Ái
c‡ÿB G wefvRb Kiv m¤¢e| AwaKvsk we‡kl‡Ái g‡Z wPwKrmvwe`¨v,
K…wlwe`¨v BZ¨vw` †ckvMZ wel‡q ewY©Z mybœvn kwiAvni AšÍf©y³ bq| imyj
m.-Gi †mmKj K_v I KvR hv we‡kl Ae¯’vi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z, †hgb-
hyׇK․kj, kÎæcÿ‡K weåvšÍ Kivi †K․kj, Avµg‡Yi mgqm~wP, Ae‡iva
A_ev Ae‡iva Zz‡j †bqvÑ GmKj mvgwqK Ae¯’vaxb welqvewj
kwiAvnfz³ bq|
Av‡iv wKQz welq Av‡Q hv ïay imyj m.-Gi †ÿ‡ÎB cÖ‡hvR¨| †hgb-
Zvi ¯¿xi msL¨v, †gvni e¨ZxZ we‡q, imyj m.-Gi ¯¿x‡`i cybwe©ev‡n
wb‡lavÁv| KziAvb I mybœvni cÖK…wZMZ wfbœZv, mybœvni h_v_©Zv Ges
mybœvn †h‡nZz KziAv‡bi we¯ÍZ… e¨vL¨v ZvB mybœvni Ici Aek¨B KziAv‡bi
cÖvavb¨ _vK‡e| hw` KL‡bv Df‡qi g‡a¨ we‡iva †`Lv †`q Z‡e Aek¨B
KziAvb cÖvavb¨ cv‡e| KL‡bvB mybœvni AbyK‚‡j KziAvb evwZj n‡e bv|
D‡jøL Kiv `iKvi †h, mybœvn †ewki fvM †ÿ‡ÎB KziAvb‡K mg_©b
K‡i| mybœvn KziAv‡bi mvjvZ, RvKvZ, nR, my`, †jb‡`b- Giƒc Av‡iv
A‡bK wel‡q AwaKZi e¨vL¨v cÖ`vb K‡i Ges ¯úóZi K‡i †Zv‡j|
mybœvni Av‡iKwU Ask n‡jv wfwËg~jK mybœvn (‫ سُخ انًؤسسخ‬Ñmybœvn Avj
14 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

gyAvm&mvmvn) A_©vr †h weavb mybœvn‡ZB †Kej i‡q‡Q, †hgb- ¯¿x I Zvi


Lvjv ev dzdz‡K GK‡Î weevn Kivi wb‡lavÁv A_ev m¤úwËi cÖvK µ‡qi
AwaKvi (ïdv) BZ¨vw`i D‡jøL KziAv‡b cvIqv hvq bv| mybœvn Avj
gyAvm&mvmvn KZ…K© cÖ`Ë wb‡lavÁv I Zvi AwaKv‡ii `„óvšÍ KziAv‡b
D‡jøL e¨ZxZ mybœvni wfwˇZB n‡q _v‡K|
nvw`m kv‡¯¿i we‡klÁiv msM„nxZ nvw`m‡K MÖ‡š’ ¯’vb †`evi c~‡e©
msMÖ‡ni mgqB mKj nvw`m‡K wbixÿY K‡i †`‡L‡Qb nvw`mmg~‡ni
Bmbv` (eY©bvm~Î) h_v_© wK bv Ges G wbixÿvi wfwˇZ nvw`mmg~n‡K-
mwnn (‫)طذٍخ‬, nvmvb (ٍ‫)دس‬, hBd (‫ )ضؼٍف‬ev `ye©j Ges gvIRy
(‫يٕضٕع‬-ev‡bvqvU) G Pvi fv‡M fvM K‡i‡Qb|
GL‡bv nvw`m kv‡¯¿i cybtwbixÿv Pjgvb| eZ©gvb kZ‡K bvwmiæwÏb
Avjevwb G wel‡q D‡jøL‡hvM¨ Ae`vb †i‡L‡Qb| hviv Aviwe‡Z cvi`kx©
Zviv Avjevwbi wjwLZ MÖš’mg~n †`L‡Z cv‡ib| Gi evB‡iI Gg Gg
AvRwg iwPZ Ô÷vwWR Bb nvw`m †g_WjwRÕ †`L‡Z cv‡ib|
gyZvIqvwZi (‫ )يزٕارش‬nvw`m cÖvq †ÿ‡ÎB KvZÕC wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ
nq (ًُ‫ يزٕرشثبنًؼ‬ÑgyZvIqvwZi wej gvÔbv)|
wKQz nvw`m Av‡Q hv Aÿ‡i Aÿ‡i gyZvIqvwZi wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ
(‫يزٕرشثبنهفع‬ÑgyZvIqvwZi wej jvdR)|
Av‡iv D‡jøL Kiv `iKvi †h gyZvIqvwZi nvw`‡mi eY©bvKvixi msL¨v
A‡bK n‡q _v‡K Ges A‡bK mgq Zviv wewfbœ †jvKvj‡qi Awaevmx, ZvB
wg_¨v D™¢ve‡bi m¤¢vebvI Kg| gyZvIqvwZi nvw`‡mi kZ©mg~n n‡jvÑ
1. AmsL¨ eY©bvKvix _vK‡e;
2. eY©bv cÖZ¨ÿ Áv‡bi Ici wfwË K‡i n‡e;
3. eY©bv fvlvMZ w`K w`‡q ev Bmjv‡gi †g․wjK‡Z¡i w`K w`‡q h_vh_
n‡e; Ges
4. eY©bv mgKvjxb †MvÎxq I ivR‣bwZK cÖfvegy³ n‡e|
Dm~‡ji AwaKvsk D‡jgv‡`i g‡Z gyZvIqvwZi nvw`‡mi KZ…Z © ¡
KziAv‡bi mgZzj¨| gyZvIqvwZi nvw`m ¯úó (KvZÕC) Ges G nvw`‡mi
A¯^xK…wZ KziAvb A¯^xK…wZi mgZzj¨| 
gvkûi nvw`m ej‡Z †evSvq †h nvw`‡mi eY©bvKvix wZbRb ev
Z‡ZvwaK Z‡e AmsL¨ bq, wKš‘ cieZx©‡Z nvw`mwU eûj Av‡jvwPZ
n‡q‡Q| AwaKvsk Av‡jg‡`i g‡Z gvkûi nvw`m GK ai‡bi Avnv` (‫)أدذ‬
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 15

nvw`m Ges G cÖKvi nvw`m ¯úó (KvZÕC) bq eis Abygvbg~jK (hv


AKvU¨ Ávb cÖ`vb K‡i bv)|

Avnv` nvw`m: AwaKvsk †ÿ‡Î GKRb mvnvev KZ…©K Gme nvw`m ewY©Z
n‡q‡Q Ges `yB-wZb cÖR‡b¥i Av‡M nvw`m¸‡jv cwiwPwZ cvq wb|
AwaKvsk AvBbwe‡`i g‡Z hw` Avnv` nvw`m GKRb wek¦¯Í eY©bvKvixi
gva¨‡g ewY©Z nq Z‡e nvw`mwU AvB‡bi wfwË n‡Z cv‡i| wKQz AvBb
wekvi` hw`I Avnv` nvw`‡mi Ici wfwË K‡i kwiAvn weavb `v‡bi †ÿ‡Î
gZvgZ w`‡q‡Qb, Z‡e AvwK`v (Bgvb) Ges n` (‫دذ‬ÑBmjv‡gi `Ðwewa)
Avnv` nvw`‡mi Ici wfwË K‡i M‡o IV‡Z cv‡i bv| Bgvg gvwjK Ggb
†Kv‡bv Avnv` nvw`‡mi Ici Av¯’v ¯’vcb K‡ib wb hv gw`bvi cÖwZwôZ
cÖ_vi wecixZ| AwaKvsk Av‡jg g‡b K‡ib bv †h, Avnv` nvw`m ûeû
GKRb †_‡K Ab¨R‡bi wbKU ewY©Z n‡Z n‡e| Avnv` nvw`‡mi AvswkKI
ewY©Z n‡Z cv‡i hw` ewY©Z Ask mvgwMÖK nvw`mwUi mv‡_ mvsNwl©K bv nq|
hw` †Kv‡bv nvw`m †ek wKQz eY©bvKvix Øviv ewY©Z nq, Kv‡iv eY©bv‡Z hw`
Ab¨‡`i †P‡q AwZwi³ eY©bv ms‡hvwRZ _v‡K ZLb Av‡jvPbv Ki‡Z n‡e
†h nvw`mwU GKB •eV‡K D”PvwiZ n‡qwQj wK bv? hw` ZvB nq Z‡e
AwaKvsk eY©bvKvixi eY©bvq †hwU G‡m‡Q †mwU‡KB MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e|
gyËvwmj (‫ يزظم‬Ñwbiew”Qbœ nvw`m) Ges MvBi Avj gyËvwmj
(‫غٍشانًزظم‬Ñwew”Qbœ nvw`m):

gyËvwmj (‫ هتظل‬Ñ wbiew”Qbœ): gyZvIqvwZi (‫)يزٕارش‬, gvkûi (‫)يشٕٓس‬


Ges Avnv` (‫ )أدذ‬nvw`m hw` Awew”Qbœfv‡e imyj m. †_‡K ewY©Z nq
Zvn‡j Zv gyËvwmj ch©vqfz³|

MvBi Avj gyËvwmj (‫ هتظل‬Ñ wew”Qbœ) nvw`m: gyimvj (‫)يشسم‬, gy`vj


(‫ )يؼضم‬Ges gybKvZC (‫ )يُمزغ‬MvBi Avj gyËvwmj ch©vqfz³ nvw`m|
gyimvj nvw`m: AwaKvsk Av‡jg‡`i g‡Z †h nvw`m mvnvevi bv‡gv‡jøL
e¨ZxZ GKRb Zv‡ewq‡bi gyL n‡Z ewY©Z n‡q‡Q ZvB n‡jv gyimvj
nvw`m| AwaKvsk Av‡jg gyimvj nvw`m‡K cÖvgvY¨ wn‡m‡e MÖnY K‡ib wb|
Bgvg Avng` Ges Bgvg kvwdC gyimvj nvw`‡mi Dci Av¯’v ¯’vcb K‡ib
16 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

wb hw` bv nvw`mwU GKRb weL¨vZ Zv‡ewq KZ…K © ewY©Z bv nq Ges G


†ÿ‡ÎI MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡e hw` KwZcq kZ© cvwjZ nq (Gme k‡Z©i D‡jøL
Dm~‡ji eBmg~‡n Av‡Q)| Ab¨w`‡K Bgvg Avey nvwbdv Ges Bgvg gvwjK
Ab¨ `yB Bgv‡gi †P‡q gyimvj nvw`m MÖn‡Yi †ÿ‡Î Kg K‡VviZv Aej¤^b
K‡i‡Qb|

gybKvwZ (‫ )هنقطع‬nvw`m: †hmKj nvw`‡mi mb‡` GKRb eY©bvKvixi bvg


Abycw¯’Z i‡q‡Q Zv‡K gybKvwZ (‫ )يُمطغ‬nvw`m e‡j|

gy`vj (‫ )هعضل‬nvw`m: gy`vj (‫ )يؼضم‬nvw`m n‡jv ZvB, †h nvw`‡mi


mb‡` cici `yRb eY©bvKvixi bvg Abycw¯’Z|
nvw`mmg~n‡K Avevi mwnn, nvmvb Ges hBd G wZb fv‡MI fvM Kiv
n‡q‡Q|

mwnn (‫ )طحيح‬nvw`m: †Kv‡bv nvw`m‡K mwnn ejv hv‡e (mwnn G A‡_©


†h, nvw`mwU eY©bvKvix AZ¨šÍ wek¦¯Í; G A‡_© bq †h nvw`mwU me©vZ¥Kfv‡e
mwVK ev KvZÕC) hw` nvw`mwU AZ¨šÍ wek¦¯Í ( ‫ ثمخ ثبثذ‬Ñ wmKvZzb
mvweZzb) A_ev wek¦¯Í (‫ثبثذ‬Ñ mvweZzb) eY©bvKvix Øviv ewY©Z nq|

nvmvb (‫ )حسن‬nvw`m: GKwU nvw`m nvmvb e‡j M„nxZ n‡e hw`


eY©bvKvix‡`i g‡a¨ †KD mvw`K (mZ¨ev`x), mvw`K Bqvwng (mZ¨ev`x
m‡Ë¡I fzj K‡i) Ges gvKeyj (Ggb e¨w³ †h Awek¦¯Í bq)-Gi wb‡P bv
hvq|

hBd (‫ )ضعيف‬nvw`m: GKwU nvw`m hBd ( ‫ )ضؼٍف دذٌث‬e‡j M„nxZ


n‡e hw` eY©bvKvix‡`i g‡a¨ †KD gvRûj (‫يجٕٓل‬Ñ AcwiwPZ) A_ev
dvwmK (ZvKIqvi †ÿ‡Î D`vmxb) e¨w³ _v‡K
17

KziAvb I mybœvni e¨vL¨v


Dm~jyj wdKn ( ‫)أطٕل انفمخ‬-Gi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© we‡eP¨ welq n‡jv
Bmjv‡gi †g․wjK Drm KziAvb I mybœvn‡K wKfv‡e e¨vL¨v Kiv n‡e|
KzivAvb Ges mybœvni cvV Ges cv‡Vi A_© †evSvi Rb¨B G e¨vL¨v †K․kj
Rvbv `iKvi| †Kv‡bv e¨w³ hw` KziAvb I mybœvn‡K MfxiZifv‡e e¨vL¨v
Ki‡Z Pvq Z‡e Zvi Aviwe fvlvi Ávb cÖ‡qvRb| GRb¨ Dm~jyj wdKni
†jLKMY Dm~jyj wdKni cvV¨m~wP‡Z k‡ãi †kÖwYwefvM ms‡hvwRZ
K‡i‡Qb|
cvV (text) ¯^qs hw` cÖgvY (û¾vn) n‡q _v‡K Z‡e mvaviYZ e¨vL¨v Kivi
cÖqvm †bqv nq bv| hv‡nvK, wdKn A_ev AvB‡bi e„n`vsk e¨vL¨vi
gva¨‡gB iPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| GwU D‡jøL Kiv `iKvi †h Zvwej (‫)رأٌٔم‬
Ges Zvdwmi (‫ )رفسٍش‬GK welq bq|

Zvdwmi (‫)تفسير‬: Zvdwm‡ii jÿ¨ n‡jv cÖ`Ë cv‡Vi A_© e¨vL¨v Kiv Ges
D³ cv‡Vi cwimxgv †_‡K AvB‡bi aviv †ei K‡i AšÍwb©wnZ fve cÖKvk
Kiv|

Zvwej (‫)تأويل‬: Zvwe‡ji jÿ¨ n‡jv cv‡Vi kvwãK A‡_©i evB‡i †h‡q
Ges jy°vwqZ A_© †ei Kivi †Póv Kiv, hv cÖvqB AbygvbK…Z hyw³ Ges
ÔBRwZnv`-Gi Dci wbf©ikxj| 
cv‡Vi cÖ‡Z¨KwU k‡ãi cÖK…Z (‫ يطهك‬Ñ gyZjvK), mvaviY (‫ ػبو‬Ñ Avg)
Ges kvwãK A_© mvaviYZ MÖnY Kiv nq|
Zvdwmi ZvkwiC : hw` KziAvb ev mybœvni GKvs‡ki e¨vL¨v (‫ رأٌٔم‬Ñ
Zvwej) KziAvb ev mybœvni Ab¨ Ask Øviv cÖ`vb Kiv nq Z‡e G‡K
18 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

Zvdwmi ZvkwiC e‡j Ges G e¨vL¨vK…Z Ask‡K AcwieZ©bxq AvB‡bi


Ask wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv nq| Z‡e hw` Zvdwmi A_ev Zvwej gZvgZ ev
ÔBRwZnv`Õi (‫ )إجزٓبد‬iƒc †bq Z‡e G e¨vL¨vmg~n‡K hbœx we‡ePbv Kiv nq
Ges Gi Øviv KL‡bv wKQz IqvwRe nq bv|

AvjdvR-Iqvwn`v-¯úó kã (‫)أنفبظ ٔاضذخ‬:


ب_©nxb kãmg~n‡K Pvi †kÖwY‡Z fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| †kÖwY PviwU n‡jvÑ
Rvwni (‫;)ظبْش‬
bvm (‫;)َض‬
gydvm&mvi (‫ ;)يفسش‬Ges
gyn&Kvg (‫|)يذكى‬

Rvwni (‫)ظاهر‬: Rvwni n‡jv †mB ai‡bi kã hvi A_© ¯úó Ges ب_©nxb,
Z_vwcI Zvwe‡ji Rb¨ Db¥y³ †Kb bv GmKj k‡ãi A_© cÖm‡½i mv‡_
mvgÄm¨kxj bq|

bvm (‫)نض‬: bvm n‡jv ب_©nxb ¯úó kã Ges cÖm‡½i mv‡_ mvgÄm¨kxj|
GwUI Zvwe‡ji Rb¨ Db¥y³|
Rvwni (‫)ظبْش‬Avi bvm (‫)َض‬kã؇qi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wbf©i K‡i DwjøwLZ
kãwUi A_© cÖm‡½i mv‡_ mvgÄm¨kxj wK-bv wKsev kãwUi A_© gyL¨ bv
†M․Y Zvi Ici| Rvwni Avi bvm kãmg~‡ni ¯úó A_© MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e|
wdKn kv‡¯¿ ÔbvmÕ kãwUi c~e© Av‡jvwPZ A‡_©i evB‡i Av‡iKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y©
A‡_© e¨envi Kiv nq, hvi A_© KziAvb Ges mybœvni wbw`©ó cvV (text)|
GLv‡b Aek¨ G A‡_© ÔbvmÕ kãwU e¨eüZ nq wb|

gydvm&mvi (‫ )هفسر‬Ges gynKvg (‫)هحكن‬: gydvm&mvi (ب_©nxb) Ges gynKvg


(cÖvÄj) kã ej‡Z †mme kãmg~n‡K †evSvq hv mvwe©Kfv‡e ¯úó Ges
G‡ÿ‡Î Zvwe‡ji AvkÖ‡qi cÖ‡qvRb nq bv| Rvwni Avi bvm kãmg~‡ni
mv‡_ gydvm&mvi Avi gynKvg kã؇qi cv_©K¨ GLv‡bB| ¯úóZvi w`K
†_‡K gydvm&mvi Avi gynKvg kã؇qi gv‡S †Kv‡bv cv_©K¨ †bB| Z‡e
AvBbwe`iv kã؇qi g‡a¨ wfbœZv Av‡ivc K‡i‡Qb bvmL (‫)َسخ‬-Gi
†cÖwÿ‡Z| Gi Bs‡iwR cÖwZkã n‡jv Abrogation ev cwieZ©b-cwiea©b
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 19

wKsev ms‡hvRb-we‡qvRb| AvBbwe`‡`i g‡Z gynKvg bvmL‡hvM¨ bq, Avi


gydvm&mvi bvmL‡hvM¨| Z‡e G cv_©‡K¨i Lye GKUv cÖv‡qvwMKZv †bB|
†Kb bv GLb bZzb K‡i Avi bvm‡Li AeKvk †bB|

A¯úó kã
A¯úó kã ( ‫ انفبظ غٍش ٔاضذخ‬Ñ AvjdvR MvBi Iqvw`nvn) Pvi
†kÖwYfz³| h_v:
Lwd (‫ خ ِفى‬Ñ `y‡e©va¨);
gykwKj (‫ يشكم‬Ñ Avqvmmva¨);
gyRgvj (‫ يجًم‬Ñ mswÿß A_©‡evaK); Ges
gyZvkvwen (ّ‫ يزشبث‬Ñ RwUj I cÖ”Qbœ)|

