FAS Military Analysis Network

U.S. Military Aircraft

B-52 Stratofortress
The B-52H BUFF [Big Ugly Fat Fellow] is the primary nuclear roled bomber in the USAF inventory. It provides the only Air Launch Cruise Missile carriage in the USAF. The B-52H also provides theater CINCs with a long range strike capability. The bomber is capable of flying at high subsonic speeds at altitudes up to 50,000 feet (15,166.6 meters). It can carry nuclear or conventional ordnance with worldwide precision navigation capability. The aircraft's flexibility was evident during the Vietnam War and, again, in Operation Desert Storm. B-52s struck wide-area troop concentrations, fixed installations and bunkers, and decimated the morale of Iraq's Republican Guard. The Gulf War involved the longest strike mission in the history of aerial warfare when B-52s took off from Barksdale Air Force Base, La., launched conventional air launched cruise missiles and returned to Barksdale -- a 35-hour, non-stop combat mission. A total of 744 B-52s were built with the last, a B-52H, delivered in October 1962. Only the H model is still in the Air Force inventory and all are assigned to Air Combat Command. The first of 102 B-52H's was delivered to Strategic Air Command in May 1961. The H model can carry up to 20 air launched cruise missiles. In addition, it can carry the conventional cruise missile which was launched from B-52G models during Desert Storm. Barksdale AFB, LA and Minot AFB, ND serves as B-52 Main Operating Bases (MOB). Training missions are flown from both MOBs. Barksdale AFB and Minot AFB normally supports 57 and 36 aircraft respectively on-station.

In a conventional conflict, the B-52H can perform air interdiction, offensive counter-air and maritime operations. During Desert Storm, B-52s delivered 40 percent of all the weapons dropped by coalition forces. It is highly effective when used for ocean surveillance, and can assist the U.S. Navy in anti-ship and mine-laying operations. Two B-52s, in two hours, can monitor 140,000 square miles (364,000 square kilometers) of ocean surface. Starting in 1989, an on-going modification incorporates the global positioning system, heavy stores adaptor beams for carrying 2,000 pound munitions and additional smart weapons capability. All aircraft are being modified to carry the AGM-142 Raptor missile and AGM-84 Harpoon anti-ship missile. The B-52H was designed for nuclear standoff, but it now has the conventional warfare mission role with the retirement of the B-52G’s. The B-52 can carry different kinds of external pylons under its wings.

The AGM-28 pylon can carry lighter weapons like the MK-82 and can carry 12 weapons on each pylon, for a total of 24 external weapons. With the carriage of 27 internal weapons, the total is 51.  Heavy Stores Adaptor Beam [HSAB] external pylon can carry heavier weapons rated up to 2000 lbs. However, each HSAB can carry only 9 weapons which decreases the total carry to 45 (18 external).  A third type pylon is used for carrying ALCMs/CALCMs/ACMs. So the B-52 can carry a maximum of either 51 or 45 munitions, depending on which pylon is mounted under the wings. However, the AGM-28 pylon is no longer used, so the B-52 currently carries on HSABs, limiting the external load to 18 bombs, or a total of 45 bombs. The use of aerial refueling gives the B-52 a range limited only by crew endurance. It has an unrefueled combat range in excess of 8,800 miles (14,080 kilometers). All B-52s are equipped with an electro-optical viewing system that uses platinum silicide forward-looking infrared and high resolution low-light-level television sensors to augment the targeting, battle assessment, flight safety and terrain-avoidance system, thus further improving its combat ability and low-level flight capability. Pilots wear night vision goggles (NVGs) to enhance their night visual, low-level terrainfollowing operations. Night vision goggles provide greater safety during night operations by increasing the pilot's ability to visually clear terrain and avoid enemy radar. Current B-52H crew size is five. Pilot and co-pilot are side by side on the upper flight deck, along with the electronic warfare officer (EWO), seated behind the pilot facing aft.

Side by side on the lower flight deck are the radar navigator, responsible for weapons delivery, and the navigator, responsible for guiding the aircraft from point A to point B. Because the H model was not originally designated for conventional ordnance delivery, weapons delivery was assigned to the radar navigator and the "bombardier/navigator" crew station designation of the earlier B-52 series was not used.) The controls and displays for aircraft systems are distributed among the crew stations on the basis of responsibilities. The Air Force’s objective is to employ the latest navigation and communication technology to reduce the crew size to four people, by combining the radar navigator and navigator functions into one position.

The navigator stations use CRT displays and 386x-type processors. Interface to avionics architecture is based on the Mil-Std-1553B data bus specification.

Current Upgrade Activities
The current service life of the aircraft extends to 2040.

The B-52 is a typical representation of the misnomer of "legacy" system. While the B-52 exceeds 30 years of age, new modifications and mission capabilities are constantly updating the system. The following is a list of current B-52 modification programs: 1. Global Positioning System (GPS) 2. TACAN Replacement System (TRS) 3. Integrated Conventional Stores Management System (ICSMS) 4. ARC-210/DAMA Secure Voice 5. AGM-142 HAVENAP Missile Integration 6. High Reliability Maintenance-Free Battery 7. Electronic Counter-Measures Improvement (ECMI) 8. Off-Aircraft Pylon Tester (OAPT) 9. Air Force Mission Support System (AFMSS) 10. Electro Viewing System - EVS 3-in-1 (EVS, STV, FLIR) 11. Advanced Weapons Integration Program (JDAM, WCMD, JSOW, JASSM) 12. Night Vision Imaging System Cockpit Compatible Lighting 13. Night Vision Imaging System Compatible Ejection Seat Mod 14. Standard Flight Loads Data Recorder (SFLDR) 15. Avionics Midlife Improvement (AMI) (ACU, DTUC, and INS Replacement) 16. ALR-20 System Replacement 17. Fuel Temperature Monitoring System 18. Panoramic Night Vision Goggles 19. Advanced Infrared Expendables 20. Advanced real Time Engine Health Monitoring System 21. Closed Loop Sensor-To Shoot Data Collection/Trans 22. Precision Targeting Radar 23. TF-33 Engine Replacement 24. Lethal Self Protection 25. B-52 Cockpit Modernization 26. KY-58 VINSON Secure Voice 27. AVTR 28. Additional Cabin Pressure Altimeter 29. Enhanced Bomber Mission Management System 30. Chaff and Flare Dispenser Upgrade 31. Non 1760 Pylon Upgrade The B-52 is undergoing a Conventional Enhancement Modification which allows it to carry MIL-STD 1760 weapons. The Advanced Weapons Integration (AWI) program supports the conventional enhancement of the B-52 through the addition of the Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD), Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), Joint Stand-off Weapon (JSOW), and the Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-off Missile (JASSM). Limited Initial Operational Capability for the WCMD was achieved on the B-52 in December 1998, and LIOC for JDAM was achieved on the B-52 in December 1998. The Air Force Mission Support System supports the Air Force movement of all mission planning to a common system. GPS TACAN Emulation provides support to the

Congressionally-directed GPS-2000. Electronic Countermeasures Improvement supports a DESERT STORM identified deficiency. The B-61 Mod 11 program was added at the direction of the Nuclear Posture Review and Presidential Decision Directive-30. The AGM-142 (or Have Nap as it is commonly called) and Harpoon missile systems were first installed and made operational on the B-52Gs in the mid-1980s. When the “G” models were retired, these capabilities were moved to the B-52H model. While Air Combat Command (ACC) was happy to retain these operational capabilities, they were limited in their ability to employ either Have Nap or Harpoon by the fact that only a limited number of B-52Hs could employ the missiles. In the early 1990s the B-52 Conventional Enhancement Modification (CEM) Integrated Product Team (IPT) began programs to make it possible for any B-52H to carry and launch either missile. At about the same time, the AGM-142 SPO began a second phase of their producibility enhancement program, PEPII for short, to upgrade the AGM-142 missiles to both enhance supportability and lower the missiles cost. As of 31 December 97 these programs provided ACC with the expanded and more flexible mission capability they desired.


The B-61 Mod 11 program involves development and testing of a modified nuclear weapon on B-52 operational aircraft. Replacement of a strategic weapon was recommended by the Nuclear Posture Review and directed by Presidential Decision Review-30. Congress was notified during the second quarter of FY 1995, of the Department of Defense, and the Department of Energy intent to modify an existing weapon to provide a replacement option. Modifications (made by the Department of Energy) to the B-61 Mod 7 strategic bomb accomplish the mission requirements of the replaced weapon. Modification of an existing weapon is less expensive than the cost to develop a new weapon from "scratch." Flight testing by the 419th FLTS, Edwards AFB, CA is required to certify the modified weapon mass and physic properties are the same as the Mod 7 device. The Air Force asked and received permission from Congress to reprogram the $4.5M FY 96 Congressional plus-up for AGM-130 integration on the B52, into the B-61 Mod 11 Flight Test program. This program was completed in FY 97. A key element to preserving the combat capability of the BUFF is the continued effort to improve the reliability, maintainability, and supportability (RM&S) for the B-52s in the near future. The three major defensive ECM systems on the aircraft, the AN/ALQ-172, AN/ALQ-155, and AN/ALR-20, all needed upgrades or replacement due to performance, reliability, and/or supportability problems. In addition, a myriad of other defensive systems on the BUFFs required enhancements to keep the B-52 ECM suite viable

throughout the lifetime of the aircraft. In FY97, the B-52 fleet received only six percent of the overall bomber budget which further complicated efforts to maintain these aging ECM systems. Between October 1996 and March 1997, the B-52 ECM suite became the leading cause of the Air Combat Command's B-52 bomber wings not meeting mission capable (MC) rate standards for the B-52H fleet. The aircraft's three major defensive systems all needed upgrades or replacement due to performance, reliability, and supportability issues. During these six months, these three systems combined to produce a six month mission incapable (MICAP) driver rate for the B-52 fleet of more than 43,000 hours. In addition, B-52 ECM employees discovered that because of this, readiness spares packages (RSPs) kits were depleted of several key system line replaceable units (LRUs). This resulted in a significant impact to the operational readiness of the entire B-52H fleet. In March 1997, HQ ACC B-52 logistics officials (HQ ACC/LGF52), Oklahoma City ALC B-52 leadership (OC-ALC/LHL), and managers from the Center's LNR division implemented an ECM Support Improvement Plan (SIP) to improve the B-52H ECM MICAP rate and RSP fill rates to acceptable levels. As a result, they eliminated MICAPs by April 1997 and filled RSP kits to the Independent Kit Level by May 1997. The ALQ-172 ECM electronic countermeasures suite is being improved to cover a requirement identified during DESERT STORM. The improvement provides for an increased memory capability to handle advanced threats as well as correcting a coverage capability problem. The project adds a third ALQ-172 to the ECM suite and develops the new display required by the addition of the third system. The B-52's electronic countermeasures suite is capable of protecting itself against a full range of air defense threat systems by using a combination of electronic detection, jamming and infrared countermeasures. The B-52 can also detect and counter missiles engaging the aircraft from the rear. These systems are undergoing continuous improvement in order to enable them to continue to counter emerging threat systems. Situational Awareness is the highest priority modification needed for the B-52. The Electronic Countermeasure Improvement is a Reliability and Maintainability initiative that upgrades two low Mean Time Between Failure components, and replaces two Control and Display Units (CDU) with one CDU. The ECM system uses 1960s-era technology and will likely be unsupportable by FY02. Link-16 - A line-of-sight datalink that uses structured message formats to provide the capability for an organized network of users to transfer in real-time/near real-time, digitized tactical information between tactical data systems used to increase survivability and develop a real-time picture of the battlespace. An unsolicited proposal for reengining 94 aircraft in the B-52 fleet was submitted to the Air Force by Boeing North American, Inc. in June 1996. Boeing proposed modernizing the B-52 fleet by replacing the current TF-33 engines with a commercial engine through a long-term leasing agreement, and providing fixed-cost, privatized maintenance based on the number of hours flown each year. Boeing's proposal included modernizing the B-52 fleet by replacing the TF-33 engines with the Allison/Rolls commercial RB-211 engine

through a long-term leasing agreement and providing a fixed-cost, privatized maintenance concept through a "power-by-the-hour" arrangement. Boeing initially projected reengining cost savings of about $6 billion, but later revised the projected savings to $4.7 billion to reengine 71 B-52s. An Air Force team formed to study Boeing's proposal analyzed the lease and purchase alternatives and concluded that both options are cost prohibitive compared to maintaining the existing TF-33 engines. The General Accounting Office estimated that Boeing's unsolicited proposal to reengine the B-52 fleet would cost the Air Force approximately $1.3 billion rather than save approximately $4.7 billion as Boeing projected.

Service Life
Updated with modern technology, the B-52 will continue into the 21st century as an important element of US forces. There is a proposal under consideration to re-engine the remaining B-52H aircraft to extend the service life. B-52 re-engine plans, if implemented, call for the B-52 to be utilized through 2025. Current engineering analysis show the B52's life span to extend beyond the year 2040. The limiting factor of the B-52’s service life is the economic limit of the aircraft's upper wing surface, calculated to be approximately 32,500 to 37,500 flight hours. Based on the projected economic service life and forecast mishap rates, the Air Force will be unable to maintain the requirement of 62 aircraft by 2044, after 84 years in service The May 1997 Report of the Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), prescribed a total fleet of 187 bombers (95 B-1, 21 B-2, and 71 B-52). Since the QDR, two B-1s have been lost in peacetime accidents. However, the Report of the Panel to Review Long-Range Air Power (LRAP) concluded the existing bomber fleet cannot be sustained through the expected life of the air frames and that additional aircraft will eventually be required. To address this issue, the Air Force will add five additional B-52 attrition reserve aircraft, bringing the B-52 total from 71 to 76 for a total bomber force of 190. The B-52 fleet will remain the same with 44 combat-coded aircraft.

Primary Function: Contractor: Power Plant: Thrust: Length: Height: Wingspan: Speed: Ceiling: Weight: Maximum Takeoff Heavy bomber Boeing Military Airplane Co. Eight Pratt & Whitney engines TF33-P-3/103 turbofan Each engine up to 17,000 pounds (7,650 kilograms) 159 feet, 4 inches (48.5 meters) 40 feet, 8 inches (12.4 meters) 185 feet (56.4 meters) 650 miles per hour (Mach 0.86) 50,000 feet (15,151.5 meters) Approximately 185,000 pounds empty (83,250 kilograms) 488,000 pounds (219,600 kilograms)

Weight: Range: Armament: NOTE: The B52 can carry 27 internal weapons. Authoritative sources diverge as to maximum munition loads, with some suggesting as many as 51 smaller munitions and 30 larger munitions, while others suggest maximum loads of 45 and 24, respectively. The Heavy Stores Adaptor Beam [HSAB] external pylon can carry only 9 weapons which limits the total carry to 45 (18 external). The AGM-28 pylon could carry lighter weapons like the MK-82 and can carry 12 weapons on each pylon, for a total of 24 external weapons, for a the total of 51. However, the AGM-28 pylon is no longer Unrefueled 8,800 miles (7,652 nautical miles) Approximately 70,000 pounds (31,500 kilograms) mixed ordnance -bombs, mines and missiles. NUCLEAR 20 ALCM 12 SRAM [ext] 12 ACM [ext] 2 B53 [int] 8 B-61 Mod11 [int] 8 B-83 [int] CONVENTIONAL 51 CBU-52 (27 int, 18 ext) 51 CBU-58 (27 int, 18 ext) 51 CBU-71 (27 int, 18 ext) 30 CBU 87 (6 int, 18 ext) 30 CBU 89 (6 int, 18 ext) 30 CBU 97 (6 int, 18 ext) 51 M117 18 Mk 20 (ext) 51 Mk 36 8 Mk 41 12 Mk 52 8 Mk 55 8 Mk 56 51 Mk 59 8 Mk 60 (CapTor) 51 Mk. 62 8 Mk. 64 8 Mk 65 51 MK 82 18 MK 84 (ext) PRECISION 18 JDAM (12 ext) 30 WCMD (16 ext) 8 AGM-84 Harpoon 20 AGM-86C CALCM 8 AGM-142 Popeye [3 ext] 18 AGM-154 JSOW (12 ext) 12 AGM-158 JASSSM [ext] 12 TSSAM

used, so the B52 currently carries on HSABs, limiting the external load to 18 bombs, or a total of 45 bombs. AN/ALQ-117 PAVE MINT active countermeasures set AN/ALQ-122 false target generator [Motorola] AN/ALQ-153 tail warning set [Northrop Grumman] AN/ALQ-155 jammer Power Management System [Northrop Grumman] AN/ALQ-172(V)2 electronic countermeasures system [ITT] AN/ALR-20A Panoramic countermeasures radar warning receiver AN/ALR-46 digital warning receiver [Litton] AN/ALT-32 noise jammer 12 AN/ALE-20 infra-red flare dispensers 6 AN/ALE-24 chaff dispensers AN/ANS-136 Inertial Navigation Set AN/APN-224 Radar Altimeter AN/ASN-134 Heading Reference AN/APQ-156 Strategic Radar AN/ASQ-175 Control Display Set AN/AYK-17 Digital Data Display AN/AYQ-10 Ballistics Computer AN/AAQ-6 FLIR Electro-optical viewing system AN/AVQ-22 Low-light TV Electro-optical viewing system AN/ARC-210 VHF/UHF communications AN/ARC-310 HF radio communications Five (aircraft commander, pilot, radar navigator, navigator and electronic warfare officer)



Accommodatio Six ejection seats ns: Unit Cost: $30 million

Date Deployed: February 1955 Inventory: 44 combat-coded Active force, 85; ANG, 0; Reserve, 9

B-52 Image Bank

B-1B Lancer
The B-1B is a multi-role, long-range bomber, capable of flying intercontinental missions without refueling, then penetrating present and predicted sophisticated enemy defenses. It can perform a variety of missions, including that of a conventional weapons carrier for theater operations. Through 1991, the B-1 was dedicated to the nuclear deterrence role as part of the single integrated operational plan (SIOP) The B-1B's electronic jamming equipment, infrared countermeasures, radar location and warning systems complement its low-radar cross-section and form an integrated defense system for the aircraft. The swing-wing design and turbofan engines not only provide greater range and high speed at low levels but they also enhance the bomber's survivability. Wing sweep at the full-forward position allows a short takeoff roll and a fast base-escape profile for airfields under attack. Once airborne, the wings are positioned for maximum cruise distance or high-speed penetration. The B-1B holds several world records for speed, payload and distance. The National Aeronautic Association recognized the B-1B for completing one of the 10 most memorable record flights for 1994. The B-1B uses radar and inertial navigation equipment enabling aircrews to globally navigate, update mission profiles and target coordinates in-flight, and precision bomb without the need for ground based navigation aids. Included in the B-1B offensive avionics are modular electronics that allow maintenance personnel to precisely identify technical difficulties and replace avionics components in a fast, efficient manner on the ground. The aircraft's AN/ALQ 161A defensive avionics is a comprehensive electronic countermeasures package that detects and counters enemy radar threats. It also has the capability to detect and counter missiles attacking from the rear. It defends the aircraft by applying the appropriate counter-measures, such as electronic jamming or dispensing expendable chaff and flares. Similar to the offensive avionics, the defensive suite has a reprogrammable design that allows in-flight changes to be made to counter new or changing threats. The B-1B represents a major upgrade in U.S. long-range capabilities over the B-52 -- the previous mainstay of the bomber fleet. Significant advantages include:
  

Low radar cross-section to make detection considerably more difficult. Ability to fly lower and faster while carrying a larger payload. Advanced electronic countermeasures to enhance survivability.

Numerous sustainment and upgrade modifications are ongoing or under study for the B1B aircraft. A large portion of these modifications which are designed to increase the combat capability are known as the Conventional Mission Upgrade Program. In FY93, The Air Force initiated CMUP in FY1993 to improve the B-1’s conventional warfighting capabilities. The $2.7 billion CMUP program is intended to convert the B-1B from a primarily nuclear weapons carrier to a conventional weapons carrier. Capability will be delivered in blocks attained by hardware modifications with corresponding software updates:
 

Initial conventional capability was optimized for delivery of Mk-82 non-precision 500lb gravity bombs Current capability (Block C) also provides delivery of up to 30 Cluster Bomb Units (CBUs) per sortie for enhanced conventional capability against advancing armor. Initial capability achieved in September 1996 with FOC in August 1997. The upgrade consists of modification for B-1B bomb module from the original configuration of 28 500-pound bombs per unit to 10 1,000-pound cluster bombs per bomb rack. The modifications apply to a total to 50 refitted bomb racks -enough to equip half the B-1B fleet. Block D integrates the ALE-50 repeater decoy system, the first leg of the electronic countermeasures upgrade, and JDAM for near precision capability and adds anti-jam radios for secure communication in force packages. FY96 and FY97 Congressional plus-ups are being used to accelerate JDAM initial capability by 18 months (1QFY99). Congress has provided extra funding to allow a group of seven aircraft to be outfitted and ready a full 18 months early, with the first three JDAM equipped aircraft to be ready by December 1998, and the last of those seven aircraft are planned to arrive at Ellsworth AFB by Feb 99. Block E upgrades the current avionics computer suite and integrates Wind Corrected Munitions Dispenser (WCMD), Joint Standoff Weapon (JSOW) and Joint Air to Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) for standoff capability (FY02) Block F improves the aircraft’s electronic countermeasures’ situational awareness and jamming capabilities in FY02

The B-1B is a modified B-1A with major revisions in offensive avionics, defensive avionics, weapon payload, range, and speed. These modifications were made to incorporate certain technological advances that had occurred between the original B-lA contract award in 1970 and the LRCA competition in 1980. Improvements consist primarily of offthe-shelf technology such as a new radar, new generation computers, expanded ECM capabilities, reduced RCS, and avionics compatibility with the ALCM. The wing sweep is restricted to 60 which limits the maximum speed to just above supersonic. Rockwell also estimated range increases for the modified B-1. Differences between the B-1B and its predecessor, the B-1A of the 1970s, are subtle, yet significant. Externally, only a simplified engine inlet, modified over-wing fairing and relocated pilot tubes are noticeable. Other less-evident changes include a window for the

offensive and defensive systems officers' station and engine housing modifications that reduces radar exposure. The B-1B was structurally redesigned to increase its gross takeoff weight from 395,000 to 477,000 pounds (177,750 to 214,650 kilograms). Still, the empty weight of the B-1B is but 3 percent greater than that of the B-1A. This added takeoff weight capacity, in addition to a movable bulkhead between the forward and intermediate weapons bay, allows the B-1B to carry a wide variety of nuclear and conventional munitions. The most significant changes, however, are in the avionics, with low-radar cross-section, automatic terrain-following high-speed penetration, and precise weapons delivery. Prior to 1994 B-1B fleet had never achieved its objective of having a 75-percent mission capable rate. In 1992 and 1993 the B-1B mission capable rate averaged about 57 percent. According to the Air Force, a primary reason for the low mission capable rate was the level of funding provided to support the B-1B logistics support system. Concerned about the low mission capable rate, a history of B-1B problems, and the Air Force's plans to spend $2.4 billion modifying the B-1B to become a conventional bomber, the Congress directed the Air Force to conduct an Operational Readiness Assessment (ORA) from June 1, 1994, through November 30, 1994. The purpose of the ORA was to determine whether one B-1B wing was capable of achieving and maintaining its planned 75-percent operational readiness rate for a period of 6 months, if provided the full complement of spare parts, maintenance equipment and manpower, and logistic support equipment. During the ORA the test unit achieved an 84.3-percent mission capable rate during the test period. The ORA demonstrated that, given a full complement of spare parts, equipment, and manpower, the Air Force could achieve and sustain a 75-percent mission capable rate for the B-1B. The Air Force projects that the entire B-1B fleet will reach a 75-percent mission capable rate by 2000 by virtue of numerous on-going and future reliability, maintainability, and management initiatives. However, as of mid-October 1999 the Air Force wide mission capable rate of the B-1 had fallen to 51.1 percent -mainly because of maintenance problems and a shortage of parts. Over the previous 12 months, the Kansas Guard had maintained a mission capable rate of 71.1 percent for the 10 usable aircraft assigned to it. The basis for the projection of useful life of the B-1 is the Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP). The useful life of the structure is assumed to be the point at which it is more economical to replace the aircraft than to continue structural modifications and repairs necessary to perform the mission. The limiting factor for B-1’s service life is the wing lower surface. At 15,200 hours, based on continued low level usage, the wing’s lower skin will need replacement. Current usage rates, operational procedures, and mishap attrition will place the inventory below the requirement of 89 aircraft in 2018, while the service life attrition will impact around 2038. The first B-1B, 83-0065, The Star of Abilene, was delivered to the Air Force at Dyess Air Force Base, Texas, in June 1985, with initial operational capability on Oct. 1, 1986. The 100th and final B-1B was delivered May 2, 1988. The Air Force has chosen to fully fund the operation of only 60 B-1Bs for the next few years, compared with plans to fund 82 beyond fiscal year 2000. In the short term, the Air Force has classified 27 of 95 B-1Bs as

"reconstitution aircraft." These aircraft are not funded for flying hours and lack aircrews, but they are based with B-1B units, flown on a regular basis, maintained like other B1Bs, and modified with the rest of the fleet. B-1B units will use flying hours and aircrews that are based on 60 operational aircraft to rotate both the operational aircraft and the reconstitution aircraft through its peacetime flying schedule. These 27 aircraft will be maintained in reconstitution reserve status until the completion of smart conventional munition upgrades. At that time, around the year 2000, there will be 95 aircraft providing an operational force of 82 fully modified B-1s. The B-1 will complete its buy back of attrition reserve by the fourth quarter of FY03, and re-code six training aircraft to attain 70 combat-coded aircraft by the fourth quarter of FY04. During the Cold War, heavy bombers were used primarily for nuclear deterrence and were operated solely by the active duty Air Force. According to the Air Force, the National Guard's part-time workforce was incompatible with the bombers' nuclear mission because of a requirement for continuously monitoring all personnel directly involved with nuclear weapons. With the end of the Cold War and increased emphasis on the bombers' conventional mission, the Air Force initiated efforts to integrate Guard and reserve units into the bomber force. As part of its total force policy, the Air Force assigned B-1B aircraft to the National Guard. Heavy bombers entered the Air Guard's inventory for the first time in 1994 with a total of 14 B-1Bs programmed by the end of fiscal year FY 1997 for two units, the 184th Bomb Wing (BW), Kansas, and the 116th BW, Georgia. The 184th completed its conversion in FY 1996 at McConnell Air Force Base (AFB), Kansas. After a long political struggle that involved resisting the planned conversion from F-15s and an associated move from Dobbins AFB near Atlanta to Robins AFB near Macon, the 116th began its conversion on 1 April 1996. The unit completed that process in December 1998. All the bombers in both units were configured for conventional, not nuclear, missions. Prior to 1994, the B-1B fleet operated out of four bases: Dyess Air Force Base, Texas; Ellsworth Air Force Base, South Dakota; McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas; and Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota. In 1994, the Air Force realigned the B-1B fleet by closing the Grand Forks Air Force Base and transferring the aircraft at McConnell Air Force Base to the Air National Guard. With the transfer, the B-1B support structure, including spare parts, was distributed to the two remaining main operating bases. The concentration of aircraft and repair facilities at Dyess and Ellsworth Air Force Bases resulted in improved support capabilities, which improved mission capable [MC] rates. On 26 March 1996 it was announced that the 77th Bomb Squadron would return to Ellsworth. On 1 April 97, the squadron again activated at Ellsworth as the geographically separated 34th Bomb Squadron completed its transfer to its home at the 366th Wing, Mountain Home AFB, Idaho. By June 1998, the 77th had six of its B-1Bs out of the reconstitution reserve. This number ballanced those lost by the 34th BS. Upgrades

Cockpit Upgrade Program (CUP) - Current B-1 cockpit display units are not capable of supporting graphic intensive software modifications. The CUP installs a robust graphic capability via common display units throughout the front and aft stations. This program increases B-1 survivability by providing critical situational awareness displays, needed for conventional operations, keeping pace with current and future guided munitions integration, enhancing situational awareness, and improving tactical employment. Link-16 – Providing Line-of-Sight (LOS) data for aircraft-to-aircraft, aircraft-to-C2, and aircraft-to-sensor connectivity, Link-16 is a combat force multiplier that provides U.S. and other allied military services with fully interoperable capabilities and greatly enhances tactical Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence mission effectiveness. Link-16 provides increased survivability, develops a real-time picture of the theater battlespace, and enables the aircraft to quickly share information on short notice (target changes). In addition to a localized capability, the B-1’s datalink will include BLOS capability increasing flexibility essential to attacking time-sensitive targets. B-1 Radar Upgrade is a candidate Long Term Upgrade that would improve the current Synthetic Aperture Radar resolution from three meters to one foot or better, allowing the B-1 to more autonomously and precisely Find, Fix, Target, Track, Engage, and Assess enemy targets with guided direct-attack or standoff munitions (JDAM/JSOW). Finally, the upgrade would replace older components that will be difficult to maintain due to obsolescence and vanishing vendors.

Primary Function: Builder: Long-range, multi-role, heavy bomber Rockwell International, North American Aircraft

Operations Air Frame Offensive avionics, Boeing Military Airplane; defensive avionics, and AIL Division Integration: Power Plant: Thrust: Length: Wingspan: Height: Weight: Four General Electric F-101-GE-102 turbofan engine with afterburner 30,000-plus pounds (13,500-plus kilograms) with afterburner, per engine 146 feet (44.5 meters) 137 feet (41.8 meters) extended forward, 79 feet (24.1 meters) swept aft 34 feet (10.4 meters) Empty, approximately 190,000 pounds (86,183 kilograms)

Maximum Takeoff Weight: Speed: Rotate and Takeoff Speeds: Landing Speeds: Range: Ceiling: Crew:

477,000 pounds (214,650 kilograms) 900-plus mph (Mach 1.2 at sea level) 210 Gross - 119 Rotate kts / 134 kts Takeoff 390 Gross - 168 kts Rotate / 183 kts Takeoff 210 Gross - 145 kts 380 Gross - 195 kts Intercontinental, unrefueled Over 30,000 feet (9,000 meters) Four (aircraft commander, pilot, offensive systems officer and defensive systems officer) NUCLEAR CONVENTIONAL 84 Mk 62 84 MK82 30 CBU 87 30 CBU 89 30 CBU 97 12 Mk 65 PRECISION 30 WCMD 24 JDAM 12 GBU-27 12 AGM-154 JSOW 12 TSSAM


Date Deployed: Unit Cost:

June 1985 $200-plus million per aircraft 100 total production 93 total current inventory Active force, 51 PMAI (69 actual) ANG, 18 PMAI (22 actual) Reserve, 0 AFMC, 2 (Test)


Deployment Cmd ACC ACC ACC ANG ANG # Location Unit 39 Dyess AFB, TX 9th Bomb Wing 21 Ellsworth AFB, SD 28th Bomb Wing 9 Mountain Home AFB, ID 366th Air Expeditionary Wing 10 Robins AFB, GA 116th Bomb Wing 12 McConnell AFB, KS 184th Bomb Group

AMC 2 Edwards AFB, CA test aircraft 6 lost to mishaps [as of 18 Feb 98] 1 eliminated under START II Treaty

Airframe Inventory
# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Tail # 830065 830066 830067 830068 830069 830070 830071 840049 840050 840051 840052 840053 840054 840055 Name Location Comment Star of Abilene Ole' Puss Texas Raider Predator The Beast 7 Wishes Spitfire Dyess Dyess Dyess Dyess Dyess Dyess Dyess Edwards Dawg B-One Boss Hog Dyess Dyess Lost 09-25-87 @ La Junta, Colorado Lucky 13 Rage [Tasmanian Terror] Shockwave [Lethal Weapon] Sweet Sixteen Hellion Dyess Dyess Dyess Dyess Dyess

16 840056 8417 0057

18 840058 19 850059 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 850060 850061 850062 850063 850064 850065 850066 850067

Eternal Guardian


McConne ll Ellsworth Uncaged Dyess Lost 11-09-88 @ Dyess AFB, Texas McConne ll

On Defense


28 850068 29 850069 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 850070 850071 850072 850073 850074 850075 850076 850077

Edwards McConne ll


Dyess McConne ll

Crew Dawg

Dyess Ellsworth Lost 11-17-89 @ Ellsworth AFB S.D. Ellsworth

38 850078 39 850079 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 850080 850081 850082 850083 850084 850085 850086 850087

Ellsworth Ellsworth

Global Power

Dyess Ellsworth Ellsworth Ellsworth Ellsworth Ellsworth

48 850088 49 850089 50 51 52 53 54 56 57 58 850090 850091 850092 860093 860094 860096 860097 860098 Ellsworth Robins Ellsworth Ellsworth Ellsworth Ellsworth Robins Ellsworth

59 860099 60 860100 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 860101 860102 860103 860104 860105 860106 860107 860108 Phoenix Heavy Metal

Ellsworth Dyess Dyess Ellsworth Reluctant Dragon Dyess Robins Snake Eyes Dyess Lost 12-01-92 @ IR 165, Van Horne TX

Alein With An Attitude Spectre Stairway to Heaven

Dyess Dyess Dyess Ellsworth

69 860109 70 860110 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 860111 860112 860113 860114 860115 860116 860117 860118

Black Widow

Dyess Ellsworth Ellsworth

Robins Night Stalker Dyess Robins

79 860119 80 860120 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 860121 860122 860123 860124 860125 860126 860127 860128

The Punisher Iron Horse

Dyess Dyess Robins

[none] Dyess Robins

Ellsworth Ellsworth Bad Company Dyess Robins Oh, Hard Luck Dyess Ellsworth Robins Deadly Intentions Dyess

89 860129 90 860130 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 860131 860132 860133 860134 860135 860136 860137 860138

Ace In The Hole

Dyess Robins

99 860139 10 860 0140 Last Lancer

Robins Dyess

B-2 Spirit
The B-2 Spirit is a multi-role bomber capable of delivering both conventional and nuclear munitions. Along with the B-52 and B-1B, the B-2 provides the penetrating flexibility and effectiveness inherent in manned bombers. Its low-observable, or "stealth," characteristics give it the unique ability to penetrate an enemy's most sophisticated defenses and threaten its most valued, and heavily defended, targets. Its capability to penetrate air defenses and threaten effective retaliation provide an effective deterrent and combat force well into the 21st century. The blending of low-observable technologies with high aerodynamic efficiency and large payload gives the B-2 important advantages over existing bombers. Its low-observability provides it greater freedom of action at high altitudes, thus increasing its range and a better field of view for the aircraft's sensors. Its unrefueled range is approximately 6,000 nautical miles (9,600 kilometers). The B-2's low observability is derived from a combination of reduced infrared, acoustic, electromagnetic, visual and radar signatures. These signatures make it difficult for the sophisticated defensive systems to detect, track and engage the B-2. Many aspects of the low-observability process remain classified; however, the B-2's composite materials, special coatings and flying-wing design all contribute to its "stealthiness." The B-2 has a crew of two pilots, an aircraft commander in the left seat and mission commander in the right, compared to the B-1B's crew of four and the B-52's crew of five. The B-2 is intended to deliver gravity nuclear and conventional weapons, including precision-guided standoff weapons. An interim, precision-guided bomb capability called Global Positioning System (GPS) Aided Targeting System/GPS Aided Munition (GATS/GAM) is being tested and evaluated. Future configurations are planned for the B2 to be capable of carrying and delivering the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) and Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile. B-2s, in a conventional role, staging from Whiteman AFB, MO; Diego Garcia; and Guam can cover the entire world with just one refueling. Six B-2s could execute an operation similar to the 1986 Libya raid but launch from the continental U.S. rather than Europe with a much smaller, more lethal, and more survivable force.

The B-2 development program was initiated in 1981, and the Air Force was granted approval in 1987 to begin procurement of 132 operational B-2 aircraft, principally for strategic bombing missions. With the demise of the Soviet Union, the emphasis of B-2

development was changed to conventional operations and the number was reduced to 20 operational aircraft, plus 1 test aircraft that was not planned to be upgraded to an operational configuration. Production of these aircraft has been concurrent with development and testing. The first B-2 was publicly displayed on Nov. 22, 1988, when it was rolled out of its hangar at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, Calif. Its first flight was July 17, 1989. The B-2 Combined Test Force, Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., is responsible for flight testing the engineering, manufacturing and development aircraft as they are produced. Three of the six developmental aircraft delivered at Edwards are continuing flight testing. Whiteman AFB, Mo., is the B-2's only operational base. The first aircraft, Spirit of Missouri, was delivered Dec. 17, 1993. Depot maintenance responsibility for the B-2 is performed by Air Force contractor support and is managed at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker AFB, Okla. The prime contractor, responsible for overall system design and integration, is Northrop Grumman's Military Aircraft Systems Division. Boeing Military Airplanes Co., Hughes Radar Systems Group and General Electric Aircraft Engine Group are key members of the aircraft contractor team. Another major contractor, responsible for aircrew training devices (weapon system trainer and mission trainer) is Hughes Training Inc. (HTI) - Link Division, formerly known as C.A.E. - Link Flight Simulation Corp. Northrop Grumman and its major subcontractor HTI, are responsible for developing and integrating all aircrew and maintenance training programs. The Air Force is accepting delivery of production B-2s in three configuration blocks-blocks 10, 20, and 30. Initial delivery will be 6 test aircraft, 10 aircraft in the block 10 configuration, 3 in the block 20 configuration, and 2 in the block 30 configuration. Block 10 configured aircraft provide limited combat capability with no capability to launch conventional guided weapons. The Block 10 model carries only Mk-84 2,000pound conventional bombs or gravity nuclear weapons. B-2s in this configuration are located at Whiteman Air Force Base and are used primarily for training. Block 20 configured aircraft have an interim capability to launch nuclear and conventional munitions, including the GAM guided munition. The Block 20 has been tested with the Mk-84, 2,000-pound, general-purpose bombs and the CBU-87/B Combined Effects Munition cluster bombs (low-altitude, full-bay release). Block 30 configured aircraft are fully capable and meet the essential employment capabilities defined by the Air Force. The first fully configured Block 30 aircraft, AV-20 Spirit of PENNSYLVANIA, was delivered to the Air Force on 07 August 1997. Compared to the Block 20, the Block 30s have almost double the radar modes along with enhanced terrain-following capability and the ability to deliver additional weapons, including the Joint Direct Attack Munition and the Joint Stand Off Weapon. Other features include incorporation of configuration changes needed to make B-2s conform to

the approved radar signature; replacement of the aft decks; installation of remaining defensive avionics functions; and installation of a contrail management system. All block 10, 20, and test aircraft are to eventually be modified to the objective block 30 configuration. This modification process began in July 1995 and is scheduled to be completed in June 2000. The B-2 fleet will have 16 combat-coded aircraft by the second quarter of FY00, Upgrades

Link-16 – Providing Line-of-Sight (LOS) data for aircraft-to-aircraft, aircraft-to-C2, and aircraft-to-sensor connectivity, Link-16 is a combat force multiplier that provides U.S. and other allied military services with fully interoperable capabilities and greatly enhances tactical Command, Control, Communication, and Intelligence mission effectiveness. Link-16 provides increased survivability, develops a real-time picture of the theater battlespace, and enables the aircraft to quickly share information on short notice (target changes).