Lwd (‫)خ ِفى‬: Lvwdi D`vniY n‡jv mvwiKv (‫ سشلخ‬Ñ Pzwi) kãwU
AvswkKfv‡e ¯úó bq ev `y‡e©va¨, †Kbbv Ôc‡KUgviÕ Pzwii ch©vqfz³ wK bv
Zv †evaMg¨ bq, wKš‘ GwU Rvbv AZ¨šÍ Riæwi| hw` Ôc‡KUgviÕ Pzwii
AšÍf©y³ bv nq (GwUB AwaKvsk AvBbwe`‡`i gZ) Z‡e Ôc‡KUgviÕ n‡`i
(KziAvb Ges mybœvn ewY©Z `Ðwewa AvBb) m¤§ywLb bv n‡q Zvwh‡ii (AvBb
cÖ‡qvMKvix‡`i Øviv cÖYxZ AvBb) m¤§ywLb n‡e|
gykwKj (‫)يشكم‬: gykwKj k‡ãi GKvwaK A_© _v‡K| ZvB cv‡V¨i cÖK…Z
A_© wbiƒc‡Yi Rb¨ ÔBRwZnv` (‫ )اجزٓبد‬I Zvwe‡ji (‫ )رأٌٔم‬kiYvcbœ
n‡Z nq (G‡ÿ‡Î GKvwaK gZvgZ _vK‡Z cv‡i)| gykwKj mnRvZfv‡e
ب_©K kã|

gyRgvj (‫)هجول‬: gyRgvj †mmKj kã I cvV‡K wb‡`©k K‡i hv


mnRvZfv‡e A¯^”Q Ges †KvbwU mwVK A_© †m e¨vcv‡i †Kv‡bv wb‡`©kbvI
†`q bv| gyRgvj k‡ãi bvbvwea A_© _vK‡Z cv‡i A_ev GwU GKwU
AcwiwPZ kã n‡Z cv‡i| D`vniY¯^iƒc mvjvZ, nR, wiev Ges wmqvg
kãmg~‡ni D‡jøL Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| G kãmg~n Zv‡`i kvwãK A_© bv
eywS‡q cieZ©x‡Z †UKwbK¨vj ev kiC A_© MÖnY K‡i‡Q| hv‡nvK, G
kãmg~n cy‡ivcywi cwi®‥vi (‫ ُيفًسَّش‬Ñ gydvm&mvi) iƒc cwiMÖn K‡i‡Q,
†h‡nZz G e¨vcv‡i mybœvn‡Z h_vh_ e¨vL¨v cÖ`vb Kiv n‡q‡Q| 101 bs
myivi 1-5 bs Avqv‡Z DwjøwLZ ÔAvj-KvwiqvnÕ (‫ ) انمبسػخ‬kãwU gyRgvj
20 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

k‡ãi D`vniY| kãwU KziAvb KZ…©K e¨vL¨vZ, d‡j Zv ¯úó iƒc cwiMÖn
K‡i‡Q| hw` kãwUi cwic~Y© e¨vL¨v Avjøvn KZ…©K cÖ`vb Kiv bv n‡Zv Z‡e
gyRgvj kãwU gykwKj e‡j we‡ewPZ n‡Zv Ges ÔBRwZnv` I Zvwe‡ji
Rb¨ kãwU Db¥y³ _vKZ|

gyZvkvwen (‫ هتشابه‬Ñ RwUj I cÖ”Qbœ)


gyZvkvwen (RwUj) n‡jv Ggb kã hvi A_© inm¨gq| Avj-niædzj
gyKvËvÕAvZ )‫ )انذشٔف انًمطؼبد‬h_v –ÔAvwjd-jvg-wggÕ n‡jv
gyZvkvwenvZ kãmg~‡ni D`vniY| †KDB Gme k‡ãi A_© Rv‡b bv|
A‡bK we‡klÁ KziAv‡bi †hmKj Avqv‡Z gvby‡li mv‡_ Avjøvni mv`„k¨
Avbv n‡q‡Q †mmKj AvqvZ‡K gyZvkvwen ch©vqfz³ e‡j we‡ePbv
K‡i‡Qb| Avevi †Kv‡bv †Kv‡bv we‡kl‡Ái g‡Z Avj-niædzj gyKvËvÕqvZ
kã e¨ZxZ Avi †Kv‡bv kã gyZvkvwen ch©vqfz³ bq| AvBb iwPZ nq
Ggb cv‡V gyZvkvwen kã †bB|
k‡ãi GKcÖKvi fvM n‡”Q AvÔg Ges Lvm| e¨env‡ii `„wó‡KvY †_‡K
kãmg~n‡K AvÔg Ges Lvm `yÕfv‡M web¨vm Kiv hvq| 

AvÔg (‫ عام‬Ñ mvaviY): AvÔg n‡”Q †mmKj kã hvi GKwU gvÎ A_© _v‡K
Ges hv A‡bK msL¨vi †ÿ‡Î e¨envi Kiv nq| cwigvY msL¨v Øviv G
e¨envi mxgvwqZ bq Ges †hmKj wel‡q kãwU cÖ‡hvR¨ Zvi mKj‡KB
kãwU aviY K‡i| AvÔgch©vqfz³ k‡ãi D`vniY n‡jv Bbmvb (ٌ‫)إَسب‬Ñ
evsjvq gvbyl| hLb Aviwe‡Z Avj (‫ )أل‬AvwU©‡KjwU †Kv‡bv we‡kl¨ c‡`i
c~‡e© e¨eüZ nq ZLb we‡kl¨ c`wU AvÔg e‡j we‡ewPZ nq| Aviwe fvlvq
Rvwg (‫ جًٍغ‬Ñ mKj), Kvd&dv (‫كبفخ‬Ñ mKj), Kzjøy (‫ كم‬Ñ mKj) kãÎq
hw` Ab¨ †Kv‡bv kãmg~‡ni c~‡e© ev c‡i e¨eüZ nq ZLb Zv AvÔg e‡j
cwiMwYZ nq| D`vniY¯^iƒc GKwU nvw`‡mi D‡jøL Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i;
†hgb ‫ الضشس ٔالضشس فً اإلسالو‬Ñ Bmjv‡g Kó †`qv Ges Kó MÖnY
†bB| hLb †Kv‡bv Av‡`k AvÔg k‡ãi e¨envi‡hv‡M Kiv nq ZLb
Av‡`kwU cÖ‡hvR¨ mKj †ÿ‡ÎB Av‡ivwcZ n‡e| Av‡gi †ÿÎ wba©vi‡Yi
Rb¨ ïay fvlvi e¨vKi‡Yi w`‡K †Lqvj ivL‡jB Pj‡e bv eis ev¯ÍweK
†ÿ‡Î gvby‡li e¨env‡ii w`‡K †Lqvj ivL‡Z n‡e Ges hw` KL‡bv e¨vKiY
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 21

ixwZ I e¨envwiK ixwZi g‡a¨ we‡iva †`Lv †`q †m‡ÿ‡Î e¨envwiK ixwZB
cÖvavb¨ cv‡e| AvÔg kã wZb ai‡bi n‡Z cv‡i| h_v:
1. mvwe©Kfv‡e mvaviY (‫ )يبيٍ داثخ‬gv wgb `veŸvwZb (myiv n~`, 11: 6)
2. AvÔg hv Avm‡j _vgv (myiv Av‡j Bgivb, 3: 97)
3. AvÔg hv ‫ ػبو‬we‡klvwqZ Kiv nq (myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 228, myiv
Avj Avnhve, 33: 49)|
Aviwe‡Z ÔwZwbÕ kãwU Lvm, Z‡e kZ©v‡ivwcZ ev‡K¨ kãwU e¨eüZ
n‡j kãwU AvÔg n‡q hvq (myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 185, myiv Avb
wbmv, 4: 92)|

Lvm (‫ خاص‬Ñ wbw`©ó): Lvm Ggb kã hv mxwgZ msL¨vi Rb¨ e¨eüZ nq


Z‡e e¨eüZ †ÿ‡Îi mKj wKQz‡KB AšÍf©y³ K‡i| †hgb- GK, `yB,
GKkZ, Bgivb, GKwU †Nvov, GKRb gvbyl- GmKj kã Lvm k‡ãi
D`vniY| AvBbMZ †h weavb ev wb‡`©k mywbw`©ó avivq ewY©Z n‡q‡Q
cÖ‡qv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î Zv wbw`©ó Ges Zvwe‡ji Rb¨ Db¥y³ bq| G e¨vcv‡i
HKgZ¨ n‡”Q Lvm n‡jv KvZÕC A_©vr Gi A_© Ges cÖ‡qvM †h †Kv‡bv
m‡›`‡ni D‡aŸ©| D‡jøL Kiv cÖ‡qvRb †h, KziAvb I nvw`‡mi e¨eüZ 99
fvM kãB AvÔg (‫|)ػبو‬
Av‡jgMY AvÔg kãwU hbœx bv KvZÕC G e¨vcv‡i wfbœgZ †cvlY K‡ib|
AwaKvs‡ki g‡Z AvÔg n‡jv hbœx, Z‡e Ab¨‡`i g‡Z AvÔg n‡jv KvZÕC|
G gZwe‡iv‡ai djvdj cwi®‥vi n‡q hvq AvÔg I Lv‡mi we‡iv‡ai
†ÿ‡Î| GKB wel‡q KziAvb I mybœvn‡Z `ywU wfbœ eY©bv cvIqv †M‡j Ges
eY©bv `ywUi GKwU AvÔg I Ab¨wU Lvm n‡j AwaKvsk Av‡j‡gi g‡Z Lvm
cÖvavb¨ cv‡e| Ab¨‡`i g‡Z AvÔg Lvm Øviv we‡klvwqZ n‡e|
AwaKvs‡ki g‡Z Lvm n‡jv KvZÕC )ً‫) لطؼ‬, AvÔg KvZÕC bq| Gi d‡j
Lvm Av‡gi Ici cÖvavb¨ cv‡e| msL¨vjNy As‡ki g‡Z AvgI KvZÕC Ges
ZvB `ywU weavb hw` mg‡qi µgvbymv‡i mgvšÍivj nq Z‡e AvÔg Lvm Øviv
we‡klvwqZ n‡e| Lvm i` n‡q hv‡e hw` AvÕg-Gi DrcwË c‡i nq| AvÔg
AvswkKfv‡e we‡klvwqZ n‡e hw` Lv‡mi DrcwË c‡i nq| AwaKvs‡ki
gZvbymv‡i GKwU AvÔg cÖ¯Ívebv GKwU wbf©i‡hvM¨ ev KvZÕC evK¨vsk Øviv
we‡klvwqZ n‡Z cv‡i Ges G evK¨vskwU GKB cv‡Vi ev Avqv‡Zi wKsev
Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Avqv‡ZI n‡Z cv‡i| Avi G mewKQz m¤¢e BmwZmbv
22 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

(e¨wZµg, D`vniY- myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 282), Kvq` (kZ©, D`vniYÑ


myiv Avb wbmv, 4: 12), wmdvZ (¸Y, D`vniY- myiv Avb wbmv, 4: 23),
Mvqvn (cÖ‡qv‡Mi mxgv, D`vniY- myiv Avj-gvwq`v, 5: 6) BZ¨vw`i ga¨ w`‡q|
AvÕg-Gi djvdj n‡jv GwU mvaviYB _vK‡e, hw` bv Avg‡K we‡klvwqZ
Kiv nq| GgbwK AvswkK we‡klvwqZ Kivi ciI Awe‡klvwqZ As‡ki
Rb¨ AvÔgB we‡eP¨| Av‡gi ZvLwmm (mxgve×Zv) _vKzK ev bv _vKzK
AwaKvs‡ki g‡Z mvwe©Kfv‡e AvÔg Abygvb‡hvM¨ (hbœx) Ges AvÔg
Zvwe‡ji Rb¨ Db¥y³| GKwU KviY me AvÕg-Gi cÖ‡qvM‡K mxgve× Ki‡Z
cv‡i bv| D`vniY¯^iƒc, Avmeve Avb byhyj ( ‫بة انُُّ ُض ْٔل‬
ُ َ‫ (أ ْسج‬KziAv‡bi
AvqvZ bvwRj nevi †cÖÿvcU) †Kv‡bv AvBb‡K ïay †h †cÖwÿ‡Z bvwRj
n‡qwQj †mB †ÿ‡Î mxgve× Ki‡Z cv‡i bv|
k‡ãi Ab¨cÖKvi fvM n‡”Q (‫ )يطهك‬gyZjvK Ges (‫ )يمٍَّذ‬gyKvq¨v`|
gyZjvK (‫)هطلق‬: gyZjvK Ggb kã wb‡`©k K‡i hv cÖ‡qv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î
mxgvwqZ bq| hLb Avgiv ewj ÔGKwU eBÕ G K_vwU †Kv‡bv iKg
mxgve×Zv Qvov †h †Kv‡bv eB‡qi †ÿ‡Î cÖ‡qvM Kiv hvq| gyZjvK n‡jv
AmxgvwqZ kã|
gyKvq¨v` (‫)هقيَّد‬: hLb gyZjvK kã Ab¨ kã ev kãm¤¢vi Øviv mxwgZ
(qualified) nq ZLb kãwU gyKvq¨v` n‡q hvq| D`vniY¯^iƒc ejv hvq,
ÔGKwU jvj eBÕ| AvÔg I Lvm †hLv‡b k‡ãi cwiwa wb‡q ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i
gyZjvK I gyKvq¨v` †mLv‡b k‡ãi cÖ‡qv‡Mi mxgv wb‡q Av‡jvPbv K‡i
(hw`I gyZjv‡Ki mv‡_ AvÔgÕi I gyKvq¨v`Õi mv‡_ Lv‡mi mv`„k¨ Av‡Q)|
gyZjvKÕi GKwU D`vniY n‡jv Ô`vm gy³ K‡i `vIÕ (myiv Avj-gvwq`v, 5:
92)| gyKvq¨v`Õi D`vniY n‡jv Ôgywgb (wek¦vmx) `vm gy³ K‡i `vIÕ (myiv
Avb wbmv, 4: 92)|
cÖ‡qv‡Mi w`K †_‡K gyZjvK mvwe©K hw` Zv bv mxgvwqZ n‡q _v‡K| hLb
gyZjvK gyKvq¨v` wn‡m‡e mxgvwqZ n‡e ZLb mxgvwqZ fvl¨ cÖvavb¨ cv‡e
(myiv Avj-gvwq`v, 5: 3 Ges myiv AvbAvg, 6: 145)| GKB wel‡q hw`
`ywU fvl¨ _v‡KÑ GKwU gyZjvK Ab¨wU gyKvq¨v` Ges Gi †cÖwÿ‡Z ivq I
Kvh©Ki‡Yi wfbœZv †`Lv †`q Z‡e `ywU fvl¨B Kvh©Ki n‡e Ges †Kv‡bvwU
mxgvwqZ n‡e bv| GwUB AwaKvs‡ki gZ|
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 23

k‡ãi Ab¨cÖKvi fvM n‡”Q nvwKwK (kvwãK) Ges gvRvwh (iƒcK)|


mvaviYfv‡e kãmg~n kvwãK A‡_© e¨eüZ nq| kvwãK A_© iƒcK A‡_©i
†P‡q †ewk cÖvavb¨ cv‡e we‡kl K‡i AvBbMZ †ÿ‡Î| KziAv‡bi AwaKvsk
AskB kvwãK Z‡e iƒcK AskI KziAv‡b Av‡Q| D`vniY¯^iƒc KziAv‡bi
40: 13 bs Avqv‡Zi D‡jøL Kiv hvq| GLv‡b ejv n‡”Q, ÔAvjøvn RxweKv
AvKvk †_‡K bvwRj K‡ibÕ, hvi A_© n‡e e„wó| hw` †Kv‡bv †ÿ‡Î iƒcK
A_© cÖvavb¨ cvq Z‡e †m‡ÿ‡Î iƒcK A_© kvwãK A‡_©i †P‡q †ewk cÖvavb¨
cv‡e| D`vniY¯^iƒc ejv hvq ZvjvKÕi (‫ )طالق‬kvwãK A_© (wewawb‡la
†_‡K gyw³), i` n‡q iƒcK A_© M„nxZ n‡q‡Q| D‡jøL¨ †h KziAvb I
mybœvni e¨eüZ 99 fvM kã nvwKwK|
Av‡iK cÖKvi fvM n‡”Q mwin (‫ )طشٌخ‬Ges wKbvqv (c‡ivÿ)|
mwin (mivmwi): mwin n‡jv Ggb kã hvi A_© RwUjZvnxb Ges my¯úó|
GmKj k‡ãi A_© e³vi wbKU wKsev †jL‡Ki wbKU Rvb‡Z PvIqvi
cÖ‡qvRb nq bv|
wKbvqv (c‡ivÿ): wKbvqv n‡jv Ggb e³e¨ hv e³vi D‡Ïk¨ e¨³ K‡i bv,
G‡ÿ‡Î †kÖvZv‡K e³vi cÖK…Z D‡Ïk¨ Rvbevi Rb¨ cybivq e¨vL¨v PvIqvi
cÖ‡qvRb nq| D`vniY¯^iƒc ¯^vgx ¯¿x‡K ej‡jv ÔBÏZÕ MYbv ïiæ Ki| Gi
Øviv ZvjvK eySvq bv, †Kbbv fve cwi®‥vi bq| G‡ÿ‡Î e³v‡K Zvi
D‡Ïk¨ wRÁvmv Kiv n‡e|
gykZvivK (‫)هشترك‬: gykZvivK kã n‡jv Ggb kã hvi GKvwaK A_©
Av‡Q| ÔAvBbÕ (ٍٍ‫ )ػ‬kãwU gykZvivK kã| Aviwe fvlvq G kãwU Øviv
†PvL, SY©v, ¸ßPi BZ¨vw` †evSvq| Giƒc GKvwaK A_© nevi KviY n‡Z
cv‡i wewfbœ mg‡q Gme A‡_© wKsev iƒcK A‡_© gykZvivK k‡ãi e¨envi|
AvBb`vZvi D‡Ïk¨ Giƒc bq †h, kwiAvni Av‡`k wKsev wb‡la
Ggbfv‡e ewY©Z n‡e hvi A_© GKvwaK n‡e| gykZvivK kã cÖK…wZMZ w`K
†_‡K gykwKj cÖK…wZi Ges ïaygvÎ we‡klÁ‡`i c‡ÿB mwVK A_© wbiƒcY
Kiv m¤¢e| gyRZvwn`iv (we‡klÁiv) Gi A_© wbiƒc‡Yi †ÿ‡Î wfbœgZ
†cvlY Ki‡Z cv‡ib|
24 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

Avj `vjvjvn (‫)الداللت‬: cvV (text)-Gi A_© we‡kølY Kivi Rb¨ cÖavbZ
`ywU aviv cÖPwjZ Av‡Q| GKwU n‡”Q nvbvdx gZ, Ab¨wU n‡”Q kvwdC gZ|
G `yB avivi g‡a¨ †g․wjK †Kv‡bv cv_©K¨ †bB| nvbvdx avivi
Dm~wjqvb‡`i g‡Z cvV ev text we‡kølY K‡i PviwU c×wZ‡Z AvBb †ei
Kiv nq| h_v:

ÕBevivZzb bvm ( ‫)عبارة النض‬: ÕBevivZzb bvm n‡jv Ggb kã hvi A_©
Aek¨¤¢vexiƒ‡c cvV †_‡K ü`q½g Kiv hvq Ges kãwU cv‡Vi g~j
welqe¯‘iB cÖwZwbwaZ¡ K‡i| †hgb Ryqv wbwl× nIqvi weavb| kwiq‡Zi
AwaKvsk weavb ÕBevivZzb bvm ch©vqfz³ cvV †_‡K M„nxZ n‡q‡Q|
ÕBevivZzb bvm †_‡K M„nxZ weav‡bi ûKzg KvZÕC ch©vqfz³ Ges GmKj
weav‡bi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv mg_©bKvix mv‡ÿ¨i cÖ‡qvRb nq bv|

BkvivZzb bvm (‫)اشارة النض‬: wØZxq ch©vqfz³ kãmg~n n‡jv BkvivZzb


bvm| G kãmg~‡ni Bw½Zc~Y© wKsev c‡ivÿ A_© _v‡K| G ch©vqfz³
AvqvZ n‡jv (myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 236)| mvaviYZ weev‡ni c~‡e©B
†gvnivbv wba©viY Ki‡Z nq| Z‡e G Avqv‡Zi Mfxi AbymÜvb aviYv †`q
†gvnivbv wba©viY e¨wZ‡i‡K weev‡ni Pzw³ m¤¢e| †m‡ÿ‡Î Aek¨ c‡i
†gvni wVK Ki‡Z n‡e (myiv Avb wbmv, 4: 4)|

`vjvjvZzb bvm (‫)داللت النض‬: Z…Zxq ch©vqfz³ kãmg~n n‡jv `vjvjvZzb


bvm| G c×wZ‡Z cv‡Vi cÖK…Z fve Ges hyw³i Av‡jv‡K kãmg~‡ni A_©
wba©viY Kiv nq, hw`I M„nxZ A‡_©i Bw½Z cv‡V D‡jøL bvI _v‡K|
KziAv‡bi 17: 23 bs Avqv‡Zi D‡jøL Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i †hLv‡b e„×eqmx
evev-gvi mv‡_ ÔDd&Õ kãwU D”PviY Ki‡Z wb‡la Kiv n‡q‡Q| welqwU ïay
Dd& k‡ãi g‡a¨ mxgve× _vK‡e bv eis evev-gvi mv‡_ †Kv‡bviƒc Lvivc
AvPiY Kiv hv‡e bvÑ GwUB D³ Avqv‡Zi g~j e³e¨|

BKwZ`vDb bvm ( ‫)اقتضاء النض‬: PZz_© ch©vqfz³ kãmg~n n‡jv


BKwZ`vDb bvm| G‡ÿ‡Î cÖ‡qvRbxq A‡_©i e¨vcv‡i cvV wbðzc _v‡K,
Z_vwcI h_vh_ D‡Ïk¨ c~iYv‡_© cÖ‡qvRbxq A_© Abygvb K‡i wb‡Z nq|
D`vniY¯^iƒc KziAv‡bi 4: 23 Avqv‡Zi D‡jøL Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i †hLv‡b
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 25

gv I Kb¨v‡K weevn Kivi †ÿ‡Î wb‡la Kiv n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b gvZv I Kb¨v
ej‡Z wbR ¯¿xi Kb¨v ev gv‡K †evSv‡bv n‡q‡Q| hw` †Kv‡bv wel‡q
ch©vqMZ we‡iva †`Lv †`q Z‡e c~e©eZx© ch©v‡qi weavb cieZx© ch©v‡qi
weav‡bi Dci cÖvavb¨ cv‡e| †hgb ÕBevivZzb bvm, BkvivZzb bv‡mi Dci
cÖvavb¨ cv‡e| G n‡”Q nvbvdx Dm~j we‡klÁ‡`i gZ|
Dm~‡ji kvwdC avivi Av‡jgMY cv‡Vi (text) cÖ‡qvM‡K cÖavbZ `yÕfv‡M
fvM K‡i‡Qb| h_v: `vjvjvZzj gvbZzK (‫ دالنخ انًُطٕق‬- D”PvwiZ A_©)
Ges `vjvjvZzj gvdûg (‫ دالنخ المفهوم‬-AšÍwb©wnZ A_©)|
`vjvjvZzj gvbZzK ( ‫ دالنخ انًُطٕق‬Ñ D”PvwiZ A_©): `vjvjvZzj
gvbZzK‡K Avevi `vjvjvZzj BKwZ`v ( ‫ دالنخ اإللزضبء‬- cÖ‡qvRbxq A_©)
Ges `vjvjvZzj Bkviv ( ‫ دالنخ اإلشبسح‬-c‡ivÿ A_©)Ñ G `yÕfv‡M fvM Kiv
n‡q‡Q|
`vjvjvZzj gvdûg (‫ دالنخ انًفٕٓو‬Ñ AšÍwb©wnZ A_©): `vjvjvZzj gvdûg‡K
Avevi gvdûgyj gyqvdvKvwZ ( ‫ يفٕٓو انًٕافمخ‬- mvgÄm¨kxj A_©) Ges
gvdûgyj gyLZvwjdvwZ ( ‫ يفٕٓو انًخزهفخ‬Ñ wecixZ A_©) G `yÕfv‡M fvM
Kiv n‡q‡Q|
kvwdC avivi Av‡jgMY gvdûg Avj gyLZvwjdv kãv_©‡K MÖnY K‡ib bv
hw` bv Zv‡Z KqwU kZ© c~iY nq| kvwdC avivi Av‡jgMY wmdvZ (‫طفخ‬Ñ
¸Yvejx), kiZ (‫ ششط‬Ñ kZ©) Ges Mvqv (‫ غبٌخ‬Ñ †SuvK)Ñ GmKj †ÿ‡Î
wewawb‡la Av‡ivc K‡i‡Qb|
nvbvdx avivi Av‡jgMY gvdûgyj gyLZvwjdvwZ MÖn‡Yi †ÿ‡Î kvwdC‡`i
†P‡q †ewk K‡Vvi| nvbvdxiv GmKj †ÿ‡Î Ggb †Kv‡bv A_© MÖnY K‡ib
bv hv cv‡Vi mv‡_ mvgÄm¨kxj bq| KziAvb Ges mybœvni e¨vL¨vi †ÿ‡Î
†Kv‡bvfv‡eB nvbvdxiv gvdûgyj gyLZvwjdvwZ c×wZ‡Z A_© MÖnY
K‡ib bv|
26

Av‡`k, wb‡lavÁv I i`
Av‡`k (‫) ْمه ٌرر‬
Av‡`k‡K msÁvwqZ Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i DaŸ©Zb KZ©„c‡ÿi wbKU †_‡K
Aat¯Íb KZ…c © ‡ÿi wbKU wKQz Kivi †g․wLK `vwe wn‡m‡e| Av‡`k bvbvb
ai‡bi n‡Z cv‡i| Av‡`k gv‡bB G‡ÿ‡Î KZ©„‡Z¡i e¨Äbv _vK‡e| Aviwe
ixwZ Abyhvqx wKQz †ÿ‡Î wbQK AZxZKv‡j ewY©Z †Kv‡bv e³e¨ †Kv‡bv
wKQz Kievi Rb¨ Av‡`k wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ n‡Z cv‡i (myiv Avj-evKviv, 2:
178)| •bwZK Aciv‡ai wb›`v wn‡m‡eI KziAv‡bi ûKzg bvwRj n‡Z cv‡i
(myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 189)| KziAv‡bi Av‡`k †Kv‡bv cyi®‥vi I kvw¯Íi
cÖwZkÖæwZ cÖ`vb wn‡m‡eI Avm‡Z cv‡i (myiv Avb wbmv, 4: 10-14)|
¸iæZ¡c~Y© cÖkœ n‡jv, GKwU Av‡`‡k wK _v‡K? Av‡`k cvjb wK
eva¨Zvg~jK, mycvwikg~jK A_ev ïayB AbygwZ bvwK Av‡`k Øviv Gi meB
eySvq? AwaKvs‡ki g‡Z Av‡`k Øviv eva¨evaKZvB †evSv‡bv nq hw` bv
G‡ÿ‡Î Ab¨ wKQz Kivi my‡hvM _v‡K| †KD †KD ej‡Z Pvb †h, Av‡`‡ki
Øviv ïay eva¨evaKZv Ges mycvwik wb‡`©k K‡i| Ab¨ A‡b‡K e‡jb
Av‡`k Øviv ïay †Kv‡bvwKQz Kivi AbygwZ †evSvq| cwi®‥vifv‡e ej‡Z
†M‡j ej‡Z nq, AwaKvs‡ki gZvgZB h_v_© Ges †h․w³K| A_©vr Av‡`k
Øviv g~jZ eva¨evaKZv †evSvq, e¨wZµg Qvov|
Av‡`k Øviv †Kv‡bvmgq AbygwZ (Permission) †evSv‡Z cv‡i|
D`vniY¯^iƒc ejv hvq, KziAv‡b hLb ejv nq ÔLvI Ges cvb KiÕ (myiv
Avj Avivd, 7: 31), ZLb eY©bv †_‡K aviYv cvIqv hvq †h GwU wbQKB
AbygwZ| Abyiƒc D`vniY cvIqv hvq KziAv‡bi 5: 2 bs Ges 62: 10 bs
Avqv‡Z| wKQz †ÿ‡Î Av‡`k Øviv mycvwik Kiv n‡q‡Q| †hgb KziAv‡bi
2: 282 bs AvqvZ| ¯^ímsL¨K †ÿ‡Î Av‡`k Øviv ûgwK cÖ`k©b Kiv
n‡q‡Q| †hgb †Kv‡bv we‡kl wKQz KvR †_‡K weiZ _vKevi Dc‡`k
msewjZ AvqvZ (myiv Avb b~i, 24: 33) Ges Av‡`k Øviv Av‡e`b ev
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 27

cÖv_©bv †evSv‡Z cv‡i (myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 286)| hv‡nvK, Av‡`k Øviv


g~jZ eva¨evaKZv‡K wb‡`©k Kiv nq (dih, IqvwRe)| GwU wbf©i K‡i
cvV Ges Gi A_© `y‡UvB KvZÕC wKsev KvZÕC wKbv Zvi Ici|
AwaKvsk D‡jgv g‡b K‡ib †h †Kv‡bv wb‡l‡ai ci Av‡`k Avm‡j †Kej
AbygwZ †evSvq, eva¨Zvg~jK bq (myiv Avj-gvwq`v, 5: 2 Ges myiv Avj
RygAv, 62: 10)| AwaKvs‡ki Av‡iKwU gZ n‡jvÑ †Kv‡bv Av‡`k gvÎ
GKevi cvjb Kiv eva¨Zvg~jK, hw` bv evievi Av‡`kwU c~i‡Yi KviY
_v‡K| hLb kZ© mv‡c‡ÿ Av‡`k Rvwi nq ZLb kZ©c~iY gvÎB Av‡`kwU
cvjb Kiv eva¨Zvg~jK (KziAvb, 5: 6)|
wb‡la ( ‫نَن ِ ٌر‬Ñ bvwn): Av‡`‡ki wVK wecixZ n‡jv wb‡la| †Kv‡bv wKQz bv
Kivi `vweB n‡jv wb‡la| wb‡l‡ai aib wee„wZi AvKv‡i n‡Z cv‡i (myiv
Avj-evKviv, 2: 221) A_ev n‡Z cv‡i Av‡`‡ki fw½‡Z wKQz bv Kivi
Rb¨ (myiv nvR, 22: 30; myiv Avj RygAv, 62: 9)| wb‡la n‡Z cv‡i
mvwe©K wb‡la (Zvnwig), A_ev c_wb‡`©kbvg~jK (Bikv`), A_ev n‡Z
cv‡i frmbvg~jK (Zvw`e)| wb‡la hv wZi®‥vi wb‡`©k K‡i KziAv‡b Zvi
D‡jøL Av‡Q (myiv Avj-gvwq`v, 5: 87)| •bwZK c_wb‡`©kbvg~jK
wb‡l‡ai D‡jøL †`Lv hvq KziAv‡bi 5: 104 bs Avqv‡Z| AwaKvs‡ki
g‡Z wb‡la g~jZ Zvnwig ch©v‡qi hw` bv Ab¨ †Kv‡bviKg wPšÍv Kivi
g‡Zv Bw½Z _v‡K|
†Kv‡bv KvR (AvbyôvwbK Bev`Z e¨ZxZ) hw` wbR¯^ Kvi‡Y wbwl× bv n‡q
eis ewnf‚©Z †Kv‡bv Kvi‡Y wbwl× nq Z‡e kvwdC gZvbyhvqx GwU i` (‫َسدٌّد‬
Ñ evwZj) n‡q hvq Ges nvbvdx gZvbyhvqx GwU dvwm` e‡j we‡ewPZ nq|
evwZj A_© GwU Avi ms‡kvab Kiv hv‡e bv| dvwm` A_© mwnn nIqvi Rb¨
wKQz kZ© c~iY Kiv nq wb Ges Zv c~iY Ki‡j welqwU mwnn n‡q hv‡e|
A_©vr dvwm` ms‡kvab‡hvM¨| wKš‘ Bev`Z msµvšÍ wel‡q G Ae¯’vb wfbœ|
G‡ÿ‡Î dvwm` I evwZj mgch©vqfz³| Ab¨ K_vqÑ GLv‡b ïay evwZj
N‡U, dvwm` nq bv|
wb‡lavÁv cvjb AZ¨vek¨Kxq Ges hLbB G Av‡`k †g‡b Pjv cÖ‡hvR¨
n‡e ZLbB Zv †g‡b Pj‡Z n‡e| wb‡lavÁv hw` kZ© mv‡cÿ nq Z‡e
hLbB kZ© eZ©gvb n‡e ZLbB wb‡lavÁv Kvh©Ki n‡e|
28 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

bvm&L (‫ََ ْس ٌلخ‬Ñ i`): kvwãK A‡_© bvm&L& A_© n‡jv we‡jvc mvab| bvm&L‡K
msÁvwqZ Kiv nq kwiAvni GKwU weavb Ab¨ GKwU weavb Øviv evwZj
nIqv ev cÖwZ¯’vwcZ nIqv Øviv| GKgvÎ weavbvewji †ÿ‡ÎB bvm&L
Kvh©Ki nq, wek¦v‡mi welqe¯‘i †ÿ‡Î bq| bvm&L Kvh©Ki nq ïaygvÎÑ
Ñ hw` `y‡Uv weav‡bi gvb GKBiKg kw³kvjx nq;
Ñ weavb `y‡Uv hw` wfbœ cv‡V (text) D‡jøwLZ nq;
Ñ weavb `y‡Uvi g‡a¨ hw` cÖK…Z we‡iva _v‡K Ges †Kv‡bvfv‡eB
mgš^q m¤¢e bv nq; Ges
Ñ weavb `y‡Uv `yB mgqKv‡ji nq|
wKQz D‡jgv ¯^xKvi K‡ib bv †h KziAv‡bi †Kv‡bv AvqvZ i` ev evwZj
n‡q‡Q| G †kÖwYfz³ Av‡jg‡`i g‡Z KziAv‡bi 2: 106 bs Avqv‡Z
D‡jøwLZ i` m¤úwK©Z e³e¨ KziAv‡bi †ÿ‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨ bq eis c~e©eZx©
wKZv‡ei Rb¨ cÖ‡hvR¨| Zviv Av‡iv e‡jb- KziAv‡bi Z_vKw_Z we‡iv‡ai
mgš^q mvab m¤¢e| gynv¤§` Avmv` Ges gvIjvbv AvKig Luv Zv‡`i
KziAv‡bi Zvdwm‡i D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb, KziAv‡bi †Kv‡bv bvm&L †bB| cÖL¨vZ
BmjvwgK ¯‥jvi W. Ave`yjnvwg` Avng` AveymyjvBgvb g‡b K‡ib-
cÖv_wgK hy‡Mi D‡jgvMY bvm&L‡K BwZnv‡mi cvwicvwk¦©K Ae¯’vi Av‡jv‡K
bv †`‡L ¯’vqx gZev‡`i gh©v`v cÖ`vb K‡i fzj K‡i‡Qb| wZwb g‡b K‡ib
†h bvm&‡Li e¨envi ïaygvÎ cwi®‥vi †ÿ‡Î mxgve× _vKv `iKvi- †hgb
wKejv cwieZ©b|
AwaKvsk Av‡j‡gi g‡Z KziAvb I mybœvni †ÿ‡Î bvm&L Kvh©Ki n‡q‡Q|
Zv‡`i g‡Z BRgvÔ (‫ )إجْ ًبعٌل‬Øviv KziAv‡bi †Kv‡bv weavb (‫ )ََ ْس ٌلخ‬i` nq
bv| KziAvb I mybœvni †Kv‡bv cvV‡K wKqvmI cÖwZ¯’vcb Ki‡Z cv‡i bv|
Bgvg kvwdCi g‡Z `yB ai‡bi bvm&L Av‡Q:
Ñ KziAvb Øviv KziAvb i`; Ges
Ñ mybœvni Øviv mybœvn i`|

Ab¨‡`i g‡Z Pvi ai‡bi bvm&L Av‡Q:


Ñ KziAvb Øviv KziAvb;
Ñ mybœvni Øviv KziAvb;
Ñ KziAvb Øviv mybœvn; Ges
Ñ mybœvn Øviv mybœvn|
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 29

wb‡Pi †ÿθ‡jv‡Z Gi evB‡i Av‡iK ai‡bi †kÖwY wefvRb Av‡Q:


Ñ bvm&Lyj ûK&g (‫ )ََ ْس ُخ ْان ُذ ْك ِى‬ev weavb iwnZKiY;
Ñ bvm&Lyj wKivAvn (‫ )ََ ْس ُخ ْان ِمشاا ِخ‬ev cv‡Vi iwnZKiY; Ges
Ñ bvm&Lj y ûKwg IqvZ wZjvIqvn (‫ )ََ ْس ُخ ْان ُذ ْكى ٔان ِزالَ َٔ ِح‬ev weavb I
cvV DfqB iwnZKiY|
bvm&Lyj ûK&g ej‡Z †evSvq weavbwU evwZj n‡q‡Q wKš‘ cvVwU i‡q †M‡Q|
bvm&Lyj wKivAvn ej‡Z †evSvq cvVwU i` n‡q †M‡Q wKš‘ weavbwU i‡q
†M‡Q|
bvm&Lyj ûKwg IqvZ wZjvIqvn ej‡Z †evSvq cvV Ges weavb DfqB
evwZj n‡q †M‡Q|
hvB‡nvK Dc‡ii wZbwU †kÖwYKi‡Yi g‡a¨ bvm&Lyj ûK‡gi wKQz wfwË Av‡Q
wKš‘ evwK `y‡Uvi wfwË LyeB `ye©j| (mvB‡q¨` Aveyj Avjv gI`~`x Zvi
Ôivmv‡qj Iqv gvmv‡qjÕ MÖ‡š’ bvm&Lyj wKivAvn †Kb MÖnY‡hvM¨ bq Zvi
D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb|)
bvm&L (‫ )ََ ْس ُخ‬Ges ZvLwm‡mi (mvaviY cv‡Vi we‡klvqY A_ev ¸Yv‡ivc)
g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Av‡Q| ZvLwmm bvm&L bq| GwU n‡”Q Avg‡K we‡klvwqZ
Kiv| Av‡iKwU wePvh© welq n‡jv ZvwR` (ms‡hvRb) evwZj‡hvM¨ wKbv?
AwaKvs‡ki g‡Z DËi n‡jvÑ bv, Ges G gZB h_v_©|
m‡e©vcwi Avwg g‡b Kwi G mKj wel‡q W. Ave`yjnvwg` Avng`
Aveymjy vBgv‡bi AwfgZ we‡ePbvi `vwe iv‡L
30

BRgvÔ
Aviwe kã ÔAvRAvgvÕ-Gi we‡kl¨ iƒc n‡jv BRgvÔ (‫ |)إجْ ًبعٌل‬kãwUi
`y‡Uv A_© Av‡Q| cÖ_gZ, †Kv‡bv wel‡q wm×všÍ MÖnY Kiv Ges wØZxqZ,
g‣Z‡K¨ †cu․Qv‡bv| KziAvb I mybœvni ci BRgvÔ‡K Bmjvwg kwiq‡Zi
Z…Zxq cÖgvY ev mvÿ¨ wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv nq| BRgvÔ kwiq‡Zi †h․w³K
mvÿ¨| GK A_ev KwZcq we‡klÁ KZ…K © M„nxZ ÔBRwZnv` ev e¨vL¨v hLb
mve©Rbxbfv‡e M„nxZ nq Zv-B BRgvÔ|
Dm~‡ji we‡klÁMY BRgvÔi †h e¨vL¨v cÖ`vb K‡i‡Qb Zv n‡jvÑ
gymwjg we‡k¦i mKj we‡klÁ †Kv‡bv wel‡q mvwe©Kfv‡e HKgZ¨ †cvlY
Ki‡j Zv P‚ovšÍ BRgvÔ e‡j we‡ewPZ n‡e| cÖv_wgK hy‡Mi Dm~wjDb‡`i
g‡Z GKgvÎ Giƒc P‚ovšÍ BRgvÔB mK‡ji Rb¨ eva¨Zvg~jK| hv‡nvK,
Giƒc mvwe©K BRgvÔi NUbv LyeB weij| †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó wel‡q
hv ÔBRwZnv` ev Zvwe‡ji Rb¨ Db¥y³ †m‡ÿ‡Î BRgvÕi NUbv NUv
cÖK…ZB `y®‥i|
we‡klÁiv BRgvÕi †h D`vniY¸‡jv Zz‡j a‡ib Zv n‡jv mvnvweMY
KZ…K© M„nxZ BRgvÔ| Dm~‡ji AwaKvsk D‡jgv g‡b K‡ib †h BRgvÔ `Ð
(û`y`), Bev`vn I AvwK`v msµvšÍ wel‡q n‡Z cv‡i| cÖ_g, BRgvÔ M„nxZ
nq mvnvwe‡`i gv‡S| wKQz wel‡q gymwjg D¤§vni gv‡S GKZv eRvq
ivLevi Rb¨ cÖv_wgK ch©v‡q BRgvÔ mnvqZv K‡i| †Kv‡bv weav‡bi KZ…©Z¡
BRgvÕi gva¨‡g e„w×cÖvß nq| †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó mg‡q †Kv‡bv wel‡q
Av‡jg‡`i gv‡S HKgZ¨ BRgvÕi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq| IB mg‡qi mKj
D‡jgv cwi®‥vi gZvg‡Zi ga¨ w`‡q m¤§wZ cÖ`vb Ki‡e| mKj
gyRZvwn‡`i m¤§wZi wfwˇZB BRgvÔ cÖwZwôZ, hw`I A‡b‡K g‡b K‡ib
mK‡j bq AwaKvs‡ki m¤§wZ‡ZB BRgvÔ cÖwZwôZ n‡e|
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 31