Connectivity – DoD requires survivable communications media for command and control of nuclear forces. To satisfy the requirement, the Air Force plans to deploy an advanced Extremely High Frequency (EHF) satellite communications constellation. This constellation will provide a survivable, high capability communication system. Based on favorable results from a funded risk reduction study, the B-2 will integrate an EHF communication capability satisfying connectivity requirements. Digital Engine Controller - The current analog engine controllers are high failure items, and without funding, ACC will be forced to ground aircraft beginning approximately FY08. Replacement of the engine controllers will improve the B-2’s performance and increase supportability, reliability, and maintainability. Computers/Processors - With advances in computer technology and increased demands on the system, the B-2’s computers will need to be replaced with state-of-the-art processors. Although reliable, maintaining the present processors will become increasingly difficult and costly. Signature Improvements - The B-2’s signature meets operational requirements against today’s threats. As advanced threats proliferate, it will be prudent to investigate advanced signature reduction concepts and determine if it is necessary to improve the B-2’s low observable signature. CANDIDATE LONG TERM UPGRADES BEYOND FY 15 TOTAL The basis for the useful life of the B-2 includes data from initial Developmental Test and Evaluation analysis. Data indicates the aircraft should be structurally sound to approximately 40,000 flight hours using current mission profiles. Analysis further suggests that the rudder attachment points are the first structural failure item. The B-2 has not implemented an ASIP similar to the other bombers, and this makes it difficult to predict the economic service life and attrition rate. However, a notional projection, based on the B-52, predicts one aircraft will be lost each 10 years. This attrition rate, plus attrition due to service life, will erode the B-2 force below its requirement of 19 aircraft by 2027. Tactical delivery tactics use patterns and techniques that minimize final flight path predictability, yet allows sufficient time for accurate weapons delivery. For conventional munitions. Bomb Rack Assembly (BRA) weapons delivery accuracies depend on delivery altitude. For a weapons pass made at 5,000 ft above ground level [AGL] or below, the hit criteria is less than or equal to 300 feet. For a weapons pass made above 5,000 feetAGL, the hit criteria is less than or equal to 500 feet. Similarly, Rotary Launcher Assembly (RLA) delivery of conventional or nuclear weapons (i.e. Mk-84, B83, B-61) is altitude dependent. For a weapons pass made at 5,000 feet AGL or below, the hit criteria is less than or equal to 300 feet. For a weapons pass made above 5,000 ft

AGL, the hit criteria is less than or equal to 500 feet. The hit criteria for a weapons pass made with GAM/ JDAM munitions is less than or equal to 50 feet.

B-2 Image Gallery

Primary function: Prime Contractor: Contractor Team: Multi-role heavy bomber. Northrop Grumman Corp. Boeing Military Airplanes Co., General Electric Aircraft Engine Group Hughes Training Inc., Link Division

Power Four General Electric F-118-GE-100 engines Plant/Manufacturer: Thrust: Length: 17,300 pounds each engine (7,847 kilograms) 69 feet (20.9 meters)

Height: Wingspan: Speed: Ceiling: Takeoff Weight (Typical): Range:

17 feet (5.1 meters) 172 feet (52.12 meters) High subsonic 50,000 feet (15,152 meters) 336,500 pounds (152,635 kilograms) Intercontinental, unrefueled NUCLEAR 16 B61 16 B83 16 AGM-129 ACM 16 AGM-131 SRAM 2 CONVENTIONAL 80 MK82 16 MK84 36 CBU87 36 CBU89 36 CBU97 PRECISION 8 GBU 27 12 JDAM 8 AGM-154 JSOW 8 AGM-137 TSSAM


Payload: Crew: Unit cost: Date Deployed: Inventory: Air Vehicle AV- 1 AV- 2

40,000 pounds (18,000 kilograms) Two pilots Approximately $2.1 billion [average] December 1993 Active force: 21 (planned operational aircraft); ANG: 0; Reserve: 0 Aircraft # Name [*] 82-1066 82-1067 Fatal Beauty Spirit of ARIZONA Ship From Hell [Murphy's Law] Spirit of NEW YORK Navigator / Ghost [Afternoon Delight] Spirit of INDIANA Christine Spirit of OHIO Fire and Ice [Toad] Spirit of MISSISSIPPI Black Widow / Penguin [Arnold the Pig] Ordered n/a n/a Delivered to USAF 17 Jul 89 19 Oct 90 20 Mar 98 Arrived Whiteman

AV- 3



18 Jun 91

10 Oct 97

AV- 4 AV- 5 AV- 6 TOV&V

82-1069 82-1070 82-1071

n/a n/a n/a

02 Oct 92 05 Oct 92 02 Feb 93

22 May 99 18 Jul 97 23 May 98

AV- 7 AV- 8 AV- 9 AV-10 AV-11 AV-12 AV-13 AV-14 AV-15 AV-16 AV-17 AV-18 AV-19 AV-20 AV-21 AV-22-76 AV-77-133 AV-134165

88-0328 88-0329 88-0330 88-0331 88-0332 89-0127 89-0128 89-0129 90-0040 90-0041 92-0700 93-1085 93-1086 93-1087 93-1088

Spirit of TEXAS Pirate Ship Spirit of MISSOURI Spirit of CALIFORNIA Spirit of S. CAROLINA Spirit of WASHINGTON Spirit of KANSAS Spirit of NEBRASKA Spirit of GEORGIA Spirit of ALASKA Spirit of HAWAII Spirit of FLORIDA Spirit of OKLAHOMA Spirit of KITTY HAWK Spirit of PENNSYLVANIA Spirit of LOUISIANA

1987 1987 1988 1988 1989 1989 1990 1990 1991 1991 1992 1993 1993 1993 1993 Cancelled Cancelled Cancelled

29 Aug 94 11 Dec 93 16 Aug 94 29 Dec 94 27 Oct 94 16 Feb 95 26 Jun 95 25 Sep 95 12 Jan 95 21 Dec 95 29 Mar 96 13 May 96

31 Aug 94 17 Dec 93 17 Aug 94 30 Dec 94 30 Oct 94 17 Feb 95 28 Jun 95 14 Nov 95 24 Jan 96 10 Jan 96 3 Jul 96 15 May 96 30 Aug 96 05 Aug 97 10 Nov 97

AIRCRAFT NAMES Each stealth bomber has at least three designations. The Air Vehicle [AV] number [eg, AV-1], indicative of the aircraft's construction sequence within the stealth bomber program. The tail number [eg 82-1066] is part of the general Air Force numbering system in which the first two digits are the year in which the plane was authorized, and the last four digits are the aircraft's unique serial number. The planes also have both formal and informal names, which is an unusual [though increasingly common] practice. For a long time we had a bit of difficulty providing robust correlation among these three designation systems, since Whiteman AFB and Dave Hastings did't have their stories straight on Spirit of OHIO and Spirit of ARIZONA. While we think that we have finally gotten these ducks lined up, any additional corrections would be vastly appreciated.

Following the naval precedent in which battleships, and subsequently whatever ship the Navy regarded as its capital ship [currently ballistic missile submarines, but it was nuclear powered cruisers for a while] were named after states, operational B-2 aircraft are named after states, with the annoying exception of Spirit of KITTY HAWK. States so honored are generally those with a close association [operational, political, or otherwise] with the program. This would seem to place an upper limit of 50 on the number of aircraft that can eventually be expected to be produced, though one imagines that additional states can be admitted to the Union if the need arises. Test aircraft have a somewhat less illustrious, and less definitive, naming system. Sources vary as to the names that have at times been used in connection with these airfraft, and we provide all names that have been reportedly associated with these vehicles [with the less certain names in [] parentheses]. As they enter operational service, these aircraft are given more dignified state names, as recently happened with AV-2 Spirit of OHIO.

B-3 bomber
Under current plnas, the B-52, along with the younger B-1B Lancer and the new stealthy B-2 Spirit, will be kept around until approximately 2037, by which time the Air Force calculates that attrition will have reduced the fleet below the minimum 170 aircraft. The B-52s may fly to 2045. Based on current operating procedures, attrition models, and service lives, the total bomber inventory is predicted to fall below the required 170 aircraft fleet by 2037. This date will become the target Initial Operational Capability (IOC) date for a follow-on to the current bomber capability, and an acquisition process can be planned by backing up from this date. Based on current projections for airframe economic service life and forecast mishap rate, initiating a replacement process no later than 2013 will ensure a capability to fill the long-range air power requirement as the current systems are retired. There are, however, additional concerns besides service life and mishap rates that could shift this replacement timeline. Changes in employment concepts, driven by technological advances in munitions and threats, or improvements in industry’s ability to perform cost effective major structural extensions could extend the today’s bomber force well beyond current projections. This may shift the acquisition timeline for a replacement capability further into the future.

The Light Bomber (Manned) concept calls for a medium-sized aircraft that blends the advantages of a tactical fighter with a strategic bomber to develop a medium/long range, high payload capability (inter-theater) affordable bomber. The aircraft will utilize some level of low-observable technology to obtain an effective yet affordable aircraft which can provide for multiple/heavy weapons carriage and launch for missions requiring real time decision making/replanning or autonomous operations. Cost would be controlled by utilizing off-the-shelf systems and affordable stealth technologies (JSF technology). Logistic support would be enhanced by maximizing commonality of support equipment with existing systems. The Bomber Industrial Capabilities Study was directed by Congress, chartered by the DOD, and conducted by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC). The study concluded that building a new bomber type, a B-3, could easily cost in excess of $35 billion for research and development alone (with unit flyaway costs about the same as a B-2). Technology concepts from the USAF Scientific Advisory Board's (SAB) New World Vistas and technology concepts submitted for the 2025 Study were reviewed and concepts harvested from these efforts included the Future Attack Aircraft. This concept envisions a 500-nm-range manned or unmanned aircraft that would use stealth technology (both RF and IR) to reach a target and employ laser or high-power microwave (HPM) weapons. An unmanned aircraft with a "tunable" HPM weapon could provide either the nonlethal or lethal punch SAF needs in the constabulary mission. Two concepts currently under consideration by Air Force Materiel Command include:

Multi-mission - Manned, multi-role capability, radius > 450+ range (hi-med-hi), Payload??, medium threat, Unit Flyaway Price (UFP) <$75M (BY00) Number of Concepts Scored: 3 (‘96); 1 (‘97); 1 (‘98)

10.2 Deep Strike - Manned, 1000NM < radius < 2000NM, 12-24 klbs, high-medhigh or hi-lo-hi, med-high threat, $50M < UFP < $250M (BY00)

A 1999 RAND Corporation study articulated a rationale for acquiring a Mach 2 supersonic bomber with the following characteristics
   

unrefueled range of 3,250 nmi weight of 290,000 to 350,000 pounds each payload of 15,000 to 20,000 pounds support of 37 to 40 percent of the current USAF tanker fleet and 100 air superiority fighters.

The Mach 2 bomber could attack targets almost anywhere in the world while operating from well-protected, permanent bases on US and UK territory. A total inventory of approximately 80 to 105 of these Mach 2 bombers could deliver enough PGMs (about 560 tons per day) to replicate the USAF Desert Storm effort.

HyperSoar Hypersonic Global Range Recce/Strike Aircraft
A HyperSoar hypersonic Global Range Recce/Strike Aircraft the size of a B-52 could take off from the US and deliver its payload to any point on the globe - from an altitude and at a speed that would challenge current defensive measures - and return to the US without the need for refueling or forward bases on foreign soil. Equipment and personnel could also be transported. HyperSoar could fly at approximately 6,700 mph (Mach 10), while carrying roughly twice the payload of subsonic aircraft of the same takeoff weight. The HyperSoar concept promises less heat build-up on the airframe than previous hypersonic designs - a challenge that has until now limited the development of hypersonic aircraft. The key to HyperSoar is the skipping motion of its flight along the edge of Earth's atmosphere - much like a rock skipped across water. A HyperSoar aircraft would ascend to approximately 130,000 feet - lofting outside the Earth's atmosphere then turn off its engines and coast back to the surface of the atmosphere. There, it would again fire its air-breathing engines and skip back into space. The craft would repeat this process until it reached its destination. A mission from the midwestern United States to east Asia would require approximately 25 such skips to complete the one-and-a-half-hour journey. The aircraft's angles of descent and ascent during the skips would only be 5 degrees. The crew would feel 1.5 times the force of gravity at the bottom of each skip and weightlessness while in space. (1.5 Gs is comparable to the effect felt on a child's swing, though HyperSoar's motion would be 100 times slower.) Although the porpoising effect of a HyperSoar flight might test the adventurousness of some airline passengers, this would not impact military or space launch applications. Most current hypersonic designs rely on rocket engines to boost the aircraft to the edge of space, from where the craft essentially glides back down to its destination. Other designs simply use engines to push the aircraft through the atmosphere. All previous concepts have suffered from heat buildup on the surface of the aircraft and in various aircraft components due to friction with the atmosphere. A HyperSoar plane would experience less heating because it would spend much of its flight out of the Earth's atmosphere. Also, any heat the craft picked up while "skipping" down into the atmosphere could be at least partially dissipated during the aircraft's time in the cold of space. Another HyperSoar advantage is its use of air-breathing engines. Most conventional hypersonic designs rely on rocket motors to boost the aircraft to the edge of space. By not boosting to as high a velocity, and by dropping back into the atmosphere at the bottom of each "skip," a HyperSoar plane can utilize air- breathing engines, which are inherently

more efficient than rocket engines. Also, HyperSoar engines would be used strictly as accelerators, rather than as accelerators and cruising engines - as in some hypersonic designs - thereby greatly simplifying the design and reducing technical risk. Waveriders are aerodynamic shapes designed such that the bow shock generated by the configuration is attached along the outer leading edge at the design Mach number. The shock attachment condition confines the high-pressure region behind the shock wave to the lower surface of the configuration, which provides the potential for high lift-to-drag ratios. Waveriders also offer potential propulsion/airframe integration (PAI) benefits because of their ability to deliver a known uniform flow field to a scramjet inlet. Enhanced mixing mixing between the fuel and airstream, and thus reduced combustor length and engine weight, is an important goal in the design of supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) engines. Cryogenic hydrogen fuel was chosen for air-breathing scramjet propulsion for the National AeroSpace Plane. Selection was based on its high specific energy, its high heat-sink capacity for structural cooling, and its ability to burn very rapidly and sustain flameholding in strained recirculation zones. The HyperSoar concept has been under investigation by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for several years and is being discussed with the US Air Force and other government agencies. Livermore has been working with the University of Maryland's Department of Aerospace Engineering to refine the aerodynamic and trajectory technologies associated with the concept. Other potential applications for HyperSoar aircraft include:

Space lift - HyperSoar could be employed as the first stage of a two-stage-toorbit space launch system. Research shows this approach will allow approximately twice the payload-to-orbit as today's expendable launch systems for a given gross takeoff weight.  Passenger aircraft - A commercial HyperSoar airliner or business jet could reach any destination on the planet from the continental U.S. in two hours or less.  Freighter - A HyperSoar freight aircraft could make four or more roundtrips to, say, Tokyo each day from the U.S. versus one or less for today's aircraft. Analysis indicates a HyperSoar aircraft flying express mail between Los Angeles and Tokyo could generate ten times the daily revenue of a similarly- sized subsonic cargo plane of today. Proponents estimate that approximately $140 million would be needed over the next few years to advance several technologies to the point where a $350 million one-third-scale flyable prototype could be built and tested. The development cost of full-scaled HyperSoar aircraft is estimated at about the same as spent to develop the Boeing Company's new 777, or nearly $10 billion.

S-3B Viking
S-3B Aircraft are tasked by the Carrier Battle Group Commanders to provide AntiSubmarine Warfare (ASW) and Anti-Surface Warfare (ASUW), surface surveillance and intelligence collection, electronic warfare, mine warfare, coordinated search and rescue, and fleet support missions, including air wing tanking. The S-3B Aircraft is manned and operated by an aircrew of four. The aircrew consists of a pilot, Copilot Tactical Coordinator (COTAC), acoustic Sensor Station Operator (SENSO), and Tactical Coordinator (TACCO). The S-3B Aircraft carries surface and subsurface search equipment with integrated target acquisition and sensor coordinating systems which can collect, process, interpret, and store ASW and ASUW sensor data. It has a direct attack capability with a variety of armament. The S-3B's high speed computer system processes information generated by the acoustic and non-acoustic target sensor systems. This includes a new Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) and ESM systems suites. To destroy targets, the S-3B Viking employs an impressive array of airborne weaponry. This provides the fleet with a very effective airborne capability to combat the significant threat presented by modern combatants and submarines. Additionally, all S-3B aircraft are capable of carrying an inflight refueling "buddy" store. This allows the transfer of fuel from the Viking aircraft to other Naval strike aircraft, thus extending their combat radius. The S-3B Aircraft is a modified S-3A Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) aircraft, with increased ASW and new Anti-Surface Warfare capabilities through improvements to various mission avionics and armament systems. It has increased capabilities through improvements to the general purpose digital computer, acoustic data processor, radar, sonobuoy receiver, sonobuoy reference system, and electronic support measures, and includes the installation of an electronic countermeasures dispensing system and the Harpoon Missile System. It also encompasses provisions for the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System. The Communications Control Group [CCG] provides improved communication capability and greatly improved reliability over the Switching Logic Unit and Intercommunication System used in the S-3A. The Global Positioning System [GPS] modification replaces the Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) portion of the S-3B Aircraft TACAN Inertial Navigation System once TACAN is phased out. This new navigation system will also comply with the requirement for the S-3B Aircraft to have Federal Aviation Administration certifiable GPS Radio Navigation capability. The GPS will provide increased operational capability and mission effectiveness by providing precise navigation position information during all phases of aircraft operations. The AN/USH-42 Mission Recorder Reproducer Set [MR/RS] replaces the obsolete and unsupportable RO457 Video Signal Recorder. It allows for multi-channel recording of S3B Aircraft Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar, Forward Looking Infrared, and mission avionics data. The capability for in-flight video recording, in-flight and post-flight playback, analysis, and duplication are also new features.

Between July 1987 and July 1991, all east coast S-3A Aircraft were modified by a contractor field team at the Naval Air Station (NAS) Cecil Field, Florida. In March 1992, a contractor field team at NAS North Island, California, began modifying west coast S3A Aircraft to the S-3B Aircraft configuration and completed modifications in September 1994. In early 1995, CCGs were installed in approximately 40 of the S-3B Aircraft at NAS North Island. Installation of the remaining CCGs began in March 1997 and is scheduled to be completed first quarter FY00. The GPSs and AN/USH-42s are scheduled for concurrent installation beginning first quarter FY98 and continuing through the first quarter FY01. The S-3B Aircraft is in Phase III, Production, Fielding, Deployment, and Operational Support phase of the Weapon System Acquisition Process. In fiscal year 1992, ten aircraft S-3B squadrons were reduced to six aircraft. In 1993, aircraft assets for deployed squadrons were increased to eight, to meet increased operational requirements caused by retirement of the A-6E from the Navy inventory. All S-3B squadrons are currently configured and manned for eight aircraft. The Undersea Warfare Systems (USW) have been removed from the S-3B Viking aircraft. This provides an ideal opportunity for improved technologies to be developed in the S-3B aircraft. The capabilities being tested provide real time tactical data to units on the ground or onboard ships. In the summer of 1999, Commander Sea Control Wing Atlantic (CSCWL) and Commander Sea Control Wing Pacific (CSCWP) embarked on a joint demonstration of the Viking Surveillance System Upgrade (SSU). The Pacific Wing aircraft was fitted with Ultra High Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (UHR/SAR) imagery, Joint Tactical Information distribution System (JTIDS) Link-16, Real Time Sensor Data Link (RTSDL) and the AN/AYK-23 Digital Computer. A long range Electro Optical/Infra Red (EO/IR) sensor capable of real time data link to ground and airborne stations was placed in an Atlantic Wing aircraft. The modifications were done at Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division (NAWCAD), Patuxent River by Veridian contract personnel at Force Aircraft Test Squadron and Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida. This joint effort minimized installation time and cost and maximized visibility.

Primary Function Contractor Unit Cost Propulsion Length Wingspan Height Weight Speed Antisubmarine Warfare and Sea Surveillance Lockheed-California Company $27 million Two General Electric TF-34-GE-400B turbofan engines (9,275 pounds of thrust each) 53 feet 4 inches (16 meters) 68 feet 8 inches (20.6 meters) 22 feet 9 inches (6.9 meters) Max design gross take-off: 52,539 pounds (23,643 kg) 450 knots (518 mph, 828.8 kph)

Ceiling Range

40,000 feet 2,300+ nautical miles (2,645 statute miles, 4232 km) Up to 3,958 pounds (1,781 kg) AGM-84 Harpoon AGM-65 Maverick missiles torpedoes, mines, rockets and bombs. Four 1975


Crew IOC

Common Support Aircraft (CSA)
The Common Support Aircraft (CSA) will serve as the Navy's carrier-based surveillance, control, and support aircraft for the 21st century, replacing existing S-3B, ES-3A, E-2C, and C-2A aircraft. Envisioned as a single aircraft design, the CSA will be able to carry different mission suites of sensors and avionics in order to fulfill future mission requirements and will possess significant capacity for logistics support and aerial refueling. CSA will facilitate naval fires in the joint warfare battlespace with fuzed tactical data obtained from both on- and off-board sensors and with its organic warfighting capability. In 1993, a Naval Aviation study concluded that a "neckdown" of follow-on aircraft was the only affordable procurement strategy for future naval aircraft. Current investments in E-2C production, ongoing C-2 service life extension, and service life extension plans for the S-3 and ES-3 aircraft are needed to ensure that current airframes achieve the 2015 service life goal. Based on current fleet utilization rates and projected support aircraft inventories, the CSA will require a 2012 initial operational capability at the latest. Efforts are being explored to determine if an accelerated profile is feasible. The study team has established CINC Coordination and Fleet User Teams to ensure the operational concerns of U.S. warfighters are highlighted, and to provide a forum that spans all warfare areas. Phase 1 defined future mission requirements by using top down, strategy-task-technology and quality function deployment methodologies that were rooted in joint military objectives. Phase 1 concluded in early 1997. During Phase 2, the study will evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of a single airframe vehicle. First, the mission concept of operations in tactical situations will quantify performance values. Existing guidance will be used to examine the aircraft design possibilities for a multi-place aircraft sharing a common airframe, engines, and core avionics and having sufficient internal volume and carriage capability for missionspecific avionics, sensors, stores and weapons. The study group is also working with industry and examining advances in technology and the acquisition process to assess the feasibility of the CSA. The CSA initiative is to commence a baseline development effort for the air vehicle prior to final weapon systems determination for the various mission variants. Based on the current and future "worst case" avionics suite, the baseline aircraft will be sized around the Hawkeye 2006 mission system which will provide growth potential for other mission area requirements and avionics upgrades. Significant work in formulating plans, options and contingencies are ongoing within the Fleet, acquisition community, and industry so that a streamlined effort can be initiated that minimizes program risk while exploiting commercial best practices and methodologies. The Navy has deferred a formal acquisition plan for the Common Support Aircraft until the critical issues of resources, requirements and program timing are resolved. It may be more appropriate to call the program a Common Support Concept (CSC) which accommodates efforts to tailor CVW missions to the battlespace of the future. The support solutions of the future may not all entail a new aircraft. Current S-3 and C-2 airframe test articles will further define service life limits and SLEP alternatives. Support

aircraft program initiatives such as the E-2 MYP, vertically cutting the ES-3A, and shedding S-3B mission areas have succeeded in pushing the requirement for a Common Support Aircraft further to the right than initially projected. Test article results will help to define our path and options in meeting support requirements. The vision for CSA is to use POM02 funds to start analysis of alternatives and roles and missions studies to solidify the requirements for a CSA platform. The conclusions of the analysis will be used to establish a roadmap and then move forward with the modernization of naval aviation's support aircraft inventories. Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems examined four basic CSA concepts. These comprised the CSA-101, a low-risk solution similar in appearance to the S-3 and embodying a fin-mounted rotodome; the CSA-201, a more advanced design, with a triangular fin-mounted radome, and some low-observable features, such as faceting; the CSA-301, with full low-observability and conformal sensor arrays integrated into leading- and trailing-edges of a diamond planform; and a UAV design similar in appearance to Northrop's Tacit Blue stealth-technology demonstrator, but with a twinboom tail. Although the CSA project is still active, the requirements for the CSA have been delayed by the US Navy. Lockheed Martin has been pursuing a number of modernisation initiatives to extend service life of the S-3B Viking, which is a candidate for eventual replacement by CSA.

P-3 Orion
The P-3C is a land-based, long range anti-submarine warfare (ASW) patrol aircraft. It has advanced submarine detection sensors such as directional frequency and ranging (DIFAR) sonobuoys and magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) equipment. The avionics system is integrated by a general purpose digital computer that supports all of the tactical displays, monitors and automatically launches ordnance and provides flight information to the pilots. In addition, the system coordinates navigation information and accepts sensor data inputs for tactical display and storage. The P-3C can either operate alone or supporting many different customers including the carrier battlegroup and amphibious readiness group. The aircraft can carry a variety of weapons internally and on wing pylons, such as the Harpoon anti-surfacemissile, the MK-50 torpedo and the MK-60 mine. Each Maritime Patrol Aviation (MPA) squadron has nine aircraft and is manned by approximately 60 officers and 250 enlisted personnel. Each 11-person crew includes both officer and enlisted personnel. The MPA squadrons deploys to sites outside the United States for approximately six months, and generally spends one year training at home between deployments. In February 1959, the Navy awarded Lockheed a contract to develop a replacement for the aging P-2 Neptune. The P-3V Orion entered the inventory in July 1962, and over 30 years later it remains the Navy's sole land-based antisubmarine warfare aircraft. It has gone through one designation change (P-3V to P-3) and three major models: P-3A, P-3B, and P-3C, the latter being the only one now in active service. The last Navy P-3 came off the production line at the Lockheed plant in April 1990. Since its introduction in 1969, the P-3C has undergone a series of configuration changes to implement improvements in various mission and aircraft systems through updates to the aircraft. These changes have usually been implemented in blocks referred to as "Updates." Update I, introduced in 1975, incorporated new data processing avionics and software, while Update II in 1977 featured an infrared detection system, a sonobuoy reference system, the Harpoon antiship missile and a 28-channel magnetic tape recorder/reproducer. Technical Evaluation (TECHEVAL) for P-3C Update III Aircraft began in March 1981, and was completed in second quarter 1982. Force Warfare Test Directorate, Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAVAIRWARCENACDIV), at Patuxent River, Maryland, conducted the TECHEVAL. Air Test and Evaluation Squadron One (VX-1) began Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) of the P-3C Update III Aircraft at NAVAIRWARCENACDIV Patuxent River in September 1981, and completed this phase of testing in January 1982. Provisional approval for service use was granted in July 1982. Approval for full production was received in January 1986 following Follow-on Operational Test and Evaluation (FOT&E). The Update III Program was enhanced by a Channel Expansion (CHEX) Program. CHEX doubled the number of sonobuoy channels that can be processed and has been installed in all P-3C Update III Aircraft. The CHEX Program began in 1983 and the tested aircraft was delivered in April 1986. CHEX TECHEVAL was accomplished from March through June 1988.

The P-3C Update III Aircraft is manned by an 11-man crew composed of five officers and six enlisted. Enlisted crewmembers are selected from the following aviation ratings: Aviation Machinist's Mate (AD), Aviation Electrician's Mate (AE), Master Chief Aircraft Maintenanceman (AF), Senior Chief Aviation Structural Mechanic (AM), Aviation Structural Mechanic (Safety Equipment) (AME), Aviation Structural Mechanic (Hydraulics) (AMH), Aviation Structural Mechanic (Structures) (AMS), Aviation Electronics Technician (AT), and Aviation Warfare Systems Operator (AW). The operational concept for the P-3C Update III and P-3C Update III AIP Aircraft remains the same as previous updates to the P-3C Aircraft, to provide tactical surveillance, reconnaissance, strike support, fleet support and warning, and monitoring of electromagnetic signals of interest for intelligence analysis. Patrol squadrons operate with nine aircraft from established Naval Air Stations (NASs) world wide. The P-3C Update III and P-3C Update III AIP Aircraft continue the P-3C's capability of operating one or more aircraft from remote airfields with no organizational or intermediate support for short periods of time. The P-3C Update III was introduced into the fleet during early 1985, and Aircraft Initial Operating Capability (IOC) was achieved in 1986. The P-3C Update III Aircraft is in the Production, Fielding, Deployment, and Operational Support Phase of the Weapon System Acquisition Process. The noteworthy additions and changes which comprised Update III, enhanced acoustic data processing capabilities and improved the sonobuoy communications suite. These changes included the Single Advanced Signal Processor System, Advanced Sonobuoy Communications Link Receiver, Adaptive Controlled Phased Array System, Electronic Support Measure (ESM) Set, Acoustic Test Signal Generator, CP-2044 Digital Data Computer, and changes to the Environmental Control System.

The Harpoon Stand-Off Land Attack Missile (SLAM) launched from the P-3C Orion aircraft provides commanders with the ability to immediately deploy a long range responsive platform that can remain on-station for extended periods of time, retask targets in flight, and deliver up to four over-the-horizon precision weapons in minutes. The same aircraft can then remain on station and continue to target other platforms' missiles by the use of its Electro-Optical, Rapid Targeting System (RTS) and real time data link capabilities.  The AN/ALQ-158(V) Adaptive Controlled Phased Array System [ACPA] VHF sonobuoy receiving antenna system amplifies reception of sonobuoy signals. The ACPA now consists of: Two AS-3153/ALQ-158(V) Blade Antennas are installed; only omni-directional reception is provided; AM-6878/ALQ-158(V) Radio Frequency Amplifier equipment receives and amplifies the signals sent from the blade antennas and passes these amplified signals on to the AN/ARR-78 ASCL receiver.  AN/ARR-78(V)1 Advanced Sonobuoy Communications Link [ASCL] Receiver contains 20 receiver modules, each capable of accepting RF operating channels 199 (those sonobuoy channels now in use and those being developed for future use). All 20 receiver modules may be tuned to any one of the sonobuoy operating frequencies. The ASCL consists of a Radio Receiver, Receiver Control/On-Top Position Indicator (OTPI), Control Indicator, and Receiver Indicator. Two R-

2033/ARR-78(V)1 Radio Receiver units receive acoustic data for the SASP. Each has four auxiliary function channels which allow the TACCO to monitor the sonobuoy audio channels, BT light off detection, and OTPI reception. The C10127/ARR-78(V)1 Receiver Control unit provides manual control of the OTPI receiver only, permitting the pilot to select the OTPI receiver and tune it to any one of the 99 channels. The C-10126/ARR-78(V) Control Indicator is the primary manual control for the ASCL Set is the control indicator. Each of the two units installed allows the operator to select and program any of the 20 receiver modules. Each of the two ID-2086/ARR-78(V)1 Receiver Indicator units simultaneously displays the status of all 20 receiver modules on a continuous basis. The AN/UYS-1(V) Single Advanced Signal Processor System [SASP] is a digital processor designed for the conditioning, analysis, processing, and display of acoustic signals. The SASP System is comprised of two basic elements. The TS4271/UYS-1(V)10 Analyzer Detecting Set, also called the AU, is installed with a primary function of processing acoustic signals through the use of a Spectrum Analyzer TS-4271/UYS-1(V). It is protected from power transients by a PP7467/UYS-1(V) Power Interrupt Unit (PIU). The CP-1808/USQ-78(V) SASP Display Control Unit (DCU), contains a programmable, modularity expandable system containing two independent computer subsystems, a System Controller, and a Display Generator (DG) and is also protected by a PIU. The DG also provides hardware interface to two Commandable Manual Entry Panels (CMEPs) C-11808/USQ-78(V), and two Multi-Purpose Displays (MPDs) IP-1423/ USQ78(V). The two manual entry panels provide the operator an interface to control system operating modes and MPD visual presentations. With the AN/ALQ-78A Countermeasures Set the existing Countermeasures Set (AN/ALQ-78) is modified by an ECP which improved both maintainability and performance. This ECP was first introduced in the P-3C Update II (ECP-955 for production aircraft and ECP-966 for retrofit aircraft). The AN/ARS-5 Receiver-Converter Sonobuoy Reference System, a 99 Channel SRS, permits the continuous monitoring of a sonobuoy location from a stand-off position. The SRS provides "fly to" reference data to the CP-2044. It was fit into Lockheed I-9 aircraft serial 5812 Bureau Number 163005 and subsequent production aircraft and was retrofit into production P-3C Update III Aircraft. The AN/ARC-187 Ultra High Frequency Radio Set provides for a satellite communications capability. The two installed AN/ARC-143 UHF Radios were replaced by two AN/ARC-187 UHF Radios with the incorporation of ECP-988. This ECP is applicable to all P-3C Update III Aircraft. The AN/ARC-187 was installed in the P-3C Update III production aircraft delivered in May 1988 and subsequent. Retrofit installation by Lockheed Martin field teams has been completed. The CP-2044 Digital Data Computeris a single cabinet airborne computer equipped with high-throughput microprocessors, increased memory capacity, a dual bus system, and built-in diagnostics. Improvements to the CP-901 have resulted in a design which dramatically increases performance while maintaining the CP-901 footprint and significantly reduces weight and power requirements.

Main shared memory is increased to one megaword, with an additional one megaword available for memory growth. In addition, each of the processor modules contain one megaword of local memory. These design improvements and the use of Ada language will accommodate future processing requirements and keep the system viable throughout the 1990s. Performance improvements are made possible by 15 new six by nine inch printed circuit cards. The CP-2044 features three Motorola 68030 microprocessors and card slots for four additional processors. Functions of the previously external AN/AYA-8 or OL-337(V)/AY Logic Units and the CV-2461A/A are incorporated in the CP-2044.  The AN/ARN-151(V)1 Global Positioning System [GPS] provides highly accurate navigation information. The five-channel receiver processor unit continuously tracks and monitors four satellites simultaneously, while the fifth channel tracks another satellite for changeover to maintain an acceptable geometry between satellites.  The AN/ALR-66A/B(V)3 Electronic Support Measures [ESM] Set provides concurrent radar warning receiver data (threat data) along with ESM data (fine measurement of classical parametric data). The AN/ALR-66B(V)3 Set provides increased sensitivity and processing improvements over its predecessor, the AN/ALR-66A(V)3. Further refinements to the operational flight program and the library will provide an operator tailorable library. The AN/ALR-66B(V)3 provides inputs to the EP-2060 Pulse Analyzer to detect, direction find, quantify, process, and display electromagnetic signals emitted by land, ship, and airborne radar systems. The P-3C Update III Anti-Surface Warfare Improvement Program [AIP] Aircraft will provide improvements in Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence; surveillance and OTHT capabilities; and survivability, to include the Maverick Missile System. Delivery of the P-3C Update III Anti-Surface Warfare (ASUW) Improvement Program (AIP) Aircraft to the fleet began 29 April 1998 and is scheduled to be complete at the close of FY00. The P-3C Update III AIP will be accomplished through the retrofit of P-3C Update III Aircraft that have the CP-2044 Digital Data Computer and AN/ALR66B(V)3 Electronic Support Measures Set installed. Transition to the P-3C Update III AIP Aircraft began in April 1998. Since, as currently envisioned, squadrons will initially operate both the P-3C Update III and P-3C Update III AIP Aircraft, aircrew and maintenance personnel will require training for both aircraft configurations. Training track lengths will increase with the inclusion of the P-3C Update III AIP Aircraft information into existing training tracks. The P-3C Update III AIP Aircraft equipment includes:

The IR Maverick Missile is an infrared-guided, rocket-propelled, air-to-ground missile for use against targets requiring considerable warhead penetration prior to detonation. The missile is capable of two pre-flight selectable modes of target tracking. The armor or land track mode is optimized for tracking land-based targets such as tanks or fortified emplacements. The ship track mode is optimized

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for tracking seaborne targets. The missile is capable of launch-and-leave operation. After launch, automatic missile guidance is provided by an imaging infrared energy sensing and homing device. The AN/AAS-36A Infrared Detecting Set [IRDS] provides passive imaging of infrared wavelength radiation to visible light emanating from the terrain along the aircraft flight path for stand-off detection, tracking, and classification capability. The IRDS update will primarily consist of an improved A-focal lens. The AN/AVX-1 Electro-Optical Sensor System [EOSS] is an airborne stabilized electro-optical system that provides video for surveillance and reconnaissance missions. The AN/AVX-1 EOSS has the capability to detect and monitor objects during the day from exceptionally clear to medium hazes, dawn and dusk, and during the night from a full moon to starlight illumination. The AN/APS-137B(V)5 Radar is capable of multimode operation to provide periscope and small target detection, navigation, weather avoidance, long range surface search and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and ISAR imaging modes. SAR provides detection, identification, and classification capability of stationary targets. ISAR provides detection, classification, and tracking capability against surface and surfaced submarine targets. The AN/APS-137B(V)5 ISAR provides range, bearing, and positional data on all selected targets, and provides medium or high resolution images for display and recording. The EP-2060 Pulse Analyzer works in conjunction with the AN/ALR-66C(V)3 to detect, direction find, quantify, process, and display electromagnetic signals emitted by land, ship, and airborne radar systems. Three Color High Resolution Display [CHRD] general purpose, dual channel, closed circuit units provide the operator with improved Operator-MachineInterface and 1024 X 1280 pixel landscape orientation, improved response time to operator commands, and an increase of 300 percent in the video refresh rate to minimize display flicker. Five types of data may be displayed on the CHRD: cursors, cues, tableau, alerts, and raw video. The Pilot Color High Resolution Display [PCHRD] provides the ability to display complex tactical and sensor information to the pilot station. The Over-the-Horizon Airborne Sensor Information System [OASIS] III data is received and prepared for transmission via the OASIS III Tactical Data Processor (TDP). OASIS III processes and correlates all data provided via MATT and MiniDAMA. The OASIS III TDP provides an Officer in Tactical Command Information Exchange System (OTCIXS) message link, coupled with GPS-aided targeting using the AN/APS-137B(V)5 Radar. The OZ-72(V) Multi-Mission Advanced Tactical Terminal [MATT] system will provide Tactical Receive Equipment (TRE) capability to receive and decrypt three simultaneous channels of Tactical Data Information Exchange Subsystem (TADIXS-B), Tactical Related Applications (TRAP), and Tactical Information Broadcast Service (TIBS) information. The system will route the received broadcast data to the OASIS III for further processing. The AN/USC-42(V)3 Miniaturized Demand Assigned Multiple Access [MiniDAMA] will provide for secure voice communications. Mini-DAMA provides for

the transmission, reception, and decryption of OTCIXS data and the subsequent routing of that data to the OASIS III TDP.  The AN/AAR-47 Missile Warning System [MWS] is a passive electro-optical system designed to detect surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles. Upon detection of an incoming missile, the MWS will report the impending threat to the Countermeasures Dispensing System (CMDS).  The AN/ALE-47 Countermeasures Dispensing System [CMDS] will be used for dispensing flares, chaff, non-programmable expendable jammers, and programmable jammers.  The AN/ALR-66C(V)3 Electronic Support Measures Set provides all the same features as an AN/ALR-66B(V)3 ESM Set. However, the ALR-66C(V)3 Set incorporates the AS-105 spinning DF antenna and the Operational Flight Program is modified to accommodate this configuration difference. Also included is the EP-2060 Pulse Analyzer, an upgrade to the ULQ-16. NATO's Operation Allied Force marked the combat debut of the P-3C Antisurface Warfare Improvement Program (AIP). The Mediterranean maritime patrol force for these operations included ten P-3Cs, five of the AIP variant, and 14 crews from Patrol Squadrons 1, 4, 5 and 10 from Naval Air Stations Whidbey Island, Barbers Point, Jacksonville and Brunswick, respectively. On March 22, two days before the start of hostilities, P-3C AIP aircraft began flying around-the-clock armed force protection surveillance flights in the Adriatic Sea in direct support of afloat Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) shooting ships. For the next 94 days, Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA) provided 100 percent of the Surface Combat Air Patrols (SUCAP) for the USS Theodore Roosevelt Carrier Battle Group and other allied ships operating in the area. This marked the first time surface combat air patrols during actual combat operations have been performed exclusively by non-carrier organic aircraft. CTF-67 AIP-equipped P-3’s were able to directly observe commercial contraband ships as well as Yugoslav boats and ships moored at coastal sites and underway. The images were downlinked to the USS Theodore Roosevelt battle group commander, giving the battle group an unprecedented real-time and near real-time view of the tactical situation. In all, CTF-67 aircraft detected and reported over 3,500 surface contacts. In another first, AIP-equipped P-3’s fired a total of 14 Standoff Land Attack Missiles (SLAMs) at Serb targets. Because of the P-3’s ability to stay on-station for hours at a time, battle group commanders had the flexibility to hit mobile targets on short notice. This in-flight planning/re-targeting ability for SLAM strikes validated the importance of the P-3’s strike role. The Counter Drug Update Equipment update is a Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) identified urgent requirement to equip a limited number of active and reserve P-3C Update III Aircraft with a RORO capability to install all or selected systems to counter narcotic trafficking operations. Counter Drug Update systems include:
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Air-to-Air Radar System AN/APG-66 EOSS AN/AVX-1(V)1

Project Rigel Communications Equipment

ECP-315 addresses the design, manufacture, and installation of aircraft wiring provisions for AFC-563 kits in 32 aircraft (18 active and 14 reserve). Ten active and five reserve RORO kits are provided for AN/AVX-1 and 10 RORO kits for AN/APG-66 (active duty aircraft only). ECP-391, Project Rigel, addressed the design, manufacture, and installation of aircraft wiring provision kits in 18 active aircraft and eight RORO kits. The Sustained Readiness Program (SRP) provides for the preemptive replacement of airframe components and systems identified as having potential for significant impact on future aircraft availability because of excessive time to repair, obsolescence, component manufacturing lead time, or cost impact. The SRP kit is comprised of a set of core installations and repairs that must be performed on each aircraft and a set of conditional installations and repairs. The need for the conditional installations and repairs will be determined by inspections performed on each aircraft as it is inducted. In addition, the fuel quantity system will be replaced with a Digital Fuel Quantity System (DFQS). The first SRP aircraft under went modification and was completed in first quarter FY97. The Electronic Flight Display System (EFDS) is an updated version of the Flight Display System (FDS). It is defined as the flight instrument, associated controls, and its interface to the aircraft, and is designed to provide the pilot, co-pilot, or Navigation/Communication (NAV/COMM) Officer with a comprehensive, unambiguous presentation of navigation information adequate for both worldwide tactical and nontactical navigation. The display unit uses a flat panel domestic Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display (AMLCD). The FDS functionally replaces the P-3 electro-mechanical Horizontal Situation Indicator (ID-1540/A), electro-mechanical Flight Director Indicators (FDI) (ID-1556), selected functions of the Navigation Availability Advisory Lights, and integrates GPS navigation with the flight instruments. Additional information such as navigational aid waypoint locations, GPS annunciation, and FDS status pages are also displayed. Due to the high operational expense of the Inertial Navigation Unit currently installed, a Replacement Inertial Navigation Unit (RINU) has become necessary. The RINU will be installed coincidental with the EFDS and training will be developed to include both systems. The Navy periodically conducts service life assessment programs to reevaluate its fatigue damage accrual estimate, flight hour limits, and operational availability and reliability. Based on these assessments, the P-3's service life limit hasincreased from 7,500 flight hours to 20,000. Over the years, the Navy found that P-3 flying patterns were not as severe as had been assumed.The original limit was based on conservative assumptions about in-flight stresses (e.g. maneuvers and payload), while the higher limit reflectedactual operating experience and more modern analysis of the original fatigue test data. The Navy periodically reevaluates flight hour limits, or, more accurately, the fatigue damage accrual rate from which it derives flight hour limits. Preliminary analysis in the early 1990s indicated that the 20,000 hour limit for the P-3 could be extended to 24,000

hours or more, which represents an additional 6 years of service life atcurrent usage rates. The extension may be lessened if other factors such as corrosion or cost of operation and maintenancebecome unmanageable. Using the Navy's retirementprojection methodology and assuming a 24,000 Right hour limit, the fleet size would remain at 249 aircraft through the decade and drop to 239 by fiscal year 2005. On 12 March 1999 Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems, Marietta GA, was awarded a $30,205,495 cost-plus-incentive-fee contract to conduct Phase II and III of the service life assessment program (SLAP) being conducted for the P-3C aircraft. The primary purpose of the SLAP is to assess the fatigue life and damage tolerance characteristics of the P-3C airframe, and to identify structural modifications required in an effort to attain the 2015 service life goal.

Primary Function Contractor Antisubmarine warfare(ASW)/Antisurface warfare (ASUW) Lockheed P-3A Date Deployed Power Plant August 1962 Four T56- Four T56-A-14 A-10 Allison turbo prop Allison 4,600 horsepower each turbo prop 4,300 horsepower each 127,500 lbs 127,500 lbs 139,760 lbs 139,760 lbs 10-13 hr 10-13 hr 10-13 hr 10-13 hr P-3B (L) P-3B (H) P-3C August 1969

Maximum gross weight Endurance Crew composition

5 - minimum flight crew 11 - normal crew 21 - maximum accomodation 330 knots 60,000 lbs 330 knots 60,000 lbs 4000-5000 330 knots 60,000 lbs 4000-5000 330 knots 60,000 lbs 4000-5000 $36 million (FY 1987) up to around 20,000 pounds (9 metric tons) internal and external loads Bomb Bay:

Cruise speed (average) Fuel capacity (approximate)

Fuel consumption (lb/hr) 4000-5000 Unit Cost Armament

8 MK 46/50 Torpedoes 8 MK 54 Depth Bombs 3 MK 36/52 1000 lb Mines 3 MK 57 Depth Bombs 2 MK 101 Depth Bombs 1 MK 25/39/55/56 2000 lb Mine Two Center-Section Pylons: 2 Harpoon (AGM-84) 2 Maverick (AGM 65) 2 MK 46/50 Torpedoes 2 2000 lb Mines Three Under Outer Wing Pylons, [Per Wing -Inboard to Outboard): 2 MK 46/50 Torpedo or 1000 lb Mine 2 MK 46/50 Torpedo or 1000 lb Mine or Rockets 2 MK 46/50 Torpedo or 500 lb Mine or Rockets A total maximum weapon load includes 6 2,000 lb mines under wings 2 MK 101 depth bombs 4 MK 50 torpedoes 87 sonobuoys pyrotechnics, signals, P-3C TECHNICAL DATA: Internal Dimensions External Dimensions Wing span Wing chord (at root) Wing chord (at tip) Wing aspect ratio Length overall Height overall Fuselage diameter Tailplane span Wheel Track (c/l shock absorbers) 30.37 m 5.77 m 2.31 m 7:5 35.61 m 10.27 m 3.45 m 13.06 m 9.50 m Wings, gross Ailerons (totals) Trailing-edge flaps (total) Fin, including dorsal fin Cabin, excl flight deck and electrical load center: Length Maximum width Maximum height Floor area Volume Areas 3120.77 m 2 8.36 m 2 19.32 m 2 10.78 m 2 21.06 m 3.30 m 2.29 m m2 120.6 m

Wheel base Propeller diameter Cabin door (height) Cabin door (width)

9.07 m 4.11 m 1.83 m 0.69 m

Rudder, including tab Tailplane Elevators, including tabs

5.57 m 2 22.39 m 2 7.53 m 2

Weights and Loadings Weight empty Maximum fuel weight Maximum expendable load Maximum normal T-O weight Design zero-fuel weight Maximum landing weight Maximum wing loading Maximum power loading 27,890 kg 28,350 kg 9,071 kg 61,235 kg 35,017 kg 47,119 kg 507.0 kg/m 4.18 kg/kW

Performance P-3B/C at maximum T-O weight (except where indicated otherwise): Maximum level speed at 4,575 meters at AUW of 47,625 kg 411 knots

Econ cruising speed at 7,620 328 knots m at AUW of 48,895 kg Patrol speed at 457 m at AUW of 49,895 kg Time to 7,620 meters Service ceiling Service ceiling , OEI T-O run T-O to 15 miles Rate of climb at 457 m 594 min. 30 min. 8,625 meters 5,790 meters 1,290 meters

Landing from 15 meters at 1,673 design landing weight 1,673 meters meters Mission radius (3 h on station at 457 m; 1,500 ft) Maximum mission radius (no time on station) at 61,235 kg Ferry range 845 nautical miles 1,345 nautical miles 2,070 nautical miles

Maximum endurance at 17 h 12 min 4,575 meters on two engines Maximum endurance at 12 h 20 min 4,575 meters on four engines

P-7 Long Range Air ASW-Capable Aircraft (LRAACA)
The P-7 Long Range Air ASW-Capable Aircraft (LRAACA) was intended to replace the P-3 Orion as the primary land-based ASW patrol aircraft. The Navy selected Llockheed in October 1988 to develop this next generation maritime patrol aircraft, a virtually a new design derived from the P-3C. In the mid-1980s, the Navy initiated efforts to replace the large number of P-3 aircraft estimated to reach the end of their useful service lives during the 1990s. Over the years, the P-3C, the Navy's latest model P-3aircraft, has lost some of its rangeand time on station capabilitiesbecause of heavier required payloads. The Navy sought a replacement plane with increased payload. and at least the original P-3C range. The Navy also sought an aircraft with newer technology that could reduce support costs and provide enhanced antisubmarine warfare capabilities. The envisioned aircraft was a derivative of the P-3C and became known as the P-3G. It was to include improved engines, reliability, maintain-ability, and survivability enhancements, vulnerability reductions, andadvanced mission avionics. The Navy planned to acquire 125 P-3G air-craft over a 5-year period. The Navy had been buying various versions of the P-3 from Lockheed without competition for many years, and it believed that introducing competition into further procurement would result in cost savings. The Navy sent a request for information toindustry in May 1986. Using information obtained from the respondents,the Navy developed a P-3G specification that met its operationalrequirements. In August 1986, Office of the Secretary of Defense (om)officials approved the P-3G program. In January 1987, the Navy released a draft request for proposal (RFP) for the P-3G. Following release of the draft RFP, no company other than Lockheed indicated an interest in building a P-3C derivative. Unwilling to award a contract to Lockheed without competition, the Navy expanded the scope of competition in March 1987 to include modified commercial aircraft as well as aircraft based on the P-3C design. In May 1987, OSD directed the Navy to conduct a patrol aircraft mission requirements determination study (payload, range, speed, survivability,etc.). To complement this study and enhance the RFP, the Navy released a draft RFP to industry soliciting comments on the operational potential of commercial derivative aircraft to perform the patrol aircraft mission. In September 1987, the Navy released a final RFP, incorporating the findings of the OSD-directed study and the responses from industry. Three proposals were received and evaluation began in February 1988. In October 1988, the Navy selected Lockheed as the winner of the competition. Lockheed's proposal was significantly lower in cost than proposals submitted by Boeing and McDonnell Douglas. It was also judged to be technically superior, with a less risky technical approach.

On January 4, 1989, the Defense Acquisition Board,(DAB) recommended full-scale development of the program. The next day, the Navy awarded a fixed-price incentive contract to Lockheed to design, develop, fabricate, assemble, and test two prototype aircraft, designated the P-7A. The contract had a target cost of $600 million and a ceiling price ofabout $750 million. In March 1989, the Navy estimated acquisition of125 P-7A aircraft at about $7.9 billion (escalated dollars). Of this total, development cost was estimated at $915 million (escalated dollars). Procurement of each production version aircraft was estimated at about $56.7 million. In November 1989, Lockheed announced a $300-million cost overrun in its development contract due primarily to schedule and design problems. In the following months, Navy and Lockheed officials held extensive but unsuccessful discussions in an attempt to address the contract issues. By letter dated July 20, 1990, the Navy terminated the P-7A development contract for default, citing Lockheed's inability to make adequate progress toward completion of all contract phases. The bulk of funds in the amended FY1991 budget request for the P-3 modernization program were for the P-7 LRAACA aircraft program. Continuation of the P-7A contract was one option that was presented to the Defense Acquisition Board (DAB) in November 1990. Both the House and the Senate fully funded the request. In order to avoid prejudicing the DAB decision process, the Congress decided to authorize an amount that would fully fund the fiscal year 1991 effort of any of the alternatives to be considered by the DAB. The program was finally cancelled by the DAB at the end of 1990, on the grounds that it had fallen behind schedule, which called for the two prototypes to be delivered in 1992. Some 123 production P-7As had been planned. This decision left the Navy without a program to replace its aging P-3 aircraft. The Boeing Update IV avionics upgrade, an important element of the P-7A, was was initially to have been applied to 109 earlier US Navy P-3Cs, but in 1992 this work was also cancelled. The British Nimrod MR2P was to have been replaced by the P-7A, but cancellation of that program forced the British Ministry of Defence to issue requirement SR(A)420 for a replacement maritime patrol aircraft (RMPA).

P-3C Max Takeoff Gross Weight Flight Design Gross Weight (3.0g) Maneuver Weight (3.5g) Design Zero Fuel Weight Maximum Payload Fuel Capacity Maximum Landing Weight Design Landing Weight Sonouoy Capacity Wing Span Wing Area Fuselage Length Height 77,200 lbs 22,237 lbs 62,587 lbs 114,000 lbs 103,880 lbs 84 99.6 ft 1300 sq ft 116.8 ft 34.2 ft 139,760 lbs 135,000 lbs P-7A 171,350 lbs 165,000 lbs 137,000 lbs 105,000 lbs 38,385 lbs 66,350 lbs 144,000 lbs 125,190 lbs 150-300 106.6 ft 1438 sq ft 112.7 ft 32.9 ft

AH-1W Super Cobra
In 1966, the DOD contracted with Bell Helicopter, Inc. (BHI) for 1,100 AH-1G aircraft, which logged more than 1 million flight hours in Vietnam. Subsequently, the USMC desired a twin engine AH-1G; thus, the SEA COBRA (AH-1J) was developed. The United States Marine Corps (USMC) then identified a need for more armaments; thus, the AH-1T upgrade was initiated. This aircraft had an extended tailboom and fuselage and an upgraded transmission and engines. The AH-1 is fully capable of performing its attack mission in all weather conditions. Additional missions include direct air support, antitank, armed escort, and air to air combat. The TOW missile targeting system uses a telescopic sight unit (traverse 110º, elevation 60º/+30º), a laser augmented tracking capability, thermal sights and a FLIR to allow for acquisition, launch, and tracking of all types of TOW missiles in all weather conditions. The Cobra also uses a digital ballistic computer, a HUD, Doppler nav, and a low speed air data sensor on the starboard side for firing, and has in-flight boresighting. External stores are mounted on underwing external stores points. Each wing has two hardpoints for a total of four stations. A representative mix when targeting armor formations would be eight TOW missiles, two 2.75-in rocket pods, and 750x 20-mm rounds. The gun must be centered before firing underwing stores. Armored cockpit can withstand small arms fire, and composite blades and tailboom are able withstand damage from 23-mm cannon hits.small arms fire, and composite blades and tailboom able to withstand damage from 23-mm cannon hits. The Marines depend on attack helicopters to provide close-in fire support coordination in serial and ground escort operations. Such support is required during amphibious ship-toshore movements and subsequent shore operations within the objective area. AH-1 is designed for the following tasks:
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Armed escort for helicopters carrying personnel and cargo Landing zone fire suppression support Visual armed reconnaissance Target marking and direction for high-performance attack aircraft Convoy escort and fire suppression for ground units Operations from air capable ships Point target attack of threatening armor Self-defense and protection of helicopters carrying personnel and cargo from threatening air-to-air weapon-equipped helicopters

By the early 1980s, USMC aircraft inventory was declining due to attrition; a fully navalized helicopter was sought. In 1983, the USMC contracted with BHI for 44 AH-

1Ws. The AH-1W Super Cobra is a day/night marginal weather Marine Corps attack helicopter that provides enroute escort for our assault helicopters and their embarked forces. The AH-1W is a two-place, tandem-seat, twin-engine helicopter capable of landor sea-based operations. The AH-1W provides fire support and fire support coordination to the landing force during amphibious assaults and subsequent operations ashore. The AH-1W distinguished itself with its more powerful T700-GE-401 fully marinized engines and advanced electronic weapons capability. The AH-1W can fire TOW, Hellfire, and Sidewinder missiles and can be outfitted with Zuni rocket launchers. The AH-1W is operated in eight composite HMLA squadrons composed of 18 AH-1 and 9 UH-1 aircraft. The AH-1W is curretnly being outfitted with a Night Targeting System/Forward Looking Infrared Radar that provides laser rangefinding/designating and camera capabilities. The AH-1W is operated in eight composite HMLA squadrons composed of 18 AH-1 and 9 UH-1 aircraft. The Marine Corps deployed 4 of 6 active force squadrons (48 AH-1Ws) to Southwest Asia during Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm. These helicopters destroyed 97 tanks, 104 armored personnel carriers and vehicles, 16 bunkers and 2 antiaircraft artillery sites without the loss of any aircraft. The deployment required no additional augmentation to squadron support personnel and only one Bell Helicopter technical representative.

A four bladed version of the AH-1W, designated the AH-1Z, is also under development; the addition of the extra blades dramatically improves the performance envelope of the AH-1W. Currently, the AH-1W is being retrofitted with a Kollsman-manufactured Night Targeting System (NTS). The aircraft is also undergoing a cockpit reconfiguration to allow for easier copilot/gunner access to the NTS. The upgrade of the AH-1W, including the new cockpit, is referred to as the Four Bladed AH-1W (4BW) and the upgrade of the UH-1N drive train is referred to as the Four Bladed UH-1N (4BN). Collectively, the 4BN/4BW effort constitutes the USMC H-1 Upgrades Program. The Marine Corps plans to upgrade 180 of the AH-1W gunships to the new AH-1Z standard. The first flight is expected in October 2000, to be followed by low-rate initial production beginning in February 2002, with deliveries running from 2004 through 2013. This program combines upgrades of two USMC H-1 aircraft: the AH-1W Cobra attack helicopter and the UH-1N light utility helicopter. The common element of the two will be identical twin engines and drive trains, including a new four-bladed rotor previously developed but not fielded. In addition, the AH-1 attack helicopter will gain a new integrated cockpit and night targeting system. The upgrade will extend the life of the H-1 two models well into the 21st century. The AH-1 will contribute to precision engagement and full-dimensional protection; the UH-1 will provide support to focused logistics. Under the 4BW/4BN fully integrated cockpits will be phased into the development after initial work on the drive system is underway. Initial work will consist of simultaneous

design efforts for the 4BW and 4BN. Major modifications include: a new rotor system with semi-automatic bladefold of the new composite rotor system, a new performance matched transmission, a new 4-bladed tail rotor and drive system, a more effective stabilizer, upgraded landing gear, tail pylon structural modifications and common cockpits. This remanufacture will add 10,000 flight hours to 4BW/4BN airframes. The 4BW will increase aircraft maneuverability, speed, and payload (ordnance) capability. The fully integrated cockpits will reduce operator workload and improve situational awareness, thus increasing safety. It will provide growth potential for future weapon systems and avionics, which would increase mission effectiveness and survivability. As discrete systems have previously been added to both aircraft, pilot workload has progressively worsened. The cockpits will include integration of on-board mission planning, communications, digital fire control, self navigation, night targeting, and weapons systems in nearly identical crew stations reducing training requirements. The 4BN effort will incorporate the 4BW rotor system into the UH-1N aircraft, as well as a fully integrated cockpit common with the 4BW, maximizing commonality between the two aircraft and providing needed improvements in crew and passenger survivability, payload, power available, endurance, range, airspeed, maneuverability and supportability. The 4BN/4BW program was instituted in the summer of 1996 by combining several lesser upgrades planned but not executed by the Marine Corps. Prior to entry into EMD in September, 1996, DOT&E approved the program's alternative LFT&E plan and USD(A&T) approved a waiver from full-up, system-level LFT&E. The AH-1W will be tested full-up, system-level; the UH-1N received a waiver from full-up, system-level testing. The H-1 Upgrade ORDs require that both helicopters be tolerant to impacts by 12.7mm rounds and have crashworthy enhancements. Additionally, the drive components of the AH-1W should be tolerant to 23mm rounds. The H-1 Upgrade has the most comprehensive and realistic aircraft LFT&E program approved to date. The program will include full-up, system-level testing of an AH-1W and testing of all but the tail (which is common to both aircraft) of the UH-1N. It will explore in detail various potential kill mechanisms related to the expected threat. The LFT&E program is integrated fully into the systems engineering effort and should yield a reasonable opportunity to incorporate improvements if deficiencies are found. VARIANTS Most older Cobra variants still in operation have been upgraded to the AH-1F standard. Also produced in Romania and Japan under license from Bell Textron in the U.S.
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AH-1G: Initial production model in 1966 AH-1S: Upgraded 1960s produced aircraft in late 1980s to the standard TOW carry-ing version.  AH-1P: A set of AH-1S aircraft fitted with composite rotors, flat plate glass cockpits, and NVG capabilities.  AH-1E: A set of AH-1S aircraft upgraded with the Enhanced Cobra Armament System incorporating the universal turret, 20-mm gun, automatic compensation for off-axis gun firing, and weapon management system.

AH-1F: Current standard Cobra. Also referred to as the “Modernized Cobra”. Incorporated all past upgrades.

Contractor: Power Plant: Bell Helicopter TEXTRON, Inc. (Prime), General Electric, Kollsman Inc. Two General Electric T700-GE-401 Turboshaft engines Each engine delivers 1,690 horsepower. Two seats, in tandem (pilot in rear, copilot/gunner in front) Climb rate: 1,925 feet per minute Maximum altitude: 14,750 feet Maximum attainable speed: 170 knots (195 mph) Maximum cruising speed: 152 knots (173 mph) AN/ALE-39 Chaff system and SUU-4/1 Flare dispensers One M197 three barrel 20 mm gun (mounted under the nose with 750 round ammo container) Underwing attachments for four TOW missiles, eight Hellfire missiles, or one AIM-9L Sidewinder missile Can also be equipped with Zuni rocket launchers

Accommodations: Performance:

Countermeasures: Armament:

External Dimensions
Main rotor diameter Main rotor blad e chord Tail rotor diameter Tail rotor blade chord Distance between rotor centers Wing span Wing aspect ratio Length: overall, rotors turning Length: fuselage Width overall Height (to top of rotor head) Overall height 14.63 m 00.84 m 02.97 m 00.305 m 08.89 m 03.28 m 03.74 17.68 m 13.87 m 03.28 m 04.11 m 04.44 m

Main rotor blades (each) 006.13 m Tail rotor blades (each) Main rotor disc Tail rotor disc Vertical fin Horizontal tail surfaces

000.45 m 2 168.11 m

006.94 m 2 002.01 m 2 001.41 m

Ground clearance, main rotor, turning 02.74 m Elevator span Width over skids 02.11 m 02.24 m

Performance (At Maximum T-O weight, ISA) Weights and Loadings
Weight empty Mission fuel load (usable) Maximum useful load (fuel and disposable ordinance) Maximum Takeoff and landing weight Maximum disc loading Maximum power loading 004.634 kg 946 kg 002.065 kg 006.690 kg 039.80 kg/m2 004.42 kg/kW Never exceed speed (Vne) Maximum level speed at S/L Rate of climb at S/L, OEI Service ceiling Service ceiling, OEI Hovering ceiling IGE OGE Range at S/L with standard fuel, no reserves 4, 495 m 915 m 317 nm 190 knots 152 knots 244 m/minute More than 4,720 m More than 3,660 m

Airborne Laser
The ABL weapon system consists of a highenergy, chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) mounted on a modified 747-400F (freighter) aircraft to shoot down theater ballistic missiles in their boost phase. A crew of four, including pilot and copilot, would be required to operate the airborne laser, which would patrol in pairs at high altitude, about 40,000 feet, flying in orbits over friendly territory, scanning the horizon for the plumes of rising missiles. Capable of autonomous operation, the ABL would acquire and track missiles in the boost phase of flight, illuminating the missile with a tracking laser beam while computers measure the distance and calculate its course and direction. After acquiring and locking onto the target, a second laser - with weaponsclass strength - would fire a three- to five-second burst from a turret located in the 747's nose, destroying the missiles over the launch area. The airborne laser would fire a Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser, or COIL, invented at Phillips Lab in 1977. The laser's fuel consists of the same chemicals found in hair bleach and Drano - hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide - which are then combined with chlorine gas and water. The laser operates at an infrared wavelength of 1.315 microns, which is invisible to the eye. By recycling chemicals, building with plastics and using a unique cooling process, the COIL team was able to make the laser lighter and more efficient while - at the same time - increasing its power by 400 percent in five years. The flight-weighted ABL module would be similar in performance and power levels to the multi-hundred kilowatt class COIL Baseline Demonstration Laser (BDL-2) module demonstrated by TRW in August 1996. As its name implies, though, it would be lighter and more compact than the earlier version due to the integration of advanced aerospace materials into the design of critical hardware components. For the operational ABL system, several modules would be linked together in series to achieve ABL's required megawatt-class power level. Atmospheric turbulence, which weakens and scatters the laser's beam, is produced by fluctuations in air temperature [the same phenomenon that causes stars to twinkle]. Adaptive optics rely on a deformable mirror, sometimes called a rubber mirror, to compensate for tilt and phase distortions in the atmosphere. The mirror has 341 actuators that change at a rate of about a 1,000 per second. The Airborne Laser is a Major Defense Acquisition Program. After the Concept Design Phase is complete, the ABL will enter the Program Definition and Risk Reduction (PDRR) Phase. The objective of the PDRR phase is to develop a cost effective, flexible airborne high energy laser system which provides a credible deterrent and lethal defensive capabilities against boosting theater ballistic missiles.

The ABL PDRR Program is intended to show high confidence system performance scalable to Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) levels. The PDRR Program includes the design, development, integration, and testing of an airborne highenergy laser weapon system. In May 1994, two contracts were awarded to develop fully operational ABL weapon system concepts and then derive ABL PDRR Program concepts that are fully traceable and scaleable EMD. A single contract team was selected to proceed with the development of the chosen PDRR concept beginning in November 1996. Successful development and testing of the laser module is one of the critical 'exit criteria' that Team ABL must satisfy to pass the program's first 'authority-to-proceed' (ATP-1) milestone, scheduled for June 1998. Testing of the laser module is expected to be completed by April 1998. The PDRR detailed design, integration, and test will culminate in a lethality demonstration in the year 2002. A follow-on Engineering Manufacturing and Development/Production (EMD) effort could then begin in the early 2003 time frame. A fleet of fully operational EMD systems is intended to satisfy Air Combat Command's boost-phase Theater Air Defense requirements. If all goes as planned, a fleet of seven ABLs should be flying operational missions by 2008. Performance requirements for the Airborne Laser Weapons System are established by the operational scenarios and support requirements defined by the user, Air Combat Command, and by measured target vulnerability characteristics provided by the Air Force lethality and vulnerability community centered at the Phillips Laboratory. The ABL PDRR Program is supported by a robust technology insertion and risk reduction program to provide early confidence that scaling to EMD performance is feasible. The technology and concept design efforts provide key answers to the PDRR design effort in the areas of lethality, atmospheric characterization, beam control, aircraft systems integration, and environmental concerns. These efforts are the source of necessary data applied to exit criteria ensuring higher and higher levels of confidence are progressively reached at key milestones of the PDRR development. The key issues in the program will be effective range of the laser and systems integration of a Boeing 747 aircraft.

A-4 Skyhawk
The Marine Corps A-4 Skyhawk is a lightweight, single engine attack aircraft. The mission of an A-4 attack squadron is to attack and to destroy surface targets in support of the landing force commander, escort helicopters, and conduct other operations as directed. Developed in the early 1950s, the A-4 Skyhawk was originally designated the A-4D as a lightweight, daylight only nuclear capable strike aircraft for use in large numbers from aircraft carriers. There are numerous models of the A-4 in use. The A-4M and the TA-4F are currently used by Marine Corps Reserve squadrons. All models have two internally mounted 20mm (.8 inch) cannons, and are capable of delivering conventional and nuclear weapons under day and night visual meteorological conditions. The A-4M uses a heads-up display and computer aided delivery of its bomb load with the angle rate bombing system. The Marine Reserve has two squadrons of A-4s with 12 aircraft each. Additionally, each squadron has two TA-4 aircraft.

Summary: Cantilever Low Wing Monoplane, with 33 degree swept back wings Single seat, high performance, light attack and ground support aircraft Outstanding low speed control and stability during takeoff and landing Wingspan: 26 ft 6 in Length (excluding IFR Probe): 40 ft 3-1/4 in Height: 15 ft Deliveries began in November 1962 765 A-4 aircraft worldwide. Pound for pound, the A-4 aircraft is one of the most effective and versatile light attack aircraft produced. The Skyhawk is 34 years old; yet export models are still highly regarded and undergoing modern avionics, weapons, and engine upgrades to maintain their flying prowess into the next century. McDonnell Douglas Single, Pratt & Whitney, J-52-P-408A nonafterburning, turbojet engine that develops 11,220 pounds of thrust One pilot Maximum speed: 586 knots (with a 4,000 pound bomb load) Initial climb rate: 8,440 ft/min Maximum ferry range: 2,000 nautical miles

Contractor: Power Plant:

Accommodations: Performance:

Countermeasures: Armament:

Not applicable Mounts two 20 mm guns internal to the wing structure Has one fuselage and four wing racks and carries a variety of external stores. May be provisioned for Sidewinder, Shrike, and Walleye missiles and 1,000 pound bombs. Maximum takeoff weight: 24,500 pounds Six "G" load maximum Fuel capacity of both wing and fuselage internal and three external tanks: 1,800 U.S. gallons Typical dry weight: 10,465 pounds Primary avionics systems include: UHF-ARC-159, VHF-ARC-114, RAD/ALT-APN-194, TACAN-ARN118, ILS/VOR-ARA-63/ARN-14, CHAFF-ALE-39, IFF-APX-72, RADAR-APG-53-A, Secure CommKY28/58, AN/ALQ-126, Countermeasures AN/ALQ162, HUD AN/AVQ-24 and Navigational Computer AN/ASN-41.

Mission and Capabilities:

External Dimensions Wing span Wing span over missiles Wing chord at root Wing chord at tip Wing aspect ratio Width, wings folded Length overall Height overall Tailplane span Distance between fin tips Wheel track Wheelbase 2.37m 12.29m 4.57m 3.45m 4.72m 8.38m Wings, gross Ailerons (total)

Areas 24.16m 2

Leading-edge flaps (total) Trailing-edge flaps (total) Vert Tail Services (total) Horz Tail Services (total) Tailerons (total) 4.65m 2 4.54m 2

Performance (At Maximum Takeoff Weight) Weights and Loadings Weight empty Maximum fuel weight Internal (JP5) External: (JP5) Maximum external stores load Take off weight (normal) Fighter mission Attack mission Maximum Maximum wing loading (attack mission) 11,113kg 4,899kg Max level speed Max speed, intermediate power Approach speed Acceleration from 460 knots to 920 knots at 10,670 m Combat ceiling T-O run @ 23,000lbs take-off weight Minimum wind over deck: Launching Recovery Combat radius, interdiction, hi-lo-lo-hi 832m 561 knots

Combat endurance, CAP 150 nm from aircraft carrier Ferry range, unrefueled 1,740nm

OH-6A Cayuse AH-6J Little Bird Defender 500
The Boeing (McDonnell Dougles) (formerly Hughes model 369) OH-6A, was designed for use as a military scout during the Vietnam war to meet the U.S. Army's need for an extremely maneuverable light observation helicopter (LOH program). The Hughes OH6A Cayuse was quite effective when teamed with the AH-1G Cobra attack helicopter as part of what were known as "Pink Teams". The OH-6A "Loach" would find targets by flying low, "trolling" for fire, and lead in a Cobra, or "Snake", to attack. The OH-6A could be armed with the M27 armament subsystem, the M134 six-barrel 7.62mm "minigun" or the M129 40mm grenade launcher on the XM8 armament subsystem.

Army Special Operations variants Two special operations versions of the OH-6A are the "Little Bird" AH-6C armed variant, and the MH-6B transport/utility version, which can carry up to six personnel for quick insertion and extraction missions. A previous version, the EH-6B, was used for command, control and radio relay. The MH-6 Little Bird is the only light assault helicopter in the Army inventory. It provides assault helicopter support to special operations forces and can be armed with a combination of guns and folding fin aerial rockets. It has an unrefueled range of 250 nautical miles. The AH-6 Little Bird Gun, a light attack helicopter, has been tested and proven in combat. Armed with guns, Hellfire missiles, and 2.75-inch FFAR, it provides armed helicopter support to both ground and air special operations. The unrefueled range of the AH-6 is 250 nautical miles. These versions were all powered by a single Allison T-63 252 SHP engine. Later versions are based on the successful Boeing (McDonnell Douglas) MD-500/MD530 series helicopters. The latest versions of these aircraft, the AH-6J attack helicopter and MH-6J insertion and extraction transport, based on the MD-530F, feature a more powerful engine and improved avionics, including an embedded GPS/inertial navigation system and forward-looking infrared (FLIR). The AH-6J can be armed with two seventube 2.75 inch rocket launchers and two 7.62mm M134 "miniguns". The "Little Bird" can

also be armed with .50 Cal. machine guns, MK19 40mm grenade machine gun, Hellfire missiles, and Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS) missiles.

Defender 500
This foreign military sales helicopter is offered with either a four- or five-blade main rotor, depending on the model, with a weapons platform mounted on the lower rear body. This light utility commercial helicopter could seat five passengers in comfort, and is used mainly by the military, being very flexible and offering good all round capabilities. Other missions include: direct air support, antitank, reconnaissance, observation, and light utility. A single engine is mounted inside the body with air intakes on top of the cabin and a blackhole exhaust. The fuselage is teardrop-shaped a features a round, glassed-in cockpit and landing skids. External stores are mounted on weapons racks on each side of the fuselage. Each rack has one hardpoint. The tail fin is boomerang-shaped, swept-back, and tapered. The tail flats are back-tapered with small fins attached to the tips, with the flats high-mounted on the fin forming a T. The rotor is moutned on the lower left of the tail boom. On 12 February 1998 the Boeing Company announced its intention to sell its commercial helicopter business. Boeing built commercial helicopters -- the MD 500 Series, MD 600, and MD Explorer -- in Mesa, Ariz., where it also produces the AH-64D Apache Longbow. As of early 1998 the facility employed 5,300, of which 350 were dedicated to the production of commercial helicopters. On 25 February 1998 Bell Helicopter Textron announced a plan to acquire the Boeing MD 500 and MD 600 series product lines, However, the transaction was dis-approved by competition authorities at the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in June 1998. Subsequently, on 19 January 1999 McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Co., the indirect subsidiary of The Boeing Company, and MD Helicopters Holding, Inc., an indirect subsidiary of the Dutch company RDM Holding, Inc., signed an agreement on an asset purchase of Boeing's MD 500, MD 600N® and MD Explorer® series of light commercial helicopter product lines. Included in the product line are the MD 500E and MD 530F® single-engine helicopters with conventional tail rotors, the MD 520N® and MD 600N single-engine helicopters with Boeing's exclusive NOTAR® no tail rotor system for anti-torque and directional control, and the MD Explorer series of twin-engine, eight-place helicopters. RDM is a European-based industrial group with aerospace activities. The company designs and builds diesel-electric submarines and builds and repairs ships, manufactures and overhauls military vehicles, and produces defense and aerospace products, including landing gear and transmissions for aircraft and helicopters. It is a subcontractor to Boeing for landing gear and fuselage assemblies for Apache helicopters. VARIANTS

OH-6A/Cayuse: Developed initially by the Hughes Aircraft company (later McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company) in the mid-1960s for the US Army. Fitted with 1x 253-shp Allison T63-A-5A turboshaft, 4 bladed main rotor, and an offset “V” tail.  Hughes 500M: Military export version of OH-6 in mid-1970s with upgraded 278shp Allison 250-C18 turboshaft engine, “V” tail. A recontoured nose allowed for

  

greater leg and head room. Modifications were also made to the rotor assembly by way of a five blade main rotor which increased stability. MD-500MD/Scout and TOW Defender: Improved military version of the model 500 with 5 main rotor blades, 375-shp Allison 250-C20B turboshaft engine, and T-tail. MD-500E/MD-500MG/Defender II: Had a more elongated nose for streamlining, and an optional 4x blade tail rotor for reduced acoustic signatures. Possible mastmounted sight. OH-6A/MD-530F Super Cayuse/Lifter: Upgraded engine to a 425-shp Allison 250- C30 turboshaft, and avionics in 1988 for the US Army. MD-530MG/Defender: Has a mast-mounted sight, and incorporated upgrades of all previous variants. AH/MH-6J: US Army Special Operations variant derived from the MD-530MG.