AwaKvs‡ki m¤§wZ kwiAvn AvB‡bi GKwU `wjj n‡Z cv‡i wKš‘ Zv


eva¨Zvg~jK bq| †Kbbv eva¨Zvg~jK BRgvÕi Rb¨ nvw`‡m †hmKj k‡Z©i
D‡jøL Av‡Q Zv c~iY n‡Z n‡e (mKj gvby‡li BRgvÔ, wb‡`bc‡ÿ mKj
we‡kl‡Ái m¤§wZ)|
mKj Av‡jg g‡b K‡ib †h BRgvÔ cÖwZôvi ¯^c‡ÿ cvVMZ
(textual) †h cÖgvY eZ©gvb Zv‡K P‚ovšÍ MY¨ Kiv hvq bv| BRgvÕi ¯^c‡ÿ
†hmKj Avqv‡Zi D‡jøL Kiv nq (myiv Avb wbmv, 4: 59, 4: 83, 4:
115) Zvi †Kv‡bvwU †_‡KB BRgvÔ cÖwZôvi Rb¨ P‚ovšÍ wm×všÍ †bqv hvq
bv| Bgvg Mv¾vwj GmKj AvqvZ‡K BRgvÔ cÖwZôvi c‡ÿ Bw½Zc~Y© Z‡e
P‚ovšÍ bq e‡j D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb| Bgvg myqywZi e¨vL¨vI Abyiƒc| Bgvg
gynv¤§` Ave`yû GmKj Avqv‡Z BRgvÔ cÖwZôvi ¯^c‡ÿ †Kv‡bv Bw½Z Lyu‡R
cvb wb| Avj Avwgw` e‡j‡Qb, ÔGmKj AvqvZ m¤¢vebvi m„wó K‡i, †Kv‡bv
Ávb `vb K‡i bv|Õ
cÖvq `kwU nvw`m BRgvÕi ¯^c‡ÿ D‡jøL Kiv nq| Avn‡g` nvmv‡bi
ch©‡eÿY n‡jv BRgvÕi ¯^c‡ÿ GmKj nvw`m AKvU¨ bq| eo msL¨K
D‡jgv (kvwdC Ges gyZvwRjvcš’x) g‡b K‡ib D‡jgv‡`i msL¨vwaK¨ Ges
`~i‡Z¡i e¨vcKZvi Kvi‡Y GLb Avi BRgvÔ cÖwZôv Kiv m¤¢e bq| G
Kvi‡Y Bgvg kvwdC eva¨evaKZvg~jK KZ©‡e¨i †ÿ‡ÎB BRgvÕi cÖ‡qvM‡K
mxgve× K‡i‡Qb| †m GKB Kvi‡Y `vD` Rvwnwi Ges Bgvg Avng`
BRgvÔ Øviv mvnvex‡`i HKgZ¨ eywS‡q‡Qb|
Ave`yj Inve Lvjøvd gZ †`b †h, aªæc`x e¨vL¨v Abyhvqx BRgvÔ
eZ©gvb mgqKv‡j m¤¢e bq, †Kbbv cÖPzi msL¨K D‡jgv we¯Í…Z AÂj Ry‡o
eZ©gvb| Ave`yj Inve Lvjøvd h_v_©B e‡j‡Qb| cyiv‡bv auv‡Pi BRgvÔ
eZ©gv‡b m¤¢e bq| eZ©gv‡b AvÂwjK wfwˇZ BRgvÔ cÖwZôv Ki‡Z n‡e hv
cvj©v‡g›U KZ…K
© AvBb cÖYq‡bi gva¨‡g m¤¢e- wKš‘ G AvBb wPišÍb bq|
BRgvÔ `yÕai‡bi| h_v:
BRgvÔ Avj mwin (my¯úó BRgvÔ), Ges
BRgvÔ myKzwZ (bxie BRgvÔ)|
AwaKvsk D‡jgvi g‡Z Avj BRgvDm myKzZ (G e¨vcviwU N‡U
ZLbB hLb GK ev wKQzmsL¨K we‡klÁ †Kv‡bv e¨vcv‡i HKg‡Z¨ †cu․Qvq
Ges G e¨vcv‡i †Kv‡bv we‡ivwaZv †`Lv †`q bv) kwiq‡Zi eva¨Zvg~jK
32 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

cÖgvY wn‡m‡e cwiMwYZ n‡e bv| wKqvm BRgvÕi wfwË n‡Z cvi‡e wKbv G
e¨vcv‡i wZb ai‡bi gZvgZ †`L‡Z cvIqv hvq| †KD e‡jb n‡Z cv‡i,
†KD e‡jb bv, Avevi †KD AvswkKfv‡e nu¨v e‡jb|
we‡klÁ‡`i Avnv` A_ev gyZvIqvwZi eY©bvi gva¨‡g BRgvÔ ewY©Z
n‡Z cv‡i| mvnvwe‡`i KZ…K © cÖwZwôZ BRgvÕi D`vniY e¨ZxZ Avi
†Kv‡bv gyZvIqvwZi BRgvÕi D‡jøL cvIqv hvq bv| Avjøvgv gynv¤§` BKevj
cÖ¯Íve w`‡q‡Qb †h BRgvÔ cÖwZôvi e¨vcviwU cvj©v‡g‡›Ui Dci †Q‡o †`qv
†nvK- eZ©gvbKv‡j GKgvÎ Gfv‡eB BRgvÔ cÖwZôv Kiv m¤¢e| Avjøvgv
gynv¤§` BKevj G‡ÿ‡Î h_v_© e‡j‡Qb| Zvi aviYv MÖnY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
Z‡e Gfv‡e M„nxZ BRgvÔ •ewk¦Kfv‡e ¯^xK…wZ cv‡e bv Ges GwU‡K
eva¨Zvg~jK fvev hv‡e bv- hw` bv M„nxZ BRgvÔwU‡K †m †`‡k AvB‡bi
gh©v`v †`qv nq|
Dcmsnv‡i ejv hvq- fwel¨‡Z BRgvÕi e¨envi msKxY© n‡Z cv‡i|
eis wKqvm, gvmjvnv AwaK ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ae`vb ivL‡e
33

wKqvm
kvwãK A‡_© wKqvm ej‡Z †evSvq †Kv‡bv wKQzi e¨vwß, IRb A_ev
¸Yvejxi cwigvcKiY A_ev wbwðZKiY| wKqvm ej‡Z Av‡iv †evSvq
`y‡Uv `ª‡e¨i g‡a¨ mvg¨ Ges mv`„k¨ cÖwZôv Ki‡Z Zzjbv Kiv| Dm~‡ji
ْ ‫ أ‬Ñ Avmj) †_‡K bZzb NUbv‡Z (‫فَ ْشعٌل‬Ñ
fvlvq wKqvm n‡jv g~j NUbv (‫ط ٌلم‬
dvi) kwiAvn AvB‡bi m¤cÖmviY, KviY bZzb NUbvi Kvh©KviY (BjøvZ)
Avmj NUbvi Abyiƒc|
wKqvmÕi ¸iæZ¡v‡iv‡ci welq n‡jv g~j NUbv Ges bZzb NUbvi gv‡S
mvaviY KviY Lyu‡R †ei Kiv| wKqvmÕi gva¨‡g MwVZ AvBb‡K
AvBbwe‡`iv bZzb AvBb wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv K‡ib bv| hv‡nvK, mKj ev¯Íe
cÖ‡qvR‡b wewfbœ wel‡q wKqvm bZzb AvB‡bi g‡ZvB|
wKqvm AvBbwe`‡`i Øviv D™¢vweZ GK ai‡bi c×wZ hvi gva¨‡g bZyb
†ÿ‡Î MwVZ AvBb KziAvb I mybœvni wbKUeZx© nq| KviY GmKj bZzb
AvBb †h Kvh©Kvi‡Yi (BjøvZ) Ici wfwË K‡i M‡o D‡V‡Q Zv KziAvb I
mybœvni weavb †_‡K D™¢vweZ|
wKqvmÕ‡K hw` cÖ‡qvM Kiv bv n‡Zv Z‡e bZzb †ÿ‡Î iwPZ AvBb KziAvb
I mybœvn †_‡K Av‡iv `~‡i P‡j †hZ| GwUB wKqvmÕi h_v_©Zvi hyw³|
wKqvm n‡jv †h․w³K gZev` (KviY eyw×e„wË e¨vcKfv‡e BjøvZ A‡š¦l‡Y
e¨eüZ nq)| wKš‘ wKqv‡m e¨w³MZ gZvgZ (ivq) Iwni ek¨Zv ¯^xKvi
K‡i (KziAvb I mybœvn †_‡K BjøvZ D™¢vweZ nq)| wKqvm KziAvb wKsev
mybœvni †Kv‡bv AvBb cwieZ©b K‡i bv| wKqvm GKwU c×wZ| wKqvm‡K
AvBbwe‡`iv G A‡_© ¯^xK…wZ w`‡q‡Qb †h- kwiAvni weavb KwZcq D‡Ïk¨
(‫ يمبطذ‬Ñ gvKvwm`) AbymiY K‡i hv hyw³i mv‡_ mvgÄm¨c~Y©| Rvwnwi
34 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

(‫ )ظبْ ِِشي‬Av‡jgMY wKqvm‡K MÖnY K‡ib wb| wKš‘ AwaKvsk Av‡jg


wKqvmÕi e¨vcv‡i h_v_© wm×všÍ MÖnY K‡i‡Qb|
wKqvm wbðqZv cÖ`vb K‡i bv| wKqvm ZvB Abygvb wbf©i| KziAvb I
mybœvn †_‡K M„nxZ AvB‡bi Abyiƒc KZ…Z © ¡ wKqvm †_‡K M„nxZ AvB‡bi
†bB| wKqvmÕi gva¨‡g M„nxZ AvB‡bi e¨vcv‡i bvbviKg gZ Av‡Q, †hgb
gZwfbœZv Av‡Q cÖvq mKj ÔBRwZnv`x AvB‡bi e¨vcv‡i| wKqvmÕi
cÖ‡qvRbxq Dcv`vb¸‡jv n‡jv Avmj (g~j welq- hvi Dci wfwË K‡i ivq
†`qv n‡q‡Q), ûKzg (ivq), BjøvZ (†h Kvh©Kvi‡Yi †cÖwÿ‡Z ivq cÖ`vb Kiv
nq) Ges dviÔ (bZzb NUbv hvi Dci ivq cÖ`vb Kiv n‡e)| G‡ÿ‡Î g`
cv‡bi wb‡lavÁvi NUbvwU D‡jøL Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i (myiv Avj-gvwq`v, 5:
90)| G weavbwU †PZbvbvkK Ab¨vb¨ gv`‡Ki †ÿ‡ÎI cÖ‡hvR¨ n‡Z
cv‡i| mv`„‡k¨i KviY wb‡gœv³ av‡ci gva¨‡g m¤¢e|
ْ ‫أ‬- dviÔ (‫فَ ْشعٌل‬
Avmj (‫ط ٌلم‬ - BjøvZ (‫ ِػهّخٌل‬- ûKzg (‫ ُد ْك ٌلى‬-
g~j welq bZzb welq) iv‡qi KviY) ivq)
g` cvb †PZbvbvkK gv`KZvi dj wb‡lavÁv
gv`K
Avm‡ji GKwU kZ© n‡jv KziAvb Ges mybœvn Avm‡ji Drm| A‡bK
we‡klÁB BRgvÔ‡K Avm‡ji wfwË g‡b K‡ib bv| AwaKvs‡ki g‡Z GKwU
wKqvm Ab¨ GKwU wKqvmÕi Avmj wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ n‡Z cv‡i bv| Z‡e
gvwjKx AvBbwe` Be‡b iæk` g‡b K‡ib GKwU wKqvm Ab¨ Av‡iKwU
wKqvmÕi Avmj wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ n‡Z cv‡i| AvaywbK AvBbwe` Avey hvniv
Ges gynv¤§` Avj hviKv G gZ mg_©b K‡ib| Aí msL¨‡Ki gZI mwVK
n‡Z cv‡i hZÿY ch©šÍ bv GwU KziAvb I mybœvni bvm-Gi mv‡_ mvsNwl©K
bv nq| 

ûKz‡gi kZ©mg~n:
1. GwU Aek¨B AvBbMZ ivq n‡Z n‡e (AvwK`vMZ †ÿ‡Î wKqvm †Kv‡bv
ivq w`‡Z cv‡i bv)|
2. gvbexq eyw×i Av‡jv‡K †evaMg¨ n‡Z n‡e|
3. ûKzg KL‡bvB e¨wZµgx cwiw¯’wZi †ÿ‡Î mxgve× _vK‡e bv (Giƒc
†ÿ‡Î GwU wKqvmÕi wfwË n‡Z cv‡i bv)|
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 35

†hLv‡b text-Gi wewaweavb Av‡Q †mLv‡b wKqvm †bB| wKqvm gvÕAvj


ZvwiK (ÎæwUc~Y© wKqvm) Aby‡gv`b‡hvM¨ bq| BjøvZ‡K Aek¨B wb‡gœv³
kZ© c~iY Ki‡Z n‡e:
1. gybvwme (‫ يُبست‬Ñ gyRZvwn`‡`i g‡Z h_v_© n‡Z n‡e|
2. gybRvwe` Gi AcwieZ©bxq ¸Y _vK‡Z n‡e|
3. Rvwni GwU Aek¨B cÖZxqgvb n‡Z n‡e |
AwaKvs‡ki g‡Z BjøvZ Aek¨B bZzb †ÿ‡Î n¯ÍvšÍi‡hvM¨ (‫ي‬ ‫ ُيزَؼَذّ ٌل‬Ñ
gyZvAvwÏ)| †KD †KD Zvw`qv (n¯ÍvšÍi) m¤ú‡K© wfbœ gZ †cvlY K‡ib|
BjøvZ bvm-Gi wecixZ n‡Z cvi‡e bv|
Aviwe cÖKvkixwZ Abyhvqx KvBjv (‫ كٍال‬Ñ Giƒc bv), wj AvRwj (‫ ألجم‬Ñ
KviY), wj (‫ل‬-Rb¨), dv (‫ف‬Ñ Giƒc), we (‫ة‬Ñ KviY), we Avbœv (ٌ‫)ثأ‬, َّ
َّ BZ¨vw` A‡bK †ÿ‡ÎB BjøvZ‡K wb‡`©k K‡i (myiv Avb wbmv, 4:
Bbœv (ٌ‫)إ‬
34; myiv Avj-gvwq`v, 5: 38)| Aviwe kã mveve (KviY) BjøvZ k‡ãi
cÖwZ¯’vcK wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq| Aek¨ †KD †KD kã `y‡Uvi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨
wb‡`©k K‡ib| cv_©K¨wU D‡jøL‡hvM¨ wKsev cwi®‥vi bq| hv‡nvK, BjøvZ
kãwU e¨env‡ii w`K †_‡K e¨vcKZv †c‡q‡Q|
cvV †_‡K ÔBRwZnv`-Gi gva¨‡g ivq †`evi Rb¨ bv‡mi (‫)َض‬ ‫ٌّد‬ hLb
BjøvZ ¯úófv‡e D‡jøwLZ _v‡K bv, ZLb gyRZvwn`‡`i `vwqZ¡ BjøvZ Lyu‡R
†ei Kiv| `yB av‡c GwU Kiv m¤¢e| m~Pbv we›`y n‡jv ÔZvLwiRyj gvbvZÕ
(Bjøv‡Zi Av‡iKwU cÖwZkã n‡jv gvbvZ)|
ivq †`evi mgq G‡Ki e`‡j GKvwaK Bjøv‡Zi Dcw¯’wZ n‡Z cv‡i|
†m‡ÿ‡Î gyRZvwn`‡`i KiYxq n‡jv h_v_© BjøvZ Lyu‡R †ei Kiv|
cÖwµqvwU‡K ZvbwKn Avj gvbvZ (BjøvZ‡K ¯^Zš¿KiY) e‡j|
bZzb NUbvi †ÿ‡Î †hLv‡b iv‡qi m¤cÖmviY NU‡e †mLv‡b ZvnwKKzj
gvbvZ (BjøvZ Av‡Q wK †bB) †`L‡Z nq (mvaviY Pzwii mv‡_ c‡KUgv‡ii
mv`„k¨KiY m¤¢e wKbv A_ev †flR cvbx‡qi BjøvZ wK g‡`i Abyiƒc)|
wKqvmÕi †kÖwYweb¨vm: wKqvmÕi GK ai‡bi †kÖwYweb¨vm n‡jv:
1. wKqvm Avj AvIjv (ً‫ انمٍبط األٔن‬Ñ DbœZ ai‡bi wKqvm);
2. wKqvm Avj gymvwe (‫ انمٍبط انًسبٔي‬Ñ mv`„k¨Ki mvg¨); Ges
3. wKqvm Avj Av`bv (ًَ‫ انمٍبط األد‬Ñ `ye©j mv`„k¨KiY)|
36 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

wKqvm Avj AvIjv Ggb ai‡bi wKqvm †hLv‡b Avmj NUbv A‡cÿv bZzb
NUbv‡Z Kvh©KiY ¯úófv‡e cÖZxqgvb (myiv ebx BmivCj, 17: 23)|
wKqvm Avj gymvwe n‡jv Ggb ai‡bi wKqvm †hLv‡b Avmj I dvi
(‫)فشعٌل‬Ñ Dfq †ÿ‡ÎB BjøvZ mgvbfv‡e cÖZxqgvb nq (myiv Avb wbmv,
4: 2)|
wKqvm Avj Av`bv ej‡Z †evSvq Ggb ai‡bi wKqvm †hLv‡b BjøvZ dvi-
Gi †ÿ‡Î Avm‡ji b¨vq ¯úófv‡e cÖZxqgvb bq|
wKqvmÕi Av‡iK ai‡bi †kÖwYKiY n‡jv:
1. wKqvm Rvwj (ً ‫جهّ ٌل‬
ِ ‫ لٍبط‬Ñ Aek¨¤¢vwe mv`„kKiY);
2. wKqvm Lvwd (ً‫لٍبط خ ِف ٌل‬Ñ jyKvwqZ mv`„k¨KiY)|
AwaKvs‡ki Øviv wKqvm ¯^xK…wZ †c‡q‡Q hvi g‡a¨ PviwU mywbœ gvRnvemn
hvBw` wkqvivI Av‡Q| KziAv‡bi 59: 2 bs Avqv‡Z wKqvmÕi ¯^c‡ÿ cÖgvY
Av‡Q Ges Bw½Z Av‡Q 2: 79 I 4: 105 bs Avqv‡Z| mybœvn I wKqvmÕ‡K
mg_©b K‡i| mybœvn‡Z ÔBRwZnv`-Gi K_v ejv Av‡Q Avi wKqvm
ÔBRwZnv`-Gi GKwU D‡jøL‡hvM¨ c×wZ|
A‡bK Rvwnix `vk©wbK †Mvôx wKqvmÕi weiæ‡× gZvgZ cÖKvk K‡i‡Qb|
Zviv e‡jb †h, KziAvb wKqvmÕi weiæ‡× (myiv Z‚i, 52: 2- Avgiv
KziAv‡b †Kv‡bv wKQzB Ae‡njv Kwi wb)| Zviv Av‡iv e‡jbÑ wKqvmÕi
wfwË n‡jv BjøvZ Ges Bjøv‡Zi wfwË n‡jv Abygvb| Zviv KziAv‡bi 49: 1
bs AvqvZ D‡jøL K‡i e‡jb KziAvb wKqvmÕi weiæ‡×| G meB Lye `ye©j
hyw³ Ges D¤§vni AwaKvskB Zv‡`i gZ MÖnY K‡ib wb| AwaKvsk g‡b
K‡ib û`y‡`i †ÿ‡Î wKqvm cÖ‡qvM‡hvM¨| nvbvdxiv g‡b K‡ib wKqvm
ZvwRi-Gi †ÿ‡Î cÖ‡qvM‡hvM¨, û`y‡`i †ÿ‡Î bq| nvbvdx gZ G‡ÿ‡Î
AwaK mZK©|
AwaKvs‡ki gZ n‡jv bvm (‫)َض‬ ‫ٌّد‬ †hLv‡b Av‡Q wKqvm †mLv‡b AwZwi³|
wKQz D‡jgv g‡b K‡ib †h, wKqvm hw` †Kv‡bv kw³kvjx cÖgvY Øviv
mnvqZv cvq Z‡e Zv GKK nvw`‡mi †P‡q cÖvavb¨ †c‡Z cv‡i| Z‡e
fwel¨‡Z gvmjvnv ÔBRwZnv`-Gi AwaK ¸iæZ¡c~Y© iƒc n‡e
37