Variants in “( )” Country of Origin Builder Role Similar Aircraft Blades Rotor diameter Length Height Width Rotor Diameter USA McDONNELL DOUGLAS ASW, scout, antitank, multimission BO 105, Alouette II Main rotor: 4 or 5 (see VARIANTS) Tail rotor: 2 or 4 (see VARIANTS) 26 ft, 4 in (8 m) Length (rotors turning): 9.4 m (500), 9.8 m (530) Length (fuselage): 7.6 m (500), 7.3 m (530) 2.6 m (500), 3.4 m (530 over mast-mounted sight) 1.9 m Main Rotor Diameter: 8.0 (500), 8.3 (530) Tail Rotor Diameter: 1.4

Floor Length: 2.4 m Cargo Compartment Width: 1.3 m Dimensions Height: 1.5 m Weight Engine Fuel Maximum Gross: 1,361 kg (500), 1,610 kg (530) Normal Takeoff: 1,090 kg Empty: 896 kg see VARIANTS Internal: 240 liters

Internal Aux Tank: 80 liters Speed Range Maximum (level): 241 km/h (500), 282 km/h (530) Cruise: 221 km/h (500), 250 km/h (530) Normal Load (est.): 485 km (500), km 430 (530) Service: 4,635 m (500), 4,875 m (530) Hover (out of ground effect): 1,830 m (500), 3,660 m (530) Hover (in ground effect): 2,590 m (500), 4,360 m (530) 8.4 m/s (500), 10.5 m/s (530) Internal load: INA External load: 550 kg Transports 2 or 3 troops or cargo internally, or 6 on external platforms in lieu of weapons. 2 - M134 7.62-mm 6x barrel, Gatling type twin MG pods 2 - M260 2.75-in Hydra 70 rocket pods (7 or 12 each) 2 - .50 cal MG pods 2 - M75 40-mm grenade launchers 2 - MK19 40-mm grenade launcher 2 - TOW missile pods (2 each) 2 - Hellfire ATGM 2 - Stinger AAM Most Probable Armament MD-500MD/Scout Defender: Fitted with guns, rockets, grenade launchers, or a combination on 2x fuselage hardpoints. MD-500MD/TOW Defender: Twin TOW missile pods on 2x fuselage hardpoints; mounts missile sight in lower-left front windshield. Some models have radar warning receivers. Chaff and flare systems available. Infrared signature suppressors can be mounted on engine exhausts. The MD-500 allows for the mounting of a stabilized, direct-view optical sight in the windshield. Options exist to fit a mast-mounted, multiple field of view optical sight, a target tracker, a laser rangefinder, thermal imager, a 16x FLIR for night navigation and targeting, and autopilot. Optional avionics include GPS, ILS and full


Vertical Climb Rate

Standard Payload




instrument weather conditions packages. The more advanced variants are fully capable of performing all missions under any conditions. Crew Cost User Countries At least 22 countries -- Argentina, Bahrain, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, USA Some 200 McDonnell Douglas 500-MD helicopters were produced under license by Korean Air between 1976 and 1984. At least fifty of these helicopters were equipped with TOW antitank weapons. The remainder were used as transports and for other support missions. North Korea acquired at least 60 Defender 500 helicopters during the mid- 1980s, reportedly through US dealers. 1 or 2 (pilots)


Defender 500

A-6E Intruder
The A-6E was an all-weather, two seat, subsonic, carrier-based attack aircraft. It was equipped with a microminiaturized digital computer, a solid state weapons release system, and a single, integrated track and search radar. The target recognition/attack multi-sensor (TRAM) version of the A-6E was introduced to the fleet in 1979. It was equipped with a chin turret containing a forward-looking infra-red (FLIR) system and a laser designator and receiver. The A-6E proved once again that it was the best all-weather precision bomber in the world in the joint strike on Libyan terrorist-related targets in 1986. With Air Force FB111s, A-6E Intruders penetrated the sophisticated Libyan air defense systems, which had been alerted by the high level of diplomatic tension and by rumors of impending attacks. Evading over 100 guided missiles, the strike force flew at low levels in complete darkness, and accurately delivered laser-guided and other ordnance on target. Composite wing replacement and systems/weapons improvement programs maintained full A-6E combat systems capability, with initial operational capability realized in FY 88 with VA75 deployment onboard USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67). The 19 December 1996 launch of an A-6E Intruder from the aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CVN 65) marked the last Intruder squadron to fly from the deck of an aircraft carrier. The Intruder Attack Squadron 75 of Carrier Air Wing 7, known as the Sunday Punchers, was decommissioned in early 1997.

Length: Wing Span: Height: Weight: Speed: Ceiling: Propulsion: Crew: 54 feet 8 inches 53 feet 15 feet 6 inches Take-off max gross: 60,400 pounds; take-off max gross (carrier): 58,600 pounds; empty weight: 28,000 pounds 563 knots 40,600 feet Two Pratt & Whitney J52-P8B engines (9,300 pounds thrust each) Two 10 2.75" Rocket Pod 10 5" Zuni Rocket Pod 28 Mk-20 Rockeye Mk-77 Napalm 28 Mk-81 (250 lbs)


28 Mk-82 Snakeye 13 Mk-83 (1,000 lbs) 5 Mk-84 (2,000 lbs) 20 Mk-117 (750 lbs) 28 CBU-78 GBU-10E Laser Guided Bomb GBU-12D Laser Guided Bomb GBU-16B Laser Guided Bomb AGM-123A Skipper II AGM-45 Shrike AGM-62 Walleyes AIM-9 Sidewinders System Weapon Improvement Program, SWIP AGM-88 HARMs AGM-84E SLAMs AGM-65 Maverick Anti-Ship Missile AIM-120A AMRAAM Contractor: Unit cost $FY98 [Total Program] Current Inventory Grumman Aerospace Corporation $43 million. None. Withdrawn from service in early 1997

EA-6B Prowler
The EA-6B Prowler is included in every aircraft carrier deployment. The EA-6B's primary mission is to protect fleet surface units and other aircraft by jamming hostile radars and communications. The EA-6B is an integral part of the fleet's first line of defense, and will remain so well into the next century. As a result of restructuring DoD assets in 1995, the EF-111 Raven was retired, and the EA-6B was left as the only radar jammer in DoD. Five new squadrons were stood up. Four of these squadrons are dedicated to supporting USAF Aerospace Expeditionary Force wings. The EA-6B Prowler electronic warfare aircraft - which played a key role in suppressing enemy air defenses during Operation Desert Storm - enhances the strike capabilities not only of carrier air wings but of U.S. Air Force and allied forces as well. The decision to retire the Air Force EF-111A Raven and to assign all Department of Defense radar jamming missions to the Prowler adds to the significance of the EA-6B in joint warfare. With its jamming and High-Speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) capability, the Prowler is a unique national asset that will be deployed from land bases and aircraft carriers. Its ability to monitor the electromagnetic spectrum and actively deny an adversary's use of radar and communications is unmatched by any airborne platform worldwide. In the wake of DOD budgetary decisions to retire the F-4G Wild Weasel and phase out the EF-111 Raven, there will be increased reliance by the Joint Force Commander (JFC) on the EA-6B Prowler for the joint suppression of enemy air defenses (J-SEAD) role. It is understood that SEAD is much more than jamming and anti- radiation missiles. All services bring complementary capabilities to the overall J-SEAD effort, and all services reap the benefits of the resulting air superiority. The Prowler is not optimized to provide a safe haven by virtue of an "umbrella of electrons". However, if used efficiently and effectively, this limited asset can provide the JFC with a decisive tactical advantage. The EA-6B is a multi-mission capable platform, that couples human interface with a sophisticated electronic warfare package. Whether the crew of four is assigned to a carrier-based Navy VAQ squadron, Marine Corps VMAQ squadron, or a newly formed, jointly manned Navy land-based squadron (also VAQ), they will come to the "battlefield" as a highly standardized crew that completed centralized training at NAS Whidbey Island, WA.

The Prowler is derived from the two-seater A-6 Intruder attack aircraft. The basic airframe was stretched and strengthened to accommodate a four-seat cockpit. Another distinguishing feature is the pod-shaped fairing at the top of the vertical fin. The heart of the EA-6B is the AN/ALQ-99 Tactical Jamming System. The Prowler can carry up to five pods (one belly mounted and two on each wing). Each pod is integrally powered and houses two jamming transmitters that cover one of seven frequency bands. The EA-6B can carry any mix of pods, fuel tanks and/or HARM anti-radiation missiles depending on mission requirements. The EA-6B's tail fin pod houses sensitive surveillance receivers, capable of detecting hostile radar emissions at long range. Emitter information is processed by the central mission computer. Detection, identification, direction-finding, and jammer-set-onsequence may be performed automatically or by the crew. The crew of the Prowler consists of the pilot and three electronic countermeasures officers (ECMOs). The ALQ-99 jammers are operated by the two ECMOs in the aft cockpit. The ECMO in the right front seat is responsible for navigation, communications, and defensive electronic countermeasures. In the coming years, the Prowler fleet will be modernized and upgraded to keep the aircraft and its systems abreast of evolving threats and to maintain aircraft safety. The Block 89A upgrade program will address structural and supportability problems associated with aging aircraft and includes numerous avionics improvements for safety of flight and joint interoperability. Later improvements to the Prowler's AN/ALQ-99 tactical jamming system, including the Improved Capabilities (ICAP) III upgrade, new high and low frequency transmitters, and continuing structural enhancements, will ensure that the EA-6B remains the world's premier tactical electronic warfare platform and a force multiplier for years to come. The Marine Corps EA-6B Prowler provides Airborne Command and Control (C2W) support to Fleet Marine Forces to include electronic attack (EA), tactical electronic support (ES), electronic protection (EP) and high speed anti-radiation missile (HARM). The EA-6B's ALQ-99 OBS is used to collect tactical electronic order of battle (EOB) data which can be disseminated through the command and control system while airborne, and which can be recorded and processed after missions to provide updates to various orders of battle. The ALQ-00 TJS is used to provide active radar jamming support to assault support and attack aircrtaft, as well as ground units. Additional suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD) capability is available with the employment of HARM. Marine Prowlers may be land-based from prepared airfields, or they can operate from expeditionary airfields (EAF). They may also be sea-based, operating from aircraft

carriers. Marine Prowlers are unique in their integration with the Tactical Electronic Processing and Evaluation System (TERPES). TERPES provides post-mission analysis of EA-6B ES data for reporting and updating orders of battle. It also provides postmission analysis of jamming and HARM employment for reporting, assessing and storing mission data. Following the transition from the EA-6A aircraft to the EA-6B, Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 2 (VMAQ-2) continued to provide detachments to Carrier Air Wing Five on board the USS Midway. In 1980 VMAQ-2 completed its assignment aboard the Midway and began shore-based rotations with the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing in Iwakuni, Japan. Detachments were subsequently sent back to sea duty aboard the USS Saratoga and USS America. Marine Prowlers supported joint operations against Libya in 1986 from the carrier. During Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield VMAQ-2 had one detachment (six aircraft) deployed in Japan and the remainder of the squadron (12 aircraft) deployed to the Persian Gulf. The Reserve squadron, VMAQ-4 (six aircraft), transitioned from the EA-6A to the EA-6B and subsequently relieved the detachment in Japan. During Desert Shield the squadron flew 936 sorties for over 2100 hours. Marine Prowlers flew 495 combat missions totaling 1622 hours, supporting the full spectrum of joint and combined missions. Effective Oct. 1, 1992, the Marine Prowler community reorganized its structure. VMAQS are now structured into four active force squadrons (VMAQ-1, 2, 3, 4). Each squadron now has at least five aircraft. This restructuring provides the flexibility necessary for continuing to support peacetime requirements, as well as the capacity to concurrently assign Marine EA-6B forces to commanders in different areas of operation. One squadron was assigned to Carrier Airwing One on USS America (CV 66) in FY95, while the others continue to support the Unit Deployment Program and CINC contingency requirements.

The EA-6B Block 89A is supposed to IOC in 2000. The upgrade promises to be a substantial improvement over previous Block aircraft. The communication system is designed around two ARC-210's in the front and one ARC-182 in the back. In addition to being capable of the same communication frequency ranges as the ARC-182, the ARC210's also have integrated HAVEQUICK and SINCGARS functions. Another really nice feature about the ARC-210's is that they are integrated with the control display navigation unit (CDNU) so that you can control the radios (all three of them) from a "Radio" page on the CDNU. Navigation system upgrades are also very substantial. The primary

navigation sensor is the Litton CN-1649(V)4/ASN-172 Embedded GPS/INS (EGI). This unit combines the Litton LN-100G strapdown inertial unit with a GPS receiver. The result is that the system, or the aircrew, can select from four possible navigation solutions from this one unit. You can select a pure inertial, GPS, filtered inertial, or filtered inertial solution with GPS aiding. Most of the testing used the filtered inertial solution with GPS aiding, called Blended/Coupled, because it was typically the most accurate. This mode allowed the Prowler to navigate with an accuracy of about 16 m (52 ft), a big improvement! The ASN-130 is still in the aircraft as the secondary attitude and navigation source with all the capability it has always had. The 89A also features an improved databus structure that allows the CDNU to integrate many things like the radios, RADAR cursor, both navigation sensors, route control, HARM control, WRA BIT, and current navigation and attitude information. Software improvements to the AGM-88 High-Speed Antiradiation Missile (HARM) have created the Block IIIA and V missile from the Block III and IV hardware. To ensure continued EA-6B compatibility, OFP's SSA 5.2 and 89A 1.0 have been developed by the Weapons System Support Activity, Point Mugu, California. Both are baselined from 5.1 COD, will include HARM III/IIIA/IV/V, and are supported by the same TEAMS release. Two successful live fires of IIIA and V missiles from Block 89A aircraft were made in September 1998 and will be followed this winter by Block 82/89 live fires. The differences in the OFP software will be nearly transparent to the fleet when Block 89A's start arriving. The 89A 1.0 OFP has been optimized for the Block 89A avionics architecture that includes a second 1553 navigation bus and CDNU bus control. The Multimission Advanced Tactical Terminal (MATT) and Improved Data Modem (IDM), a program originally called the Connectivity Modification, is a miniaturized, airborne UHF receiver providing detection, decryption, and correlation of contact information obtained through the TRAP, TADIXS-B, and TIBS broadcasts. The contact data arrives in near-real-time from national asset sensors and can give an over-thehorizon look at both friendly and hostile platforms and emitters. The MATT is a single WRA installed above the port wing shoulder, with associated satellite receive antenna and filter, replacing the ADF antenna on the “turtleback.” The IDM is a device that formats digital data for transmission using the existing ARC-159, radio No. 3. In a perfect world, incoming MATT data can be examined, selected, and digitally transmitted using the IDM to F-16's as HARM target packages. Information can also be exchanged with other IDM-equipped EA-6B's or Rivet Joint aircraft. The flip side of the new capabilities is that both the MATT and IDM are controlled using a commercially ruggedized laptop computer in a Windows 95 environment, connected by a cable to the center console in the rear cockpit. This less-than-optimum solution of system engineering will be solved when both MATT and IDM systems are integrated into the aircraft displays on the future ICAP III model of the EA-6B. The USQ-113(V)3 Radio Countermeasures Set, also known as Phase III, was designed to detect, analyze, monitor, and/or jam voice and data link signals. Block 89 has undergone extensive ground testing for the USQ-113, following resumption of testing in September 1998. Ground testing was stopped due to software immaturity and BIT reliability problems. Anechoic chamber testing included finishing electromagnetic compatibility,

TEMPEST, precipitation-static, and system performance. Electromagnetic vulnerability testing took place in mid February 1999, and flight testing began at the end of the month. The USQ-113 is controlled primarily by the same ruggedized laptop computer that is used for the MATT/IDM systems, or by an improved operator control panel in the front cockpit. The EA-6B will begin retirement in the 2010 timeframe, after a career that exceeded 40 years of deployments in support of USN, USMC, and USAF strike forces. As of early 2000, Defense Department planning for replacing the EA-6B Prowler include a scheme under which the Navy would buy an F/A-18G "Growler" -- an F/A-18E/F modified for escort and close-in jamming. The Air Force would provide standoff jamming with modified EB-52s or EB-1s, and close-in jamming with unmanned air vehicles such as the Northrop Grumman Global Hawk or General Atomics Predator.

Manufacturer: Power plant: Thrust: Length: Height: Wing span: Speed: Ceiling: Performance Grumman Aircraft Corporation Two Pratt & Whitney J52-P408 turbofan engines 11,200 pounds (4,767 kilograms) per engine 59 feet (17.98 meters) 15 feet (4.57 meters) 53 feet (16.15 meters) Maximum .99 mach; cruise .72 mach 40,000 feet - maximum (12,186 meters) 37,600 feet - Service ceiling 2,750 ft - Minimum take-off distance

2,185 ft - Minimum landing distance 33,600 lbs - Empty 61,500 lbs - Maximum TOGW (27,921 kilograms) 15,422 lbs - Internal fuel 10,000 lbs - External fuel 4,000 lbs - External fuel (typical) Unrefueled in combat configuration: 850 nautical miles (977.5 miles) Ferry range (5 drop tanks) 1,747 nm Refueled: unlimited (crew fatigue factor approximately 8 hours) ALQ-99 Tactical Jamming System (TJS); High Speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) ALQ-99 On-board System (OBS) 4 ICAP configuration, 1977; current ICAP II configuration, 1984 $52,000,000 100 PAA 120 total



Armament: Sensors: Crew: Introduction date: Unit Replacement Cost: Inventory:

Related Programs

Tactical Electronic Reconnaissance Processing and Evaluation System [TERPES] AN/TSQ-90D(V)  Intelligence Analysis System Marine Air-Ground Intelligence System (MAGIS)

Operating Units
   

VMAQ-1 Banshees VMAQ-2 Panthers [ex-Playboys] VMAQ-3 Moon Dogs VMAQ-4 Seahawks

 

MCAS Cherry Point NC MCAS Iwakuni, Japan

A-7 Corsair II
Built originally on the airframe of the F-8U Crusader, the A-7 underwent a number of modifications since its 1965 introduction. The A-7 Corsair II, which is retired, was used by TAC for close air support attack missions. The A-7E was the final fleet version of the A-7. After more than two decades of service, however, it was replaced by the F/A-18 Hornet.The A-7E had a 20mm gun and can carry payloads of up to 15,000 pounds of bombs and missiles. Eight ordnance stations were available. A-7E Corsair IIs were part of the two-carrier battle group that conducted a joint strike on selected Libyan terrorist-related targets in 1986. Together with carrier-based F/A-18s, A-7s used anti-radiation missiles to neutralize Libyan air defenses. F/A-18s replaced A-7Es in the carrier air wing mix. The last two squadrons transitioned in FY 1992. Replacing A-7s with F/A-18s gave operational commanders more flexibility by allowing them to employ the F/A-18s in either the fighter or attack role. Also, a smaller number of aircraft (85) are needed in an F/A-18 equipped carrier air wing than in an A-7E equipped carrier air wing (94).

Contractor Ling-Temco-Vought (Prime, now Northrop Grumman Corp.) Single Allison/Rolls Royce TF41-A-400 nonafterburning turbofan engine with a static thrust rating of 15,000 pounds A-7E Pilot only TA-7C Two seats Maximum speed at 20,000 feet Mach .94 Range greater than 1,900 nautical miles APQ-126 multi-mode nav/attack radar [Texas Instruments] AVQ-7 raster HUD ASN-91 INS, ASN-190 Doppler navigation system ASU-99 projected map display ALR-45 RWR ALR-50 SAM warning system [Magnavox] ALQ-126 ECM [ Sanders] APR-43 tactical radar warning system [Loral] ALQ-119 ECM [Westinghouse] ALQ-131 ECM [Westinghouse] ALQ-123 IR countermeasures [Xerox] Power Plant

Accommodations Performance (A7E/TA/7C)

Avionics & Countermeasures

ALQ-126 DECM [Sanders] ALQ-162 tactical communications jammer [Eaton AIL] ALQ-162 radar jammer Northrup One internally mounted M61A1 20 mm six barrel cannon Six wing pylons Two fuselage launch stations Armament (A-7E/TA- Pylons can carry a large single weapon, multiple 7C) racks capable of six weapons per rack, or triple racks with three weapons per rack. Can carry 15,000 pounds of payload Compatible with practically all first line ordnance used by the U.S./USAF/NATO. Modern, sophisticated, integrated, highly versatile airborne weapon system platform Capable of performing a variety of search, surveillance, and attack missions Can carry four externally wing-mounted 300 gallon fuel tanks, coupled with a variety of ordnance on remaining stations. Can conduct in-flight refueling operations Capable of transferring more than 12,000 pounds of fuel Fully integrated digital navigation/weapon delivery system is common to all current USN/USAF attack aircraft. Avionics system—which is based on state-of-the-art electronics, digital computing techniques, and an automation philosophy—provides unparalleled mission effectiveness and flexibility. The Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) capability means the A-7's night attack accuracy is equivalent to day attack accuracy. Consistently capable of delivering bombs with an accuracy of less than 10 mils Circular Error Probable (CEP) and guns at less than 5 mils CEP. During Desert Storm, demonstrated more than 95% operational readiness and did not miss a single combat sortie. Has flown more than 120,000 combat sorties and provided unprecedented response in Vietnam, Libya, Grenada, Panama, and Desert Storm. Survivability is enhanced via armor plating in critical

Mission and Capabilities

areas and a state-of-the art DECM. Modernized with a new solid-state rate gyro assembly in the Automatic Flight Control System and a wing enhancement program that virtually eliminates flight hours as a constraint for measuring aircraft service life. Average scheduled/unscheduled direct maintenance man hours per flight hour is 11.

External Dimensions: Wing Span Wing span over missiles Wing chord: at root Wing chord: at tip Wing aspect ratio Width, wings folded Length overall Height overall Tailplane span Distance between fin tips Wheel track Wheelbase Weights and Loadings: Weight empty Maximum fuel weight Maximum external stores load Take off weight (normal) Fighter mission Attack mission Maximum Maximum wing loading (attack mission) 8,676kg 2.90m 4.72m 1.18m 4 7.24m 14.06m 4.90m 5.52m 11.8m Wings, gross

Areas: 34.83m 2 1.85m 2 3.46m 2 4.04m 2 Ailerons (total) Leading-edge flaps (total) Trailing-edge flaps (total) Vert Tail Services (total) Horz Tail Services (total) Tailerons (total)

Performance (At Maximum Takeoff Weight of 19,050kg): Max level speed @ S.L. Max speed, intermediate power Approach speed T-O run @ maximum take-off weight of 1,705m Minimum wind over deck: Launching Recovery Combat radius, interdiction, hi-lo-lo-hi Combat endurance, CAP 150 nm from aircraft carrier Ferry range, unrefueled 2,485nm w/max internal & 600 knots

external fuel

AV-8B Harrier
The AV-8B V/STOL strike aircraft was designed to replace the AV-8A and the A-4M light attack aircraft. The Marine Corps requirement for a V/STOL light attack force has been well documented since the late 1950's. Combining tactical mobility, responsiveness, reduced operating cost and basing flexibility, both afloat and ashore, V/STOL aircraft are particularly well-suited to the special combat and expeditionary requirements of the Marine Corps. The AV-8BII+ features the APG-65 Radar common to the F/A-18, as well as all previous systems and features common to the AV-8BII. The mission of the VMA STOVL squadron is to attack and destroy surface and air targets, to escort helicopters, and to conduct other such air operations as may be directed. Specific tasks of the AV-8B HARRIER II include:
  

  

Conduct close air support using conventional and specific weapons. Conduct deep air support, to include armed reconnaissance and air interdiction, using conventional and specific weapons. Conduct offensive and defensive antiair warfare. This includes combat air patrol, armed escort missions, and offensive missions against enemy ground-to-air defenses, all within the capabilities of the aircraft. Be able to operate and deliver ordnance at night and to operate under instrument flight conditions. Be able to deploy for extended operations employing aerial refueling. Be able to deploy to and operate from carriers and other suitable seagoing platforms, advanced bases, expeditionary airfields, and remote tactical landing sites.

Operation Desert Storm in 1991 was highlighted by expeditionary air operations performed by the AV-8B. The Harrier II was the first Marine Corps tactical strike platform to arrive in theater, and subsequently operated from various basing postures. Three squadrons, totaling 60 aircraft, and one six-aircraft detachment operated ashore from an expeditionary airfield, while one squadron of 20 aircraft operated from a sea platform. During the ground war, AV-8Bs were based as close as 35 nautical miles (40.22 miles) from the Kuwait border, making them the most forward deployed tactical strike aircraft in theater. The AV-8B flew 3,380 sorties for a total of 4,083 flight hours while maintaining a mission capable rate in excess of 90%. Average turnaround time during the ground war surge rate flight operations was 23 minutes.

Contractor: Power Plant: McDonnell Douglas Aircraft (Airframe Prime), Rolls Royce (Engine Prime) TAV-8B/AV-8B Day Attack (DA): One Rolls Royce Pegasus F402-RR-406 turbofan engine with approximately 20,280 pounds of thrust

AV-8B Night Attack (NA)/AV-8B Radar: One Rolls Royce Pegasus F402-RR-408A turbofan engine with approximately 22,200 pounds of thrust Accommodations: Performance: AV-8B DA/NA/Radar Aircraft: Pilot only TAV-8B Trainer: Two seats Maximum airspeed: 550 KCAS Range greater than 142 nautical miles high speed/low altitude combat radius Maximum range: 900 nautical miles Not applicable One fuselage-mounted 25 mm gun system Standard Air-to-Ground (A/G) load: Six Mk 82, 500 pound bombs Standard Air-to-Air (A/A) load: Four AIM-9L/M Sidewinder missiles Provisions for carrying up to 9,000 pounds of ordnance on seven stations The AV-8B single seat Vertical/Short Takeoff and Land (V/STOL) aircraft is the primary close air support/intermediate range intercept/attack mission fixed-wing aircraft for the USMC and the Spanish and Italian navies. The AV-8B can carry and deliver an assortment of conventional stores such as the Mk 83 1,000 pound GP bomb, GBU-12 500 pound LGB, GBU-16 1,000 LGB, CBU-99/100 Cluster Bomb Units, and 2.75" and 5" rockets. The NA configuration includes: night vision gogglecompatible cockpit controls and displays, a wide-fieldof-view HUD, a Navigation Forward Looking Infrared (NAVFLIR) system, a Digital Map Unit (DMU), and an Angle Rate Bombing System (ARBS) with laser spot tracker, which provides first pass day or night target strike capability at low altitude/high speed. The Radar aircraft retains all night attack capability but integrates the AN/APG-65 radar system to extend the tracking capabilities of the aircraft for A/G delivery and A/A defense modes. V/STOL capability allows the AV-8B to be deployed with ground units using amphibious shipping and/or forward basing for rapid close air support response. All three variants of the AV-8B are in service with

Countermeasures: Armament:

Mission and Capabilities:

Program Summary:

the USMC (deployed in WestPac and the Mediterranean). The Spanish Navy has DA/Radar AV-8Bs. The Italian Navy has Radar AV-8Bs only. The U.S., Italy, and Spain are partners in a collaborative international program. The original DA AV-8B was replaced by the NA variant in 1990, which incorporated the F402-RR-408A engine and expanded night fighting systems such as NAVFLIR, DMU, night vision goggle capability, and wide-field-of-view HUD. In 1993, the Radar AV-8B was fielded with the full night fighting capability and an AN/APG-65 Radar set to improve A/G and A/A tactical effectiveness. In 1994, the U.S. began a remanufacturing process to convert DA AV-8Bs to the Radar configuration (REMAN); deliveries began in 1996. Currently, a NA/Radar AV-8B upgrade program is underway to incorporate an Automatic Target Handoff System (ATHS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) capability into the aircraft. ATHS allows direct digital target/mission data exchange between the pilot and ground units. GPS integration improves navigational and weapons delivery accuracy. The AV-8B has seen service in the Persian Gulf (Desert Storm), Somalia (both U.S. and Italian AV8Bs), and Bosnia (peacekeeping operations). A total of 51 Radar Aircraft are authorized for procurement by the U.S., Italy, and Spain. The U.S. has a planned procurement/delivery program for 73 REMAN AV-8Bs (FY 1996 - 2002).

External Dimensions: Wing Span Length overall (flying attitude) AV8B 5.58 m 9.25 m

Areas Wings, excl LERX, gross 21.37 m2

LERX (total): Pegasus 0.81 11-21 m2 Pegasus 11-61 100 percent Ailerons (total) Trailing-edge flaps (total) Ventral fixed strakes (total) Ventral retractable fence (LIDs) Ventral airbrake Fin Rudder, excl tab Tailplane 1.24 m2 1.39 m2 1.15 m2 2.88 m2 0.51 m2 0.24 m2 0.42 m2 2.47 m2 0.49 m2 4.51 m2 Performance Maximum mach number in level flight At S/L
6,336 kg 875 knots

TAV- 15.32 8B m GR. Mks 5/7 T. Mk 10 Height overall Tailplane span Outrigger wheel track 14.36 m 15.79 m 3.55 m 4.24 m 5.18 m

Weights and Loadings (Single-Seaters, Except Where Indicated) Operating weight empty (including pilot and used fuel) AV-8B GR. Mk 7 7,050 kg

At 0.98 altitu de STOL

TAV8B Maximum fuel


takeoff run at maximum takeoff weight: ISA 435 m At 518 m 32° c Operational radius with external loads shown: Short 90 takeo nautical ff miles (366 m, 12 Mk 82 Snake ye Bomb s, intern al fuel, 1 hour loiter) Hi-lo- 594 hi, nautical short miles take off (366 m, seven Mk 82 Snake ye Bomb s, two 300

Internal 3,519 kg only Internal 7,180 kg and external Maximum external stores Pegasus 6,003 kg 11-61 Pegasus 4,899 kg 1121/Mk 105* Maximum useful load (include fuel, stores, weapons, ammunition and water injection for engine) Vertical Approximately takeoff 3,062, kg STO Basic flight design gross weight for 7g operation Maximum T-O weight 435 meters STO S/L VTO, ISA: 14,061 kg More than 7,710 kg 10,410 kg

AV9,342 kg 8B/Peg asus 11-61 GR. Mk 7 S/L VTO, 32°C 8,700 kg 8,142 kg

US gallo n exter nal fuel tanks no loiter Deck 627 launc nautical h miles interc ept missi on, two AIM9 missil es and two exter nal fuel tanks Unrefueled ferry range Tanks 1,965 dropp nautical ed miles Tanks 1,638 retain nautical ed miles Combat air 3 hr. patrol endurance at 100 nautical miles from base. "G" force limits +8/-3

Design 11,340 kg maximum landing weight Maximum 9,043 kg 205 vertical kg less in landing weight TAV-8B

The Northrop A-9A was a large ground-attack aircraft which was designed in competition with the A-10. Although it was not chosen for production, it was a formidable aircraft in its own right. Like the A-10, it carried many "hard points" for weaponry beneath its wings. One A-9A is currently in the March Field Museum at March Air Force Base. The other is on display at the Castle Air Museum in California.

Manufacturer: Type: Length: Height: Wingspan: No. of Engines: Powerplant: Thrust (each): Speed: Ceiling: Range: Armament: 1 30mm gun, 8,350 kg armament Northrop Attack Bomber (Light) 53 feet 6 inches [16.3 meters] 17 feet 10 inches [5.4 meters] 57 feet [17.4 meters] 2 Avco/Lycoming ALF-502 6000 837km/h

A-10/OA-10 Thunderbolt II
The A-10 and OA-10 Thunderbolt IIs are the first Air Force aircraft specially designed for close air support of ground forces. They are simple, effective and survivable twinengine jet aircraft that can be used against all ground targets, including tanks and other armored vehicles. The primary mission of the A-10 is to provide day and night close air combat support for friendly land forces and to act as forward air controller (FAC) to coordinate and direct friendly air forces in support of land forces. The A-10 has a secondary mission of supporting search and rescue and Special Forces operations. It also possesses a limited capability to perform certain types of interdiction. All of these missions may take place in a high or low threat environment. The A/OA-10 aircraft was specifically developed as a close air support aircraft with reliability and maintainability as major design considerations. The Air Force requirements documents emphasized payload, low altitude flying capability, range and loiter capability, low speed maneuverability and weapons delivery accuracy. The aircraft is capable of worldwide deployment and operation from austere bases with minimal support equipment. Specific survivability features include titanium armor plated cockpit, redundant flight control system separated by fuel tanks, manual reversion mode for flight controls, foam filled fuel tanks, ballistic foam void fillers, and a redundant primary structure providing “get home” capability after being hit. Design simplicity, ease of access and left to right interchangeable components make the A/OA-10 aircraft readily maintainable and suitable for deployment at advanced bases. The A-10/OA-10 have excellent maneuverability at low air speeds and altitude, and are highly accurate weapons-delivery platforms. They can loiter near battle areas for extended periods of time and operate under 1,000-foot ceilings (303.3 meters) with 1.5mile (2.4 kilometers) visibility. Their wide combat radius and short takeoff and landing capability permit operations in and out of locations near front lines. Using night vision goggles, A-10/ OA-10 pilots can conduct their missions during darkness. The A/OA-10 is a single place, pressurized, low wing and tail aircraft with two General Electric TF-34-100/A turbo-fan engines, each with a sea level static thrust rating of approximately 9000 pounds. The engines are installed in nacelles mounted on pylons extending from the fuselage just aft of and above the wing. Two vertical stabilizers are located at the outboard tips of the horizontal stabilizers. The forward retracting tricycle landing gear incorporates short struts and a wide tread. The nose wheel retracts fully into the fuselage nose. The main gear retracts into streamlined fairing on the wing with the lower portion of the wheel protruding to facilitate emergency gear-up landings. The General Electric Aircraft Armament Subsystem A/A49E-6 (30 millimeter Gun System) is located in the forward nose section of the fuselage. The gun system consists of the 30mm

Gatling gun mechanism, double-ended linkless ammunition feed, storage assembly and hydraulic drive system. Avionics equipment includes communications, inertial navigation systems, fire control and weapons delivery systems, target penetration aids and night vision goggles. Their weapons delivery systems include head-up displays that indicate airspeed, altitude and dive angle on the windscreen, a low altitude safety and targeting enhancement system (LASTE) which provides constantly computing impact point freefall ordnance delivery; and Pave Penny laser-tracking pods under the fuselage. The aircraft also have armament control panels, and infrared and electronic countermeasures to handle surface-to-airmissile threats. The Thunderbolt II's 30mm GAU-8/A Gatling gun can fire 3,900 rounds a minute and can defeat an array of ground targets to include tanks. Some of their other equipment includes an inertial navigation system, electronic countermeasures, target penetration aids, self-protection systems, and AGM-65 Maverick and AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles. Thunderbolt IIs have Night Vision Imaging Systems (NVIS), compatible single-seat cockpits forward of their wings and a large bubble canopy which provides pilots allaround vision. The pilots are encircled by titanium armor that also protects parts of the flight-control system. The redundant primary structural sections allow the aircraft to enjoy better survivability during close air support than did previous aircraft. The aircraft can survive direct hits from armor-piercing and high-explosive projectiles up to 23mm. Their self-sealing fuel cells are protected by internal and external foam. Their redundant hydraulic flight-control systems are backed up by manual systems. This permits pilots to fly and land when hydraulic power is lost. The Thunderbolt II can be serviced and operated from bases with limited facilities near battle areas. Many of the aircraft's parts are interchangeable left and right, including the engines, main landing gear and vertical stabilizers. The first production A-10A was delivered to Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Ariz., in October 1975. It was designed specially for the close air support mission and had the ability to combine large military loads, long loiter and wide combat radius, which proved to be vital assets to America and its allies during Operation Desert Storm. In the Gulf War, A-10s, with a mission capable rate of 95.7 percent, flew 8,100 sorties and launched 90 percent of the AGM-65 Maverick missiles.

Service Life
The original service life of the A/OA-10 was 8,000 hours, equating to approximately to FY2005. The revised service life was projected out to 12,000 hours, equating to approximately FY2016. The most recent long range plan has the A/OA-10 in the fleet through FY2028, which equates to approximately 18,000-24,000 hours.

A/OA-10 modifications are aimed at improving the A/OA-10 throughout the its service life. All modifications are integrated between ACC, AFRC, and ANG, with the Guard and Reserve often funding non-recurring engineering efforts for the modifications and ACC opting for follow-on production buys. Budgetary constraints are often best overcome by this type of arrangement. Two types of modifications are conducted on the A/OA-10, those to systems, structures and engines, and those to avionics. Structure, system and engine modifications aim at improving reliability, maintainability and supportability of the A/OA-10 and reducing the cost of ownership. Avionics modifications continue the metamorphosis of the A/OA-10 from a day visual flight rules (VFR) fighter to a night-capable integrated weapon system. A/OA-10 avionics modifications provide for greater interoperability between the Army and Air Force by improving situational awareness, tactical communication, navigation and weapon system accuracy, and providing additional capabilities in the areas of threat detection and avoidance, low-level flight safety, stores management and employment of “smart” weapons. In addition, modifications are sought to reduce cost of ownership and to remove supportability quagmires such as obsolete parts. Modifications to the A/OA-10 are nearly always interdependent—interdependence maximizes combat capability of the A/OA-10 by interconnecting modifications in distributed avionics architecture. Integral to the improvement of the A/OA-10 is a new acquisition strategy centered on a recently acquired prime contractor for the weapon system. The prime contractor will be the integrator of all major weapon system modifications and provide the continuity necessary to accommodate the downward trend in organic manpower and relocation of the System Program Office. A large portion of the systems sustaining engineering is for contingency use throughout the fiscal year and is utilized to investigate mishaps, resolve system deficiencies, develop engineering change proposals, or to establish new operational limits. Specific requirements cannot be forecast, but general needs can be predicted based on actual occurrences since the A/OA-10 program management responsibility transferred to SMALC in 1982. The objectives of the sustaining engineering and configuration management programs are to reduce spares utilization, reduce hazard potentials and to increase the weapon system's effectiveness. Sustaining Engineering is mission critical and will be used to obtain the non-organic engineering services needed to maintain and improve the design and performance. The A/OA-10 weapon system was originally designed for manual pilot operation and control. In 1990, the aircraft was modified to incorporate the Low Altitude Safety and Targeting Enhancements (LASTE) System. This system provided computer-aided capabilities including a Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) to issue warnings of impending collision with the ground, an Enhanced Attitude Control (EAC) function for aircraft stabilization during gunfire and a Low Altitude Autopilot system, and computed weapon delivery solutions for targeting improvements. The LASTE computer system installation added the requirement for an Operational Flight Program (OFP) to provide the computer control software necessary to perform the above functions.

Commencing in 1999, the A/OA-10 fleet was additionally upgraded with the installation of an Embedded Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (EGI). In conjunction with this aircraft modification, a replacement Control Display Unit (CDU) will be installed with its own separate OFP software. Operational capability changes, mission changes, latent system deficiencies, and additional user requirements dictate the necessity of periodic OFP block change cycles (BCC) to maintain the weapon system operational requirements. The current BCC includes the LASTE OFP changes, but will additionally require the CDU OFP updates to be accomplished concurrently following the installations of EGI/IDM Modification. Following installation of the original LASTE System, corrections to original system deficiencies, added user requirements, and now the pending EGI modification program have increased the total requirements for the LASTE computer hardware to its maximum design capability. Implementation of the current OFP software change will result in maximum utilization of the computer's memory and throughput, precluding any further operational change requirements from being implemented. In anticipation of this hardware limitation, engineering Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) project was initiated in 1993 to develop options to correct this deficiency. This project is developing an engineering hardware unit, along with an updated OFP software program, for test and evaluation. The addition of the LASTE system and the pending installation of the EGI/CDU system have greatly increased the complexity of the A/OA-10 weapon system, including the troubleshooting and maintenance requirements. Also, the implementation of the 2-level maintenance system, eliminating the intermediate-level maintenance capabilities at the operating units, has necessitated improved troubleshooting capabilities at the unit levels to maintain the aircraft operational readiness requirements. An Operational Test System (OTS) has been developed to provide a computer test aid for the organizational maintenance units to expedite their maintenance actions. The OTS contains a software test program that requires periodic updates to maintain compatibility with the LASTE and CDU systems, as well as other A/OA-10 avionics systems. TF-34 engines are essentially two level maintenance via user Queen Bee sites at Barksdale, Davis-Monthan and Shaw AFBs. All ACC aircraft TF-34 engines are repaired at Davis-Monthan or Shaw AFB. Shaw AFB also supports USAFE. PACAF uses a combination of two and three level maintenance; Osan AB utilizes regional support provided at Kadena AB, while Eielson AFB performs Jet Engine Intermediate Maintenance (JEIM) on-sight. Barksdale AFB regionally supports AFRC. The ANG remains entirely supported by base field JEIM shops. Depot level engine maintenance is accomplished by the Navy at Jacksonville NAS, FL. The A/OA-10 has 51 avionics line replaceable units that transitioned to two level maintenance. The A/OA-10 was designed for user maintenance in all normal maintenance inspections and tasks. This design has been very successful for this aspect and there is every expectation this will continue for the life of the weapon system. The only depot level

requirements are Analytical Condition Inspection (ACI) and unscheduled depot level repair. ACI is a specialized inspection to check areas, sub-systems or parts that are not checked on any periodic basis during normal maintenance. The purpose of the ACI is to find developing problems that might affect the mission or ensure such conditions do not exist. Problems discovered during ACI result in engineering studies that determine appropriate corrective action. There are 11 ACI aircraft selected (by usage, age, flight hours and environment) from different bases and MAJCOMs that are scheduled per fiscal year. The ACIs are accomplished at OO-ALC. Unscheduled depot repair occurs when an aircraft incident, accident or other unusual occurrence creates a problem beyond the users ability to correct. Such occurrences result in a request from the MAJCOM for depot assistance. Depending on the situation, the aircraft may be inducted into a depot or contractor facility, or a depot or contractor field team may be dispatched to the location of the aircraft. The A/OA-10 has a requirement for repaint every eight years. The fleet size sets the current requirement to approximately 65 per fiscal year. While this is not strictly a depot requirement, the need for a fixed, specialized and environmentally contained facility limits the user in his choices. The A/OA-10 is primarily painted atOO-ALC; however, Daimler-Benz AG in Germany paints USAFE aircraft. For economic reasons the 11 ACI aircraft inducted into OO-ALC each year are also painted.

Primary Function Contractor A-10 -- close air support, OA-10 - airborne forward air control Fairchild Republic Co.

Power Plant Two General Electric TF34-GE-100 turbofans Thrust Length Height Wingspan Speed Ceiling Maximum Takeoff Weight Range 9,065 pounds each engine 53 feet, 4 inches (16.16 meters) 14 feet, 8 inches (4.42 meters) 57 feet, 6 inches (17.42 meters) 420 miles per hour (Mach 0.56) 45,000 feet (13,636 meters) 51,000 pounds (22,950 kilograms) 800 miles (695 nautical miles)


One 30 mm GAU-8/A seven-barrel Gatling gun; up to 16,000 pounds (7,200 kilograms) of mixed ordnance on eight under-wing and three under-fuselage pylon stations, including infrared countermeasure flares; electronic countermeasure chaff; jammer pods; 2.75-inch (6.99 centimeters) rockets; illumination flares and: MK-82 (500 pound bomb) MK-84 (2000 pound bomb) MK77 incendiary 10 MK20 Rockeye II (4 - 6 standard load) 10 CBU-52 (4 - 6 standard load) 10 CBU-58 (4 - 6 standard load) 10 CBU-71 (4 - 6 standard load) 10 CBU-87 (4 - 6 standard load) 10 CBU-89 (4 - 6 standard load) CBU-97 10 BL755 (4 - 6 standard load) AGM-65 Maverick missiles GBU-10 laser-guided bomb GBU-12 laser-guided bomb AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles MK AGM CBU CBU CBU 2.75 GBU AIM LUU LUU 30 82 12 6 65 4 2 2 2 4 6 4 6 6 2 4 2 14 14 4 87 89 97 RX 12 9 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 MM 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

8 8

8 8

Systems Crew Date Deployed

AN/ALE-40 AN/ALQ-119 One March 1976

Unit Cost $FY98 [Total Program]

$13 million



PAI TAI PAI TAI Inventory As of Sept. 30, 2001 Active Duty Air National Guard Air Force Reserve Totals 114 72 39 225 128 76 44 248 66 18 6 90 85 26 8 118

A-12 Avenger II
Plans for the Navy's A-12 combat aircraft called for incorporating more advanced stealthy characteristics than were used in the F-117A, as well as significantly greater payload capabilities. The Navy's A-12 Avenger Advanced Technology Aircraft (ATA) was slated to replace current A-6s on aircraft carriers in the mid-1990's. But on 7 January 1991, Secretary of Defense Richard Cheney canceled the program, in the largest contract termination in DoD history. By one estimate the A-12 had become so expensive that it would have consumed up 70 percent of the Navy's aircraft budget within three years. The Navy originally planned to buy 620 of the McDonnell Douglas/General Dynamics aircraft, with the Marine Corps purchasing an additional 238 planes. And the Air Force at one point considered buying 400, at an average cost that was estimated at close to $100 million each. The A-12 was designed to fly faster and further than the A-6E, and carry a large bomb-load in internal bomb-bays to reduce drag and maintain a low radar crosssection. As with the Advanced Tactial Fighter (ATF), the A-12 was expected to have greater reliability than current aircraft (double that of the A-6E), and require half the maintenance manhours. At first blush, the A-12's performance capabilities would have been in roughly the same class as existing aircraft. The key improvement over existing aircraft, not inherently obvious when comparing specifications, was stealth. While today's radar can detect existing naval aircraft at a range of 50 miles, the A-12 was designed to remain undetected until approximately 10 miles away. This would result in significant operational and survival benefits for the A-12 since defenders would have little opportunity to engage the aircraft once detected so close to the target. The A-12's reduced radar cross section would have been derived, in part, from carrying its ordnance internally. While the top speed of the more visible F/A- 18 and A-6 would be significantly reduced by the drag induced by external weapons carriage, the internal weapons bay on the A-12 would provide no impediment to speed. The A-12 proved to be the most troubled of the new American stealth aircraft in large part because of problems found in the extensive use of composites in its structure. These composites did not result in anticipated weight savings, and some structural elements had to be replaced with heavier metal components. The weight of each aircraft exceeded 30 tons, 30% over design specification, and close to the limits that could be accommodated on aircraft carriers. The program also experienced problems with its complex Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar system, as well as delays in its advanced avionics components. The full scope of these problems were not appreciated at the time of Defense Secretary Cheney's Major Aircraft Review, which slowed the production rate and dropped 238 Marine Corps aircraft, leaving the original total Navy buy of 620 aircraft. Cheney also decided to delay for over 5 years the Air Force buy (from 1992 to 1998), which was

decoupled from the Navy project. Subsequently, the A-12 contractors revealed that the project faced serious engineering problems and a $2 billion cost overrun, which would delay the first flight by over a year, to the fall of 1991, and raised the unit cost substantially. According to the 1990 administrative inquiry conducted for the Secretary of the Navy, the cost performance data from the A-12 contractors clearly indicated significant cost and schedule problems. The results of an oversight review of the cost performance reports disclosed that the A-12 contract would probably exceed its ceiling by $1 billion. However, neither the contractors nor the Navy program manager relied upon this data; instead, they used overly optimistic recovery plans and schedule assumptions. The inquiry concluded that the government and contractor program managers lacked the objectivity to assess the situation and they disregarded financial analysts who surfaced the problems. The U.S. Navy on January 7, 1991, notified McDonnell Douglas and General Dynamics Corporation (the Team) that it was terminating for default the Team's contract for development and initial production of the A-12 aircraft, and demanded repayment of the amounts paid to the Team under such contracts. The Department of Defense terminated the contract after the contractors failed to deliver a single airplane after receiving more than $2 billion in payments. Instead, the contractors refused to continue with the contract unless they received extraordinary relief in the form of relaxed terms and extra funds. At the same time, they would or could not assure delivery of an aircraft by a time certain, specify the aircraft's performance capabilities, or commit to a specific price for the aircraft. The Team filed a legal action to contest the Navy's default termination, to assert its rights to convert the termination to one for "the convenience of the Government," and to obtain payment for work done and costs incurred on the A-12 contract but not paid to date. On December 19, 1995, the U.S. Court of Federal Claims ordered that the Government's termination of the A-12 contract for default be converted to a termination for convenience of the Government. On December 13, 1996, the Court issued an opinion confirming its prior no-loss adjustment and no-profit recovery order. In an early 1997 stipulation, the parties agreed that, based on the prior orders and findings of the court, plaintiffs were entitled to recover $1.071 billion. Furthermore, on January 22, 1997, the court issued an opinion in which it ruled that plaintiffs are entitled to recover interest on that amount. The government appealed the United States Court of Federal Claims ruling in of 20 February that awarded $1.2 billion to Boeing and General Dynamics. The Department of Defense argued that the court incorrectly ruled in favor of the contractors and that the award provides unwarranted relief from a failure to produce the aircraft for which the contractors werefully responsible. The Federal Claims Court decision was fully expected based upon earlier rulings by the trial judge; the government has made clear its belief that those earlier rulings were fundamentally flawed. A US Appeals Court overturned the award to Boeing and General Dynamics in July 1999, ruling that trial judge used the

wrong legal test before issuing the damgage awards. The trial judge reversed himself in September 2001, ruling that the government was justified in cancelling the A-12 program. The issue remains unsettled, interrupting the Navy's FY 2003 procurement agenda because lawmakers want the case settled before awarding an $810 million contract fora third DDG-51 destroyer to Bath Iron Works (BIW), a subsidiary of Boeing.

Function Contractor Unit Cost Propulsion Thrust Length Wingspan 37 feet 3.0 inches 70 feet 3.2 inches 36 feet 3.2 inches with wings folded Carrier-based land-attack

Height Maximum Takeoff Weight Ceiling Speed Crew Armament Date Deployed First flight Inventory

11 feet 3.4 inches 12 feet 6.2 inches with wings folded


The A-X was a joint program with participation by the Navy and the Air Force to replace current strike aircraft that are completing their service lives. The A-X would replace the Navy A-6 and the Air Force F-111, F-15E, and F-117. The A-X would offer major advantages over both the F-111 and A-6, some of which will be as much as 42 years old by the time the first A-X squardron was to become active with the Navy or the Air Force. The multi-mission capability of the A-X would provide the tools necessary to execute successfully any mission assigned. Its technology would be state-of-the-art, designed to neutralize future threats and to provide superb weapons delivery capability. The A-X was intended to be fast, highly maneuverable, and able to conduct a wide variety of autonomous missions. It was to be able to employ air-to-air missiles, antiradiation missiles, precision guided munitions, and unguided or dumb bombs. It was to have the latest survivability upgrades. The Navy launched the AX program -- successor to the A-12 which was terminated for default by Secretary of Defense Cheney -- with a design competition planned for the concept exploration and definition phase. According to the Secretary of Defense, the AX was expected to possess a significant air-to-air and air-to-ground capability for both offensive and defensive purposes. The degree to which the AX could perform both air-toair, as well as air-to-ground, missions, was an important consideration being defined during 1992. The specific mix of combat capabilities and airframe performance parameters was defined in the concept exploration phase of the AX program in 1992, as competing industry design teams formulated their specific proposals to meet the Navy's broad set of tentative operational requirements. That phase was to be followed by the selection of one contractor for the crucial demonstration and validation [DemVal] phase. The Navy rejected the idea of competitive prototypes for the AX as too expensive. The AX program, while intended to develop a less costly successor to the A-12, was nevertheless expected to cost at least $14,000,000,000. The 1993 budget request contained $165.6 million to continue concept development of the AX medium attack aircraft for the Navy and the Air Force. During action in 1992 on this request, the House authorized $760.6 million for development of the AX, and required a competitive prototype strategy for the AX aircraft emphasizing current generation stealth technology and existing engines, radars, and avionics, with the competitive prototype phase be completed by no later than 1996. The Senate authorized a total of $50.0 million for AX development, and also endorsed a competitive prototype acquisition strategy. The Congress approved the $165.6 million as requested, and directed that that the Department of Defense should utilize current generation stealth technology and, to the maximum feasible extent, engines, radars, and avionics systems that exist or are in development. In early 1993 the Congressional Budget Office estimated that canceling the Navy's AX tactical aircraft program would save $3.6 billion over 5 years. And in late 1993 it was decided to cancel the AX attack aircraft program, under the theory that the FA-18E/F was adequate for another decade.

AH-64 Apache
The Boeing (McDonnell Douglas) (formerly Hughes) AH-64A Apache is the Army's primary attack helicopter. It is a quickreacting, airborne weapon system that can fight close and deep to destroy, disrupt, or delay enemy forces. The Apache is designed to fight and survive during the day, night, and in adverse weather throughout the world. The principal mission of the Apache is the destruction of high-value targets with the HELLFIRE missile. It is also capable of employing a 30MM M230 chain gun and Hydra 70 (2.75 inch) rockets that are lethal against a wide variety of targets. The Apache has a full range of aircraft survivability equipment and has the ability to withstand hits from rounds up to 23MM in critical areas. The AH-64 Apache is a twin-engine, four bladed, multi-mission attack helicopter designed as a highly stable aerial weapons-delivery platform. It is designed to fight and survive during the day, night, and in adverse weather throughout the world. With a tandem-seated crew consisting of the pilot, located in the rear cockpit position and the copilot gunner (CPG), located in the front position, the Apache is self-deployable, highly survivable and delivers a lethal array of battlefield armaments. The Apache features a Target Acquisition Designation Sight (TADS) and a Pilot Night Vision Sensor (PNVS) which enables the crew to navigate and conduct precision attacks in day, night and adverse weather conditions. The Apache can carry up to 16 Hellfire laser designated missiles. With a range of over 8000 meters, the Hellfire is used primarily for the destruction of tanks, armored vehicles and other hard material targets. The Apache can also deliver 76, 2.75" folding fin aerial rockets for use against enemy personnel, light armor vehicles and other softskinned targets. Rounding out the Apache’s deadly punch are 1,200 rounds of ammunition for its Area Weapons System (AWS), 30MM Automatic Gun. Powered by two General Electric gas turbine engines rated at 1890 shaft horsepower each, the Apache’s maximum gross weight is 17,650 pounds which allows for a cruise airspeed of 145 miles per hour and a flight endurance of over three hours. The AH-64 can be configured with an external 230-gallon fuel tank to extend its range on attack missions, or it can be configured with up to four 230-gallon fuel tanks for ferrying/selfdeployment missions. The combat radius of the AH-64 is approximately 150 kilometers. The combat radius with one external 230-gallon fuel tank installed is approximately 300 kilometers [radii are temperature, PA, fuel burn rate and airspeed dependent]. The AH-64 is air transportable in the C-5, C-141 and C-17. An on-board video recorder has the capability of recording up to 72 minutes of either the pilot or CPG selected video. It is an invaluable tool for damage assessment and

reconnaissance. The Apache's navigation equipment consists of a doppler navigation system, and most aircraft are equipped with a GPS receiver. The Apache has state of the art optics that provide the capability to select from three different target acquisition sensors. These sensors are
 

Day TV. Views images during day and low light levels, black and white. TADS FLIR. Views thermal images, real world and magnified, during day, night and adverse weather.  DVO. Views real world, full color, and magnified images during daylight and dusk conditions. > The Apache has four articulating weapons pylons, two on either side of the aircraft, on which weapons or external fuel tanks can be mounted. The aircraft has a LRF/D. This is used to designate for the Hellfire missile system as well as provide range to target information for the fire control computer's calculations of ballistic solutions. Threat identification through the FLIR system is extremely difficult. Although the AH-64 crew can easily find the heat signature of a vehicle, it may not be able to determine friend or foe. Forward looking infrared detects the difference in the emission of heat in objects. On a hot day, the ground may reflect or emit more heat than the suspected target. In this case, the environment will be "hot" and the target will be "cool". As the air cools at night, the target may lose or emit heat at a lower rate than the surrounding environment. At some point the emission of heat from both the target and the surrounding environment may be equal. This is IR crossover and makes target acquisition/detection difficult to impossible. IR crossover occurs most often when the environment is wet. This is because the water in the air creates a buffer in the emissivity of objects. This limitation is present in all systems that use FLIR for target acquisition. Low cloud ceilings may not allow the Hellfire seeker enough time to lock onto its target or may cause it to break lock after acquisition. At extended ranges, the pilot may have to consider the ceiling to allow time for the seeker to steer the weapon onto the target. Pilot night vision sensor cannot detect wires or other small obstacles. Overwater operations severely degrade navigation systems not upgraded with embedded GPS. Although fully capable of operating in marginal weather, attack helicopter capabilities are seriously degraded in conditions below a 500-foot ceiling and visibility less than 3 km. Because of the Hellfire missile's trajectory, ceilings below 500 feet require the attack aircraft to get too close to the intended target to avoid missile loss. Below 3 km visibility, the attack aircraft is vulnerable to enemy ADA systems. Some obscurants can prevent the laser energy from reaching the target; they can also hide the target from the incoming munitions seeker. Dust, haze, rain, snow and other particulate matter may limit visibility and affect sensors. The Hellfire remote designating crew may offset a maximum of 60 degrees from the gun to target line and must not position their aircraft within a +30-degree safety fan from the firing aircraft. The Apache fully exploits the vertical dimension of the battlefield. Aggressive terrain flight techniques allow the commander to rapidly place the ATKHB at the decisive place

at the optimum time. Typically, the area of operations for Apache is the entire corps or divisional sector. Attack helicopters move across the battlefield at speeds in excess of 3 kilometers per minute. Typical planning airspeeds are 100 to 120 knots during daylight and 80 to 100 knots at night. Speeds during marginal weather are reduced commensurate with prevailing conditions. The Apache can attack targets up to 150 km across the FLOT. If greater depth is required, the addition of ERFS tanks can further extend the AH-64's range with a corresponding reduction in Hellfire missile carrying capacity (four fewer Hellfire missiles for each ERFS tank installed). Apache production began in FY82 and the first unit was deployed in FY86. As of November 1993, 807 Apaches were delivered to the Army. The last Army Apache delivery is scheduled for December 1995. Thirty-three attack battalions are deployed and ready for combat. The Army is procuring a total of 824 Apaches to support a new force structure of 25 battalions with 24 Apaches for each unit (16 Active; 2 Reserve; 7 National Guard) under the Aviation Restructure Initiative. The Apache has been sold to Israel, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Greece. The Russian-developed Mi-24 HIND is the Apache's closest couterpart. The Russians have deployed significant numbers of HINDs in Europe and have exported the HIND to many third world countries. The Russians have also developed the KA-50 HOKUM as their next generation attack helicopter. The Italian A-129 Mangusta is the nearest NATO counterpart to the Apache. The Germans and French are co-developing the PAH-2 Tiger attack helicopter, which has many of the capabilities of the Apache.

The AH-64 fleet consists of two aircraft models, the AH-64A and the newer Longbow Apache (LBA), AH-64D. AH-64A model full-scale production began in 1983 and now over 800 aircraft have been delivered to the U.S. Army and other NATO Allies. The U.S. Army plans to remanufacture its entire AH-64A Apache fleet to the AH-64D configuration over the next decade. The AH-64A fleet exceeded one million flight hours in 1997, and the median age of today's fleet is 9 years and 1,300 flight hours. The AH-64A proved its capabilities in action during both Operation Restore Hope and Operation Desert Storm. Apache helicopters played a key role in the 1989 action in Panama, where much of its activity was at night, when the AH-64's advanced sensors and sighting systems were effective against Panamanian government forces. Apache helicopters also played a major role in the liberation of Kuwait. On 20 November 1990, the 11th Aviation Brigade was alerted for deployment to Southwest Asia from Storck Barracks in Illesheim Germany. The first elements arrived in theater 24 November 1990. By 15 January 1991 the unit had moved 147 helicopters, 325 vehicles and 1,476 soldiers to the region. The Apache helicopters of the Brigade destroyed more than 245 enemy vehicles with no losses.

During Operation Desert Storm, AH-64s were credited with destroying more than 500 tanks plus hundreds of additional armored personnel carriers, trucks and other vehicles. They also were used to destroy vital early warning radar sites, an action that opened the U.N. coalition's battle plan. Apaches also demonstrated the ability to perform when called upon, logging thousands of combat hours at readiness rates in excess of 85 percent during the Gulf War. While recovery was ongoing, additional elements of the 11th Aviation Brigade began the next chapter of involvement in the region. On 24 April 1991 the 6th Squadron, 6th Cavalry’s 18 AH-64 helicopters began a self-deployment to Southwest Asia. The Squadron provided aerial security to a 3,000 square kilometer region in Northern Iraq as part of the Combined Task Force of Operation Provide Comfort. And the AH-64A Apache helped to keep the peace in Bosnia. April of 1996 saw the beginning of the 11th Regiment’s involvement in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Elements of 6-6 Cavalry served as a part of Task Force Eagle under 1st Armored Division for 7 months. In October of 1996, Task Force 11, consisting of the Regimental Headquarters, 2-6 Cavalry, 2-1 Aviation and 7-159 Aviation (AVIM) deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of Operation Joint Endeavor/Operation Joint Guard for 8 months. In June of 1998 the Regimental Headquarters, 6-6 Cav and elements of 5-158 Aviation were again deployed to Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of Operations Joint Guard and Joint Forge for 5 months. The AH-64A’s advanced sensors and sighting systems proved effective in removing the cover of darkness from anti-government forces. Army National Guard units in North and South Carolina, Florida, Texas, Arizona, Utah and Idaho also fly Apache helicopters. The Army has fielded combat-ready AH-64A units in the United States, West Germany and in Korea, where they play a major role in achieving the US Army's security missions. By late 1996, McDonnell Douglas Helicopters delivered 937 AH-64A Apaches -- 821 to the U.S. Army and 116 to international customers, including Egypt, Greece, Israel, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The Apache is clearly one of the most dynamic and important programs in aviation and the Army, but it is not without limitations. Due to the possibility of surging the engines, pilots have been instructed not to fire rockets from in-board stations. According to current doctrine, they are to fire no more than pairs with two outboard launchers every three seconds, or fire with only one outboard launcher installed without restrictions (ripples permitted). These are the only conditions permitted. Other firing conditions will be required to be approved via a System Safety Risk Assessment (SSRA). The improvement of aircraft systems troubleshooting is a high priority issue for O&S Cost reduction. Because of funding cuts, the level of contractor support to the field has been reduced. This results in higher costs in no fault found removals, maintenance man hours, and aircraft down time. The Apache PM, US Army Aviation Logistics School, and Boeing are currently undertaking several initiatives. Upgrading and improving the

soldier's ability to quickly and accurately fault isolate the Apache weapons system is and will continue to be an O&S priority until all issues are resolved. Prime Vendor Support (PVS) for the entire fleet of AH-64s is a pilot program for the Army, and may become a pilot program for the Department of Defense. PVS will place virtually all of Apache's wholesale logistic responsibility under a single contract. The Apache flying hour program will provide upfront funding for spares, repairables, contractor technical experts, and reliability improvements. Starting at the flight line there will be contractor expert technicians with advanced troubleshooting capability assigned to each Apache Battalion. At the highest level, PVS represents a single contractor focal point for spares and repairs. The intent is to break the current budget and requirements cycle that has Apache at 67% supply availability with several thousand lines at zero balance. Modernization Through Spares (MTS) is a spares/component improvement strategy applied throughout the acquisition life cycle and is based on technology insertion to enhance systems and extend useful life while reducing costs. The MTS initiative seeks to leverage current procurement funds and modernize individual system spares thereby incrementally improving these systems. MTS is accomplished via the "spares" acquisition process. MTS, a subset of acquisition reform, seeks to improve an end item's spare components. The emphasis is on form, fit and function, allowing a supplier greater design and manufacturing flexibility to exploit technology used in the commercial marketplace. Apache MTS focuses on the insertion of the latest technology into the design and manufacture of select spares. This is to be accomplished without government research and development (R&D) funds, but rather, uses industry investment. Industry, in turn, recoups this investment through the sale of improved hardware via long term contracts. Modernization efforts continue to improve the performance envelope of the AH-64A while reducing the cost of ownership. Major modernization efforts within the AH-64A fleet are funded and on schedule. GG Rotor modifications were finished in April 1998,, and future improvements such as a Second Generation FLIR, a High Frequency NonLine of Sight NOE radio, and an internal fully crashworthy auxiliary fuel tank are all on the verge of becoming a reality for the Apache. The Aviation Mission Planning System (AMPS) and the Data Transfer Cartridge (DTC) are tools for the Embedded Global Positioning Inertial Navigation Unit (EGI) equipped AH-64A aircraft that allow aircrews to plan missions and download the information to a DTC installed in the Data Transfer Receptacle (DTR). This saves the pilots a lot of "fat fingering" and eliminates the worry of everyone being on the same "sheet of music". Other features of the DTC include; saving waypoints and targets and troubleshooting. The EGI program is a Tri-service program with the Army, Air Force and Navy.

AH-64A Apache Multi-Mission Configurations Primary Starboard M230 Port Rate of Duration Mission Wing Gun Wing Climb Combat 320 rds 4 (Anti-armor) 4 Hellfire 30mm Hellfire 1450 fpm 1.8 hours 4 Multi-role 4 Hellfire 1200 rds Hellfire (Covering 860 fpm 2.5 hours 19 FFAR * 30mm 19 force) FFAR * Close-support 1200 rds 8 8 Hellfire 990 fpm 2.5 hours (Anti-armor) 30mm Hellfire Groundsupport 1200 rds 38 38 FFAR * 780 fpm 2.5 hours (Airmobile 30mm FFAR * escort) * FFAR = 70mm (2.75 inch) Folding-Fin Aerial Rockets

AH-64D Longbow

The AH-64D Longbow Apache is a remanufactured and upgraded version of the AH-64A Apache attack helicopter. The primary modifications to the Apache are the addition of a millimeter-wave Fire Control Radar (FCR) target acquisition system, the fire-and-forget Longbow Hellfire air-to-ground missile, updated T700-GE-701C engines, and a fullyintegrated cockpit. In addition, the aircraft receives improved survivability, communications, and navigation capabilities. Most existing capabilities of the AH-64A Apache are retained. Transportability requirements were initially identified in the ORD and further defined in the AH-64D System Specification. Both configurations of the AH-64D, including any removed items and appropriate PGSE, shall be capable of being transported aboard C141B, C-5A, or C-17 aircraft. The aircraft shall also be capable of being transported and hangar stored below decks in the landing platform helicopter (LPH) type carrier, Fast SeaLift ships, Roll-on/Roll-off, LASH, SEABEE ships, and Military Sealift Command (MSC) dry cargo ships. Additionally, the aircraft shall be transportable by military M270A1 trailer and commercial "Air-Ride" trailer or equivalent. For aerial recovery, the AH-64D with MMA will be externally transportable by CH-47D aircraft using the Unit Maintenance Aerial Recovery Kit. Two AH-64D plus one FCR aircraft will be transportable by C-141, six AH-64Ds (with a minimum of three FCR mission kits) are transportable by C-5, and three AH-64Ds and three FCR mission kits are transportable by C-17.

The AH-64D is being fielded in two configurations. The full-up AH-64D includes all of the improvements listed above. In addition, a version of the AH-64D without the FCR will be fielded. This version will not receive the new Radar Frequency Interferometer (RFI) or the improved engines, but will retain the other Longbow modifications. The AH64D without FCR is capable of launching the Longbow Hellfire missile. All AH-64A Apaches in the fleet are to be upgraded to the AH-64D configuration: 227 will be equipped with the FCR, and the remaining 531 will not. Each attack helicopter company will receive three aircraft with FCRs and five without. McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems is under contract for the first 18 Longbow Apaches and delivered the first remanufactured Longbow Apache in March 1997. The Army and McDonnell Douglas agreed to a five-year, multi-year agreement that will give the Army 232 Longbow Apaches in the first five years of production. The multi-year purchase increases the Longbow Apache production rate in the first year to 24 aircraft

and 232 for the five-year period. Under the multi-year contract, the Army will field two additional combat-ready Longbow Apache battalions. The contract also includes funding for McDonnell Douglas to train pilots and maintenance personnel for the first two equipped units, development of interactive electronic technical manuals, development of training devices, first article testing of the production aircraft, initial spares, and a variety of program support tasks for the first production lot. The U.S. Army plans to remanufacture its entire AH-64A Apache fleet of more than 750 aircraft over the next decade. During Army operational testing in 1995, all six Longbow Apache prototypes competed against standard AH-64A Apaches. The threat array developed to test the combat capabilities of the two Apache designs was a postulated 2004 lethal and digitized force consisting of heavy armor, air defense and countermeasures. The tests clearly demonstrated that Longbow Apaches:
  

  

 

Are 400 percent more lethal (hitting more targets) than the AH-64A, already the most capable and advanced armed helicopter in the world to enter service. Are 720 percent more survivable than the AH-64A. Meet or exceed Army requirements for both target engagement range and for probability of acquiring a seleted target. The specific requirements and results are classified. Easily can hit moving and stationary tanks on an obscured, dirty battlefield from a range of more than 7 kilometers, when optical systems are rendered ineffective. Can use either its Target Acquisition Designation Sight or fire control radar as a targeting sight, offering increased battlefield flexibility. Have the ability to initiate the radar scan, detect and classify more than 128 targets, prioritize the 16 most dangerous targets, transmit the information to other aircraft, and initiate a precision attack -- all in 30 seconds or less. Require one third less maintenance man hours (3.4) per flight hour than the requirement. Are able to fly 91 percent of the time -- 11 percent more than the requirement.

One issue uncovered during the Initial Operational Test that requires follow-on testing involves the method of employment of the Longbow Hellfire missile. During the forceon-force phase, Longbow flight crews frequently elected to override the system's automatic mode selection logic and fire missiles from a masked position. This powerful technique can significantly increase the helicopter's survivability, but has not been validated with live missile firings during developmental or operational testing. DOT&E is currently working with the Army to develop a test plan that will confirm system performance using this firing technique. This test program will include computer simulation of the missile's target acquisition and fly-out as well as live missile firings at moving armored vehicles.

With the addition of a new and highly sophisticated fire control radar (FCR), more commonly called the Longbow Fire Control Radar, the AH-64D has become the most advanced aerial fighting vehicle in the world. The FCR provides the Apache with the ability to detect, classify and prioritize stationary and moving targets both on the ground and in the air. With state of the art fire control, digital communications, automatic target classification and many other up to date features, the AH-64D Longbow Apache will dominate the battlefield for years to come. The AH-64D Apache Longbow increases combat effectiveness over the AH-64A by providing a more flexible digital electronics architecture and integrating computer-based

on-board Built-In Test Equipment (BITE), Automatic Test Equipment (ATE), and hard copy operator or Interactive Electronic Technical Manual (IETM) troubleshooting/maintenance manuals that will easily accommodate changes resulting from system growth. In addition, upgrades to electrical power and cooling systems and the expansion of the forward avionics bays to accommodate the installation of the FCR, and provide for future growth. Navigation system accuracy is improved through integration of a miniaturized integrated Embedded Global Positioning System (GPS)/Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) (EGI), and an improved DOPPLER Velocity Rate Sensor (DVRS). The fully integrated AH-64D without Longbow Mission Kit incorporates greater ordnance capability and flexibility than the AH-64A by utilizing the family of SemiActive Laser (SAL) missiles (including the HELLFIRE II) and Longbow HELLFIRE RF Missile. The AH-64D without Longbow Mission Kit can operate in harmony with the FCR-equipped AH-64D and can accept a target hand over and fire the Longbow missile with minimum exposure to hostile forces. The AN/APG-78 FCR is a multi-mode Millimeter Wave (MMW) sensor integrated on the Apache Longbow with the antenna and transmitter located above the aircraft main rotor head. It enhances Longbow system capabilities by providing rapid automatic detection, classification, and prioritization of multiple ground and air targets. The radar provides this capability in adverse weather and under battlefield obscurants. The FCR has four modes: (1) the Air Targeting Mode (ATM) which detects, classifies, and prioritizes fixed and rotary wing threats; (2) the Ground Targeting Mode (GTM) which detects, classifies, and prioritizes ground and air targets; (3) the Terrain Profiling Mode (TPM) which provides obstacle detection and adverse weather pilotage aids to the Longbow crew; (4) and the Built in Test (BIT) Mode which monitors radar performance in flight and isolates electronic failures before and during maintenance. The Longbow RF missile and the Longbow HELLFIRE Launcher (LBHL) are referred to as the LBHMMS. The system incorporates a fire-and-forget missile that accepts primary and/or secondary targeting information from the FCR and single targeting information from TADS or another aircraft to acquire and engage targets. Similar to the FCR, the RF missile provides the capability to engage threats in adverse weather and through battlefield obscurants. Two acquisition modes, lock-on-before-launch (LOBL) and lockon-after-launch (LOAL), allow engagement of ground and rotary wing threats at extended ranges. In the LOBL mode, the missile will acquire and track moving or short range stationary targets prior to leaving the launch platform. In the LOAL mode, the missile will acquire long range stationary targets shortly after leaving the launch platform. The combination of the integrated FCR, LBHMMS and the Apache aircraft enhances battlefield awareness by providing coverage of the battle area at extended ranges, by reducing operational dependence on weather and battlefield conditions, and by rapid display of detected targets. It further improves the Longbow system's war fighting capability and survivability by providing rapid multi-target detection and engagement ability, navigational aids, and a fire-and-forget weapon delivery system.

The addition of the Longbow FCR provides a second and completely independent target acquisition sensor which may be operated by either crew member or combined to provide a degree of multi-sensor synergy. When operated independently, the pilot could use the FCR to search for air targets in the ATM mode while the copilot/gunner (CPG) searches for ground targets using the Target Acquisition Designation Sight (TADS). Using both TADS and the FCR together combines the unique advantage of each sight. The rapid search, detection, classification, and prioritization of targets by the Longbow FCR can then be quickly and positively identified by using the electro-optics of TADS. The center of view can be focused on the location of the highest priority target and the CPG, at the touch of a switch, can view either display. Alternately, the FCR centerline can be cued to the TADS so that a rapid and narrow search could be made of a suspected target area. The RFI is an integral part of the Longbow FCR. It has sensitivity over an RF spectrum to detect threat emitters when a threat radar is in a search and acquisition mode and also when the threat emitter is "looking" directly at and tracking the Longbow system. The RF band has been extended over that which was developed for the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior at the low end of the RF spectrum to detect newly identified air defense threats. The RFI has a programmable threat emitter library to allow additional threat signatures to be stored and/or updated. The Materiel Fielding Plan (MFP) is essentially a one-stop reference for all fielding activity requirements. It shows who develops, fields, receives, and stores a piece of equipment and its associated tools, test equipment, repair parts, and training devices. The MFP will outline what the piece of equipment is used for, who uses it, who repairs it, the maintenance and supply structure which will be in place to provide life cycle support, and the training requirements inherent to the system. Several draft version MFPs are published per the documents listed above in order to generate a dialogue between the developer and the end user in order to simplify and expedite the fielding process. The AH-64D Apache Longbow aircraft, Fire Control Radar (FCR), and Longbow Hellfire Modular Missile System (LBHMMS) were fielded starting with the 1-227 Attack Helicopter Battalion in July 1998. As this is a FORSCOM unit, the first MFP published will be for FORSCOM. Other MFPs, each tailored to the specific Major Command (MACOM) receiving the AH-64D, will be published at the appropriate time. Therefore, FORSCOM, TRADOC, USAREUR, EUSA, USAR, and the ARNG will each receive their own version of the MFP. Distribution varies with each subsequent draft prepared. The Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Plans (ODCSOPS) makes the decision as to what units receive the AH-64D and in what order. The AAH PMO publishes and distributes MFPs based on ODCSOPS' schedule. The fielding schedules change from time to time, and the schedule in the MFP is, therefore, current as of the publishing date. The First Draft for each MACOM's MFP is published approximately 26 months before the first aircraft and equipment are fielded to a MACOM. A MACOM's Final MFP is published approximately 8 months prior to its first-unit fielding. The fielding schedule as of 1 June 1997, is attached. It does not include the aircraft destined for the TRADOC training fleet at Ft. Rucker. Ft. Rucker begins receiving its AH-64Ds in June 1999; the TRADOC First Draft MFP left the AAH PMO in May.