Bmjvwg kwiAvn c~e©eZx© cÖZ¨vw`ó AvBb


Bmjvg wek¦vm K‡i mKj ag©MÖš’ Avjøvn KZ…K © cÖ`Ë (myiv k~iv, 42: 13)|
KziAvb ¯^xK…wZ †`q †h ZvIivZ c_wb‡`©kbvi Drm wQj (myiv Avj-
gvwq`v, 5: 44)| wKš‘ cÖkœ n‡”Q KziAvb bvwhj nevi c‡i c~e©eZx© Gme
wKZve‡K AvB‡bi Drm ej‡Z wK †evSvq? mvaviY fvl¨ n‡jv- KziAv‡bi
c~‡e© †hmKj AvBb cÖPwjZ wQj Zv wb‡gœ DwjøwLZ e¨wZµg e¨ZxZ
eZ©gv‡b gymwjg‡`i †ÿ‡Î cÖ‡hvR¨ bq|
Bmjv‡gi AvnKvg ¯^qsm¤ú~Y©| kwiAvni AvBb KziAvb I mybœvn e¨ZxZ
Ab¨ †Kv_vI †LuvRvi cÖ‡qvRb †bB, KviY Ab¨ a‡g©i AvBb gymwjg‡`i
Rb¨ gvbv eva¨Zvg~jK bq|
KziAvb wZbfv‡e c~e©eZx© kwiAvni D‡jøL K‡i:
1. KziAvb c~e©eZx© kwiAvni D‡jøL Ki‡Z cv‡i Ges D‡jøwLZ welqwU‡K
gymwjg‡`i eva¨Zvg~jK K‡i w`‡Z cv‡i| D`vniY¯^iƒc ejv hvq,
c~e©eZx© RvwZmg~‡ni Rb¨ †ivRvi wb‡`©k wQj Ges gymwjg‡`i Rb¨ Zv
wb‡`©k Kiv n‡q‡Q (myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 183)| c~e©eZx© kwiAvni
Giƒc weavb eZ©gvb kwiAvniI Ask|
2. KziAvb (ev mybœvn) c~e©eZx© kwiAvni †Kv‡bv weav‡bi D‡jøL K‡i Zv
i` K‡i w`‡q‡Q| D`vniY¯^iƒc ejv hvqÑ Lv`¨ welqK KwZcq
wb‡lavÁv Bûw` m¤cÖ`v‡qi cÖwZ wQj hv KziAv‡bi gva¨‡g gymwjg‡`i
Rb¨ cÖZ¨vnvi Kiv n‡q‡Q (myiv AvbAvg, 6: 146)| gymwjgiv G
wel‡q c~e©eZx© kwiAvni AvBb AbymiY Ki‡Z cv‡i bv|
3. c~e©eZx© kwiAvni †Kv‡bv GKwU AvBb envj Av‡Q wKsev iwnZ n‡q‡Q
Gi D‡jøL bv K‡iB KziAvb c~e©eZx© kwiAvni †Kv‡bv AvB‡bi D‡jøL
Ki‡Z cv‡i (myiv Avj-gvwq`v, 5: 45, 48)|
AwaKvsk D‡jgv GmKj weavb‡K eZ©gvb kwiAvniI Ask e‡j g‡b
K‡ib Ges Zv AbymiYxq e‡j g‡b K‡ib| msL¨vjNy gZ c~e©eZx© g‡Zi
wecixZ| W. nvwkg Kvgvwji g‡Z msL¨vMwi‡ôi gZ G‡ÿ‡Î h_v_©
38

mvnvwe‡`i dvZIqv
kwiAvn msµvšÍ wel‡q mvnvwe‡`i dvZIqv LyeB ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Ges m‡e©v”P
we‡ePbvi `vwe iv‡L| KviY n‡jv mvnvweiv imyj m.-Gi AwZ wbKUeZx©
wQ‡jb Ges Zv‡`i Ávb mivmwi imyj m. †_‡K M„nxZ n‡qwQj| Z‡e
mvnvwe ej‡Z Kv‡`i †evSv‡bv n‡e Zv wb‡q gZv‣bK¨ Av‡Q| AwaKvs‡ki
g‡Z wek¦vmx hvivB imyj m.-Gi mv‡_ mvÿvr K‡i‡Qb Zviv mK‡jB
mvnvwei gh©v`vfz³| msL¨vjwN‡ói g‡Z †Kv‡bv e¨w³‡K mvnvwei gh©v`v
†c‡Z n‡j ÔmynevZÕ (‫ طجْذخ‬Ñ msm‡M©i avivevwnKZv) GKwU cÖ‡qvRbxq
Dcv`vb| `y‡Uv g‡ZiB †h․w³KZv Av‡Q Ges †Kv‡bvwU‡KB AMÖvn¨ Kivi
Dcvq †bB| †Kv‡bv e¨w³ mvnvwe wKbv Zv cÖwZôv †c‡Z cv‡i Ab¨ †Kv‡bv
mvnvwei mZ¨vqb ev mvÿ¨`v‡bi gva¨‡g ev wbR KZ…K © `vwei gva¨‡g
(G‡ÿ‡Î †m e¨w³wU‡K mZ¨ev`x n‡Z n‡e)|
mvnvwe‡`i dvZIqv ej‡Z Zv‡`i gZvgZ‡K †evSvq hv †Kv‡bv mvnvwe
ÔBRwZnv`-Gi gva¨‡g DcbxZ n‡q‡Qb| mvnvwe‡`i dvZIqv cieZx©
eskai‡`i Rb¨ cÖvgvY¨| G wel‡q wZbwU gZvgZ Av‡Q|
cÖ_g gZ n‡jv, GwU Aek¨¤¢vex| G gZcš’xiv KziAv‡bi 3: 110 I 9:
100 bs AvqvZØq‡K D‡jøL K‡ib| G g‡Zi Abymvix n‡jb Bgvg
gvwjK| Bgvg kvwdC Ges Avng` web nv¤^j‡KI G g‡Zi ¯^c‡ÿ D‡jøL
Kiv nq| G g‡Zi we‡ivax hviv Zviv ej‡Z Pvb GmKj Dw³ Øviv
mvnvwe‡`i gh©v`vi D‡jøL Kiv n‡q‡Q| mvnvwe‡`i Av‡`k gvbv
eva¨Zvg~jK Zvi ¯^c‡ÿ GmKj cÖgvY KvZÕC ch©vqfz³ mvÿ¨ bq|
wØZxq gZ n‡jv, mvnvwe‡`i ÔBRwZnv` kwiAvni †Kv‡bv cÖgvY bq Ges
cieZx© eskai‡`i Rb¨ Zvi AbymiY eva¨Zvg~jK bq| nvbvdx AvBbwe`
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 39

Aveyj nvmvb Avj KviwL, Bgvg Avng` (Zvi GK gZvbymv‡i), Avkvwi


Ges gyZvwRjv we‡klÁiv G gZ aviY K‡ib| G gZcš’xiv hyw³ †`b †hÑ
†h AvqvZ Øviv ÔBRwZnv`‡K eva¨Zvg~jK Kiv n‡q‡Q Zv †hvM¨ mK‡ji
Rb¨ cÖ‡hvR¨| GLv‡b mvnvwe wK mvnvwe bq Zvi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ wbiƒcY Kiv
nqwb| Bgvg Mv¾vwj Ges Avwgw` G gZ‡K AMÖvwaKvi w`‡q‡Qb|
Z…Zxq g‡Zi aviK Bgvg Avey nvwbdv (iv‡ngvûjøvn) ¯^qs| Zvi e³e¨
n‡jv wKqvmÕi mv‡_ hw` †Kv‡bv mvnvwei gZvg‡Z A‣bK¨ †`Lv †`q, Z‡e
mvnvwei gZB cÖvgvY¨ n‡e, wKš‘ hw` g‣ZK¨ †`Lv †`q Z‡e bq|
Dm~j mvwn‡Z¨ Dc‡ivwjøwLZ gZ·qi evB‡iI Av‡iv KwZcq gZvgZ †`Lv
hvq| G †_‡K Dcmsnvi Uvbv †h‡Z cv‡i †h, mvnvwe‡`i gZvgZ
c_wb‡`©kbvi Drm| mZK©Zvi mv‡_ Gme dvZIqvi †`vl¸Y we‡ePbvi
`vwe iv‡L| hw`I cwi®‥vi BRgvÔ e¨ZxZ GmKj dvZIqv †g‡b Pjv
eva¨Zvg~jK bq
40

BmwZn&mvb
BmwZnmvb (AvBbMZ AMÖvwaKvi): kvwãK A‡_© BmwZnmvb (ٌ‫)إ ْسزِذْ سب‬
n‡jv †Kv‡bv wKQz‡K AMÖvwaKvi †`qv| AvBbMZ A‡_© BmwZnmvb n‡jv
AvB‡bi kvwãK cÖ‡qvM †_‡K D™¢‚Z K‡VviZv Ges A¯^”QZv cwinvi Kivi
c×wZ| aviYvMZ w`K †_‡K BmwZnmvb cwðgv AvB‡b e¨eüZ mvg¨
(equity) k‡ãi KvQvKvwQ| cwðgv AvB‡b mvg¨ kãwU cÖvK…wZK AvB‡bi
Ici wfwË K‡i M‡o D‡V‡Q, wKš‘ BmwZnmvb M‡o D‡V‡Q Iwni g~j my‡ii
Dci wfwË K‡i|
BmwZnmvb kwiAvn n‡Z ¯^vaxb bq eis kwiAvniB GKwU Awe‡”Q`¨
Ask| mgv‡Ri cwieZ©bkxj cÖ‡qvRbxqZvi Pvwn`v †gUv‡bvi Rb¨
BmwZnmvb AvB‡bi GKwU Acwinvh© Ask| nvbvdx, gvwjKx Ges nv¤^jx
gvRnv‡ei AvBbwe` KZ…K © BmwZnmvb ¯^xK…wZ †c‡q‡Q| Avevi kvwdC,
wkqv Ges Rvwnix gvRnv‡ei AvBbwe` KZ…©K BmwZnmvb ¯^xK…wZ cvqwb|
hv‡nvK, ev¯ÍeZv n‡jv AwaKvsk D‡jgv KZ…©K BmwZnmvb ¯^xK…Z|
BmwZnmvbÕi D`vniY w`‡Z wM‡q nRiZ Igi (ivw`qvjøvn ÕAvbû) KZ…K ©
`ywf©‡ÿi mgq Pzwii Aciv‡a û`ya AvB‡b `wЇZi nvZ KvUvi kvw¯Í ¯’wMZ
Kivi D`vniY Dc¯’vcb Kiv nq| GLv‡b GKwU e¨wZµgx cwiw¯’wZ‡Z
Bmjv‡gi GKwU wbw`©ó AvBb‡K e¨wZµgx c`‡ÿc wn‡m‡e ¯’wMZ Kiv
nq| GKRb Ab¨Zg AvBbwe` Avj mvivLwm (ً‫ )سشخس‬BmwZnmvb‡K
MY¨ K‡ib Ggb GKwU c×wZ wn‡m‡e hvi gva¨‡g KziAv‡bi mv‡_ msMwZ
†i‡L AvBwb ûKzg‡K mnR Kiv nq (myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 185)| W.
nvwkg Kvgvwj D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb- mvnvwe Ges Zv‡ewqMY ïaygvÎ AvÿwiK
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 41

AbymiYKvix wQ‡jb bv| cÖvqB Zv‡`i cÖ`Ë ivq kwiAvni g~j B”Qv Ges
D‡Ï‡k¨i Av‡jv‡K cÖ`vb K‡i‡Qb Zviv| W. nvwkg Kvgvwj BmwZnmvbÕi
GKwU bZzb D`vniY w`‡q‡Qb| Bmjvwg AvB‡b †Kej †g․wLK mvÿ¨ cÖgvY
wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ nq| wKš‘ eZ©gv‡b wKQz †ÿ‡Î Av‡jvKwPÎ, †iKW©K…Z kã
Ges M‡elYvMv‡i K…Z we‡kølY AwaKZi wek¦vm‡hvM¨ cÖgvY wn‡m‡e
e¨eüZ n‡Z cv‡i| G‡ÿ‡Î BmwZnmvb c×wZi gva¨‡g Avgiv mvÿ¨
MÖn‡Yi †ÿ‡Î †g․wLK mv‡ÿ¨i †P‡q AvaywbK c×wZ‡K AwaKZi cÖvavb¨
w`‡Z cvwi|
nvbvdx AvBbwe` Aveyj nvmvb Avj KviwL BmwZnmvb‡K msÁvwqZ
K‡i‡Qb AwaKZi hyw³msMZ Kvi‡Y GKwU cÖwZwôZ bwRi †_‡K wfbœ iv‡q
¯’vbvšÍ‡ii bxwZ wn‡m‡e| gvwjKx AvBbwe‡`iv BmwZnmvb A‡cÿv
BmwZmjvnÕi e¨vcv‡i AwaKZi AvMÖnx| Zv‡`i g‡Z BmwZnmvb Kg‡ewk
BmwZmjvnÕi Abyiƒc ev BmwZmjvni GKwU Ask|
KziAvb I mybœvn‡Z BmwZnmvbÕi mg_©‡b †Kv‡bv KvZÕC cÖgvY †bB| Z‡e
KziAv‡bi 34: 18 Ges 39: 55 bs AvqvZØq BmwZnmvbÕi mg_©‡b
D‡jøL Kiv nq| GKBfv‡e GKwU weL¨vZ nvw`m Ôjv `viviv Iqv jv w`iviv
wdj BmjvgÕ ( ‫ض َش َس فً اإلسالو‬
َ ‫ض َش َس ٔال‬
َ ‫ ال‬Ñ Bmjv‡g †Kv‡bv Amyweav
Av‡ivwcZ ev mn¨ Kiv n‡e bv) BmwZnmvbÕi mg_©‡b D‡jøL Kiv nq|
BmwZnmvb Nwbôfv‡e ivq Ges wKqvmÕi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z| wKqvm Ges
BmwZnmvÕ‡b ivq GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Dcv`vb, BmwZnmvbÕi †ÿ‡Î welqwU
Av‡iv †ewk cÖ‡hvR¨|
mvnvweiv mybœvn‡K wemR©b w`‡q ivq cÖ‡qv‡Mi †ÿ‡Î mZK© wQ‡jb| Avn‡j
nvw`mcš’xiv ivq cÖ`vb †_‡K weiZ _v‡Kb| Ab¨w`‡K AwaKvsk dzKvnv
AvB‡bi †ÿ‡Î ¯^vaxbfv‡e ivq-Gi cÖ‡qvM NUv‡Zb Ges Zviv ‫أْم انشأي‬
e‡j cwiwPZ|
A‡b‡KB g‡b K‡ib †h, BmwZnmvb g~jZ wKqvm Lvwd (ً‫ |)لٍبط خف‬Zviv
g‡b K‡ib †h, BmwZnmvb n‡jv wKqvm Rvwj ( ً‫‡_† )لٍبط جه‬K wKqvm
Lvwd‡Z ( ً‫† )لٍبط خف‬cu․Qv| Av‡iK ai‡bi BmwZnmvb Av‡Q †hLv‡b
KwZcq bvm, M„nxZ cÖ_v, `viæivn (doctrine of necessity- cÖ‡qvRbxqZv)
42 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

A_ev gvmjvnv (‫ظهذخ‬ ْ ‫ َي‬Ñ Rb¯^v_©) BZ¨vw`i wfwˇZ mvg¨ (equity) Ges
b¨vqwePv‡ii ¯^v‡_© e¨wZµg‡KB mvaviY weavb wn‡m‡e a‡i †bqv nq|
Avj kvwdC KziAv‡bi 4: 59 Ges 75: 36 bs AvqvZ؇qi wfwˇZ
BmwZnmvbÕi mgv‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb| wKš‘ G AvqvZØq BmwZnmv‡bi
e¨vcv‡i mywbw`©ó bq| Avj Mv¾vwj BmwZnmvbÕi mgv‡jvPbv K‡i‡Qb|
wKš‘ wZwb D‡jøL K‡ib †h kvwdC gvRnv‡e KziAvb I mybœvni wfwˇZ
BmwZnmvb‡K ¯^xK…wZ †`qv n‡q‡Q| Avj Avwgw` (GKRb kvwdC
AvBbwe`) D‡jøL K‡ib †h, kvwdC BmwZnmvbÕi AvkÖq wb‡qwQ‡jb|
AvaywbK AvBbwe‡`iv D‡jøL K‡ib †hÑ BmwZnmvbÕi Avek¨KZv A¯^xKvi
Kivi Dcvq †bB
43

gvmjvnv Iqv gyimvjvn


gvmjvnv Iqv gyimvjvn (‫)هظلحت وهرسلت‬
kvwãK A‡_© gvmjvnv )‫ظهذخ‬ْ ‫ ( َي‬A_© DcKvi ev jvf| hLb kãwU gvmjvnv
gyimvjvn (‫ )يظهخ ٔانًشسهخ‬wn‡m‡e we‡klvwqZ nq ZLb Gi A_© `uvovq
AevwiZ Rb¯^v_©| gvmjvnv gyimvjvn BmwZmjvni cÖwZkã Ges GwU
gvmjvnv gyZjvKv wn‡m‡eI e¨eüZ nq| Bgvg Mv¾vwj (iv.) g‡b K‡ib
gvmjvnv cuvPwU welq‡K aviY K‡i hv msiÿY K‡i Rxeb, ag©, eyw×e„wË,
esk I m¤úwË Ges G Dcv`vb¸‡jv DcKvi‡K msiÿY K‡i Ges nvivg‡K
cÖwZ‡iva K‡i|
gvmjvnvi wfwˇZ Zv‡ewqbiv gy`ªv cÖYqb, †RjLvbv ¯’vcb Ges LvivR
(LvRbv) Av‡ivc Kivi wm×všÍ MÖnY K‡ib| Dm~jwe`MY BmwZmjvni
e¨vcv‡i HKgZ¨ n‡q‡Qb †h Bev`‡Zi wel‡q Ges kwiAvni †Kv‡bv
mywbw`©ó ûKz‡gi †ÿ‡Î, †hgb- DËivwaKvi AvBb, BmwZmjvnÕi cÖ‡qvM
†bB| AwaKvsk D‡jgv g‡b K‡ib BmwZmjvn AvBb cÖYq‡bi GKwU h_v_©
c×wZ| Avj kvwZwe †`Lvb †h GwU m~iv Avj Avw¤^qvi 107 bs Avqv‡Zi
D‡Ïk¨ mvab K‡i †hLv‡b ejv n‡q‡Q- ÔAvgiv †Zvgv‡K RMZevmxi
ingZ ¯^iƒc †cÖiY K‡iwQÕ| gvmjvnvÕi mg_©‡b KziAv‡bi 5: 6 Avqv‡Zi
D‡jøL Kiv hvq| Av‡jgMY gvmjvnvi mg_©‡b wb‡gœv³ nvw`mmg~n D‡jøL
K‡ib:
1. Bmjv‡g †Kv‡bv Amyweav Av‡ivwcZ n‡e bv ev mn¨ Kiv n‡e bv|
2. `y‡Uv weK‡íi g‡a¨ imyj m. mnRwU‡K MÖnY K‡ib hZÿY bv GwU
cv‡ci KviY nq|
3. AvjøvnZvqvjv Zvi †`qv K‡Vvi wewa cvj‡bi b¨vq myweavRbK wewaI
gvbyl Dc‡fvM Ki‡Q GwU †`L‡Z fv‡jvev‡mb|
44 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

Dc‡iv³ DׄwZmg~n GwU wbwðZ K‡i †h, AvnKvg Kv‡qg Kivi bv‡g
†Kv‡bv AcÖ‡qvRbxq K‡VviZvi Aby‡gv`b †bB Ges gymwjg‡`i DwPZ
kwiAvn cÖ`Ë bgbxqZv Ges myweav MÖnY Kiv|
mKj †Lvjvdv‡q iv‡kw`b gvmjvnvi Ici Avgj K‡iwQ‡jb| nRiZ
AveyeKi (ivw`qvjøvn ÕAvbû) KziAvb‡K msKjb K‡ib| nRiZ Igi
(ivw`qvjøvn ÕAvbû) miKvwi Awdm Ace¨envi Kivi Rb¨ miKvwi
Kg©KZ©v‡`i `vqx K‡ib| nRiZ Dmgvb (ivw`qvjøvn ÕAvbû) KziAvb
kwi‡di mwVK bKj eÈb K‡ib Ges wfbœZv m¤úbœ cv‡Vi bKj cywo‡q
†d‡jb| nRiZ Avjx (ivw`qvjøvn ÕAvbû) KvwiMi Ges e¨emvqx‡`i
wR¤§vq _vKv `ªe¨ nvwi‡q †M‡j Zv‡`i‡KB Zvi Rb¨ `vqx K‡ib|
AwaKvsk Av‡jg KZ…©K gvmjvnvi (‫ )يظهذخ‬cÿvej¤^b Kiv nq| hv‡nvK,
gvmjvnvi c‡ÿ me‡P‡q k³ mg_©b cÖ`vb K‡i‡Qb Bgvg gvwjK| Bgvg
kvwZwe Ges Ab¨vb¨ Av‡iv KwZcq D‡jgvi g‡Z gvmjvnv wZb cÖKvi|
h_v:
1. cÖ‡qvRbxq (‫ضشٔسٌخ‬Ñ `iæwiqvZ);
2. myweav`vqK (‫دجٍخ‬Ñ nvwRqvZ); Ges
3. †m․›`h©`vqK (‫ رذسٍُخ‬Ñ ZvnwmwbqvZ)|

gvmjvnv‡K wbgœiƒc wZbfv‡MI fvM Kiv n‡q‡Q| h_v:


K. gvmjvnv gyZveviv (wbf©i‡hvM¨ gvmjvnv): G gvmjvnv kwiq‡Zi
mKj †ÿ‡Î MÖnY Kiv n‡q‡Q| D`vniY ¯^iƒc ejv hvq †h,
gvwjKvbv iÿvi Rb¨ †Pvi‡K kvw¯Í †`qv|
L. gvmjvnv gyimvjvn: G ai‡bi gvmjvnv‡K kwiqZ me‡ÿ‡Î
MÖnYI K‡iwb ev me‡ÿ‡Î cwiZ¨vMI K‡iwb| Gi D`vniY n‡”Q
gymwjg †`kmg~‡n cÖewZ©Z IBme `wjjmg~n hv weevn A_ev
m¤úwËi gvwjKvbv cÖgv‡Yi Rb¨ •Zwi Kiv n‡q _v‡K|
M. gvmjvnv gyjMvn: G ai‡bi gvmjvnv me©‡ÿ‡Î cwiZ¨vM Kiv
n‡q‡Q|

gvmjvnv‡K •eaZv †`qvi Rb¨ wb‡gœv³ kZ©mg~n c~iY Ki‡Z n‡e:


1. gvmjvnv Aek¨B AK…wÎg n‡Z n‡e|
2. gvmjvnv Aek¨B mve©Rbxb n‡Z n‡e (‫ كهٍخ‬Ñ Kzwjøqvn)|
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 45

3. gvmjvnv Aek¨B ¯úó bvm-Gi (text) mv‡_ mvsNwl©K n‡e bv|


Avj Zzwd Zvi eB Ôgvmvwjn Avj gyimvjvnÕ-†Z D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb †h,
Bev`‡Zi †ÿÎ e¨ZxZ A_ev kwiAvni mywbw`©ó ûKzg Qvov gvmvwjn
(‫يظبنخ‬Ñ gvmjvnvi eûePb) Ab¨vb¨ cÖgv‡Yi †P‡q AMÖvwaKvi cv‡e|
wKqvm, BmwZnmvb, BmwZmjvn BZ¨vw`i g‡a¨ AvšÍtm¤úK© eY©bv Ki‡Z
†h‡q D‡jøL Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i †h, wKqvm Ges BmwZnmvb Avewk¨Kfv‡e
bymy‡mi (text) Bjøv‡Zi Dci wbf©ikxj| bymy‡mi Bjøv‡Zi Ici wfwË K‡i
wKqvm I BmwZnmvb Øviv AvB‡bi m¤cÖmviY N‡U| wKš‘ hLb DwjøwLZ
cÖKv‡i AvBb •Zwi m¤¢e nq bv ZLb gvmjvnvi wfwˇZ ev Rb¯^v‡_©
AvBb •Zwi Ki‡Z nq| GK`j we‡klÁ G c×wZ‡Z AvBb •Zwii Zxeª
we‡ivax| wKš‘ G gZfz³ Av‡jgMY msL¨vjwNô Ges Zv‡`i hyw³I †Zgb
†Rviv‡jv bq| W. nvwkg Kvgvwji g‡Z cwieZ©bkxj we‡k¦i bZzb
cwiw¯’wZ‡K †gvKvwejv Kivi Rb¨ Bmjvwg AvBbwe`‡`i Rb¨ gvmjvnv
n‡”Q cÖavb c×wZ
46