2-101 AVN




SEP 99


1-2 AVN




SEP 00


1-101 AVN



NOV 00 DEC 00FEB 01

MAR 01


1-3 AVN




JUN 01


6-6 CAV




NOV 01


3-101 AVN




JUN 02


4-3 ACR




SEP 02


1-501 AVN



NOV 02 NOV 02JAN 03

FEB 03


1-229 AVN



APR 03 APR-JUN JUL 03 03


3-6 CAV




NOV 03


3-229 AVN



FEB 04 FEB-APR MAY 04 04


1-1 AVN




OCT 04


1-111 AVN



NOV 04 NOV O4-JAN 05

FEB 05


1-6 CAV




JUN 05


1-130 AVN


NOV 04MAY 05*


NOV 05


2-6 CAV




APR 06


1-4 AVN



APR 06 APR-JUN JUL 06 06






DEC 06


1-151 AVN



APR 07


7-6 CAV




AUG 07


1-285 AVN




JAN 08


1-183 AVN




1-211 AVN


OCT 07JAN 08*


SEP 08


1-149 AVN



NOV 08 NOV 08JAN 09

FEB 09

*Bold dates indicate direct turn-in (No Staging)

Contractors Boeing McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems(Mesa, AZ) General Electric (Lynn, MA) Martin Marietta (Orlando, FL) Two T700-GE-701Cs Two AH-64A Length Height Wing Span 58.17 ft (17.73 m) 15.24 ft (4.64 m) 17.15 ft (5.227 m) AH-64D 58.17 ft (17.73 m) 13.30 ft (4.05 m) 17.15 ft (5.227 m)

Propulsion Crew

Primary Mission Gross 15,075 lb (6838 kg) Weight 11,800 pounds Empty Hover In-Ground Effect (MRP) 15,895 ft (4845 m) [Standard Day] 14,845 ft (4525 m) [Hot Day ISA + 15C] 12,685 ft (3866 m) [Sea Level Standard Day] 11,215 ft (3418 m) [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]

16,027 lb (7270 kg) Lot 1 Weight 14,650 ft (4465 m) [Standard Day] 13,350 ft (4068 m) [Hot Day ISA + 15 C] 10,520 ft (3206 m) [Standard Day] 9,050 ft (2759 m) [Hot Day ISA + 15 C] 1,775 fpm (541 mpm) [Sea Level Standard Day] 1,595 fpm (486 mpm) [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)] 2,635 fpm (803 mpm) [Sea Level Standard Day] 2,600 fpm (793 mpm) [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)] 147 kt (273 kph) [Sea Level Standard Day] 149 kt (276 kph) [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)] 147 kt (273 kph) [Sea Level Standard Day] 149 kt (276 kph) [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)]

Hover Out-of-Ground Effect (MRP)

2,175 fpm (663 mpm) [Sea Level Standard Day] Vertical Rate of Climb 2,050 fpm (625 mpm) (MRP) [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)] 2,915 fpm (889 mpm) [Sea Level Standard Day] 2,890 fpm (881 mpm) [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)] 150 kt (279 kph) [Sea Level Standard Day] 153 kt (284 kph) [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)] 150 kt (279 kph) [Sea Level Standard Day] 153 kt (284 kph) [Hot Day 2000 ft 70 F (21 C)] 400 km - internal fuel 1,900 km - internal and external fuel

Maximum Rate of Climb (IRP)

Maximum Level Flight Speed

Cruise Speed (MCP)



M230 33mm Gun 70mm (2.75 inch) Hydra-70 Folding-Fin Aerial Rockets AGM-114 Hellfire anti-tank missiles AGM-122 Sidearm anti-radar missile AIM-9 Sidewinder Air-to-Air missiles

Mission Equipment Reliability

Target Acquisition and Designation System / Pilot Night Vision System The general objective of aircraft readiness is to achieve 75% Mission Capable.


AH-64D Longbow

RAH-66 Comanche
The Boeing-Sikorsky RAH-66 Comanche is the Army's next generation armed reconnaissance helicopter. It also is the first helicopter developed specifically for this role. The Comanche will provide Army Aviation the opportunity to move into the 21st century with a weapon system of unsurpassed warfighting capabilities crucial to the Army's future strategic vision. The Comanche is intended to replace the current fleet of AH-1 and OH-58 helicopters in all air cavalry troops and light division attack helicopter battalions, and supplement the AH-64 Apache in heavy division/corps attack helicopter battalions. The first Boeing-Sikorsky RAH-66 Comanche prototype was rolled-out at Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, Connecticut, May 25, 1995. The prototype's first flight was made on 04 January 1996. The second prototype is scheduled to fly in late March 1999. Six early operational capability aircraft are scheduled to be delivered 2002 to participate in an Army field exercise in 2002-2003, or possibly later in "Corps 04". The Comanche is powered by two Light Helicopter Turbine Engine Co. (LHTEC) T800-801 engines. These advanced engines and a streamlined airframe will be enable the Comanche to fly significantly faster than the larger AH-64 Apache. The RAH-66 Comanche helicopter's primary role will be to seek out enemy forces and designate targets for the AH-64 Apache Attack helicopter at night, in adverse weather, and in battlefield obscurants, using advanced infrared sensors. The helmet has FLIR images and overlaid symbology that can be used as a headup display in nape-of-the-earth (NOE) flight. The aircraft has been designed to emit a low-radar signature (stealth features). The Comanche will perform the attack mission itself for the Army's light divisions. The RAH-66 will be used as a scout and attack helicopter to include an air-to-ground and airto-air combat capability. The Comanche is slated to replace the AH-1 Series Cobra light attack helicopter, the OH-6A Cayuse, and the OH-58A/OH-58C Kiowa light observation helicopters. The Comanche mission equipment package consists of a turret-mounted cannon, nightvision pilotage system, helmet-mounted display, electro-optical target acquisition and designation system, aided target recognition, and integrated communication/navigation/identification avionics system. Targeting includes a second

generation forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor, a low-light-level television, a laser range finder and designator, and the Apache Longbow millimeter wave radar system. Digital sensors, computers and software will enable the aircraft to track and recognize advesarys long before they are aware of the Comanche's presence, a key advantage in both the reconnaissance and attack roles. Aided target detection and classification software will automatically scan the battlefield, identifying and prioritizing targets. The target acquisition and communications system will allow burst transmissions of data to other aircraft and command and control systems. Digital communications links will enable the crew unparalleled situational awareness, making the Comanche an integral component of the digital battlefield. The armament subsystems consist of the XM301 20mm cannon, and up to 14 Hellfire anti-tank missiles, 28 Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS) anti-aircraft missiles, or 56 2.75 inch Hydra 70 air-to-ground rockets carried internally and externally. Up to four Hellfire and two Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS) missiles can be stowed in fully-retractable weapons bays and the gun can be rotated to a stowed position when not in use. This design feature reduces both drag and radar signature. Mission management, status, and control information is provided over the MIL-STD1553B databus between the mission equipment packages and the Turreted Gun System. The Comanche will have enhanced maintainability through it's modular electronics architecture and built-in diagnostics.

Sensors and avionics. In the reconnaissance role, the Comanche will be equipped with a new generation of passive sensors and a fully integrated suite of displays and communications. Advance infrared (IR) sensors will have twice the range of OH-58D Kiowa Warrior and AH-64 Apache sensors. The Comanche will be equipped with the Apache Longbow fire control radar and the Helmet Integrated Display and Sight System (HIDSS). The fully integrated avionics system will allow tactical data to be overlaid onto a digital map, allowing the crew to devote more time for target detection and classification. A triple-redundant fly-by-wire system can automatically hold the helicopter in hover or in almost any other maneuver, reducing workload, allowing the pilot to concentrate on navigation and threat avoidance. A hand-on grip permits onehanded operation.

Stealth characteristics. The Comanche incorporates more low-observable stealth features than any aircraft in Army history. The Comanche radar cross-section (RCS) is less than that of a Hellfire missile. To reduce radar cross-section, weapons can be carried internally, the gun can be rotated aft and stowed within a fairing behind the turret when not in use, and the landing gear are fully-retractable. The all-composite fuselage sides are flat and canted and rounded surfaces are avoided by use of faceted turret and engine covers. The Comanche's head-on RCS is 360 times smaller than the AH-64 Apache, 250 times less than the smaller OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, and 32 times smaller than the OH58D's mast-mounted sight. This means the Comanche will be able to approach five times closer to an enemy radar than an Apache, or four times closer than an OH-58D, without being detected. Noise suppression. The Comanche only radiates one-half the rotor noise of current helicopters. Noise is reduced by use of a five-bladed rotor, pioneered by the successful Boeing (McDonnell Douglas) MD-500 Defender series of light utility helicopters. The fantail eliminates interaction between main rotor and tail rotor wakes. The advanced rotor design permits operation at low speed, allowing the Comanche to sneak 40% closer to a target than an Apache, without being detected by an acoustical system. Infrared (IR) suppression. The Comanche only radiates 25% of the engine heat of current helicopters, a critical survivability design concern in a low-flying tactical scout helicopter. The Comanche is the first helicopter in which the infrared (IR) suppression system is integrated into the airframe. This innovative Sikorsky design feature provides IR suppressors that are built into the tail-boom, providing ample length for complete and efficient mixing of engine exhaust and cooling air flowing through inlets above the tail. The mixed exhaust is discharged through slots built into an inverted shelf on the sides of the tail-boom. The gases are cooled so thoroughly that a heat-seeking missile cannot find and lock-on to the Comanche.

Crew Protection. The Comanche features a crew compartment sealed for protection against chemical or biological threats, an airframe resilient against ballistic damage, enhanced crash-worthiness, and reduced susceptibility to electromagnetic interference. Maintainability Comanche will be easily sustained, will require fewer personnel and support equipment, and will provide a decisive battlefield capability in day, night and adverse weather operations. Comanche has been designed to be exceptionally maintainable and easily transportable. Through its keel-beam construction, numerous access panels, easily accessible line-replaceable units/modules and advanced diagnostics, the RAH-66 possesses "designed-in" maintainability. Comanche aircraft will be able to be rapidly loaded into or unloaded from any Air Force transport aircraft.

Manufacturer Length Width Height Boeing Helicopter Company and Sikorsky Aircraft Division (joint venture) 46.78 feet (rotor turning) 39.04 feet (rotor turning) 11.0 feet (overall) Air-to-air Stinger Hellfire 20mm three-barrel turreted gun Hydra-70 rockets Armament


Empty 7,765 pounds Combat Mission 10,600 pounds Centralized processing architecture with Ada software Target acquisition system with aided-target detection/classification and automatic target tracking; night vision pilotage system, wide field-of-view (35ox52o) helmet-mounted display Two T800 1,440 SHP gas turbine engines

Mission Equipment


5-blade main rotor Fantail anti-torque Crew Two 330 km/hr / 172 knots - Dash speed 315 km/hr / 164 knots - Dash speed (@ 4,000 feet/95oF / with Longbow) 310 km/hr / 161 knots - Cruise speed 500-850 feet per minute 262 nm Max Range (internal fuel) 1,260 nm self-deployment range


Vertical Rate of Climb Range

The F-111 was a multipurpose tactical fighter bomber capable of supersonic speeds. The aircraft was one of the more controversial aircraft ever to fly, yet it achieved one of the safest operational records of any aircraft in USAF history and became a highly effective all-weather interdiction aircraft. As a result of a poorly thought-out development specification, both the Navy and Air Force had become committed, much against their will, to a civilian-inspired "Tactical Fighter Experimental" (TFX) program. This called for developing a single aircraft-the F-111-to fulfill a Navy fleet-defense interceptor requirement and an Air Force supersonic strike aircraft requirement. In retrospect, this was impossible to achieve, especially since planners placed priority upon the Air Force requirement, and then tried to tailor this heavy landplane to the constraints of carrierbased naval operations. The naval aircraft, the F-111B, was never placed in production. The Air Force aircraft, which was produced in a variety of models, including the F-111A, F-11D, F-11E, and F-11F, as well as an FB-111A strategic bomber version, had numerous problems, and only the F-111F actually fulfilled the original TFX design specification. This was less the fault of General Dynamics than of the civilian planners in the Pentagon whose "cost effective" inclinations ironically produced the major aeronautical fiasco of the 1960s-and a costly one at that. The early F-111As had extremely bad engine problems, suffering from compressor surge and stalls. NASA pilots and engineers wrung out the airplane in an attempt to solve its problems, studying the engine inlet dynamics of the plane to determine the nature of inlet pressure fluctuations that led to compressor surge and stall. Eventually, as a result of NASA, Air Force, and General Dynamics studies, the engine problems were solved by a major inlet redesign. The F-111 could operate from tree-top level to altitudes above 60,000 feet (18,200 meters). The F-111 had variable-sweep wings that allow the pilot to fly from slow approach speeds to supersonic velocity at sea level and more than twice the speed of sound at higher altitudes. Wings angle from 16 degrees (full forward) to 72.5 degrees (full aft). Full-forward wings gave the most surface area and maximum lift for short takeoff and landing. The F-111 needed no drag chute or reserve thrust to slow down after landing. The two crew members sat side-by-side in an air-conditioned, pressurized cockpit module that served as an emergency escape vehicle and as a survival shelter on land or water. In emergencies, both crew members remained in the cockpit and an explosive cutting cord separated the cockpit module from the aircraft. The module descended by parachute. The ejected module included a small portion of the wing fairing to stabilize it during aircraft separation. Airbags cushioned impact and help keep the module afloat in water. The module could be released at any speed or altitude, even under water. For underwater escape, the airbags raised the module to the surface after it has been severed from the plane.

The aircraft's wings and much of the fuselage behind the crew module contained fuel tanks. Using internal fuel only, the plane had a range of more than 2,500 nautical miles (4,000 kilometers). External fuel tanks could be carried on the pylons under the wings and jettisoned if necessary. The F-111 could carry conventional as well as nuclear weapons. It could carry up to two bombs or additional fuel in the internal weapons bay. External ordnance included combinations of bombs, missiles and fuel tanks. The loads nearest the fuselage on each side pivoted as the wings swept back, keeping ordnance parallel to the fuselage. Outer pylons did not move but could be jettisoned for high-speed flight. The avionics systems included communications, navigation, terrain following, target acquisition and attack, and suppression of enemy air defense systems. A radar bombing system was used for precise delivery of weapons on targets during night or bad weather. The F-111's automatic terrain-following radar system flew the craft at a constant altitude following the Earth's contours. It allowed the aircraft to fly in valleys and over mountains, day or night, regardless of weather conditions. Should any of the system's circuits fail, the aircraft automatically initiated a climb.

The F-111A first flew in December 1964. The first operational aircraft was delivered in October 1967 to Nellis Air Force Base, Nev. A models were used for tactical bombing in Southeast Asia. Developed for the U.S. Navy, the F-111B was canceled before its production. F-111C's are flown by the Royal Australian Air Force. The F-111D has improved avionics with better navigation, air-to-air weapon delivery systems, and newer turbofan engines. The F-111D's were flown by the 27th Fighter Wing, Cannon Air Force Base, N.M. The F-111E model had modified air intakes to improve the engine's performance at speeds above Mach 2.2. Most F-111Es served with the 20th Fighter Wing, Royal Air Force Station Upper Heyford, England, to support NATO. F-111E's were deployed to Incirlik Air Base, Turkey, and were used in Operation Desert Storm. In the early morning of Jan. 17, 1991, the F-111 went into combat again in the initial bombing raids of Operation Desert Storm. More than 100 F-111 aircraft of different versions joined the first strikes against Iraq both as bombers and radar jammers. The F-111F had improved turbofan engines give F-111F models 35 percent more thrust than previous F-111A and E engines. The avionics systems of the F model combine features of the F-111D and E. The last F model was delivered to the Air Force in November 1976. The F models were modified to carry the Pave Tack system in their weapons bays. This system provides an improved capability to acquire, track and

designate ground targets at night for delivery of laser, infrared and electro-optically guided weapons. The F-111F was proven in combat over Libya in 1986 and again over Iraq in 1991. Although F-111F's flew primarily at night during Operation Desert Storm, aircrews flew a particularly notable daytime mission using the Guided Bomb Unit (GBU15) to seal the oil pipeline manifold sabotaged by Iraq, allowing the oil to flow into the Persian Gulf. As a result of the Air Force decision to retire the F-111 weapon system, the 27th Fighter Wing's 74 F-111E/F aircraft began retiring in late 1995 and were replaced with 54 F16C/D aircraft. All F-111s in the Air Force inventory have been retired to the Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Center at Davis-Monthan AFB, Ariz. The center, popularly know as the boneyard, was home to all the remaining F-111E and F models by October 1996.

Seventy-six were built as FB-111s and saw service with the Strategic Air Command until 1990 when they were converted to F-111Gs and assigned to Tactical Air Command. The F-111G was assigned to the 27th Fighter Wing at Cannon Air Force Base and was used in a training role only. The conversion made minor avionics updates and strengthened the aircraft to allow its use in a more dynamic role as a fighter aircraft.

EF-111A Raven
Development of the EF-111A Raven began in January 1975 when the Air Force contracted with Grumman Aerospace to modify two F-111As to serve as electronic warfare platforms. The F-111”s high speed, long range, substantial payload and reasonable cost made it the ideal candidate to protect allied tactical forces against enemy radar defenses. When converting the aircraft to its new electronic warfare role, the primary modification was the ALQ-99 jamming system, N/ALQ-137 self-protection system, and an AN/ALR62 terminal threat warning system. To accommodate the 6,000 pounds of new electronics, Grumman added a narrow, 16-foot long canoe-shaped radome under the fuselage and a din-tip pod mounted on top of the vertical stabilizer. Grumman’s EF-111A prototypes staged their first flights in 1977. After two years of testing the Air Force gave the contractor the go-ahead to convert 42 F-111As into the EF111 configuration. The modifications cost approximately $25 million per aircraft, and the total cost of the program was $1.5 billion. The first production EF-111 was delivered to the 388th Tactical Electronic Squadron at Mountain Home AFB, Idaho, in November 1981 and the aircraft became fully operational in 1983. The Avionics Modernization Program (AMP) included the installation of 10 new subsystems including a doppler radar and internal navigation system. The modification, installed in all 42 EF-111s, was completed in 1994. Prompted by a series of crashes attributable to the failure of the F-111’s original analog flight control system, the installation of Digital Flight Control System begann in 1990 and was completed in 1997.

The last squadron of EF-111s remaining in service, at Cannon AFB, NM, peformed the Suppression of Enemy Air Defense [SEAD] mission. DOD decided to retire the EF-111A jammer and replace it with a new Air Force system, the high speed anti-radiation missile (HARM) targeting system on the F-16C, and the existing Navy electronic warfare aircraft, the EA-6B. Recognizing that too few EA-6B aircraft may be available to meet both Air Force and Navy needs, DOD retained these 12 EF-111s in the active inventory through 1998, when additional upgraded EA-6Bs became available.

Primary Function Contractor Power Plant Thrust Multipurpose tactical fighter bomber. General Dynamics Corporation. F-111A/E, two Pratt & Whitney TF30-P103 turbofans. F-111A/E, 18,500 pounds (8,325 kilograms) each with afterburners; F-111D, 19,600 pounds (8,820 kilograms) with afterburners; F-111F, 25,000 pounds (11,250 kilograms) with afterburners. 73 feet, 6 inches (22.0 meters). 17 feet, 1 1/2 inches (5.13 meters). 63 feet (19 meters) full forward; 31 feet, 11 1/2 inches (11.9 meters) full aft. F-111F -- Mach 1.2 at sea level; Mach 2.5 at 60,000 feet. 60,000-plus feet (18,200 meters). 3,565 miles (3,100 nautical miles) with external fuel tanks. F-111F, empty 47,481 pounds (21,367 kilograms). F-111F, 100,000 pounds (45,000 kilograms). Up to four nuclear bombs on four pivoting wing pylons, and two in internal weapons bay. Wing pylons carry total external load of 25,000 pounds (11,250 kilograms) of bombs, rockets, missiles, or fuel tanks. 20 CBU-52 20 CBU-59 20 CBU-71 8 CBU-87 8 CBU-89

Length Height Wingspan Speed Ceiling Range Weight Maximum Takeoff Weight Armament

20 MK-20 4 BL-755 Unit cost $FY98 [Total Program] Crew Date Deployed Inventory $75 million. Two, pilot and weapon systems officer. October 1967. None, retired in 1996 [formerly Active force, 225; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0] In all 563 F-111s in several variants were built.


EF-111 Raven

F-117A Nighthawk
The F-117A Nighthawk is the world's first operational aircraft designed to exploit low-observable stealth technology. The unique design of the single-seat F117A provides exceptional combat capabilities. About the size of an F-15 Eagle, the twin-engine aircraft is powered by two General Electric F404 turbofan engines and has quadruple redundant fly-by-wire flight controls. Air refuelable, it supports worldwide commitments and adds to the deterrent strength of the U.S. military forces. The F-117A can employ a variety of weapons and is equipped with sophisticated navigation and attack systems integrated into a state-of-the-art digital avionics suite that increases mission effectiveness and reduces pilot workload. Detailed planning for missions into highly defended target areas is accomplished by an automated mission planning system developed, specifically, to take advantage of the unique capabilities of the F-117A. Streamlined management by Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, combined breakthrough stealth technology with concurrent development and production to rapidly field the aircraft. The F-117A program has demonstrated that a stealth aircraft can be designed for reliability and maintainability. The aircraft maintenance statistics are comparable to other tactical fighters of similar complexity. Logistically supported by Sacramento Air Logistics Center, McClellan AFB, Calif., the F-117A is kept at the forefront of technology through a planned weapon system improvement program located at USAF Plant 42 at Palmdale, Calif. The Air Force thinking today is that it will phase out the Nighthawks after 2018. The first F-117A was delivered in 1982, and the last delivery was in the summer of 1990. The F-117A production decision was made in 1978 with a contract awarded to Lockheed Advanced Development Projects, the "Skunk Works," in Burbank, Calif. The first flight was in 1981, only 31 months after the full-scale development decision. Lockheed-Martin delivered 59 stealth fighters to the Air Force between August 1982 and July 1990. Five additional test aircraft belong to the company. Air Combat Command's only F-117A unit, the 4450th Tactical Group, achieved operational capability in October 1983. Since the F-117’s first Air Force flight in 1982, the aircraft has flown under different unit designations, including the 4450th Tactical Group and the 37th Tactical Fighter Wing at Tonapah Test Range, NV; the 57th Fighter Weapons Wing, Nellis AFB, NV; the 410th Flight Test Squadron/410th Test Squadron, Palmdale, CA; and Detachment 1, Test Evaluation Group, also at Holloman, which falls under the 53rd Wing, Eglin AFB, FL.

The stealth fighter emerged from the classified world while stationed at Tonapah Airfield with an announcement by the Pentagon in November 1988 and was first shown publicly at Nellis in April 1990. The 4450th TG was deactivated in October 1989, and was reactivated as the 37th Tactical Fighter Wing. In 1992 the F-117A Nighthawk made its new home at Holloman Air Force Base. The official arrival ceremony for the F-117 to Holloman AFB was conducted 09 May 1992. The 49th Fighter Wing (49FW) at Holloman serves as the only F-117 Home Station. The 49th Operations Group operates and maintains the F-117A aircraft. The 7th CTS "Screamin' Demons" serves as the transition training unit, preparing experienced Air Force pilots for assignment to the F-117A Nighthawk. The 8th and 9th Fighter Squadrons are designated to employ the F-117A Nighthawk in combat. Once an F-117 pilot has successfully completed training, he is then assigned to one of only two operational Nighthawk squadrons--the 8th FS "Black Sheep" and the 9th FS "Flying Knights." The 49FW provides full compliment of flightline maintenance capabilities as well as backshop support. The F-117 deploys in support of contingency operations, as directed by National Command Authorities. Flightline maintenance support is deployed concurrent with the aircraft. Depending on the deployment duration, varying levels of back shop maintenance support may also be deployed. The F-117A first saw action in December 1989 during Operation Just Cause in Panama. The stealth fighter attacked the most heavily fortified targets during Desert Storm (January-February 1991) , and it was the only coalition jet allowed to strike targets inside Baghdad's city limits. The F-117A, which normally packs a payload of two 2,000-pound GBU-27 laser-guided bombs, destroyed and crippled Iraqi electrical power stations, military headquarters, communications sites, air defense operation centers, airfields, ammo bunkers, and chemical, biological and nuclear weapons plants. Although only 36 stealth fighters were deployed in Desert Storm and accounted for 2.5 percent of the total force of 1,900 fighters and bombers, they flew more than a third of the bombing runs on the first day of the war. In all during Desert Storm, the stealth fighter conducted more than 1,250 sorties, dropped more than 2,000 tons of bombs, and flew more than 6,900 hours. More than 3,000 antiaircraft guns and 60 surface-to-air missile batteries protected the city, but despite this seemingly impenetrable shield, the Nighthawks owned the skies over the city and, for that matter, the country. The stealth fighter, which is coated with a secret, radar-absorbent material, operated over Iraq and Kuwait with impunity, and was unscathed by enemy guns. In the opening phase of Allied Force, aimed primarily at Yugoslavia's integrated air defense system, NATO air forces conducted more than 400 sorties. During the first two night attacks, allied troops in the air and at sea struck 90 targets throughout Yugoslavia and in Kosovo. F-117 Nighthawks from the 8th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron at Holloman Air Force Base NM participated in air strikes against targets in the Balkans during NATO operations. One F-117 fighter was lost over Yugoslavia on 27 March 1999. A US search and rescue team picked up the pilot several hours after the F-117 went down outside Belgrade. On 01 April 1999, Defense Secretary William Cohen directed 12 more

F-117 stealth fighters to join NATO Operation Allied Force, to join the total of 24 F-117s that were participating in NATO Operation Allied Force.

Primary Function Contractor Power Plant Length Height Weight Wingspan Speed Range Fighter/attack Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Co. Two General Electric F404 engines 65 feet, 11 inches (20.3 meters) 12 feet, 5 inches (3.8 meters) 52,500 pounds (23,625 kilograms) 43 feet, 4 inches (13.3 meters) High subsonic Unlimited with air refueling Internal weapons carriage Two each of: 2 MK84 2000-pound 2 GBU-10 Paveway II 2 GBU-12 Paveway II 2 GBU-27 Paveway III 2 BLU 109 2 WCMD 2 Mark 61 $122 million One 1982 Active force, 54; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0


Unit Cost $FY98 [Total Program] Crew Date Deployed Inventory

PMAI Primary Mission Aircraft Inventory Only combat-coded aircraft and not 36 aircraft development/ test, attrition reserve, depot maintenance, or training aircraft.

AC-130H Spectre AC-130U Spooky
The AC-130H Spectre gunship's primary missions are close air support, air interdiction and armed reconnaissance. Other missions include perimeter and point defense, escort, landing, drop and extraction zone support, forward air control, limited command and control, and combat search and rescue. These heavily armed aircraft incorporate sidefiring weapons integrated with sophisticated sensor, navigation and fire control systems to provide surgical firepower or area saturation during extended periods, at night and in adverse weather. During Vietnam, gunships destroyed more than 10,000 trucks and were credited with many life-saving close air support missions. AC-130s suppressed enemy air defense systems and attacked ground forces during Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada. This enabled the successful assault of Point Salines airfield via airdrop and airland of friendly forces. The gunships had a primary role during Operation Just Cause in Panama by destroying Panamanian Defense Force Headquarters and numerous command and control facilities by surgical employment of ordnance in an urban environment. As the only close air support platform in the theater, Spectres were credited with saving the lives of many friendly personnel. During Operation Desert Storm, Spectres provided air base defense and close air support for ground forces. AC-130s were also used during Operations Continue Hope and United Shield in Somalia, providing close air support for United Nations ground forces. The gunships have most recently played a pivotal role during operations in support of the NATO mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina, providing air interdiction against key targets in the Sarajevo area. The AC-130 is an excellent fire support platform with outstanding capabilities. With its extremely accurate fire control system, the AC-130 can place 105mm, 40mm and 25mm munitions on target with first round accuracy. The crew of these aircraft are extremely proficient working in military operations in urban terrain [MOUT] environments. The Air Force commemorated the end of an era 10 September 1995 with the retirement of the first C-130 aircraft to come off a production line. The aircraft, tail number 53-

3129, went into production at the Lockheed Aircraft Co. in Marietta, Ga., in 1953 and was the original prototype of what was to become a long line of C-130 Hercules aircraft designed and built by Lockheed. The aircraft, affectionately dubbed "The First Lady," was one of five AC-130A gunship aircraft retired during an official ceremony. While the other four aircraft were sent to the Aerospace Marketing and Regeneration Center at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, the First Lady went on permanent display at the Eglin Air Force Base Armament Museum. The 919th Special Operations Wing's gunships, all around 40 years old, had reached the age of mandatory retirement. The only other gunships in the Air Force inventory are employed by active-duty members at Hurlburt Field, which has less than 20 gunships assigned. The AC-130H ALQ-172 ECM Upgrade installs and modifies the ALQ-172 with low band jamming capability for all AC-130H aircraft. It also modifies the ALQ-172 with engineering change proposal-93 to provide increased memory and flight line reprogramming capabilities. The Air Force [WR-ALC/LUKA] issued a sole source, fixed price contract, to International Telephone & Telegraph (ITT) for development of low band jammer and subsequent production. Issue a competitive, firm fixed price contract for the Group A modifications (preparing aircraft to receive jammers). Currently funded weight reduction and center of gravity (CG) improvements to the AC130H aircraft include: redesign of 40mm and 105mm ammo racks using lighter weight materials; reverse engineering of 40mm and 105mm trainable gun mounts using lighter weight material; and removal of non-critical armor. These efforts are performed by a sole source contract awarded to Rock Island Arsenal.

AC-130U Spooky
Continuing the distinguished combat history of side-firing AC-130 gunships, the new AC-130U Spectre gunship is being fielded as a replacement for the AC-130A aircraft. This program acquires 13 new basic C-130H aircraft for modification and integration by Boeing to the AC-130U Gunship configuration. The AC-130U gunship airframe is integrated with an armor protection system (APS), high resolution sensors (All Light Level Television (ALLTV), infrared detection set (IDS) and strike radar), avionics and EW systems, a sophisticated software controlled fire control system, and an armament suite consisting of side-firing, trainable 25mm, 40mm, and 105mm guns. The strike radar provides the first gunship capability for all weather/night target acquisition and strike. The acquisition program for this new gunship evolved from a Congressional mandate in the mid-1980s to revitalize the special operations force capabilties. Following the contract award to Rockwell in July 1987, the aircraft was first flown on 20 December 1990. FY92 procurement funding was increased to provide the 13th aircraft to replace the AC-130H lost during Desert Storm. Upon completing an exhaustive flight test program at Air Force Flight Test Center from 1991 to 1994 the first aircraft was delivered to AFSOC on July 1, 1994. Boeing’s contract includes: concurrent development, aircraft production, flight test, and delivery. All aircraft have been delivered and the program is transitioning to the sustainment phase. A competitive contract for sustainment was awarded in July 1998.

The AC-130U is the most complex aircraft weapon system in the world today. It has more than 609,000 lines of software code in its mission computers and avionics systems. The newest addition to the command fleet, this heavily armed aircraft incorporates sidefiring weapons integrated with sophisticated sensor, navigation and fire control systems to provide surgical firepower or area saturation during extended loiter periods, at night and in adverse weather. The sensor suite consists of an All Light Level Television system and an infrared detection set. A multi-mode strike radar provides extreme long-range target detection and identification. It is able to track 40mm and 105mm projectiles and return pinpoint impact locations to the crew for subsequent adjustment to the target. The fire control system offers a Dual Target Attack capability, whereby two targets up to one kilometer apart can be simultaneously engaged by two different sensors, using two different guns. No other air-ground attack platform in the world offers this capability. Navigational devices include the inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS). The aircraft is pressurized, enabling it to fly at higher altitudes, saving fuel and time, and allowing for greater range than the AC-130H. Defensive systems include a countermeasures dispensing system that releases chaff and flares to counter radar infrared-guided anti-aircraft missiles. Also infrared heat shields mounted underneath the engines disperse and hide engine heat sources from infrared-guided anti-aircraft missiles. The AC-130U P3I program develops and procures modifications that correct software and hardware deficiencies of the AC-130U fleet discovered during flight tests and that were outside the scope of the original FY86 contract. These modifications will include the following: combine all necessary software requirements for the System Integration Test (SIT) system and hardware and software improvements for the APQ-180 strike radar system; upgrade the Tactical Situation Map; improve core avionics and computers required for the multi-mission advanced tactical terminal/integrated defense avionics system installation; upgrade the EW suite; and modify the software/hardware required for the trainable gun mounts. The AC-130H/U, AAQ-26 Infrared Detection Set (IDS) Upgrade program modifies the optics on the AN/AAQ-17 Infrared Detection Set (IDS) currently installed on 13 AC130U and 8 AC-130H Gunship aircraft to the AN/AAQ-26 configuration. The AC-130U wiring, Operational Flight Program (OFP), Control Displays Program (CDP), Trackhandle, bus multiplier (BMUX), control panels, and variable slow rate feature will be modified. The AC-130H will also be modified. Support equipment, spares, and tech data for both aircraft will be modified as required to support the AN/AAQ-26 configuration. Mission requirements dictate a significant enhancement in target detection, recognition, and identification ranges to decrease aircraft vulnerability. A sole source fixed price incentive contract was awared to Raytheon for design, modification, and installation; with directed sub to Lockheed Aerospace Systems Ontario (LASO) for integration of the AN/AAQ-26 on the AC-130H and Rockwell for software integration of the AN/AAQ-26 on the AC-130U. The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) has a requirement for a C130 engine infrared (IR) signature suppression system to provide Special Operations Forces (SOF) C-130 aircraft with an IR signature reduction equal to or better than existing systems at a lower cost of ownership. The primary difficulties with present suppressor systems are low reliability and poor maintainability. This C-130 Engine Infrared Suppression (EIRS) Program system will be used on AC-130H/U, MC-

130E/H/P, and EC-130E aircraft. The key requirements for the Engine IR Suppression system are: (a) improved reliability and maintainability over existing systems to result in lower total cost of ownership; (b) IR signature suppression levels as good as the current engine shield system (aka. Tubs); (c) no adverse impacts to aircraft performance and ability to accomplish SOF missions; (d) complete interchangeability between engine positions and identified aircraft types. The suppressor is expected to be a semi-permanent installation, with removal being primarily for servicing, allowing the aircraft to perform all required missions with the suppressors installed. There will be up to two competitive contracts awarded for the initial phases of development with a downselect to one contractor for the completion of development and production. The contract will contain fixed price options for procurement, installation, and sustainment of the system. The Directional Infrared Countermeasures (DIRCM) program develops and procures 60 systems and provides 59 SOF aircraft (AC-130H/U, MC-130E/H) with a DIRCM system capability. The DIRCM system will work in conjunction with other onboard selfprotection systems to enhance the aircraft’s survivability against currently deployed infrared guided missiles. Growth is planned to add a capability to detect and counter advanced threats. Execution of this program is in concert with a joint US/UK cooperative development/ production effort with the UK as lead. Development and acquisition of the DIRCM system will be in accordance with UK procurement laws/regulations. UK designation for this program is "Operational Emergency Requirements 3/89."

AC-130H Spectre Primary Function: Contractor: Power Plant: Thrust: Length: Height: Maximum Takeoff Weight: Wingspan: AC-130U Spooky Close air support, air interdiction and armed reconnaissance Lockheed Aircraft Corp. Four Allison turboprop engines T56-A-15 Each engine 4,910 horsepower 97 feet, 9 inches (29.8 meters) 38 feet, 6 inches (11.7 meters) 155,000 pounds (69,750 kilograms) 132 feet, 7 inches (40.4 meters) 1,500 statute miles (1,300 nautical miles) Unlimited with air refueling 25,000 feet (7,576 meters) 2,200 nautical miles Unlimited with air refueling 30,000 ft.


Ceiling: Speed:

300 mph (Mach 0.40) (at sea level)


two M61 20mm Vulcan cannons with 3,000 rounds one L60 40mm Bofors cannon with 256 rounds one M102 105mm howitzer with 100 rounds

One 25mm GAU-12 Gatling gun (1,800 rounds per minute) one L60 40mm Bofors cannon (100 shots per minute) one M102 105mm cannon (6-10 rounds per minute)


AN/AAQ-24 Directional Infrared Countermeasures (DIRCM) AN/AAR-44 infrared warning receiver AN/AAR-47 missile warning system AN/ALE-47 flare and chaff dispensing system AN/ALQ-172 Electronic Countermeasure System AN/ALQ-196 Jammer AN/ALR-69 radar warning receiver AN/APR-46A panoramic RF receiver QRC-84-02 infrared countermeasures system 14 -- five officers (pilot, co-pilot, navigator, fire control officer, electronic warfare officer); nine enlisted (flight engineer, loadmaster, low-light TV operator, infrared detection set operator, five aerial gunners) $46.4 million (1992 dollars) 1972 Active force, 8; Reserve, 0; ANG, 0 13 total. Five officers (pilot, copilot, navigator, fire control officer, electronic warfare officer); 8 enlisted (flight engineer, All Light Level TV operator, infrareddetection set operator, four airborne gunners, loadmaster) $72 million 1995 13 aircraft assigned to 16th Special Operation Wing's 4th Special Operations Squadron.