Did Ges BmwZmnve


Did ( ‫ ع ْمُعر ٌر‬Ñ cÖ_v)
Dm~j mvwn‡Z¨ Did‡K msÁvwqZ Kiv n‡q‡Q cybtmsNUbkxj Abykxjb
wn‡m‡e hv Rbmvavi‡Yi wbKU cÖK…wZMZ w`K †_‡K DËg e‡j ¯^xK…Z|
Did Ges GwU †_‡K AvnwiZ ÔgviædÕ (‫ٔف‬ ‫` ) َي ْؼ ُش ٌل‬y‡Uv kãB KziAvb
kwi‡d g~jZ fv‡jv (g‡›`i wecixZ) Ges Avjøvni weav‡bi AvbyMZ¨
A‡_©I e¨eüZ n‡q‡Q (myiv Av‡j Bgivb, 3: 110 Ges myiv Avj Avivd,
7: 199)| Z‡e KziAv‡bi KwZcq ¯’v‡b Did kãwU cÖ_v wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ
n‡q‡Q (myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 233Ñ mšÍvb cÖwZcvjbv‡_©)| kwiAvn ZvB
bxwZMZfv‡e cÖ_v‡K nvjvj Ges nvivg wba©vi‡Yi Rb¨ •eaZv w`‡q‡Q|
wdKvnwe`iv Did‡K kwiAvni AvnKvg wba©vi‡Yi Rb¨I MÖnY K‡i‡Qb|
wdKvn HmKj weavb hv AvBbwe`‡`i gZvgZ ev ÔBRwZnv`-Gi Dci
wfwË K‡i M‡o D‡V‡Q| †`Lv †M‡Q A‡bK weavb MwVZ n‡q‡Q cÖPwjZ
cÖ_vi Av‡jv‡K| ZvB mg‡qi †cÖwÿ‡Z hw` cÖ_v¸‡jv cwiewZ©Z nq Z‡e
D³ cÖ_vi Av‡jv‡K MwVZ weavb¸‡jvi cwieZ©b Kivi AbygwZ kwiAvn‡Z
Av‡Q|
KwZcq dzKvnv (‫( )فُمٓب ٌلء‬Bgvg myqywZ Ges mvivLwm) GKwU bxwZi D‡jøL
K‡i‡Qb we‡ePbvi Rb¨| †mwU n‡jv ÔcÖ_vi gva¨‡g hv cÖgvwYZ Zv
kwiq‡Zi gva¨‡g cÖgvwY‡Zi m`„kÕ| G weavbwU Zzi‡¯‥i †Ljvd‡Z Avj
gvRvjøvni AvBb MÖš’ cÖYq‡bi mgq M„nxZ n‡qwQj| Z‡e G weavbwU
gymwjg †`kmg~‡ni cÖ_vi †ÿ‡Î cÖ‡qvM‡hvM¨ Ges hw` cÖ_vwU kwiAvni
Ab¨vb¨ weavb Ges mvieËvi mv‡_ mvsNwl©K bv nq| Agymwjg mgv‡Ri
cÖ_v AZ¨šÍ mZK©Zvi mv‡_ wbixÿY Ki‡Z n‡e|
imyj (mvjøvjøvû AvjvBwn Iqvmvjøvg)-Gi RxeÏkvq Aviweq mgv‡R
cÖPwjZ cÖ_v Ges †hmKj cÖ_v imyj (mvjøvjøvû AvjvBwn Iqvmvjøvg) KZ…©K
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 47

evwZj nqwb †mmKj cÖ_v‡K imyj (mvjøvjøvû AvjvBwn Iqvmvjøvg)-Gi


bxie ¯^xK…wZ wn‡m‡e a‡i wb‡Z n‡e Ges GmKj cÖ_v‡K ZvKwiwi mybœvn
wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Ki‡Z n‡e| w`qvZ (i³g~j¨) cwi‡kva n‡jv Giƒc GKwU
D`vniY| G‡ÿ‡Î g„Z e¨w³i cwievi‡K nZ¨vKvix e¨w³i ÔAvwKjvÕiv
(cyiæl AvZ¥xq) ÿwZc~i‡Yi A_© cÖ`vb Ki‡Z eva¨| bvixiv eva¨ bq, Z‡e
B”Qv Ki‡j bvixivI ÿwZcyi‡Yi A_© cÖ`vb Ki‡Z cv‡i|
Di‡di †ÿ‡Î wb‡gœv³ kZ©mg~n cÖ‡hvR¨:
1. GwU Aek¨B mve©Rbxb Ges cybtmsNUbkxj n‡Z n‡e;
2. KvRKvievi msNU‡bi mgq Did Aek¨B AbykxwjZ n‡Z n‡e, A_©vr
AZx‡Zi cÖ_vi †Kv‡bv wfwË †bB; Ges
3. Did Aek¨B KziAvb Ges mybœvni ¯úó bvm-Gi j•Nb Ki‡e bv|
Did Ges BRgvÕi g‡a¨ cv_©K¨ Av‡Q| Did Avewk¨Kfv‡e ¯’vbxq ev
†`kR Abykxjb| Ab¨w`‡K BRgvÔ n‡jv ¯’vb Ges †`k wbwe©‡k‡l
D‡jgv‡`i gv‡S HKgZ¨| Df‡qi gv‡S Av‡iv cv_©K¨ Av‡Q Z‡e †m¸‡jv
†Zgb D‡jøL‡hvM¨ bq| Did‡K KvDwj (ً‫ لٕن‬Ñ †g․wLK) Ges wdqwj
(ً‫فؼه‬Ñ AvPwiZ) G `yÕfv‡M fvM Kiv hvq| KvDwj Did RbM‡Yi gv‡S
†g․wLK g‣Z‡K¨i mgš^‡q MwVZ| d‡j cÖPwjZ A_© g~L¨ ¯’vb `Lj K‡i
Ges kvwãK A_© †M․Y ¯’v‡b P‡j hvq| wdqwj Did cybtmsNUbkxj
Abykxjb hv RbMY KZ…©K ¯^xK…Z, Zvi mgš^‡q MwVZ nq|
Did KvDwj (ً‫ )ػشف لٕن‬Ges Did wdqwj (ً‫` )ػشف فؼه‬y‡UvB Avevi
Av‡iv `y‡Uv Dcfv‡M wef³:
1. Avj Did Avj AvÔg ( ‫)انؼشف انؼبو‬: mKj ¯’v‡bi RbMY KZ…©K
Abykxjb|
2. Avj Did Avj Lvm (‫)انؼشف انخبص‬: †Kv‡bv wbw`©ó ¯’vb, GjvKv ev
†`‡k cÖPwjZ Abykxjb|
Did‡K Av‡iv `yÕfv‡M †kÖwYe× Kiv hvq| h_v:
1. Didz mvwnn (‫ )ػشف طذٍخ‬Ñ KziAvb I mybœvni Av‡jv‡K mvwnn|
2. Did Avj dvwm` ( ‫ )ػشف انفبسذ‬Ñ KziAvb I mybœvni Av‡jv‡K •ea
bq|
W. Rvgvj Avj ev`vwe Did‡K wZb †kÖwY‡Z fvM K‡i‡Qb| h_v:
BwZevPK, wbi‡cÿ Ges †bwZevPK| BwZevPK Di‡di D`vniY n‡jv
gnvbyfeZv A_ev AvwZ‡_qZv| wbi‡cÿ Di‡di D`vniY n‡jv Ggb cÖ_v
48 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

hv Bmjvwg AvBb I wkÿvi we‡ivax bq| W. Rvgvj ev`vwe D‡jøL K‡i‡Qb


†h †Kv‡bv ¯’vbxq cÖ_v hw` †bwZevPK nq Z‡e Zv cwinvi Kiv evÃbxq| 
Bmjvwg AvB‡bi Drm wn‡m‡e Did Lye ¯úk©KvZi welq| G‡ÿ‡Î
Avgv‡`i DwPZ AwaKvsk e‡qv‡R¨ô Bmjvwg we‡kl‡Ái gZvg‡Zi Dci
wbf©i Kiv| KziAv‡bi 7: 199 Ges 22: 78 bs AvqvZ؇qi wfwˇZ
Di‡di b¨vh¨Zv a‡i †bqv nq| Z‡e Gme AvqvZ G‡ÿ‡Î KvZÕC bq|
KwZcq nvw`mI Di‡di mg_©‡b D‡jøL Kiv nq Z‡e Gme nvw`mI
Di‡di mg_©‡b ¯úó cÖgvY bq| Did wb‡RI Gi AwaKv‡ii e¨vcv‡i
¯^vaxb cÖgvY bq| hv‡nvK, Did Bmjvwg AvB‡bi e¨vL¨v Ges cÖ‡qv‡Mi
†ÿ‡Î mnvqZvKvix f‚wgKv cvjb K‡i| Av‡iKwU wel‡qi D‡jøL Kiv
cÖ‡qvRb †h, AvaywbK Kv‡j wewae× AvB‡bi msKjb wKQzUv n‡jI Di‡di
cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Kwg‡q w`‡q‡Q|
Avgiv †hgbwU c~‡e© D‡jøL K‡iwQ Di‡di Dci wfwË K‡i M‡o IVv AvBb
cwieZ©b‡hvM¨| Dm~‡ji cvV¨eB‡q Gi mg_©‡b cÖgvY cvIqv hv‡e|
fwel¨‡ZI hLb cÖ‡qvRb †`Lv †`‡e Did Ges ÔBRwZnv`-Gi wfwˇZ
MwVZ AvB‡bi cwieZ©b n‡e|
Dcmsnv‡i ejv hvq, Bmjvwg AvB‡bi Drm wn‡m‡e Di‡di cÖ‡qvRbxqZv
Avi †ewkw`b _vK‡e bv| hv‡nvK, Did gv‡S gv‡S Bmjvwg AvBb‡K
eyS‡Z, e¨vL¨v Ki‡Z Ges cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z mnvqZv Ki‡e| G‡ÿ‡Î Lye
mZK© c`‡ÿc †bqv `iKvi|
BmwZmnve (‫)إسزسذبة‬: kvwãK A‡_© BmwZmnv‡ei A_© n‡jv mvnPh©|
wKš‘ Dm~j Avj wdKn‡Z BmwZmnve †Kv‡bv NUbvi Aw¯Í‡Z¡i Ges
Abw¯Í‡Z¡i Abygvb wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ nq| Ab¨vb¨ cÖgv‡Yi Abycw¯’wZ‡Z GwU
cÖgvY wn‡m‡e e¨eüZ n‡Z cv‡i|
me©Rb KZ…K © bv n‡jI A‡bK we‡klÁ Øviv BmwZmnve •eaZv †c‡q‡Q|
BwZevPK A‡_© BmwZmnve n‡jv †Kv‡bv NUbvi (weevn wKsev DËivwaKvi
n¯ÍvšÍi) avivevwnKZvi Abygvb Kiv, hw` bv wecixZ wKQz cÖgvwYZ nq|
hv‡nvK, avivevwnKZvi Abygvb cÖgvwYZ bvI n‡Z cv‡i hw` Pzw³
ÿY¯’vqx cÖK…wZi nq (BRviv)| BmwZmnve Aek¨ †bwZevPK NUbvi
avivevwnKZvI Abygvb K‡i|
†h‡nZz BmwZmnv‡ei wfwË Abygvbwbf©i, ZvB BmwZmnve kwiAvni AvBb
cÖYq‡bi †Kv‡bv kw³kvjx wfwË bq| d‡j BmwZmnv‡ei mv‡_ Ab¨vb¨
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 49

cÖgv‡Yi we‡iva †`Lv w`‡j Ab¨vb¨ cÖgvY cÖvavb¨ cv‡e| BmwZmnve Pvi
cÖKv‡ii:
1. BmwZmnve Avj-ÕAv`g Avj Avmwj ( ً‫ االسزظذبة انؼذو األطه‬Ñ
Abycw¯’wZi Abygvb) hvi A_© GKwU NUbv ev weavb hvi Aw¯ÍZ¡
AZx‡Z wQj bvÑ †mwUi Abycw¯’wZB a‡i †bqv n‡e|
2. BmwZmnve Avj IRy` Avj Avmwj ( ً‫ اسزظذبة انٕجٕد األطه‬Ñ
Dcw¯’wZi Abygvb) hvi A_© †Kv‡bv NUbvi Dcw¯’wZ a‡i wb‡Z n‡e hv
AvBb ev hyw³ Øviv wba©vwiZ ev cÖgvwYZ| D`vniY¯^iƒc ejv hvq,
GKRb ¯^vgx •ea weev‡ni cÖgv‡Yi Kvi‡Y †gvni w`‡Z eva¨|
3. BmwZmnve Avj ûKzg (‫ )اسزظذبة انذكى‬hv AvB‡bi weav‡bi Ges
g~j bxwZi avivevwnKZvi Abygvb K‡i| D`vniY¯^iƒc ejv hvq, hLb
†Kv‡bv AvB‡bi ivq †`qv nq ZLb a‡i †bqv nq bZzb ivqwU c~‡e©i
avivevwnKZvi Av‡jv‡KB n‡q‡Q| hLb †Kv‡bv wel‡q GKwU AvBb
ejer _v‡K (Aby‡gv`b ev wb‡lavÁv †h e¨vcv‡iB †nvK) GwU a‡i
†bqv nq †h AvBbwU Ae¨vnZ i‡q‡Q|
4. BmwZmnve Avj Iqvmwd ( ً‫ اسزظذبة انٕطف‬Ñ ¸Y Ae¨vnZ _vKv)
A_©vr †Kv‡bv ¸Y Ae¨vnZ i‡q‡Q a‡i †bqv hZÿY bv wecixZwU
cÖgvwYZ nq| †hgbÑ †h cvwb‡K weï× Rvbv Av‡Q, Zv‡K weï× g‡b
Ki‡Z n‡e hZÿY bv wecixZwU cÖgvwYZ nq|
Dm~‡ji D‡jgv‡`i gv‡S BmwZmnveÕi cÖ_g wZbwU aiY wb‡q g‣ZK¨
Av‡Q, Z‡e PZz_© aiYwU wb‡q Av‡Q gZ‣ØZZv| wKQz ¸iæZ¡c~Y© AvBbMZ
¯^Ztwm×Zv BmwZmnv‡e †`Lv hvq| †hgb:
1. m‡›`‡ni Øviv wbðqZv Aemvb nq bv (‫|)انٍمٍ الٌضٔل ثبنشك‬
2. g~jMZfv‡e gvbyl `vqgy³ (‫|)انجشح انضيخ األطبنٍخ‬
Ab¨Zg AvBbwe` nvmvb Zvi iwPZ ÔZvRw`` Dm~j Avj wdKn Avj
BmjvgÕ MÖ‡š’ BmwZmnveÕi ¸iæZ¡vejxi wel‡q Av‡jvKcvZ K‡ib| Zvi
g‡Z BmwZmnveÕi cwiwai gv‡S cÖvK…wZK wePv‡ii (Natural Law)
aviYv, •ea cÖ_v Ges mgv‡Ri Av‡iv wKQz welq AvZ¥¯’ Kivi Kvh©Ki
ÿgZv we`¨gvb
50

mvÏ& Avj hvivÕB


hvwiqv (‫ )رسٌؼخ‬k‡ãi eûePb hvivB hvi A_© gva¨g| mvÏ A_©
cÖwZeÜKZv •Zwi| Dm~j kv‡¯¿ mvÏ Avj hvivB Gi A_© `uvovq Ôcv‡ci
gva¨g‡K cÖwZnZKiYÕ| mvÏ Avj hvivB cÖvqB e¨eüZ nq hLb
†Kv‡bv •ea gva¨‡gi Øviv A‣ea djvd‡ji m¤¢vebv cÖKvk cvq| 
`y®‥g© Kvh©Ki nIqvi Av‡MB Zv cÖwZ‡iva nIqv evÃbxq G aviYvi Ici
wfwË K‡iB mvÏ Avj hvivB‡qi aviYv MwVZ n‡q‡Q| KziAv‡b mvÏ Avj
hvivB‡qi D`vniY Av‡Q (myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 104 Ges myiv AvbAvg,
6: 108)| gva¨g Aek¨B j‡ÿ¨i (kwiAvni D‡Ïk¨) mv‡_
mvgÄm¨kxj n‡Z n‡e Ges jÿ¨ Aek¨B gva¨‡gi Dci cÖvavb¨ cv‡e|
gva¨g hw` kwiAvni D‡Ïk¨ cwicš’x KvR K‡i Z‡e Zv‡K Aek¨B
cÖwZ‡iva Ki‡Z n‡e| kwiAvni cvV¨ †_‡K Gi D‡Ïk¨ wPwýZ Kiv m¤¢e|
AvBbwe`iv GKwU mvaviY bxwZ MÖnY K‡i‡Qb Zv n‡jv Ônviv‡gi
cÖwZeÜKZvÕ ÔDcKvi jv‡fiÕ Dci cÖvavb¨ cv‡e| hw` †Kv‡bv gva¨g
cvc‡K cÖ‡ivwPZ K‡i Z‡e Zv Aek¨B cwiZ¨vR¨| mvÏ Avj hvivÕB‡qi
AbygwZ mybœvn‡ZI †`Lv hvq| †hgb nRiZ gynv¤§` (mvjøvjøvû AvjvBwn
Iqvmvjøvg) FY`vZv‡K FYMÖnxZvi wbKU †_‡K Dcnvi wb‡Z eviY
K‡i‡Qb (GwU my` MÖn‡Yi w`‡K cÖ‡ivwPZ Ki‡Z cv‡i)| GKBfv‡e
D¤§‡Zi g‡a¨ msNl© n‡Z cv‡iÑ G Kvi‡Y wZwb gybvwdK‡`i nZ¨v Kiv
wb‡la K‡ib| †Zgwbfv‡e wZwb m‡›`‡ni e‡k †h †Kv‡bv nZ¨v wbwl×
K‡ib|
Dc‡i DwjøwLZ e³e¨ m‡Ë¡I Dm~‡ji Av‡jgMY mvÏ Avj hvivÕB‡qi
e¨vcv‡i GKgZ n‡Z cv‡ibwb| †KD †KD GwUi ¯^xK…wZ w`‡q‡Qb Avevi
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 51

A‡b‡K ¯^xK…wZ †`bwb| hv‡nvK, Bgvg kvwZwe (iv‡ngvûjøv)-Gi gZvgZ


n‡jv AwaKvsk D‡jgvB mvÏ Avj hvivB‡K bxwZMZfv‡e MÖnY K‡i‡Qb|
Avey hvniviI gZvgZ GKB ai‡bi|
Ab¨v‡qi w`‡K cÖ‡ivPbvi m¤¢vebvi Dci wfwË K‡i hvivB‡K Pvifv‡M fvM
Kiv n‡q‡Q:
1. †mmKj gva¨g hv wbwðZfv‡e cv‡ci w`‡K cÖ‡ivwPZ K‡i| GiKg
gva¨g mvwe©Kfv‡e wbwl×|
2. †mmKj gva¨g hv AwaKvsk †ÿ‡Î Ab¨v‡qi w`‡K cÖ‡ivwPZ K‡i Ges
Lye Kg †ÿ‡ÎB DcKvi wbwðZ K‡i| Gi D`vniY n‡jv hy×Kvjxb
mg‡q mgiv¯¿ wewµ Ges g` •ZwiKvi‡Ki wbKU Av½yi wewµ Kiv|
AwaKvsk D‡jgv GmKj KvR Kiv wb‡la K‡i‡Qb|
3. †mmKj DcKiY hv cv‡ci w`‡K cÖ‡ivwPZ Ki‡Z cv‡i, wKš‘ Gi
†Kv‡bv wbðqZv †bB Ges cÖej m¤¢vebvI †bB| G ai‡bi gva¨‡g
A‣eaKi‡Yi †ÿ‡Î D‡jgv‡`i gv‡S e¨vcK ch©v‡qi gZ‣ØZZv
Av‡Q|
4. †mmKj gva¨g hv K`vwPr cv‡ci c‡_ cwiPvwjZ K‡i| †Kv‡bv ¯’v‡b
K‚c Lbb ev •¯^ikvm‡Ki Dcw¯’wZ‡Z mZ¨K_b| D‡jgvMY GmKj
gva¨‡gi c‡ÿ ivq w`‡q‡Qb| Zviv GmKj KvR‡K •ea e‡j‡Qb|
mvÏ Avj hvivB e¨vcKfv‡e e¨eüZ nIqv DwPZ bq, we‡klZ Ic‡i
DwjøwLZ Z…Zxq †kÖwYfz³‡Zv bqB| Gi e¨vcK e¨env‡i gyevn‡K (‫ ُيجَب ٌلح‬Ñ
AvBbm¤§Z) Ges gvb`ye‡K ( ‫ َي ُْذ ُْٔةٌل‬Ñ mycvwikK…Z) †eAvBwb Kiv n‡e hv
MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡Z cv‡i bv|
Bebyj Avivwe Ges Avey hvniv mvÏ Avj hvivB ( ‫س ْذ انزَّسااِغ‬ َ ) e¨env‡ii
†ÿ‡Î ga¨cš’v Aej¤^‡bi cÿcvwZ| gvby‡li Pigcš’v cÖeYZvi Kvi‡Y
mvÏ Avj hvivB e¨env‡ii d‡j Avjøvn Ges Zvi imyj KZ…K © cÖ`Ë
¯^vaxbZv niY n‡Z cv‡i, hv †Kv‡bvfv‡eB n‡Z †`qv †h‡Z cv‡i bv
52