Unit Cost: Date Deployed:


X-45 Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV)
The objective of the joint DARPA/Air Force Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle (UCAV) Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) program is to demonstrate the technical feasibility for a UCAV system to effectively and affordably prosecute 21st century lethal strike missions within the emerging global command and control architecture. The operational UCAV system is envisioned as a force enabler that will conduct Suppression of Enemy Air Defense (SEAD) and strike missions in support of post-2010 manned strike packages. This SEAD/Strike mission will be the first instantiation of an UCAV vision that will evolve into a broader range of combat missions as the concept and technologies mature, and the UCAV affordability potential is realized. The Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle vision is an affordable weapon system that expands tactical mission options for revolutionary new air power as an integrated part of a system of systems solution. The UCAV weapon system will exploit the design and operational freedoms of relocating the pilot outside of the vehicle to enable a new paradigm in aircraft affordability while maintaining the rationale, judgment, and moral qualities of the human operator. In our vision, this weapon system will require minimal maintenance, can be stored for extended periods of time, and is capable of dynamic mission control while engaging multiple targets in a single mission under minimal human supervision. The UCAV will conduct missions from ordinary airfields as part of an integrated force package complementary to manned tactical and support assets. UCAV controllers will observe rules of engagement and make the critical decisions to use or refrain from using force. The initial operational role for the UCAV is a "first day of the war" force enabler which complements a strike package by performing the SEAD mission. In this role, UCAVs accomplish preemptive destruction of sophisticated enemy integrated air defenses (IADs) in advance of the strike package, and enable the attacking forces by providing reactive suppression against the remaining IADs. Throughout the remainder of the campaign, UCAVs provide continuous vigilance with an immediate lethal strike capability to prosecute high value and time critical targets. By effectively and affordably performing those missions the UCAV system provides "no win" tactical deterrence against which an enemy's defenses would be ineffective, thereby ensuring air superiority. As a member of a tightly coupled system of systems, the UCAV will work cooperatively with manned systems and exploit the emerging command, control, communications, computer, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR) architecture to enable successful achievement of campaign and mission level objectives. Intelligence preparation of the battlefield will provide an initial mission/threat database for mission controllers. Controllers will exploit real-time data sources from the theater information architecture to plan for, and respond to, the dynamically changing battlefield. The UCAV will penetrate enemy IADs and external systems such as the Miniature Air Launched

Decoy (MALD) will stimulate potential targets. Sensor cueing and off-board targeting can be provided by national systems or airborne assets in real time and/or UCAVs may be part of multi-ship Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA) targeting architectures. The system will create superior situation awareness by leveraging the many sources of information available at both the tactical and theater levels. Such a UCAV weapon system has the potential to fully exploit the emerging information revolution and provide advanced airpower with increased tactical deterrence at a fraction of the total Life Cycle Costs (LCC) of current manned systems. The government envisions a UCAV Operational System (UOS) air vehicle with unit cost less then onethird of the Joint Strike Fighter, and reduction in total life cycle of 50-80% compared to a current tactical aircraft squadron. A variety of cost and weight penalties are associated with the presence of a human pilot, including constrained forebodies, large canopies, displays and environmental control systems. The aircraft's maneuver capabilities are limited by the pilots physiological limits such as g tolerance. Removing the pilot from the vehicle eliminates man-rating requirements, pilot systems, and interfaces. The UCAV offers new design freedoms that can be exploited to produce a smaller, simpler aircraft, about half the size of a conventional fighter aircraft. Weighing about one-third to one-fourth of a manned aircraft, at 10,000 pounds they would weigh two to three times more than a Tomahawk missile. Typically 80 percent of the useful life of today's combat aircraft is devoted to pilot training and proficiency flying, requiring longer design lives than would be needed to meet combat requirements. Without the requirement to fly sorties to retain pilot proficiency, UCAVs will fly infrequently. A reduced maintenance design with condition based maintenance, minimized on-board sensors, reduced fluid systems, maintainable signature, and a modular avionics architecture will reduce touch labor in the fashion of commercial aircraft. Advances in small smart munitions will allow these smaller vehicles to attack multiple targets during a single mission and reduce the cost per target killed. The Miniaturized Munitions Technology Demonstration (MMTD) goal is to produce a 250-pound class munition effective against a majority of hardened targets previously vulnerable only to 2,000-pound class munitions. A differential GPS/INS system will provide precision guidance, and smart fusing techniques will aid in producing a high probability of target kill. The DARPA/Air Force/Boeing X-45A technology demonstration aircraft completed its first flight on 22 May 2002. Multi-aircraft testing will begin in 2003 when a second X45A becomes operational, leading to joint UCAV and manned exercises in FY 2006.

F-4 Phantom II F-4G Advanced Wild Weasel
The F-4 Phantom II was a twin-engine, all-weather, fighter-bomber. The aircraft could perform three tactical air roles — air superiority, interdiction and close air support — as it did in southeast Asia. First flown in May 1958, the Phantom II originally was developed for U.S. Navy fleet defense and entered service in 1961. The USAF evaluated it for close air support, interdiction, and counter-air operations and, in 1962, approved a USAF version. The USAF's Phantom II, designated F-4C, made its first flight on May 27, 1963. Production deliveries began in November 1963. In its air-to-ground role the F-4 could carry twice the normal bomb load of a WW II B-17. USAF F-4s also flew reconnaissance and "Wild Weasel" anti-aircraft missile suppression missions. Phantom II production ended in 1979 after over 5,000 had been built--more than 2,600 for the USAF, about 1,200 for the Navy and Marine Corps, and the rest for friendly foreign nations, including to Israel, Iran, Greece, Spain, Turkey, South Korea, West Germany, Australia, Japan, and Great Britain. Used extensively in the Vietnam War, later versions of the aircraft were still active in the U. S. Air Force inventory well into the 1990s. F-4s are no longer in the USAF inventory but are still flown by foreign nations. The F-4C first flew for the Air Force in May 1963 and the Air National Guard began flying the F-4C in January 1972. The Air Force Reserve received its first Phantom II in June 1978. The F-4D model, with major changes that increase accuracy in weapons delivery, was delivered to the Air Force in March 1966, to the Air National Guard in 1977, and to the Air Force Reserve in 1980. The first F-4E was delivered to the Air Force in October 1967. The Air National Guard received its first F-4E in 1985, the Air Force Reserve in 1987. This model, with an additional fuselage fuel tank, leading-edge slats for increased maneuverability, and an improved engine, also has an internally mounted 20mm multibarrel gun with improved fire-control system. Starting in 1973, F-4E's were fitted with target-identification systems for long-range visual identification of airborne or ground targets. Each system is basically a television camera with a zoom lens to aid in positive identification, and a system called Pave Tack, which provided day and night all-weather capability to acquire, track and designate ground targets for laser, infrared and electro-optically guided weapons. Another change was a digital intercept computer that includes launch computations for all AIM-9 Sidewinder and AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missiles. Additionally, on F-4E/G models, the digital ARN-101 navigation system replaced the LN-12 inertial navigation system. With the introduction of newer, more capable weapons systems, the F-4 mission narrowed to specializing in the suppression of enemy air defense. Following their 90-day deployment supporting Operation Provide Comfort 15 December 1995, the F-4G Phantoms assigned to the Idaho Air National Guard's 190th Fighter Squadron retired to

the Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Center, otherwise known as the "boneyard," at Davis-Monthan AFB, Ariz.

F-4G Advanced Wild Weasel
The F-4G "Advanced Wild Weasel," was the last model still in the active Air Force inventory, until it was replaced by the F-16CJ/DJ in the role of increasing the survivability of tactical strike forces by seeking out and suppressing or destroying enemy radar-directed anti-aircraft artillery batteries and surface-to-air missile sites. F-4G's were E models modified with sophisticated electronic warfare equipment in place of the internally mounted 20mm gun. The F-4G could carry more weapons than previous Wild Weasel aircraft and a greater variety of missiles as well as conventional bombs. The primary weapon of the F-4G, however, was the AGM-88 HARM (high speed antiradiation missile). Other munitions included cluster bombs, and AIM-65 Maverick and air-to-air missiles. The F-4G "Advanced Wild Weasel," which inherited most of the features of the F-4E, was capable of passing real-time target information to the aircraft's missiles prior to launch. Working in “hunter-killer” teams of two aircraft, such as F-4G and F-16C, the F4G “hunter” could detect, identify, and locate enemy radars then direct weapons that will ensure destruction or suppression of the radars. The technique was effectively used during Operation Desert Storm against enemy surface-to-air missile batteries. Primary armament included HARM (AGM-88) and Maverick (AGM-65). F-4G's deployed to Saudi Arabia also were equipped with ALQ-131 and ALQ-184 electronic countermeasures pods.

Primary Function Contractor Power Plant Thrust Length Height Wingspan Speed Ceiling Maximum Takeoff Weight All-weather fighter-bomber. McDonnell Aircraft Co., McDonnell Corporation. Two General Electric turbojet engines with afterburners. 17,900 pounds (8,055 kilograms). 62 feet, 11 inches (19.1 meters). 16 feet, 5 inches (5 meters). 38 feet, 11 inches (11.8 meters). More than 1,600 mph (Mach 2). 60,000 feet (18,182 meters). 62,000 pounds (27,900 kilograms).

Range Armament

1,300 miles (1,130 nautical miles). Four AIM-7 Sparrow and four AIM-9M Sidewinder missiles, AGM-65 Maverick missiles, AGM-88 HARM missile capability, and one fuselage centerline bomb rack and four pylon bomb racks capable of carrying 12,500 pounds (5,625 kilograms) of general purpose bombs. 15 CBU-52 15 CBU-58 15 CBU-71 15 CBU-87 15 CBU-89 12 MK-20 6 BL-755 APQ-120 fire-control radar [Hughes] AJB-7 bombing system ASQ-91 weapon release system, ASX-1 TISEO (Target Identification System ElectroOptical) Northrup ASN-63 INS APR-36 RWR ALQ-87 FM barrage jammer ALQ-101 ECM pod Westinghouse noise/deception jammer ALQ-119 ECM pod Westinghouse noise/deception jammer (covering three bands) ALQ-130 ECM pod ALQ-131 ECM pod ALQ-140 IR countermeasures system [Sanders] $18.4 million. F-4G -- Two (pilot and electronic warfare officer). May 1963. None - retired December 1995 [formerly F-4G -- Active force, 24; ANG, 24; Reserve, 0.]


Cost Crew Date Deployed Inventory

F-4 Phantom II

F-4G Advanced Wild Weasel

F-5 Freedom Fighter / Tiger
The development of the Northrop F-5 began in 1954 when a Northrop team toured Europe and Asia to examine the defense needs of NATO and SEATO countries. A 1955 company design study for a lightweight supersonic fighter that would be relatively inexpensive, easy to maintain, and capable of operating out of short runways. The Air Force did not initially look favorably upon the proposal, since it did not need for a lightweight fighter. However, it did need a new trainer to replace the Lockheed T-33, and in June of 1956 the Air Force announced that it was going to acquire the trainer version, the T-38 Talon. On April 25, 1962, the Department of Defense announced that it had chosen the aircraft for its Military Assistance Program (MAP). America's NATO and SEATO allies would now be able to acquire a supersonic warplane of world-class quality at a reasonable cost. On August 9, 1962 the aircraft was given the official designation of F-5A Freedom Fighter. Optimized for the air-to-ground role, the F-5A had only a very limited air-to-air capability, and was not equipped with a fire-control radar. The F-5B was the two-seat version of the F-5A. It was generally similar to the single-seat F-5A but had two seats in tandem for dual fighter/trainer duties. Although all F-5A production was intended for MAP, in October 1965, the USAF "borrowed" 12 combat-ready F-5As from MAP supplies and sent them to Vietnem with the 4503rd Tactical Fighter Wing for operational service trials. This program was given the code name of *Skoshi Tiger" ("little" Tiger). and it was during this tour of duty that the F-5 picked up its Tiger nickname. On November 20, 1970, the Northrop entry was declared the winner of the IFA (International Fighter Aircraft) to be the F-5A/B's successor. The emphasis was be on the air-superiority role for nations faced with threats from opponents operating lategeneration MiG-21s. An order was placed for five development and 325 production aircraft. In January of 1971, it was reclassified as F-5E. The aircraft came to be known as *Tiger II* The US Navy Fighter Weapons School (the so-called "Top Gun" school) at NAS Miramar acquired a total of ten F-5Es and three F-5Fs for dissimilar air combat training. Because of the F-5's characteristics, which were similar to the MiG-21, was used as 'agressor' aircraft, equipping the FWS and VF-126 at NAS Miramar, plus VF-43 at NAS Oceana. All three units later disposed of their Tiger IIs in favor of the General Dynamics F-16N. These Tiger IIs were passed on to VF-95 at NAS Key West and VFA-127 at NAS Fallon. During FY 1996, VFC-13 moved from NAS Miramar, CA, to NAS Fallon, NV, and transitioned from 12 F/A-18 to 25 F-5 aircraft. VFC-13's flight hour program will increase to offset the scheduled decommissioning of the two remaining Active Component adversary squadrons, VF-45 and VFA-127. This transition to the F-5 adversary aircraft will provide Active and Reserve Navy pilots with air-to-air combat training at significant savings to the taxpayer. Recent estimates show that the F-5 can be operated at one third of what it costs to operate an F/A-18.

F-5A Freedom Figher Two General Electric J85GE-13 turbojets, rated at 2720 lb.s.t., 4080 lb.s.t. with afterburning. 925 mph (Mach 1.4) at 36,000 feet. Maximum cruising speed: 640 mph (Mach 0.97) at 36,000 feet 50,500 feet. with maximum fuel -- 1387 miles. Combat radius with maximum payload -- 195 miles Combat radius with maximum fuel and two 530pound bombs 558 miles. 25 feet 3 inches, 47 feet 2 inches, 13 feet 2 inches, 170 square feet. 8085 pounds empty, 11,477 pounds combat, 13,433 pounds gross, 20,677 pounds maximum takeoff two 20-mm cannon in the fuselage nose. Two AIM-9 Sidewinderat the wingtips Five pylons carry up to 6200 pounds of ordinance or fuel tanks loads can include four air-toair missiles, Bullpup air-tosurface missiles, bombs, up to 20 unguided rockets, or F-5E Tiger II Two General Electric J85-GE-21A turbojets, 5000 lb.s.t. with afterburning. Maximum cruising speed without afterburning: Mach 0.98 at 36,000 feet. 51,800 feet with maximum fuel -1543 miles Combat radius with maximum fuel and 2 Sidewinder missiles -656 miles. 26 feet 8 inches 48 feet 2 inches 13 feet 4 inches 186 square feet 9683 pounds empty, 13,350 pounds combat, 15,745 pounds gross, 24,676 pounds maximum takeoff. Engines

Maximum speed

Service ceiling


wingspan length height wing area



two 20-mm M39A2 cannon with 280 rpg two AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles at wingtips Five pylons can carry up to 7000 pounds of ordnance or fuel

external fuel tanks.

F-8 Crusader
The F-8 aircraft was originally built by LTV Aerospace, Dallas, Texas. Powerplant was a Pratt and Whitney J57 turbojet. Wingspan is 35 feet 2 inches (350 square feet), and the overall length is 54 feet 6 inches, and height is 15 feet 9 inches. The F-8 Crusader was the last US fighter designed with guns as its primary weapon. The F-8A entered service in March of 1957. The RF-8G Crusader aircraft, the "Eyes of the Fleet" operated by Photo Reconnaissance Squadrons (VFP), featured camera ports on the side of the fuselage and a forward firing camera in the blister below the intake. The RF-8's remained in service longer than the fighters, equipping reserve units through late 1986. The F-8E(FN) carrier-based interceptors of the French Navy, the last remaining operational Crusaders, will be replaced at the end of 1999 by the new Rafale-M. As of 1994 20 of the carrier-based Crusaders remained from the 42 initially delivered.



F-14 Tomcat
The F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, variable sweep wing, two-place fighter designed to attack and destroy enemy aircraft at night and in all weather conditions. The F-14 can track up to 24 targets simultaneously with its advanced weapons control system and attack six with Phoenix AIM-54A missiles while continuing to scan the airspace. Armament also includes a mix of other air intercept missiles, rockets and bombs. The Tomcat is a 2-seat, twin-engine fighter with twin tails and variable-geometry wings. Its general arrangement consists of a long nacelle containing the large nose radar and 2 crew positions extending well forward and above the widely spaced engines. The engines are parallel to a central structure that flattens towards the tail; butterfly-shaped airbrakes are located between the fins on the upper and lower surfaces. Altogether, the fuselage forms more than half of the total aerodynamic lifting surface. The wings are shoulder-mounted and are programmed for automatic sweep during flight, with a manual override provided. The twin, swept fin-and-rudder vertical surfaces are mounted on the engine housings and canted outward. The wing pivot carry- through structure crosses the central structure; the carry through is 22 ft (6.7 m) long and constructed from 33 electron welded parts machined from titanium; the pivots are located outboard of the engines. Normal sweep range is 20 to 68 deg with a 75-deg "oversweep" position provided for shipboard hangar stowage; sweep speed is 7.5 deg per second. For roll control below 57 deg, the F-14 uses spoilers located along the upper wing near the trailing edge in conjunction with its all-moving, swept tailplanes, which are operated differentially; above 57-deg sweep, the tailplanes operate alone. For unswept, low-speed combat maneuvering, the outer 2 sections of trailing edge flaps can be deployed at 10 deg and the nearly full-span leading-edge slats are drooped to 8.5 deg. At speeds above Mach 1.0, glove vanes in the leading edge of the fixed portion of the wing extend to move the aerodynamic center forward and reduce loads on the tailplane. The sharply raked, 2-dimensional 4-shock engine intakes have 2 variable-angle ramps, a bypass door in the intake roof, and a fixed ramp forward; exhaust nozzles are mechanically variable. Viewed from ahead, the top of the intakes are tilted toward the aircraft centerline; from above, the engines are canted outward slightly to reduce interference between intake airflow and the fuselage boundary layer. The engines exhaust through mechanically variable, convergent-divergent nozzles. Following the loss of three aircraft over a four week period in 1996, the CNO ordered a safety stand down to review what was known in order to find out if there were any operational restrictions that needed to be placed on the aircraft. The Navy placed interim restrictions on the F-14 in the low altitude, high speed environment. Afterburner use was prohibited for F-14Bs and F-14Ds at all altitudes except for operational emergencies. The Grumman F-14, the world's premier air defense fighter, was designed to replace the F-4 Phantom II fighter (phased out in 1986). F-14s provided air cover for the joint strike on Libyan terrorist targets in 1986. The F-14A was introduced in the mid-1970s. The upgraded F-14A+ version, with new General Electric F-110 engines, now widespread throughout the fleet, is more than a match for enemy fighters in close-in, air combat.

The AWG-9 is a pulse-Doppler, multi-mode radar with a designed capability to track 24 targets at the same time while simultaneously devising and executing fire control solutions for 6 targets. Designed in the 1960's and one of the oldest air-to-air radar systems, the AWG-9 is still the most powerful and new software will increase its capabilities for the 21st century. The cockpit is fitted with a Kaiser AN/AVG-12 Head-Up Display (HUD) co-located with an AN/AVA-12 vertical situation display and a horizontal situation display. A Northrop AN/AXX-1 Television Camera Set (TCS) is used for visual target identification at long ranges. Mounted on a chin pod, the TCS is a high resolution closed circuit television system with two cockpit selectable Fields Of View (FOV), wide and narrow. The selected FOV is displayed in the cockpit and can be recorded by the Cockpit Television System. A new TCS, in development, will be installed in all three series aircraft. Electronic Support Measures (ESM) equipment include the Litton AN/ALR-45 radar warning and control system, the Magnavox AN/ALR-50 radar warning receiver, Tracor AN/ALE-29/-39 chaff/flare dispensers (fitted in the rear fuselage between the fins), and Sanders AN/ALQ-100 deception jamming pod. The Tomcat has an internal 20-mm Vulcan Gatling-type gun fitted on the left side, and can carry Phoenix, Sparrow, and Sidewinder AAMs. Up to 6 Phoenix missiles can be carried on 4 fuselage stations between the engines and on 2 pylons fitted on the fixed portion of the wing; 2 Sidewinder AAM can be carried on the wing pylons above the Phoenix mount. Although the F-14 was tested with conventional "iron" bombs on its external hardpoints in the 1960s, the BRU-10 ejection racks were not strong enough to provide a clean separation. Tests in 1988-1990 showed that BRU-32 racks could drop Mk 80-series bombs safely. Later tests would qualify the AGM-88 HARM and the AGM-84 Harpoon. Initial operational capability in 1973; first flight on 21 December 1970. 79 Tomcats were delivered to Iran before the 1979 Revolution. They are normally grounded for lack of parts; some were seen flying during December 1989 Iranian maneuvers. The US Navy has 699 in service or on order, with deliveries continuing. (The aircraft was not procured by the US Marine Corps.)

The F-14A Aircraft is the basic platform of the F-14 series. It is equipped with two TF30-P-414A engines. Sixty "core" F-14A Aircraft are being upgraded with the AN/ALR-67 Countermeasure Warning and Control System, LANTIRN and the Programmable Tactical Information Display (PTID). In all F-14 series aircraft, the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) will be replaced by the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS). In the late 1970s the Defense Department experienced very substantial engine problems both with the F-14 with the TF-30 engine, and with the F-16 and the F-15 with F-100 engines. They were so serious that there was consideration given to developing new engines for the aircraft, which would have been an enormously difficult undertaking. It was decided instead to make upgrades and improvements in the engines. The engines in the later models of the F-14 are entirely adequate for the purpose. The engines in the F-14As have been improved so that they are also effective, although they are not the engine the Navy would have put in the airplane from the beginning if there

had been a more powerful engine design then. In the mid-1990s one change that was made in the F-14 was the introduction of a Digital Flight Control System to the F-14 to prevent the pilot from making an unsafe or unauthorized maneuver, reducing the burden on the pilot to remember what cannot or should not be done under certain conditions. Funding for the new Digital Flight Control System -about $80 million -- was obtained by reprogramming money in Fiscal 1996. The existing TARPS Pod System will be replaced with the TARPS Digital Imaging System. The Bol Chaff System will be added as part of an integrated modification program. The incorporation of these changes will not change the designation of the F-14A.  The F-14B is either a remanufactured F-14A or new production aircraft, both equipped with F110-GE-400 engines, which replaced the TF30-P-414A engines. The F110-GE-400 is a new design which emphasizes reliability, maintainability, and operability. The new high technology engine improves capability and maneuverability without throttle restrictions or engine trimming. Sixty-seven F14B Aircraft are being modified to extend the service life of the airframes and improve the offensive and defensive posture of the platform. This includes the F110-GE-400 engine, Fatigue Engine Monitoring System, AN/ALR-67 Countermeasure Warning and Control System, Gun Gas Purge Door Engineering Change Proposal (ECP), Direct Lift Control/Approach Power Compensator ECP, AN/AWG-15F ECP, and Engine Door Tension Fittings ECP. In addition, the AN/ASN-92 Carrier Aircraft Inertial Navigation System (CAINS) I will be replaced with the Embedded GPS Inertial (EGI) Navigation System. The F-14B Upgrade includes a MIL-STD-1553B Digital Multiplex Data Bus (DMDB), Programmable Multi-Display Indicator Group (PMDIG), PTID, the AN/AWG15H Fire Control System, AN/ALR-67D(V)2 Radar Warning Receiver, EGI, and Mission Data Loader. Other survivability improvements were developed under the F-14 Airframe Change Number 828, Multi-Mission Capability Upgrade. The modified F-14B Aircraft is referred to as the F-14B Upgrade; modifications will be completed in FY01.  The F-14D is either a remanufactured F-14A or new production aircraft, both equipped with F110-GE-400 engines, new radar, and new avionics systems. The F-14D provides controls and displays that increase aircrew effectiveness through automation and simplicity. Additionally, the F-14D provides changes to the radar, airframe, electronic countermeasures systems, Naval Flight Officer (NFO) armament control panel, pilot air combat maneuvering panel, and emergency jettison panel which enhance the offensive and defensive posture of the platform. The AN/APG 71 Radar replaces the AN/AWG-9 Radar used in the F-14A/B and has fewer Weapon Replaceable Assemblies (WRAs), thereby reducing both weight and space requirements. The functional expansion is achieved by replacement of AN/AWG-9 analog processing hardware with more flexible digital processing. Major changes were made in the following areas: Signal Processor, Data Processor, Digital Display, Central Processor, Receivers, and Antenna configuration. The Infrared Search and Track System (IRSTS) is a Navy developed system which provides long range detection in the long wave infrared spectrum of both subsonic and supersonic targets. The Air Force common Joint

Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) terminal, when installed and integrated, provides secure, jam resistant, high capacity digital data and voice information distribution, and accurate relative navigation capabilities. Production shifted to the F-14D in 1988, and Initial Operational Capability for the F-14D Aircraft was in FY92. The original program schedules envisioned the first D delivery in March 1990 with an all-D fleet achieved by 1998. Plans called for 127 new-production F-14D and modification of 400 F-14A and F-14A+ to D configurations. The revised defense budget submitted in April 1989 proposed cancelling the new-construction portion of the program, but Congress authorized 18 new F-14Ds for 1990 with the stipulation that these would be the last new aircraft authorized--a total of 37. The first F-14D was delivered in February 1990. The funding plans for remanufacturing F-14As into F-14D(R)s in the 1990-1994 period included 6 in 1990, 12 in 1991, 24 in 1992, 48 in 1993, and 60 in 1994; the schedule was later scaled back to 18 in 1992, 20 in 1993, and 24 aircraft in 1994 and 1995. Further defense spending cutbacks eliminated almost all procurement funding for 1991 and provided no money at all in 1992-1993. The final blow fell in mid-February 1991 when the Navy cancelled an already-funded $780 million contract for 12 remanufactured F-14, effectively ending further production. Since the early 1980s F-14s have had provision for the attachment of the Tactical Air Reconnaissance Pod System (TARPS), carrying optical and infrared cameras and permitting the aircraft to perform the photo reconnaissance role without degrading its performance in other roles. The only modifications required are wiring changes and cockpit readouts. In 1989, the Navy decided to phase out the F-14's reconnaissance mission in favor of using F/A-18 Hornets. During Operation Desert Storm in JanuaryFebruary 1991, however, F-14s flew 781 TARPS missions. In FY96, all active duty F-14 squadrons, except Fighter Squadron (VF)-154, were relocated to Naval Air Station (NAS) Oceana, Virginia. VF-154 will remain at NAS Atsugi, Japan, through FY03. The Reserve F-14A squadron, VF-201, was located at the Joint Reserve Base Fort Worth, Texas and transitioned to F/A-18 Aircraft in FY99.

The original design airframe life for the F-14 was 6,000 hours, but was later extended to 7,200 hours. The Navy intends to retire the F-14A force by 2003-4, F-14B by 2007, and the F-14D by 2008. While the F-14 continues to meet current operational commitments, the Navy has been working to improve those aircraft systems which are the highest readiness degraders; which include the radar transmitter, inertial navigation system, and radar antenna. The Navy made the decision not to upgrade the engines because they would be too expensive to put in an aircraft which would be removed from service a few years after being re-engined. Through extensive in-service engineering analysis, the Navy installed a low cost, but very effective means of alerting aircrew of impending catastrophic TF30 engine failure. This cockpit warning light alerts the aircrew to a sudden rise in engine breather pressure [an indication of impending engine failure] in time to reduce engine

power and safely land the aircraft. This new system greatly increases aircrew awareness and further contribute to safe F-14A operations. The Navy decided to incorporate the GEC Marconi Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) into all F-14 aircraft to significantly improve flight safety. The system is designed to protect aviators against unrecoverable flat spins and carrier landing mishaps. DFCS also incorporates a lateral stick-to-rudder interconnect designed to improve less than desirable flying qualities in the powered approach configuration. Pilots agree that with the DFCS the Tomcat is more maneuverable and has crisp response to pilot control inputs. The new system should improve performance and safety during carrier landings. This modification affects 211 active duty and 16 reserve F-14 aircraft. The Foreign Comparative Test (FCT) demonstrated that DFCS drastically decreases the chance of entering out-of-control flight and improves the F-14's ability to recover, if a spin is entered. Departure from controlled flight has been a primary causal factor in 35 F-14 mishaps. Also significant is its ability to improve carrier approach line-up control addressing a problem often cited as a contributing factor in carrier landing mishaps. The incorporation of DFCS increases safety, both during "edge-of-the-envelope" maneuvering flight and carrier landings. The new the Digital Flight Control System [DFCS] provides enhanced maneuverability for the F-14. The DFCS control panel replaces the current AFCS panel in the front cockpit, the analog system in use since the aircraft's inception. It contains the modified SAS switches, and also displays maintenance codes for system failures identified during IBIT and in flight. System (DFCS) that replaced. The DFCS system has lived up to its promise of enhanced controllability and performance in the high AOA regimes and in the landing configuration. However, the structural issue raised by the enhanced roll rates achievable with the DFCS is a potential factor affecting the crucial problem of F-14 fatigue life. During validation of the existing NATOPS rolling G envelope, the primary F-14 test asset sustained extensive structural damage to the starboard engine weekly doors and aft fixed cowl when certain structural limits were exceeded. As it turned out, the problem was not due to DFCS but was related to a NATOP’s operational envelope which had not been previously verified. This resulted in the fleet-wide rolling G restrictions from NAVAIR. The impact to the program is going to be felt in an initial envelope for DFCS with reduced rolling g above and beyond the cutbacks for AFCS roll SAS-on, simply because the Navy cannot support any further structural testing until the F-14 test aircraft is repaired. Data is still being analyzed and the restrictions haven’t been fully defined yet, but it was anticipated that the initial envelope would still include 6.5 g’s symmetric throughout for gross weights of 49.5K or less. For the clean configuration: 4 g’s rolling to 570 KCAS, 3 g rolling to 700, and 1 g rolls/no abrupt stick inputs above 700/1.4 For external tanks or Pylon mounted AIM-54s: the "region 3" from NATOPS will begin above 570 KCAS/1.15 TMN at low alt, or 500 KCAS above 25K. In late 1995 the F-14 Tomcat took on a new combat mission as part of Operation Deliberate Force in Bosnia. Nicknammed "Bombcat's", they delivered laser-guided bombs while other aircraft painted the targets with lasers. With the addition of the

precision strike mission for F-14 aircrews, there was a shift in the emphasis of training; flight hours now have to be devoted to air-to-ground training as well as for air-to-air training. Precision Strike provides the F-14 the capability to deliver laser-guided bombs for air-toground missions. It consists of the LANTIRN pod with laser designator and internal navigation system, LANTIRN control panel and night vision capable displays. In LANTIRN equipped F-14As and F-14Bs, the TID has been replaced with the PTID. In 1994 the Navy planned to spend over $2.5 billion to add limited ground attack capability and other improvements to 210 F-14 Tomcat fighter aircraft (53 F-14Ds, 81 F-14Bs, and 76 F-14As). The ground attack capabilities were required to partially compensate for the loss in combat capabilities during the period starting in 1997, when all of its A-6E Intruder attack aircraft were retired, to the turn of the century when the F/A-18E/F, the next generation strike fighter, was scheduled to arrive. The F-14 is undergoing two upgrades. The A/B initial upgrade, includes structural modifications to extend the F-14's fatigue life to 7,500 hours, improved defensive capabilities and cockpit displays, and incorporation of digital architecture and mission computers to speed data processing time and add software capacity. Block I adds a LANTIRN Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) pod with a built-in laser to designate targets and allow F-14s to independently drop laser guided bombs (LGBs), a modified cockpit for night attack operations (night vision devices and compatible lighting), and enhanced defensive countermeasures. The A/B upgrade had to be incorporated into 157 F-14 aircraft before the Block I upgrade could be added. Concerned about the Navy's capability to maintain carrier-based power projection without A-6Es and with only limited F-14 upgrades, the Joint Conference Committee on the fiscal year 1994 Defense Authorization Act directed the Navy to add an F-15E equivalent capability to its F-14D aircraft, including the capability to use modern air-toground stand-off weapons. But the Navy, in a report submitted on May 20, 1994 outlining its plans for the F-14, reiterated the intent to add only the A/B and Block I upgrades. The Navy estimated it would cost $1.8 billion to add F-15E-equivalent capability to 53 F-14Ds and another $9 billion to upgrade 198 F-14A/Bs. According to the Navy, an upgrade of that magnitude was not affordable. Upgraded F-14s generally have greater range than the F/A-18C and could possibly reach targets beyond the Hornet's range. But planned upgrades will not include an air-to-ground radar for precision ground mapping that would permit crews to locate, identify, and attack targets in adverse weather and poor visibility. In addition, no F-14s will be able to launch current or planned precision munitions or stand-off weapons, except for LGBs. The 157 F-14A/B models' AWG-9 radar is one of the most powerful US military aircraft radars for detecting multiple air targets approaching at long range, but it does not provide a ground mapping capability that permits crews to locate and attack targets in adverse weather and poor visibility or to precisely update the aircraft's location relative to targets during the approach, a capability that improves bombing accuracy. Only the 53 F-14Ds,

with their improved APG-71 synthetic aperture ground mapping radar, will have this capability. The Block I upgrade does not add any weapon capability new to the F-14, except the ability to independently drop LGBs. No Block I F-14s can launch precision stand-off attack weapons such as the High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM), Harpoon antiship missile, Maverick anti-armor missile, Walleye guided bomb, and Stand-off Land Attack Missile (SLAM). Block I aircraft will not be able to employ future precision stand-off weapons, including the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) and the Joint Stand Off Weapon (JSOW). The Navy does plan to add the capability to launch the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) to F-14Ds when their computer software is updated.

Function Contractor Unit Cost Carrier-based multi-role strike fighter Grumman Aerospace Corporation $38 million F-14: two Pratt & Whitney TF-30P-414A turbofan engines with afterburners; F-14B and F-14D: two General Electric F-110-GE-400 augmented turbofan engines with afterburners F-14A: 20,900 pounds (9,405 kg) static thrust per engine; F-14B and F-14D: 27,000 pounds (12,150 kg) per engine 61 feet 9 inches (18.6 meters) 16 feet (4.8 meters) 72,900 pounds (32,805 kg) 64 feet (19 meters) unswept, 38 feet (11.4 meters) swept Above 53,000 feet Max Mach Number = 1.88 Cruise Mach Number = .72 Carrier Approach Speed = 125 kts 500 nm Hi-Med-Hi strike profile 380 nm Hi-Lo-Lo-Hi strike profile Two: pilot and radar intercept officer



Length Height Maximum Takeoff Weight Wingspan Ceiling Speed

Mission Radius Crew


Up to 13,000 pounds of Air-to-Air Missiles (up to) 6 AIM-7 Sparrows 4 AIM-9 Sidewinder 6 AIM-54 Phoenix air-to-ground ordnance MK-82 (500 lbs.) 4 MK-83 (1,000 lbs.) 4 MK-84 (2,000 lbs.) MK-20 cluster bomb 4 GBU-10 LGB GBU-12 MK-82 LGB 4 GBU-16 MK-83 LGB 4 GBU-24 MK-84 LGB one MK-61A1 Vulcan 20mm cannon Selected F-14A and B are wired to carry TARPS All F-14D's are wired to carry the TARPS AN/ALR-45 radar warning receiver [Itek] AN/ALR-67 radar warning receiver [F-14D] AN/ALQ-167 ECM Pod [F-14D] AN/ALE-50 towed decoy [F-14D]


Date Deployed First flight December 1970 157 F-14A/B 53 F-14D Phasing out one squadron / year All to be withdrawn by 2010 F-14 orginally designed for 6,000 flight hours Currently certified for 7,350 flight hours Potential for extension to 8,000 or 9,000 flight hours


F-15 Eagle
The F-15 Eagle is an all-weather, extremely maneuverable, tactical fighter designed to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. The Eagle's air superiority is achieved through a mixture of maneuverability and acceleration, range, weapons and avionics. The F-15 has electronic systems and weaponry to detect, acquire, track and attack enemy aircraft while operating in friendly or enemy-controlled airspace. Its weapons and flight control systems are designed so one person can safely and effectively perform air-to-air combat. It can penetrate enemy defense and outperform and outfight current or projected enemy aircraft. The F-15's superior maneuverability and acceleration are achieved through high engine thrust-to-weight ratio and low wing loading. Low wing-loading (the ratio of aircraft weight to its wing area) is a vital factor in maneuverability and, combined with the high thrust-to-weight ratio, enables the aircraft to turn tightly without losing airspeed. A multimission avionics system sets the F-15 apart from other fighter aircraft. It includes a head-up display, advanced radar, inertial navigation system, flight instruments, UHF communications, tactical navigation system and instrument landing system. It also has an internally mounted, tactical electronic-warfare system, "identification friend or foe" system, electronic countermeasures set and a central digital computer. Through an on-going multistage improvement program the F-15 is receiving extensive upgrade involving the installation or modification of new and existing avionics equipment to enhance the tactical capabilities of the F-15. The head-up display projects on the windscreen all essential flight information gathered by the integrated avionics system. This display, visible in any light condition, provides the pilot information necessary to track and destroy an enemy aircraft without having to look down at cockpit instruments. The F-15's versatile pulse-Doppler radar system can look up at high-flying targets and down at low-flying targets without being confused by ground clutter. It can detect and track aircraft and small high-speed targets at distances beyond visual range down to close range, and at altitudes down to tree-top level. The radar feeds target information into the central computer for effective weapons delivery. For close-in dog fights, the radar automatically acquires enemy aircraft, and this information is projected on the head-up display. The APG-63 radar was developed over 20 years ago and has an average mean time between failure less than 15 hours. APG-63 LRUs have become increasingly difficult to support both in the field and at the depot. First, individual parts have become increasingly unavailable from any source; incorporating newer technology parts often entails module redesign and fails to address the root cause. Second, continuing reliability deterioration impacts both sustainment, particularly during deployment, as well as ACC’s ability to

implement two-level maintenance. In addition, the APG-63 radar has virtually no remaining processing and memory capacity to accommodate software upgrades to counter evolving threats. The APG-63(V)1 radar has been designed for improved reliability and maintainability to address user requirements. The radar incorporates components designed for improved reliability and lower failure rates and enhanced diagnostics for improved fault detection and fault isolation. Along with other design features, these should improve radar reliability to 120 hours MTBM, an order of magnitude better than the existing APG-63. An inertial navigation system enables the Eagle to navigate anywhere in the world. It gives aircraft position at all times as well as pitch, roll, heading, acceleration and speed information. The F-15's electronic warfare system provides both threat warning and automatic countermeasures against selected threats. The "identification friend or foe" system informs the pilot if an aircraft seen visually or on radar is friendly. It also informs U.S. or allied ground stations and other suitably equipped aircraft that the F-15 is a friendly aircraft. The Fiber Optic Towed Decoy (FOTD) provides aircraft protection against modern radarguided missiles to supplement traditional radar jamming equipment. The device is towed at varying distances behind the aircraft while transmitting a signal like that of a threat radar. The missile will detect and lock onto the decoy rather than on the aircraft. This is achieved by making the decoy’s radiated signal stronger than that of the aircraft. A variety of air-to-air weaponry can be carried by the F-15. An automated weapon system enables the pilot to perform aerial combat safely and effectively, using the headup display and the avionics and weapons controls located on the engine throttles or control stick. When the pilot changes from one weapon system to another, visual guidance for the required weapon automatically appears on the head-up display. The Eagle can be armed with combinations of four different air-to-air weapons: AIM7F/M Sparrow missiles or AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missiles on its lower fuselage corners, AIM-9L/M Sidewinder or AIM-120 missiles on two pylons under the wings, and an internal 20mm Gatling gun (with 940 rounds of ammunition) in the right wing root. The current AIM-9 missile does not have the capabilities demonstrated by foreign technologies, giving the F-15 a distinct disadvantage during IR dogfight scenarios. AIM9X integration will once again put the F-15 in the air superiority position in all arenas. The F-15/AIM-9X weapon system is to consist of F-15 carriage of the AIM-9X missile on a LAU-128 Air-to-Air (A/A) launcher from existing AIM-9 certified stations. The AIM-9X will be an upgrade to the AIM-9L/M, incorporating increased missile maneuverability and allowing a high off-boresight targeting capability.