ûKzg kviÕC
ûKzg kviÕC ( ‫) ُعح ْمك ٌرن شرع‬
ûKzg kviÕC n‡jv AvBb `vZvi (AvjøvncvK ¯^qs Ges Avjøvni cÿ †_‡K
imyj m.) c‡ÿ GKwU `vwe hv gyKvjøv‡di (‫ف‬ ‫ ُيكَهَّ ٌل‬Ñ hvi Ici AvBb
cÖ‡qvM‡hvM¨, GKRb my¯’ Ges eq¯‥ e¨w³) AvPiY m¤úwK©Z, Zvi ¸iæZ¡
wK ch©v‡qiÑ Zv wK eva¨Zvg~jK, cQ›`bxq bv gyevn, AcQ›`bxq bv
nvivg|
hw` `vwewU (text) AvBb wewae× K‡i Z‡e Zv n‡e ûKzg Avj ZvKwjwd
( ‫ |) ُد ْك ُى انز ّ ْك ِهٍف‬Avj ûKzg ZvKwjdx ( ً‫ )ان ُذ ْك ُى انز ّ ْك ِهٍف‬ûKzgwU wewfbœ
ai‡bi n‡Z cv‡i| h_v- dih (‫ع‬ ‫)فش ٌل‬,
ْ IqvwRe (‫)ٔاجت‬, ِ gv›`ye
(‫) َي ُْذٔة‬, gyevn (‫) ُيجبح‬, gvKiæn (ِٔ‫ )يكش‬Ges nvivg (‫|)دشاو‬
AwaKvs‡ki g‡Z dih (‫)فشع‬ ْ Ges IqvwRe (‫)ٔاجت‬ ِ ci¯úi cÖwZkã|
hw` AvBb `vZvi wbKU †_‡K wKQz Kivi Rb¨ eva¨Zvg~jK `vwe _v‡K ZLb
Zv‡K IqvwRe e‡j| nvbvdx gvRnv‡e GwU‡K dih ejv nq| nvbvdx‡`i
wbKU IqvwRe Ab¨ GK ai‡bi weavb hvi cvV ev A‡_©i †Kv‡bv GKwU hbœx
ch©vqfz³ nq| Zviv †Kv‡bv `vwe‡K ZLbB dih AvL¨vwqZ K‡i hw` cvV
Ges Gi A_© DfqB KvZÕC nq Avi G‡K IqvwRe ch©vqfz³ K‡i hw` cvV
ev Gi A‡_©i †Kv‡bv GKwU hbœx ch©vqfz³ nq|
Dc‡i DwjøwLZ IqvwRe, hv nvbvdx‡`i wbKU dih Ggb cÖgv‡Yi wfwˇZ
MwVZ †Kv‡bv eva¨Zvg~jK Av‡`‡ki A¯^xKvi Awek¦v‡mi ch©v‡q c‡o|
eva¨Zvg~jK welqmg~n wb‡gœv³ ch©v‡q †kÖwYfz³ Kiv hvq:
1. IqvwRe AvBb ( ٍٍ‫ٔاجت ػ‬Ñ mKj gyKvjøv‡di Dci e¨w³MZ
eva¨evaKZv) Ges IqvwRe wKdvqv (mw¤§wjZ eva¨evaKZv, mgv‡Ri
GKvs‡ki Øviv m¤úvw`Z n‡jB h‡_ó)|
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 53

2. IqvwRe gyIqv°vZ ( ‫ٔاجت يؤلَّذ‬Ñ mgqmxgv Øviv mxgve×, †hgb


bvgvR Ges †ivRv) Ges IqvwRe gyZjvK (kZ©nxb IqvwRe hv
†Kv‡bviKg mgq Øviv mxgve× bq †hgb nR)|
3. IqvwRe gynvÏv` ( ‫ ٔاجت ُي َذذّح‬Ñ cwigvc‡hvM¨ IqvwRe, †hgb
RvKvZ Ges bvgvR) Ges IqvwRe MvBi gynvÏv` (‫ ٔاجت غٍش ُي َذذّح‬Ñ
Acwigvc‡hvM¨ IqvwRe, †hgb Mixe-`ytLx‡K `vb, ¯¿x‡K †gvnivbv
cÖ`vb)|
gv›`ye (‫ يُذٔة‬Ñ mycvwikK…Z): gv›`ye Ggb ai‡bi `vwe hv gyKvjøv‡di
(‫ )يكهف‬Dci eva¨Zvg~jK bq| gv›`ye gvb‡j cyi®‥vi cvIqv hvq Z‡e
cvj‡b e¨_© n‡j †Kv‡bviƒc kvw¯Í Av‡ivwcZ nq bv| IqvwRe Ges gv›`y‡ei
g‡a¨ G n‡jv cv_©K¨| gv›`y‡ei D`vniY n‡jv IqvKd cÖwZôv, Mixe-
`ytLxi Rb¨ `vb-LqivZ BZ¨vw`| gv›`ye‡K mybœvn, bdj Ges gy¯ÍvnveI
ejv nq|
mybœvn‡K (‫يُذٔة‬Ñ gv›`ye) wb‡gœv³ K‡qKwU fv‡M fvM Kiv nq:
1. mybœvn gyqv°v`vn ( ‫)سُخ يؤ ّكذح‬-Gi D`vniY n‡jv AvRvb, Rvgv‡Z
bvgv‡R AskMÖnY|
2. mybœvn MvBi gyqv°v`vn ( ‫ انسُخ انغٍش يؤ ّكذح‬Ñ AwZwi³ mybœvn)-Gi
D`vniY n‡jv bdj bvgvR, eva¨Zvg~jK bq Ggb `vb-LqivZ|
3. mybœvn gyqv°v`vn ( ‫)سُخ يؤ ّكذح‬-Gi AeÁv wb›`bxq Z‡e kvw¯Í‡hvM¨
bq| mybœvn MvBi Avj gyqv°v`vn ( ‫)انسُخ غٍش يؤ ّكذح‬-Gi AeÁv
wb›`bxq wKsev kvw¯Í‡hvM¨ †Kv‡bvwUB bq| KziAv‡b gv›`y‡ei D`vniY
†`Lv †h‡Z cv‡i myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 282 Ges myiv Avb b~i, 24:
3 Avqv‡Z|
gvnRyi (‫هحجور‬Ñ nvivg): gvnRyi n‡jv AvBb`vZv KZ…K © gyKvjøv‡di
(‫ )يكهف‬cÖwZ †Kv‡bv wKQz eva¨Zvg~jKfv‡e bv Kivi `vwe| †Kv‡bv wKQz
wb‡la Kivi Rb¨ IqvwR‡ei (Dm~‡ji AwaKvsk D‡jgv KZ…©K e¨vL¨vK…Z)
mgch©v‡qi cÖgv‡Yi cÖ‡qvRb| A_©vr Zvi cvV (text) Ges A_© KvZÕC
n‡Z n‡e| nviv‡gi cvVMZ cÖgvY bvbvfv‡e Dc¯’vwcZ n‡Z cv‡i| †hgb:
GwU Avi¤¢ n‡Z cv‡i ÔûiwigvZ AvjvBKzgÕ ( ‫)دشيذ ػهٍكى‬ ِّ wb‡la
†Zvgv‡`i cÖwZ (myiv Avj-gvwq`v, 5: 3)|
54 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

GwU GKwU †bwZevPK kã ØvivI (Verb of Negative Command) n‡Z


cv‡i| †hgb Ôjv ZvKZzjyÕ ( ‫ ال ر َ ْمزُهُ ْٕا‬Ñ nZ¨v K‡iv bv), Ôjv ZvÕKzjy ( ‫ال‬
‫ر َأ ٌلكهُ ْٕا‬Ñ †L‡qv bv Ges wbI bv (myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 188)| †Kv‡bv wKQz
cwinvi Kivi Av‡`km~PKI n‡Z cv‡i| (myiv Avj-gvwq`v, 5: 90Ñ g` I
Ryqv cwinvi Ki‡Z)
welqwU Aby‡gv`b‡hvM¨ bq Gfv‡eI m~Pbv n‡Z cv‡i Ñ (A_©vr †Zvgv‡`i
Rb¨ nvjvj n‡e bv| (‫الَ ٌ ُِذ ُّم نَ ُك ْى‬Ñ 4: 19)
†Kv‡bv AvPi‡Yi Rb¨ kvw¯Í cÖ`v‡bi †NvlYv w`‡qI wb‡lavÁv n‡Z cv‡i|
KziAv‡bi û`y` msµvšÍ AvqvZ Ges †mmKj AvqvZ †hLv‡b Rvnvbœv‡gi
kvw¯Íi K_v ejv Av‡Q| wb‡lavÁv‡KI wb‡gœv³fv‡e fvM Kiv hvq:
nvivg wj hvwZwn ( ّ‫)دشاو نزار‬Ñ hv Zvi wb‡Ri Kvi‡Y wbwl× n‡q‡Q|
†hgb g`, Ryqv|
nvivg wj MvBwiwn (ِ‫دشاو نغٍش‬Ñ hv evwn¨K Kvi‡Y wbwl× n‡q‡Q| †hgb
Ab¨ gvby‡li mv‡_ we‡qi •eaZv cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv gwnjv‡K we‡q Kiv|
gvKiæn (ِٔ‫ )يكش‬n‡jv gv›`yeÕi (‫ )يُذٔة‬wecixZ| GwU Kivi †P‡q bv
Kiv fv‡jv| gvKiæn KvR Kiv kvw¯Í‡hvM¨ ev •bwZK †`v‡li welq
bq| AwaKvs‡ki GwUB gZvgZ| nvbvdxiv Aek¨ gvKiæn‡K wb‡gœv³
`yÕfv‡M fvM K‡i‡Q: gvKiæn ZvbwRwn ( ًٌٓ‫ )يكشِٔ رُض‬Ges gvKiæn
Zvnwiwg ( ًًٌ‫ |)يكشِٔ رذش‬nvbvdx‡`i g‡Z gvKiæn Zvnwiwg •bwZK
†`v‡li KviY, hw`I Zv kvw¯Í‡hvM¨ bq|
gyevn (‫يجبح‬Ñ nvjvj ev Rv‡qh) AvBb`vZvi GKwU evZ©v hv gyKvjøvd‡K
my‡hvM †`q (myiv Avj-evKviv, 2: 173, 235; myiv Avj-gvwq`v, 5: 6)|
Dm~‡ji D‡jgvMY gyevn‡K ûKzg kviCi AšÍf©y³ K‡i‡Qb hw`I Zv
m¤úv`‡bi Rb¨ †Kv‡bv eva¨evaKZv †bB|

Avj ûKzg Avj Iqvw` (ً‫)انذكى انٕضؼ‬: †h weavb Øviv evav, kZ© BZ¨vw`
Av‡ivc Kiv nq| GLv‡b †Kv‡bv AvBb‡K wbw`©óKiY Ki‡Z †h‡q †Kv‡bv
wKQz‡K KviY, †Kv‡bv wKQz‡K kZ© ev evav wn‡m‡e D‡jøL Kiv nq| G
RvZxq nvw`‡mi D`vniY n‡jv †hLv‡b ejv n‡q‡Q Ô`yRb mvÿx e¨ZxZ
†Kv‡bv weevn n‡e bvÕ- G‡ÿ‡Î •ea weev‡ni Rb¨ `yRb mvÿx‡K kZ©
wn‡m‡e Dc¯’vcb Kiv n‡q‡Q| D`vniY wn‡m‡e Av‡iKwU nvw`‡mi D‡jøL
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 55

Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| †hLv‡b ejv n‡q‡Q ÔDËivwaKvix‡`i Rb¨ †Kv‡bv


IwQqZ (will) Kvh©Ki bqÕ| GLv‡b Iqvwik‡`i †ÿ‡Î evav Av‡ivc Kiv
n‡q‡Q| ûKzg Avj Iqvw` ev †NvlYvK…Z AvBb‡K cuvP fv‡M fvM Kiv hvq:
1. KviY;
2. kZ©;
3. AvwRgvn (‫;)ػظًٍخ‬
4. iæLmvn (‫ ;)سخظخ‬Ges
5. gvÕwb (cÖwZeÜKZv)|
Avwhgvn n‡jv Ggb ai‡bi AvBb †hLv‡b AvBb cÖ‡YZvi B”Qv n‡jv
†Kv‡bv KviYekZ †Kv‡bviKg bgbxqZv cÖ`k©b QvovB AvBbwU Kvh©Ki
Kiv (mvaviY cwiw¯’wZ‡Z mKj cÖKv‡ii Bev`Z)|
iæLmvn n‡jv mgm¨vRwbZ Kvi‡Y AvBbwUi e¨wZµg (ågYRwbZ Kvi‡Y
†ivRv f‡½i AbygwZ)| iæLmvn wZbwU Kvi‡Y NU‡Z cv‡i| h_v:
1. cÖ‡qvRbxqZvi †cÖwÿ‡Z †Kv‡bv wbwl× Kv‡Ri AbygwZ|
2. IqvwRe cÖwZcvjb K‡ói KviY n‡j IqvwR‡ei iwnZKiY (åg‡Yi
mgq ågYKvix‡`i bvgv‡Ri mswÿßKiY Ges †ivRvi ¯’wMZKiY)|
3. †h Pzw³ mvaviYfv‡e •ea bq Zv‡K •eaZv cÖ`v‡bi †ÿ‡Î| †hgb-
AwMÖg wewµ (evB‡q mvjvg) Ges Drcvw`Z nqwb Ggb
Drcv`bRvZ c‡Y¨i Rb¨ µq Av‡`k (BmwZmbvn)|
Gi evB‡iI kwiAvni AvB‡bi Av‡iv wefvRb Av‡Q| †hgb-
1. mwnn (‫ط ِذ ٌلخ‬َ Ñ •ea);
2. dvwm` (‫ فب ِسذٌل‬Ñ AwbqwgZ); Ges
3. evwZj (‫بط ٌلم‬ِ َ‫ ث‬Ñ evwZj)|
Dc‡iv³ †kÖwY wefvRb n‡q‡Q Acwinvh© cÖ‡qvRbxqZvi (AviKvbÑ ٌُ‫)أسكب‬ ْ
‫ٌل‬
Ges AvnKv‡gi (k‡Z©iÑ ‫ )ش َْشط‬Ici wfwË K‡i| hLb AviKvb I
AvnKvg c~iY nq ZLb †m KvR‡K •ea ev mwnn e‡j| GwU c~iY bv n‡j
KvRwU evwZj e‡j we‡ewPZ nq|
D‡jgviv G e¨vcv‡i HKgZ¨ †cvlY K‡i‡Qb †h, Bev`Z ïaygvÎ mwnn
َ ) ev evwZj (‫بط ٌلم‬
(‫ط ِذ ٌلخ‬ ِ َ‫ )ث‬ch©vqfz³ n‡e| †jb‡`‡bi welqwUI Abyiƒc
e‡j AwaKvsk D‡jgvi AwfgZ| Z‡e nvbvdxiv G `y‡qi ga¨eZx© GKwU
Ae¯’v‡K •ea e‡j we‡ePbv K‡ib hv dvwm` e‡j AwfwnZ| G‡ÿ‡Î kZ©
56 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

cvj‡b wKQz NvUwZ _v‡K| cieZx©‡Z NvUwZ hw` c~iY Kiv nq Z‡e dvwm`
Kvh©wU mwnn e‡j we‡ewPZ n‡e|
ûKzg kviÕC-Gi ¯Í¤¢ n‡jv wZbwU| h_v:
1. AvBb`vZv (‫ َدب ِك ٌلى‬Ñ nvwKg)|
2. welqe¯‘ (ٍِّ‫ َيذْ ُكٕ ْو ف‬Ñ gvnKzg wdn)|
3. gvnKzg AvjvBn ( ِّ ٍْ َ‫ػه‬ َ ‫ َيذْ ُكٕ ْو‬Ñ hvi Dci AvBbwU Kvh©Ki)|
Bmjv‡g mKj AvB‡bi Drm †kl ch©šÍ AvjøvnZvqvjv (myiv Avj-gvwq`v,
5: 45 Ges myiv AvbAvg, 6: 57)| gvnKzg wdn †mmKj KvR‡K wb‡`©k
K‡i hv gyKvjøvdÕi (‫ف‬ ‫ ) ُيكَهَّ ٌل‬Ici IqvwRe, gv›`ye ev gyevn wn‡m‡e
KiYxq| gvnKzg AvjvB‡n ( ِّ ٍْ َ‫ػه‬ َ ‫ ) َيذْ ُكٕ ْو‬kwiAvn KZ…K © Av‡ivwcZ
AwaKvi Ges wewawb‡la hv‡`i Dci cÖ‡hvR¨| 
GKRb e¨w³ hLb wbw`©ó ch©v‡qi eyw×e„wËK cwic°Zv Ges mÿgZv AR©b
K‡i ZLb †m Kvh©Ki AvBwb †hvM¨Zv AR©b K‡i| Kvh©Ki AvBwb †hvM¨Zv
wkïi †ÿ‡Î eq‡mi Kvi‡Y Ges gyg~l©y e¨w³i Rb¨ AvswkK ch©v‡q _v‡K|
ûKzg kviÕC‡K Av‡iv `yÕfv‡M fvM Kiv m¤¢e| h_v:
1. nv°zjøvn (ِ ‫ ;) َد ُّك‬Ges
2. nv°zj Bev` (‫|) َد ُّك ان ِؼجَب ِد‬
Bev`Z, û`y`, DKzevn (kvw¯Í), Kvddviv (‫بسح ٌل‬ َ َّ‫) َكف‬, wRnv` (‫)ج َٓبدٌل‬
ِ BZ¨vw`
Avjøvni AwaKvifz³|
nv°zj ÕBev` n‡jv ev›`v Z_v Avjøvni m„wói AwaKvi| hvi msiÿY
Acwinvh© KZ©e¨ wn‡m‡e we‡ewPZ| †hgb Kv‡iv Mw”QZ m¤ú` (AvgvbZ)
msiÿY I h_vwbq‡g gvwjK‡K mgc©Y| wLqvbZ ev A‡b¨i AwaKv‡i
n¯Í‡ÿc Kiv gnvcvc| †hgb Kv‡iv A_©-m¤ú` ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv AwaKvi
¶zYœ Kiv, Iqvwik‡K Zvi cvIbv bv †`qv BZ¨vw`| RvwZ, ag©, eY©, †MvÎ
wbwe©‡k‡l †h †Kv‡bv gvby‡li †ÿ‡ÎB GwU cÖ‡hvR¨ n‡e| GgbwK Ab¨vb¨
cÖvYxK‚‡ji †ÿ‡ÎI G weavb mgfv‡e cÖ‡hvR¨| †hgb cwi‡e‡ki ÿwZ
mvabc~e©K Ab¨vqfv‡e cÖvYxK~‡ji Lv`¨vfve I AkvwšÍ m„wó Kiv
57

ZvÕAviæ`
‫ تَنعَن ُع‬Ñ cÖgvYmg~‡ni ev weav‡bi gv‡S we‡iva): ZvÕAviæ`
ZvÕAviæ` ( ‫ارعٌر‬
gv‡b we‡iva| Dm~j Avj wdK‡n ZvÕAviæ` ej‡Z †evSvq kwiAvni `y‡Uv
cÖgvY GKB kw³gËvm¤úbœ, Z‡e cÖgvY `y‡Uv ci¯úi wecixZgyLx| `y‡Uv
cÖgv‡Yi kw³ hw` Amg n‡Zv Z‡e Giƒc we‡iv‡ai D™¢e n‡Zv bv, †Kbbv
†m‡ÿ‡Î AwaKZi kw³kvjx cÖgvYwU‡K `ye©j cÖgv‡Yi Dci cÖvavb¨ †`qv
n‡Zv| G Kvi‡YB KvZÕC I hbœx cÖgv‡Yi gv‡S †Kv‡bv we‡iva †bB|
hw` wecixZ g‡Zi c‡ÿ KziAv‡bi `y‡Uv AvqvZ A_ev KziAv‡bi GKwU
AvqvZ Ges GKwU gyZvIqvwZi nvw`m A_ev `y‡Uv Avnv` nvw`m mvÿ¨
wn‡m‡e _v‡K Z‡e we‡iva †`Lv †`q|
we‡iva ïaygvÎ ZLbB †`Lv †`q, hw` `y‡Uv cÖgv‡Yi cÖ`Ë iv‡qi gv‡S
†Kv‡bviƒc mgš^q mvab Kiv bv hvq| A_©vr GKwUi welqe¯‘
†_‡K Ab¨wUi welqe¯‘i wfbœZv hw` bv Kiv hvq, wKsev cÖgvY `y‡Uvi
mgqKv‡ji wfbœZv wbiƒcY bv Kiv hvq (A_©vr GwU wbwðZ Kiv hvq bv
†Kvb cÖgvYwU c‡ii)|
KvZÕC mv‡ÿ¨i gv‡S Giƒc we‡iva K`vwPr N‡U| weivRgvb AwaKvsk
we‡ivaB ev¯Íe bq eis cÖZxqgvb| Gme evn¨ we‡iva wbim‡bi c×wZmg~n
n‡jv:
1. mgš^qmvaY;
2. wbw`©óKiY; Ges
3. GKwUi Ici Ab¨wU‡K AMÖvwaKvi cÖ`vb|
bvm Avi BRgvÕi g‡a¨ we‡iva AwPšÍ¨bxq †Kbbv BRgvÔ KL‡bv bvm‡K
j•Nb Ki‡Z cv‡i bv|
GKRb gyRZvwn‡`i Aek¨KiYxq n‡jv cÖZxqgvb Gme we‡iv‡ai
mgš^qmvab Kiv| hw` weev`gvb mvÿ¨ `ywU `yB cwiw¯’wZi Rb¨ cÖ‡hvR¨
58 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

nq, Z‡e †mfv‡e e¨vL¨v Kiv `iKvi| hw` GwU m¤¢e bv nq Z‡e
gyRZvwn`‡K we‡ePbv Ki‡Z n‡e Df‡qi g‡a¨ †KvbwU‡K AMÖvwaKvi cÖ`vb
Ki‡eb A_©vr GKwU‡K MÖnY Ki‡Z n‡e| hw` G cÖwµqv‡ZI m¤¢e bv nq
Z‡e cÖgvY `ywUi mgqKvj ch©v‡jvPbv Ki‡eb Ges Zv‡Z evwZjKi‡Yi
bxwZ cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z n‡e| G‡Z cieZx© cÖgvY AMÖvwaKvi cv‡e| hw` G
cÖwµqv‡ZI m¤¢e bv nq Z‡e Dfq cÖgvYB evwZj Ki‡Z n‡e| hLb
we`¨gvb cÖgvY `ywUi aib AvÔg nq †m‡ÿ‡Î GKR‡bi DwPZ weavbwUi
cÖ‡qv‡Mi welqe¯‘ wPwýZ Kiv (†hgb- GKwU eq¯‥‡`i †ÿ‡Î Kvh©Ki n‡Z
cv‡i, Ab¨wU Kvh©Ki n‡Z cv‡i AcÖvßeq¯‥‡`i †ÿ‡Î A_ev GKwU Kvh©Ki
n‡Z cv‡i weevwnZ‡`i †ÿ‡Î, Ab¨wU Kvh©Ki n‡Z cv‡i AweevwnZ‡`i
†ÿ‡Î)| GKwU mvÿ¨ hw` nq AvÔg Ges Ab¨wU hw` nq Lvm, Z‡e Gi
mgvavb n‡jv ZvLwmm Avj AvÔg (Av‡gi wKq`s‡ki wbw`©óKiY)|
cÖZxqgvb we‡iv‡ai Kvi‡Y †hLv‡b `y‡Uv cÖgvY GKB mv‡_ Kvh©Ki Kiv
m¤¢e bq †m‡ÿ‡Î wb‡gœv³ wewa AbymiY Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i|
1. ¯úó cvV A¯úó cv‡Vi Ici cÖvavb¨ cv‡e|
َ Ñ RwUjZvnxb) cvV‡K wKbvqvn (‫ ِكَُبٌَخٌل‬Ñ `y‡e©va¨)
2. mvwin (‫ط ِش ٌْ ٌلخ‬
cv‡Vi Dci Ges nvwKwK (ً ‫ َد ِم ٍْ ِم ٌل‬Ñ kvwãK) cvV‡K gvRvwR
(‫ي‬
‫بص ٌل‬
ِ ‫ َي َج‬Ñ iƒcK) cv‡Vi Ici AMÖvwaKvi †`qv n‡e|
3. Beviv Avj bvm‡K ( ‫بص‬ ِ َُّ‫بسح ُ ان‬
َ َ‫ ) ِػج‬Bkviv Avj bvmÕi ( ُ ‫َبسح‬ َ ‫إش‬
‫ )انَُّض‬Dci AMÖvwaKvi †`qv n‡e|
4. gyZvIqvwZi (‫ ) ُيز َٕارِ ٌلش‬nvw`m gvkûi (‫ ) َي ْش ُٓ ْٕ ٌلس‬nvw`‡mi Dci Ges
gvkûi nvw`m Avnv` (‫ ) دبدٌل‬nvw`‡mi Dci AMÖvwaKvi cv‡e|
5. dwKn (ٍّْ‫ )فَ ِم‬ev wewkó mvnvwe KZ…K © ewY©Z nvw`m Ab¨‡`i Dci
cÖvavb¨ cv‡e|
6. wb‡lavÁv Aby‡gv`‡bi Dci AMÖvwaKvi cv‡e|
hw` †Kv‡bvfv‡eB mgš^qmvab ev GKwU‡K Ab¨wUi Dci AMÖvwaKvi †`qv
m¤¢e bv nq Z‡e mvÿ¨ `ywU‡K evwZ‡ji c`‡ÿc wb‡Z n‡e|
G‡ÿ‡Î kviC m~Î n‡jv- ‫إرا رؼبسضب رسبلطب‬
A_©vr mg-gh©v`vm¤úbœ `ywU cÖgvY hLb ci¯úiwe‡ivax iƒ‡c cÖZxqgvb
n‡e, ZLb `ywUB evwZj e‡j MY¨ n‡e| c~e©eZx© Aa¨v‡q evwZjKi‡Yi
weavb Av‡jvwPZ n‡q‡Q| weev`gvb `ywU wKqvmÕi gv‡S mgš^q m¤¢e bv
n‡j GKwU‡K AMÖvwaKvi †`qv n‡e
59

ÔBRwZnv`
ÔBRwZnv` (‫)ااْم ِت ا ٌرد‬: g~j kã Ryn` ev Rvnv`v (َ‫‡_† ) َج َٓذ‬K ÔBRwZnv`
(‫ )اجْ زِٓبدٌل‬kãwU DcRvZ| ÔBRwZnv` kãwUi AvÿwiK A_© n‡jv msMÖvg
Kiv ev AvZ¥cÖ‡Póv| ÔBRwZnv` eyw×e„wËK cÖ‡Póv‡K aviY K‡i|
ÔBRwZnv` BmjvwgK AvB‡bi GKwU e¨vcK Drm Ges KziAvb I mybœvni
c‡iB Gi ¯’vb|
imyj m.-Gi BwšÍKv‡ji ga¨ w`‡q KziAvb Ges mybœvn cwic~Y©Zv †c‡q‡Q|
wKš‘ ÔBRwZnv` Pjgvb welqÑ bZzb ev¯ÍeZvi mv‡_ Dc‡hvRb, bZzb
wePvh© welq‡K gvwb‡q †bqvi ÿgZv Ges KziAvb I mybœvni c‡i GwU
Bmjvwg AvB‡bi GKwU ¸iæZ¡c~Y© Drm ev c×wZ hv bZzb AvBb m„wó K‡i|
KziAvb Ges mybœvni evB‡i Bmjvwg AvB‡bi Drm wn‡m‡e ÔBRwZnv`B
Avek¨Kxqfv‡e bZzb bZzb AvBb iPbv K‡i| hw` KziAvb Ges mybœvni
cv‡V cwi®‥vifv‡e weav‡bi D‡jøL _v‡K ZLb ÔBRwZnv` Kvh©Ki _v‡K bv|
ÔBRwZnv` Øviv cÖ`Ë ivq Avewk¨Kfv‡e hbœx cÖK…wZi| ÔBRwZnv`-Gi
welqe¯‘ kwiAvni cÖv‡qvwMK weavb- hv bm KZ…K © e¨vL¨vZ nqwb|
ÔBRwZnv` we‡klÁ‡`i `vwqZ¡| welqwU hw` Riæwi nq Z‡e
ÔBRwZnv`‡hvM¨ we‡klÁ‡`i Rb¨ Zv eva¨Zvg~jK (dvi` Avj AvBb ev
IqvwRe Avj AvBb)| hw` welqwU Riæwi bv nq Z‡e Gi mgvavb
mgwóMZfv‡e `vqe× (dvi` Avj wKdvqv ev IqvwRe Avj wKdvqv)|
GKRb we‡klÁ ZvKwj` (‫رمهٍذ‬Ñ Ab¨ GKRb we‡klÁ‡K AÜ AbyKiY)
cwinvi Ki‡eb| mvaviY gvby‡li Rb¨ ZvKwj` Aby‡gvw`Z| Be‡b nvRg
g‡b K‡ib ZvKwj` Kv‡iv Rb¨B Aby‡gvw`Z bq| kvn IqvjxDjøvn D‡jøL
K‡i‡Qb- †h mvgvb¨ wKQz n‡jI AbymÜv‡bi †hvM¨Zv iv‡L Zvi Rb¨
ZvKwj` Aby‡gvw`Z bq| 
60 Dm~j Avj-wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ

ÔBRwZnv` KziAvb, mybœvn Ges mvnvwe‡`i PP©v Øviv cÖgvwYZ| ÔBRwZnv`-


Gi mg_©‡b KziAv‡b DwjøwLZ AvqvZmg~n n‡jv: myiv Avb wbmv, 4: 59;
myiv AvZ ZIev, 9: 122; myiv Avj-AvbKve~Z, 29: 69 Ges myiv Avj-
nvki, 59: 2| GmKj AvqvZ cÖK…wZMZ w`K †_‡K hbœx ai‡bi|
ÔBRwZnv`-Gi ¯^c‡ÿ AmsL¨ nvw`‡mi D‡jøL Kiv †h‡Z cv‡i| G¸‡jvi
g‡a¨ `y‡Uv LyeB D‡jøL‡hvM¨| cÖ_g nvw`mwU n‡jv †hLv‡b gyAvR web
Rvevj (iv.) imyj m.-Gi cÖwZDˇi e‡j‡Qb hw` wZwb KziAvb ev nvw`‡m
mgm¨vi mgvavb Lyu‡R bv cvb, Z‡e ÔBRwZnv`-Gi Øvi¯’ n‡eb Ges imyj
m. G‡Z m¤§wZ w`‡jb (Avey `vD`)| wØZxq nvw`m n‡jv †hLv‡b imyj m.
e‡j‡QbÑ GKRb gyRZvwn` `y‡Uv mIqve cv‡eb hw` wZwb h_v_© nb, Avi
GKwU mIqve cv‡eb hw` wZwb fzj K‡ib (Avey `vD`)|
ÔBRwZnv`-Gi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq †hvM¨Zvi welq KwZcq we‡klÁ D‡jøL
K‡i‡Qb| G wel‡q KziAvb I nvw`‡m wKQzi D‡jøL †bB| cÂg kZvãx‡Z
Aveyj û‡mBb Avj emix cÖ_gev‡ii g‡Zv gyRZvwn`-Gi †hvM¨Zvi
gvcKvwVi wel‡q Av‡jvKcvZ K‡ib Ges cieZx©‡Z Mv¾vwj I Avwgw` Zv
MÖnY K‡ib| GwU wVK †h ÔBRwZnv`-Gi Rb¨ GKRb †hvM¨ we‡kl‡Ái
cÖ‡qvRb| ÔBRwZnv`-Gi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq †hvM¨Zv n‡jv:
1. Aviwe fvlv m¤ú‡K© fv‡jv Ávb;
2. KziAvb, nvw`m Ges GZ`m¤úwK©Z wel‡q Aek¨B Ávbx n‡Z n‡e;
3. c~e©eZx© gyRZvwn` KZ…©K M„nxZ ÔBRwZnv` wel‡q Ávbx n‡Z n‡e;
4. kwiAvnÕi gvKvwm` m¤ú‡K© Ávbx n‡Z n‡e; Ges
5. gyRZvwn`‡K Aek¨B mr cÖK…wZi Ges mej I `ye©j mv‡ÿ¨i gv‡S
cv_©K¨ Kivi †ÿ‡Î †hvM¨ n‡Z n‡e|
GwU Aek¨B cÖZxqgvb nq †h, cÖ‡qvRbxq †hvM¨Zvi gvcKvwV AZ¨šÍ
K‡Vvi| wKš‘ ev¯Íe welq Zv bq| GKRb GKwbô Ges †hvM¨ e¨w³i c‡ÿ
GKwU wbw`©ó mg‡qi g‡a¨ Gme †hvM¨Zv AR©b Kiv m¤¢e| AwaKvsk
Av‡jgMY G gZ †cvlY K‡ib †hÑ hw` GKRb e¨w³ GKwU †ÿ‡Î
ÔBRwZnv`-Gi †hvM¨Zv AR©b K‡ib Z‡e wZwb mKj †ÿ‡ÎB ÔBRwZnv`-
Gi AwaKvi iv‡Lb| ÔBRwZnv`-Gi aib Ggb †h gyRZvwn` cÖ_‡g
KziAvb Ges mybœvn‡Z mgvavb LuyR‡eb Ges †mLv‡b hw` mgvavb bv cvb
Z‡e wZwb ÔBRwZnv`-Gi ¯§iYvcbœ n‡eb|
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 61

AwaKvs‡ki gZvgZ n‡jv ÔBRwZnv` fzj n‡Z cv‡i| msL¨vjNy Ask g‡b
K‡ib Avjv`v iv‡qi cÖwZwUB Zv‡`i †hvM¨Zv Abyhvqx wVK|
gyRZvwn`‡`i bvbvfv‡e wefvRb Kiv m¤¢e| Z‡e A‡b‡K gyRZvwn`‡`i
†evSvi ÿgZvi Dci wfwË K‡i †kÖwY wefvRb K‡i‡Qb| †g․wjK †kÖwY
wefvRb n‡jv wbgœiƒc:
1. D‡jøL‡hvM¨ gyRZvwn` Ñ hviv wb‡RivB ÔBRwZnv`-Gi weavb •Zwi
K‡i‡Qb Ges e¨vcK msL¨vq ÔBRwZnv` K‡i‡Qb|
2. Ab¨vb¨ gyRZvwn` Ñ hviv AwaKvsk †ÿ‡Î Ab¨vb¨ gyRZvwn` KZ…K
©
cÖYxZ ÔBRwZnv`-Gi wewa AbymiY K‡ib Ges wKQz †ÿ‡Î
ÔBRwZnv` K‡i‡Qb|
wKQz wKQz we‡klÁ cÖ_g K‡qK kZvãx ci Avi ÔBRwZnv` n‡e bv
e‡j‡Qb| G gZvgZ cÖZ¨vL¨vZ| Avjøvgv kvIKvwb e‡jb, G gZ
P‚ovšÍfv‡e cwiZ¨vR¨| Avjøvgv BKev‡ji g‡Z ÔBRwZnv`-Gi `iRv eÜ
K‡i †`qv GKwU ÔcÖK…Z AjxK KvwnbxÕ| Bmjvwg mf¨Zvi fwel¨r DbœwZ
wbf©i Ki‡Q †hvM¨ we‡klÁ KZ…K © cÖYxZ ÔBRwZnv`-Gi Ici| fwel¨‡Z
mw¤§wjZfv‡e AwaKZi ÔBRwZnv` cÖYxZ n‡e e‡j Avkv Kiv hvq
62

cwiwkó
cwifvlv
Aviwe cwifvlv evsjv A_©
`viæivn (‫)ضشٔسح‬ cÖ‡qvRbxqZv (Necessity)
`viæwiqvqvZ )‫) ضشٔسٌبد‬ cÖ‡qvRbxq (Necessities)
Avmeve-Avj-byhyj (‫)انُضٔل أسجبة‬ AvqvZ bvwR‡ji †cÖÿvcU
AvnKvg (‫)أدكى‬ AvBb/weavb
Avmj (‫)أطم‬ g~j
AvwKjvn (‫)ػمٍهخ‬ nZ¨vKvix e¨w³i cyiæl AvZ¥xqe„›`
Bjøvn (‫)ػهخ‬ ûKz‡gi KviY
Bmbv` (‫)إسُبد‬ nvw`m eY©bvKvix‡`i avivµg/
ci¤úiv
BmwZmjvn (‫)إسزظالح‬ RbM‡Yi ¯^v_© we‡ePbv
BmwZmnve (‫)إسزظذبة‬ Abygvb (Presumption)
BmwZnmvb (ٌ‫)إسزسذب‬ AvBbMZ AMÖvwaKvi
BRgvÔ (‫)إجًبع‬ HKgZ¨
bvmL (‫)َسخ‬ i` ev evwZj KiY
bvRg (‫)َظى‬ cvV ev (text)
bym~m (‫)َظٕص‬ bvm& Gi eûePb
Did (‫ف‬ ‫ػ ْش ٌل‬
ُ ) cÖ_v
Did KvDwj (ً‫)ػشف لٕن‬ †gvwLK Did
Did †dqwj (ً‫)ػشف فؼه‬ Kv‡Ri gva¨‡g cÖwôZ Did
Dm~j Avj wdKn& (‫)أطٕل انفمخ‬ Dm~j KziAvb I mybœvni •ewkó¨
wb‡q ch©v‡jvPbv K‡i Ges KziAvb
I mybœvn †_‡K AvBb cÖYqb c×wZ
eY©bv K‡i
Dm~wjq~b (ٌٍٕ‫)أطٕن‬ Bmjvwg AvBbwe`MY
Lvwd (ً‫)خف‬ AvswkKfv‡e `y‡e©va¨
dvZIqv (‫)فزٕي‬ wdKnwe`‡`i gZ
gv-Avwb (ًَ‫)يؼب‬ A_©
gvKwm` (‫)يمبطذ‬ D‡Ïk¨
gvmAvjv (‫)يسئهخ‬ RbM‡Yi ¯^v_©
Dm~j Avj wdKn: Bmjvwg AvBb kv‡¯¿i g~jbxwZ 63

Aviwe cwifvlv evsjv A_©


gvRvh (‫)يجبص‬ iƒcK
gybRvwe` (‫)يُجٌٕذ‬ AcwieZ©bxq ¸Y
gybvwme (‫)يُبست‬ gyRZvwn`‡`i g‡Z h_v_©
gydvm&mvi (‫)يفسش‬ ب_©nxb
gyKvBq¨v` (‫)يمٍذ‬ kZ©hy³
gynKvg (‫)يذكى‬ cÖvÄj
gyZjvK (‫)يطهك‬ kZ©nxb
gyZvAvwÏ (‫)يزؼذي‬ A‡b¨i wbKU n¯ÍvšÍi‡hvM¨
gykwKj kã (‫)يشكم‬ †h k‡ãi A_© `yÕwU ev Z‡ZvwaK
gyRgvj (‫)يجًم‬ wecixZag©x
gyZvkvwen (ّ‫)يزشبث‬ RwUj
hvwni (‫)ظبْش‬ cÖZxqgvb/ my¯úó
ivq (‫)ساء‬ e¨w³MZ gZvgZ
KvZÕC (ً‫)لطؼ‬ wbwðZ, cig ev Pig, e¨wZµgnxb,
¯úó
KvwZ (‫)لطغ‬ wbwðZ
Lvm (‫)خبص‬ we‡kl/ mywbw`©ó
mb` (‫)سُذ‬ nvw`m eY©bvKvix‡`i avivµg
nvwKwK (ً‫)دمٍم‬ kvwãK/Avmj
hvwbœ (ًُ‫)ظ‬ AbygvbMZ
û`y` (‫)دذٔد‬ KziAvb I mybœvn‡Z †h kvw¯Íi
D‡jøL Av‡Q
ûKzg (‫)دكى‬ weavb
w`qvZ (‫)دٌبد‬ g„Zz¨ RwbZ ÿwZc~iY
wKqvm (‫)لٍبط‬ mv`„k¨Zvi Av‡jv‡K wm×všÍ MÖnY
ZvbwKn Avj gvbvZ¡ (‫)رُمٍخ انًُبح‬ Bjøvn‡K ¯^Zš¿KiY
ZvnwmwbqvZ (‫)رذسٍُخ‬ †m․›`h©`vqK
Zvwjj (‫)رؼهٍم‬ AvnKv‡gi Kvh©KiY wba©viY
ZvÕhxi (‫)رؼزٌش‬ cvj©v‡g›U ev †KvU© KZ…©K wba©vwiZ
kvw¯Í/kwiAvn wba©vwiZ kvw¯Íi
AwZwi³
64

MÖš’cwÄ

1. W. gynv¤§` nvwkg Kvgvwj, wcÖwÝcvjm Ae BmjvwgK RywimcÖæ‡WÝ, w` BmjvwgK


†U·U †mvmvBwU, 5 wMÖb w÷ªU, K¨vgweªR, wmwe 23 †RBD, BD‡K, 1991|
2. Avng` nvmvb, w` WKwUªb Ae BRgvÔ Bb Bmjvg, BmjvwgK wimvP© BÝwUwUDU,
Bmjvgvev`, 1970|
3. mewn ivRe gvngvmvwb, w` wd‡jvmwd Ae RywimcÖæ‡WÝ Bb Bmjvg, B †R weªj,
wjB‡Wb, 1911|
4. W. Z¡vnv Rvwei Avj AvjIqvwb, Zvi iwPZ Dm~j Avj wdK‡ni Dci wewfbœ eB
Ges wbeÜ, AvBAvBAvBwU, BDGmG|
5. W. Avey hvniv, Dm~jyj wdKn, Avj wdKi Avj Avivwe, Kvq‡iv, 1958|
6. Avã Avj Iqvnve Lvjøvd, Bjgy Dm~wjj wdKn, `vi Avj Kvjvg, Kz‡qZ,
12Zg msKjb, 1978|
7. kvBL gynv¤§` Avj LyØvix, Dm~jyj wdKn, `vi Avj wdKn, Kvq‡iv, 1981|