Low-drag, conformal fuel tanks were especially developed for the F-15C and D models. Conformal fuel tanks can be attached to the sides of the engine air intake trunks under each wing and are designed to the same load factors and airspeed limits as the basic aircraft. Each conformal fuel tank contains about 114 cubic feet of usable space. These tanks reduce the need for in-flight refueling on global missions and increase time in the combat area. All external stations for munitions remain available with the tanks in use. AIM-7F/M Sparrow and AIM-120 missiles, moreover, can be attached to the corners of the conformal fuel tanks. The F-15 Eagle began its life in the mid 1960s as the Fighter Experimental (FX) concept. Using lessons learned in Vietnam, the USAF sought to develop and procure a new, dedicated air superiority fighter. Such an aircraft was desperately needed, as no USAF aircraft design solely conceived as an air superiority fighter had become reality since the F-86 Sabre. The intervening twenty years saw a number of aircraft performing the air-toair role as a small part of their overall mission, such as the primarily air-to-ground F-4 Phantom and the F-102, F-104 and F-106 interceptor designs. The result of the FX study was a requirement for a fighter design combining unparalleled maneuverability with state-of-the-art avionics and weaponry. An industry-wide competition ended on December 23, 1969 when McDonnell Douglas was awarded the contract for the F-15.

The first F-15A flight was made on 27 July 1972, culminating one of the most successful aircraft development and procurement programs in Air Force history. After an accident-free test and evaluation period, the first aircraft was delivered to the Air Force on Novermber 14, 1974. In January 1976, the first Eagle destined for a combat squadron was delivered to the 1st Tactical Fighter Wing at Langley Air Force Base, Va. Three hundred and sixty-five F-15As were built before production of the F-15C began in 1978. In January 1982, the 48th FighterInterceptor Squadron at Langley Air Force Base became the first Air Force air defense squadron to transition to the F-15. After twenty years of service, the F15A has recently been reassigned from active duty Air Force fighter squadrons to Air National Guard units. The F-15A is flown by Air National Guard squadrons in the states of Oregon, Missouri, Georgia, Louisiana, Hawaii, and Massachussets.  The first flight of the two-seat F-15B (formerly TF-15A) trainer was made in July 1973. The first F-15B Eagle was delivered in November 1974 to the 58th Tactical Training Wing, Luke Air Force Base, Ariz., where pilot training was accomplished in both F-15A and B aircraft. The F-15B incorporates a tandem seating configuration, with a second crewmember position aft of the pilot's seat. The primary purpose of the F-15B is aircrew training, with an instructor pilot occupying the rear seat while an upgrading pilot mans the front seat controls. The rear seat pilot has a full set of flight controls and can fly the aircraft throughout the envelope, including takeoff and landing. Even though space is sacrificed to accomodate the second crew member, the F-15B retains the same warfighting capability as the F-15A. In keeping with the trainer concept, however, the rear seat is not equipped with controls for the combat avionics and weaponry. In fact, the rear seat is not a mandatory crew position, and F-15Bs are often flown with empty rear cockpits.

The F-15C is an improved version of the original F-15A single-seat air superiority fighter. Additions incorporated in the F-15C include upgrades to avionics as well as increased internal fuel capacity and a higher allowable gross takeoff weight. The single-seat F-15C and two-seat F-15D models entered the Air Force inventory beginning in 1979. Kadena Air Base, Japan, received the first F15C in September 1979. These new models have Production Eagle Package (PEP 2000) improvements, including 2,000 pounds (900 kilograms) of additional internal fuel, provision for carrying exterior conformal fuel tanks and increased maximum takeoff weight of up to 68,000 pounds (30,600 kilograms). Externally, the differences between the F-15A and F-15C are so slight as to make identification difficult; the only reliable indicator is the aircraft serial number. All F-15As have tail numbers starting with 73- through 77-, while F-15Cs have tail numbers beginning with 78- through 86-. The F-15C is the Air Force's primary air superiority fighter, serving with active duty units at Langley AFB, VA, Eglin AFB, FL, Mountain Home AFB, ID, Elmendorf AFB, AK, Tyndall AFB, FL, Nellis AFB, NV, Spangdahlem AB, Germany, Lakenheath AB, England and Kadena AB, Okinawa. The operational F-15C force structure is approximately 300 aircraft assigned to operational units. In the mid-1990s the F-15C experienced declining reliability indicators, primarily from three subsystems: radar, engines, and secondary structures. A complete retrofit of all three subsystems could be done for less than $3 billion.  The F-15D is a two-seat variant of the single-place F-15C. The primary purpose of the F-15D is aircrew training, with an instructor pilot occupying the rear seat while an upgrading pilot mans the front seat controls. F-15C's, D's and E's were deployed to the Persian Gulf in 1991 in support of Operation Desert Storm where they proved their superior combat capability with a confirmed 26:0 kill ratio. The F-15C has an air combat victory ratio of 95-0 making it one of the most effective air superiority aircraft ever developed. The US Air Force claims the F-15C is in several respects inferior to, or at best equal to, the MiG-29, Su-27, Su-35/37, Rafale, and EF2000, which are variously superior in acceleration, maneuverability, engine thrust, rate of climb, avionics, firepower, radar signature, or range. Although the F-15C and Su-27P series are similar in many categories, the Su-27 can outperform the F-15C at both long and short ranges. In long-range encounters, with its superiorr radar the Su-27 can launch a missile before the F-15C does, so from a purely kinematic standpoint, the Russian fighters outperform the F-15C in the beyond-visual-range fight. The Su-35 phased array radar is superior to the APG-63 Doppler radar in both detection range and tracking capabilities. Additionally, the Su-35 propulsion system increases the aircraft’s maneuverability with thrust vectoring nozzles. Simulations conducted by British

Aerospace and the British Defense Research Agency compared the effectiveness of the F15C, Rafale, EF-2000, and F-22 against the Russian Su-35 armed with active radar missiles similar to the AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM). The Rafale achieved a 1:1 kill ratio (1 Su-35 destroyed for each Rafale lost). The EF-2000 kill ratio was 4.5:1 while the F-22 achieved a ratio of 10:1. In stark contrast was the F-15C, losing 1.3 Eagles for each Su-35 destroyed.

F-15E Strike Eagle
Although the slogan of the F-15's original design team was "Not a pound for air-to-ground," the F-15 has long been recognized as having superior potential in the ground attack role. In 1987 this potential was realized in the form of the F-15E Strike Eagle. The mission of the Strike Eagle is as succinct as that of its air-to-air cousin: to put bombs on target. The F-15E is especially configured for the deep strike mission, venturing far behind enemy lines to attack high value targets with a variety of munitions. The Strike Eagle accomplishes this mission by expanding on the capabilities of the air superiority F-15, adding a rear seat WSO (Weapon Systems Operator) crewmember and incorporating an entirely new suite of airto-ground avionics. The F-15E is a two seat, two engine dual role fighter capable of speeds up to MACH 2.5. The F-15E performs day and night all weather air-to-air and air-to-ground missions including strategic strike, interdiction, OCA and DCA. Although primarily a deep interdiction platform, the F-15E can also perform CAS and Escort missions. Strike Eagles are equipped with LANTIRN, enhancing night PGM delivery capability. The F-15E outbord and inboard wing stations and the centerline can be load with various armament. The outboard wing hardpoint are unable to carry heavy loads and are assign for ECM pods. The other hardpoints can be employed for various loads but with the use of multiple ejection racks (MERs). Each MER can hold six Mk-82 bombs or "Snakeye" retarded bombs, or six Mk 20 "Rockeye" dispensers, four CBU-52B, CBU- 58B, or CBU-71B dispensers, a single Mk-84 (907 kg) bomb F- 15E can carry also "smart" weapons, CBU10 laser quided bomb based on the Mk 84 bomb, CBU-12, CBU-15, or another, laser, electro-optical, or infra-red guided bomb (including AGM-G5 "Marerick" air-to-ground) missiles. Conformal Fuel Tanks were introduced with the F-15C in order to extend the range of the aircraft. The CFTs are carried in pairs and fit closely to the side of the aircraft, with one CFT underneath each wing. By designing the CFT to minimize the effect on aircraft aerodynamics, much lower drag results than if a similar amount of fuel is carried in conventional external fuel tanks. This lower drag translate directly into longer aircraft ranges, a particularly desirable characteristic of a deep strike fighter like the F-15E. As with any system, the use of CFTs on F-15s involves some compromise. The weight and drag of the CFTs (even when empty) degrades aircraft performance when compared to

external fuel tanks, which can be jettisoned when needed (CFTs are not jettisonable and can only be downloaded by maintenance crews). As a result, CFTs are typically used in situations where increased range offsets any performance drawbacks. In the case of the F15E, CFTs allow air-to-ground munitions to be loaded on stations which would otherwise carry external fuel tanks. In general, CFT usage is the norm for F15Es and the exception for F-15C/D's. The F-15E Strike Eagle’s tactical electronic warfare system [TEWS] is an integrated countermeasures system. Radar, radar jammer, warning receiver and chaff/flare dispenser all work together to detect, identify and counter threats posed by an enemy. For example, if the warning receiver detects a threat before the radar jammer, the warning receiver will inform the jammer of the threat. A Strike Eagle’s TEWS can jam radar systems operating in high frequencies, such as radar used by short-range surface-to-air missiles, antiaircraft artillery and airborne threats. Current improvements to TEWS will enhance the aircraft’s ability to jam enemy radar systems. The addition of new hardware and software, known as Band 1.5, will round out the TEWS capability by jamming threats in mid-to-low frequencies, such as long-range radar systems. The equipment is expected to go into full production sometime in late 1999. The Defense Department plans to sustain production of the F-15E for at least two more years, purchasing three aircraft in both FY 1998 and FY 1999. Without FY 1998 procurement, the F-15 production line would begin to close in the absence of new foreign sales. These six additional aircraft, together with the six aircraft approved by Congress in FY 1997, will sustain the present 132-plane combat force structure until about FY 2016. Under current plans by 2030, the last F-15C/D models will have been phased out of the inventory and replaced by the F-22.

Service Life
Designed in the 1960s and built in the 1970s, the F-15A - D aircraft has now been in service for over twenty years. While the Eagle's aerodynamics and maneuverability are still on a par with newer aircraft, quantum leaps in integrated circuit technology have made the original F-15 avionics suite obsolete. The objective of the Multi-Stage Improvement Program (MSIP) was to set the Eagle in step with today's vastly improved information processing systems. Some F-15C/D aircraft (tail numbers 84-001 and higher) came off the assembly line with MSIP in place. All F-15A/B/C/D aircraft produced before 84-001 will receive the MSIP retrofit at the F-15 depot. Improvements incorporated via MSIP vary between F-15A/B and F-15C/D aircraft; the C/D MSIP has been completed. However, all air-to-air Eagles gain improved radar, central computer, weapons and fire control, and threat warning systems. The purpose of the F-15 Multi-stage Improvement Program (MSIP) was to provide maximum air superiority in a dense hostile environment in the late 1990s and beyond. All total, 427 Eagles received the new avionics upgrades. Along with later model production aircraft, these retrofitted aircraft would provide the Combat Air Forces (CAF) with a total MSIP fleet of 526 aircraft. The MSIP upgraded the capabilities of the F-15 aircraft to included a MIL-STD-1760 aircraft/weapons standard electrical interface bus to provide

the digital technology needed to support new and modern weapon systems like AMRAAM. The upgrade also incorporated a MIL-STD-1553 digital command/response time division data bus that would enable onboard systems to communicate and to work with each other. A new central computer with significantly improved processing speed and memory capacity upgraded the F-15 from 70s to 90s technology, adding capacity needed to support new radar and other systems. The original Eagle had less computer capacity than a 1990s car. Some of the work prefaced the addition of the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System, adding space, power, and cooling that would allow the new avionics to run in the harsh environments in which the Eagle operates. The new programmable armament control set (PACS) with a multi-purpose color display (MPCD) for expanded weapons control, monitoring, and release capabilities featured a modern touch screen that allowed the pilot to talk to his weapons. A data transfer module (DTM) set provided pre-programmed information that customized the jet to fly the route the pilot had planned using mission planning computers. An upgrade to the APG-63 Radar for multiple target detection, improved electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) characteristics, and non-cooperative target recognition capability enabled the pilot to identify and target enemy aircraft before he was detected or before the enemy could employ his weapons. An upgrade of the advanced medium range air-to-air missile (AMRAAM), that carried up to eight missiles, represented an improvement that complimented the combat-proven AIM-7 Sparrow by giving the pilot capability to engage multiple targets to launch and leave, targeting and destroying enemy fighters before they could pose a threat. The upgraded Radar Warning Receiver (RWR) and an enhanced internal countermeasures set (ICS) on F-15C/D models improved threat detection and self-protection radar jamming capability that allowed pilots to react to threat and to maneuver to break the lock of enemy missiles. The F-15 initial operational requirement was for a service life of 4,000 hours. Testing completed in 1973 demonstrated that the F-15 could sustain 16,000 hours of flight. Subsequently operational use was more severely stressful than the original design specification. With an average usage of 270 aircraft flight hours per year, by the early 1990s the F-15C fleet was approaching its service-design-life limit of 4,000 flight hours. Following successful airframe structural testing, the F-15C was extended to an 8,000hour service life limit. An 8,000-hour service limit provides current levels of F-15Cs through 2010. The F-22 program was initially justified on the basis of an 8,000 flight hour life projection for the F-15. This was consistent with the projected lifespan of the most severely stressed F-15Cs, which have averaged 85% of flight hours in stressful airto-air missions, versus the 48% in the original design specification. Full-scale fatigue testing between 1988 and 1994 ended with a demonstration of over 7,600 flight hours for the most severely used aircraft, and in excess of 12,000 hours on the remainder of the fleet. A 10,000-hour service limit would provide F-15Cs to 2020, while a 12,000-hour service life extends the F-15Cs to the year 2030. The APG-63 radar, F100-PW-100 engines, and structure upgrades are mandatory. The USAF cannot expect to fly the F-15C to 2014, or beyond, without replacing these subsystems. The total cost of the three retrofits would be under $3 billion. The upgrades would dramatically reduce the

18 percent breakrate prevalent in the mid-1990s, and extend the F-15C service life well beyond 2014. The F-15E structure is rated at 16,000 flight hours, double the lifetime of earlier F-15s.

Foreign Military Sales
The Eagle has been chosen by three foreign military customers to modernize their air forces. Japan has purchased and produces an air-to-air F-15 known as the F-15J. Israel has bought F-15A, B, and D aircraft from USAF inventories and is currently obtaining an air-to-ground version called the F-15I. Similarly, Saudi Arabia has purchased F-15C and D aircraft and acquired the air-to-ground F-15S.

F-15I Thunder
Israel has bought F-15A, B, and D aircraft from USAF inventories and is currently obtaining an air-to-ground version called the F-15I. The two seat F-15I, known as the Thunder in Israel, incorporates new and unique weapons, avionics, electronic warfare, and communications capabilities that make it one of the most advanced F-15s. The F-15I, like the US Air Force's F-15E Strike Eagle, is a dual-role fighter that combines longrange interdiction with the Eagle's air superiority capabilities. All aircraft are to be configured with either the F100-PW-229 or F110-GE-129 engines by direct commercial sale; Night Vision Goggle compatible cockpits; an Elbit display and sight helmet (DASH) system; conformal fuel tanks; and the capability to employ the AIM-120, AIM7, AIM-9, and a wide variety of air-to-surface munitions. F-15 production, which began in 1972, has been extended into 1999 by orders F-151 aircraft for Israel. Israel selected the F-15I in January, 1994 after evaluating a variety of aircraft to meet its defense needs. The government of Israel initially ordered 25 F-15I Thunders, powered by two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 low bypass turbofan engine. This foreign military sale was valued at $1.76 billion dollars. The Israeli Air Force received the first two of 25 F-15I aircraft in January 1998. On 22 September 1998 the US Department of Defense announced the sale to the Government of Israel of 30 F-15I aircraft; 30 AN/APG-70 or AN/APG-63(V)1 radar; and 30 each LANTIRN navigation and targeting pods. Associated support equipment, software development/integration, spares and repair parts, flight test instrumentation, publications and technical documentation, personnel training and training equipment, US Government and contractor technical and logistics personnel services, and other related requirements to ensure full program supportability will also be provided. The estimated cost was $2.5 billion.

F-15S Peace Sun IX
F-15 production has been extended into 1999 by orders for 72 F-15S aircraft for Saudi Arabia. Peace Sun IX is an F-15 Foreign Military Sales production program, with development, to deliver 72 F-15S aircraft including support equipment, spares, and training to the Royal Saudi government. Saudi Arabia has purchased a total of 62 F-15C

and D aircraft and later procured the F-15S, which is a two-seater aircraft based on the F15E airframe, with downgraded avionics, downgraded LANTIRN pods, and a simplified Hughes APG-70 radar without computerised radar mapping. Four F-15S Eagles were delivered in 1995. On 10 November 1999 the last of 72 F-15S aircraft was delivered to Saudi Arabia. In November 1995 Saudi Arabia purchased 556 GBU-15 Guided Bomb Units (including six training units), 48 data link pods, personnel training and training equipment and other related elements of logistics support. The estimated cost is $371 million. Saudi Arabia would use the GBU-15s to enhance the stand off attack capability of the F-15S aircraft.

F-15J Peace Eagle
Japan has purchased and produced a total of 223 air-to-air F-15 known as the F-15J, assembled in Japan from largely indigenously manufactured sub-assemblies and equipment. The Mitsubishi F-15J/DJ Eagle is the principal air superiority fighter operated by the JASDF. These differ from the F-15C/D with the deletion of sensitive ECM, radar warning, and nuclear delivery equipment. The AN/ALQ-135 is replaced by indigenous J/ALQ-8 and the AN/ALR-56 RHAWS is replaced by J/APR-4.

Primary Function Contractor Power Plant Thrust Length Height Wingspan Speed Ceiling Maximum Takeoff Weight Range Armament Tactical fighter. McDonnell Douglas Corp. Two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-100 turbofan engines with afterburners. (C/D models) 25,000 pounds each engine ( 11,250 kilograms). 63 feet, 9 inches (19.43 meters). 18 feet, 8 inches (5.69 meters). 42 feet, 10 inches (13.06 meters) 1,875 mph (Mach 2.5-plus) at 45,000 ft. 65,000 feet (19,697 meters). (C/D models) 68,000 pounds (30,600 kilograms). 3,450 miles (3,000 nautical miles) ferry range with conformal fuel tanks and three external fuel tanks. 1 - M-61A1 20mm multibarrel internal gun, 940 rounds of ammunition 4 - AIM-9L/M Sidewinder and 4 - AIM-7F/M Sparrow missiles, or combination of AIM-9L/M, AIM-7-F/M and AIM-120 missiles.

F-15C Weapon Loads
AIM AIM AIM AGM 20 7 9 120 88 MM 4 4 2 4 4 2 2 4 4 2 4 4 4 8 4 900 900 900 900 900 900

F-15E Weapon Loads
12 CBU-52 (6 with wing tanks) 12 CBU-59 (6 with wing tanks) 12 CBU-71 (6 with wing tanks) 12 CBU-87 (6 with wing tanks) 12 CBU-89 (6 with wing tanks) 20 MK-20 (6 with wing tanks) AG AG CB CB CB GB GB GB GB M M UU UU U U U 65 4 1 8 8 8 4 8 2 1 4 4 2 Systems AN/APG-63 X-band pulsed-Doppler radar [Hughes] 130 87 89 97 10 12 28 15


AI M 120 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6

20 M M 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500

AN/APG-70 X-band pulsed-Doppler radar [Hughes] [ on F-15E, F-15C/D, F-15A/B MSIP] AN/APX-76 IFF interrogator [Hazeltine] AN/ALQ-135(V) internal countermeasures system AN/ALQ-128 radar warning [Magnavox] suite AN/ALR-56 radar warning receiver (RWR) [Loral] AN/ALE-45 chaff/flare dispensers [Tracor] AN/AVQ-26 Pave Tack AN/AXQ-14 Data Link System LANTIRN Crew Unit cost $FY98 [Total Program] Date Deployed Production [for USAF] F-15A/C: one. F-15B/D: two.

$43 million.

July 1972 360 F-15A/B 408 F-15C 61 F-15D 203 F-15E 275 F-15A/B 410 F-15C/D 203 F-15E Approximately 100 F-15s are in storage @ AMARC 45 F-15A/B Air National Guard Air Defense Force 45 F-15A/B Air National Guard 126 F-15C/D Air Combat Command 90 F-15C/D Pacific Air Forces 36 F-15C/D US Air Forces Europe 342 F-15A/C TOTAL 66 F-15E Air Combat Command 18 F-15E Pacific Air Forces 48 F-15E US Air Forces Europe 132 F-15E TOTAL Only combat-coded aircraft and not development/ test, attrition reserve, depot maintenance, or training aircraft.

Total Inventory

PMAI Primary Mission Aircraft Inventory

F-15E Strike Eagle

F-16 Fighting Falcon
Genesis of the successful F-16 fighter/attack aircraft lies in reaction to severe deficiencies in US fighter design revealed by the Vietnam War. Following the success of the small, highly maneuverable F-86 day fighter in the Korean War, US fighter design changed to emphasize maximum speed, altitude, and radar capability at the expense of maneuverability, pilot vision, and other attributes needed for close combat. This trend reached its extremity in the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom, which was the principal fighter for both the US Air Force and Navy during the latter part of the Vietnam War. The F-4 was originally designed as an interceptor for defense of the fleet against air attack - a mission neither it nor any other jet has ever executed, because no US fleet has come under air attack since the beginning of the jet age. Be that as it may, the F-4 interceptor was designed to meet the fleet defense mission by using rapid climb to high altitude, high supersonic speed, and radar-guided missiles to shoot down threat aircraft at long distance. Used as a fighter rather than as an interceptor in Vietnam, the F-4 was severely miscast. Against very inferior North Vietnamese pilots flying small, highly maneuverable MiG21s, the air-to-air kill ratio sometimes dropped as low as 2 to 1, where it had been 13 to 1 in Korea. As the Vietnam War drew to a close, it was generally agreed that the F-4 had prohibitive deficiencies including: 1. LARGENESS. F-4 pilots to frequently found themselves fighting at separation distances at which they could not see the smaller MiG-21s, but the MiG-21 pilots could see them. 2. POOR PILOT VISION. In order to minimize high-speed drag, the F-4, and all combat aircraft before the F-14, does not have a bubble canopy. It is designed for a pilot to look straight ahead. Vision down and to the sides is poor; vision to the rear is nonexistent. 3. MANEUVERABILITY. While the F-4 can pull 7G in turns, which was acceptable for that time, it can only do so by rapidly bleeding off energy (losing speed and/or altitude). 4. TRANSIENT PERFORMANCE. Ability of the F-4 to change its maneuver (that is, to roll rapidly while pulling high Gs) was poor. 5. COST. The large F-4 was an expensive aircraft to procure and maintain. This meant that, compared to the MiG-21, fewer aircraft could be bought with a given budget. 6. NO GUN. The F-4 was designed without a gun, and was thus not capable of very close combat. 7. COMBAT PERSISTENCE. While the ferry range of the F-4 was acceptable, its ability to engage in sustained hard maneuvering without running out of fuel was a significant problem.

These various sacrifices were rationalized by the belief that visual dogfighting was obsolete, and that in the supersonic age, air combat would be fought beyond visual range (BVR) using radar-guided missiles. This concept failed in Vietnam for two reasons: First, radar could detect and track aircraft but not identify them. Operating beyond visual range created an unacceptable risk of shooting down one's own aircraft. Pilots were therefore required to close to visually identify the target before shooting; this eliminated the theoretical range advantage of radar-guided missiles. Second, the performance of the Sparrow radar-guided missile in Vietnam was poor, generally yielding less than 10% kill per shot. Dissatisfaction with these deficiencies led to the US Air Force F-15 and US Navy F-14 designs. On this page we discuss only the Air Force programs. The original F-15 had excellent pilot vision, including being able to see 360 degrees in the horizontal plane. It had strong high-speed maneuverability and a 20mm cannon. In addition to rectifying some of the F-4's deficiencies, it could fly higher and faster than the F-4, and had dramatically better climb and acceleration. It also had a powerful radar with advanced look-down shoot-down capability, and relied on the Sparrow missile as its principal weapon. Nevertheless, an informal but influential group called the "Fighter Mafia" objected to the F-15 as moving in the wrong direction. (The most prominent Fighter Mafia spokesmen were systems analyst Pierre Sprey, test pilot Charles E. Meyers, and legendary fighter pilot John Boyd.) The F-15, the Fighter Mafia objected, was even larger and more expensive than the F-4. Much of that money went into creating high maximum speed (Mach 2.5) and altitude (65,000 feet) and to serving as a launcher, under BVR conditions which couldn't be used in real combat,. for the Sparrow missile which didn't work While recognizing that the F15 had phenomenal supersonic climb and maneuverability (it could sustain 6Gs at Mach 1.6), at such speeds it could not fight because its turn radius was so large that it could not keep the enemy in sight. What the Air Force needed, the Mafia argued, was a successor to the WWII P-51 Mustang and the Korean War F-86 Saber: an all-new small fighter that would be cheap enough to buy in large numbers. (The F-104 was not considered a predecessor aircraft because, while it had excellent climb and acceleration, its wings were too small, leaving it deficient in range and maneuverability.) The new fighter would have revolutionary maneuverability, transient performance, acceleration, and climb at the subsonic and transonic speeds at which air combat is actually fought. It would have a gun and its primary armament would be the infra-red guided Sidewinder missile that had proven highly effective in Vietnam. While Sidewinder's range was limited to about three miles, the Mafia argued that air combat beyond that range was fantasy in any case. Some members of the Mafia even

suggested that the ideal small fighter would have no radar at all, although this was a minority view. In any case, the Air Force establishment wanted no part of a new small fighter, with or without radar. It was regarded as a threat to the F-15, which was USAF's highest priority program. But the Fighter Mafia gained considerable resonance in Congress and within the Office of the Secretary of Defense. In 1971 Deputy Secretary of Defense David Packard began a Lightweight Fighter (LWF) program to explore the concept. The LWF was to be about 20,000 pounds, or half the weight of the F-15, and was to stress low cost, small size, and very high performance at speed below Mach 1.6 and altitude below 40,000 feet. Two competing designs would be chosen for prototyping. Industry recognized, correctly, that regardless of USAF hostility, LWF variants had great potential for profitable foreign military sales, including replacing the F-104. Singleengine designs were put forward by Boeing, General Dynamics, LTV, Northrop, and Rockwell. Northrop also proposed on a twin-engine design, in effect using Air Force money to develop a replacement for its F-5 export fighter. The Boeing and General Dynamics designs were the clear leaders from the beginning, with the Northrop twin-engine design clearly the weakest of the six. But midway through this stage of the competition, some potential foreign buyers expressed concern over buying a new single-engine fighter. The previous single-engine supersonic export fighter, the F-104, had a troublesome safety record that some buyers were disinclined to repeat. USAF, therefore, decided that one of the two down-selectees had to have two engines. Since the last-place Northrop design was the only twin-engine contender, it became a down-selection winner by default. When the General Dynamics design was chosen the other selectee on merit, Boeing was no doubt a bit miffed that its loss was caused by USAF changing the rules in midcompetition. But it did not protest the decision. Of the two surviving designs, now designated the General Dynamics YF-16 and the Northrop YF-17., the YF-17 was a relatively conventional design, to some extent an outgrowth of the F-5, while the YF-16 was an all-new design incorporating highly innovative technologies that in many respects reached beyond those of the more expensive F-15. These included 1. FLY BY WIRE. From the outset, the YF-16 had no direct connection between the pilot's controls and the aircraft's control surfaces. Instead, the stick and rudder controls were connected to quadruple-redundant computers, which then told the elevators, ailerons, and rudder what to do. This had several large advantages over previous systems. It was quicker responding, automatically correcting for gusts





and thermals with no effort from the pilot. It could be programmed to compensate for aerodynamic problems and fly like an ideal airplane. Most importantly, it enabled, with full safety, a highly efficient unstable design. NEGATIVE STABILITY. All previous aircraft designs had been aerodynamically stable. That is, the center of gravity was well in front of the center of lift and the center of pressure (drag). a. To illustrate the difference between stable and unstable designs, take a shirt cardboard and, holding it by the leading edge, pull it rapidly through the air. It will stretch out behind your hand in a stable manner. This is a stable design Now take it by the trailing edge push forward from there. It will immediately flip up or down uncontrollably. That is an unstable design. b. The downside of aerodynamic stability is that the aircraft is nose-heavy and always trying to nose down. The elevator must therefore push the tail down to level the airplane. But in addition to rotating the airplane from nose-down to level, the elevator is exerting negative lift; that is, it is pushing the airplane down. In order to counteract this negative lift, the wing needs to be made larger to create more positive lift. This increases both weight and drag, decreasing aircraft performance. In pitch-up situations including hard turns which are the bread and butter of aerial combat, this negative effect is greatly magnified. c. The YF-16 became the world's first aircraft to be aerodynamically unstable by design. With its rearward center of gravity, its natural tendency is to nose up rather than down. So level flight is created by the elevator pushing the tail up rather than down, and therefore pushing the entire aircraft up. With the elevator working with the wing rather than against it, wing area, weight, and drag are reduced. The airplane was constantly on the verge of flipping up or down totally out of control,. and this tendency was being constantly caught and corrected by the fly-bywire control system so quickly that neither the pilot nor an outside observer could know anything was happening. If the control system were to fail, the aircraft would instantly disintegrate; however, this has never happened. HIGH G LOADS. Previous fighters were designed to take 7Gs, mainly because it was believed that the human pilot, even with a G-suit, could not handle more. The YF-16 seatback was reclined 30 degrees, rather than the usual 13 degrees. This was to increase the ability of the pilot to achieve 9Gs by reducing the vertical distance between head and heart. Additionally, the traditional center control stick was replaced by a stick on the right side, with an armrest to relieve the pilot of the need to support his arm when it weighed nine times normal. PILOT VISION. In addition to allowing full-circle horizontal vision and unprecedented vision over the sides, the YF-16 canopy was designed without bows in the forward hemisphere. GROWTH PREVENTION. Traditionally, room for growth has been considered an asset. Fighter aircraft have averaged weight gain of about one pound per day as new capabilities are added, cost increases, and performance declines. The F-15,

for example, was designed with about 15 cubic feet of empty space to allow for future installation of additional equipment.. In a radical departure, the YF-16 was intentionally designed with very little empty space, (about two cubic feet)., with the explicit intention of preventing growth. One member of the House Armed Services Committee actually wrote to the Secretary of the Air Force asking that the F-16's empty space be filled with Styrofoam to insure that "gold-plated junk" was not added to the design. 6. COMBAT RADIUS AND PERSISTENCE. General Dynamics chose a single turbofan engine, essentially the same engine as one of the two that powered the F15. Use of a single engine helped minimize weight and drag; use of a turbofan rather than a pure jet engine gave high fuel efficiency. Additionally, the YF-16 designers used a "blended body" design in which the wing gradually thickened at the root and blended into the body contours without the usual visible joint. The space thus created was filled with fuel. With such a high fuel fraction and a fuelefficient engine, the YF-16 was able to break the presumption that small aircraft were necessarily short-ranged. 7. RADAR INTEGRATION. Because the YF-16 carried no radar-guided missiles, it could only fight within visual range. Moreover, the small weight and space available limited the range of its radar. Nevertheless, it was given a technologically advanced small radar, with excellent look-down capability. Most importantly, the radar was integrated with the visual combat mode. That is, the radar projected an image of the target aircraft onto the Head Up Display so that, by looking at that image, the pilot was looking exactly where the target would become visible as he approached it. The competing Northrop YF-17 design was somewhat larger than the YF-16, and used two smaller pure jet engines. At the price of reduced range and persistence, the YF-17 avoided the main problem of the YF-16's turbofan: the inertia of the large fan required too long - in some cases six seconds - to spool up from idle to full power. In other respects, the YF-17 progressed better than expected, given its initial last place position. Northrop argued that its twin-engine design added an essential safety factor, citing its experience with the small twin-engine F-5 fighter as an example. USAF did not find this persuasive, in part because a two engine plane with one engine out is useless in combat, and the probability of an engine failure was nominally twice as high with two engines as with one. The higher performance, better transient maneuverability, longer range, and lower cost of the YF-16 carried the day, and in 1976 the F-16 was chosen over the F-17. USAF was then in the uncomfortable position of having a lightweight fighter design that could outmaneuver and outrange its pride and joy, the F-15 air superiority fighter. In realworld combat conditions, which meant Mach 1.2 or below, the F-16s held a significant edge over the F-15. To some extent this problem was solved by designating the F-16 as a "swing fighter" to do both air-to-air and air-to-ground, while the F-15 was to continue its aristocratic mission of pure air-to-air.

Probably the F-16's greatest asset during development was its unpopularity with the USAF establishment. Knowing that their airplane was in constant threat of cancellation, the General Dynamics designers were inspired to do everything possible and then some to maintain performance and prevent cost growth. For example, while the F-15 was about 25% titanium, titanium in the F-16 was limited to 2%. As another example, a fixed engine inlet was used to hold down cost, even though a variable inlet would have given better performance above Mach 1.5. The F-16 has been, by any standard, a success. USAF has used it heavily and successfully for air-to-ground in the 1991 Gulf war and all subsequent conflicts. The Israeli Air Force has also had great success with it. With the benefit of hindsight, it is worthwhile to look back from the current (2003) vantage point to see how the original concept has faired 1. FLY BY WIRE has been a clear success. It is now used in essentially all military fixed wing aircraft and on many commercial aircraft. 2. NEGATIVE STABILITY, or at least reduced positive stability, has worked without a failure - no F-16s have disintegrated in air from control system failure and is coming into increasing use. 3. HIGH G LOADS. The 9G standard pioneered by the F-16 is now universal for new fighter designs, although it is achieved more by pilot training than by hardware. Benefit of the 30-degree reclining seat back has not been clearly established, and many pilots find it increases the difficult of checking their six o'clock position while in hard maneuvers. So more recent designs have not copied the F-16 seat. Similarly, the side stick has worked well but has not proven as essential as its designers originally expected. One enduring controversy is whether control systems should, as is the case with the F-16 be programmed to unconditionally limit the aircraft to 9gs, or whether higher loads should be permitted in emergencies. One eminent General Dynamics test pilot, a "super pilot" who in his fifties was still able to sustain 9Gs for 45 seconds, published an article on the subject in "Code One", the General Dynamics house organ, arguing that there was not enough useful benefit in being able to exceed 9 Gs to justify the strain on the airframe, particularly since few pilots could retain functionality above 9Gs. Tragically and ironically, this pilot was killed when his plane, pulling 9Gs in a hard maneuver, was unable to pull up enough to avoid the impacting the ground. This outstanding pilot might have been able to function with a brief application of 10, 11, or even 12Gs. Could that have saved him and his aircraft? Could it save others in the future? 4. PILOT VISION. Pilots like the F-16 canopy without front bows for its quietness as well as its vision. One drawback is that in order to avoid optical distortion in the bowless design, the conventional use of thick polycarbonate on the front to protect against birdstrike, and thinner polycarbonate for the rest of the canopy, cannot be used. Because the F-16 canopy uses thick polycarbonate throughout, it is not possible to eject by using the seat to puncture through the canopy. The canopy must first be blown off by small rockets, prolonging the ejection sequence

slightly. On balance, the F-16 canopy concept is considered successful and it is continued in the F-22. On the other hand, neither Joint Strike Fighter candidate used full-circle vision, much less a bowless canopy. 5. GROWTH PREVENTION. The original concept of a small day ait-to-air fighter was lost before the first production aircraft. The fuselage was extended so that the single-seat versions became as long as the two-seat version, and air-to-ground capability was added. As its life progressed, the F-16 became progressively larger and heavier as more capability, including the AMRAAM radar-guided missile, chaff and flare dispensers, and more hard points were added. Still, weight gain has been only about half the traditional pound per day, so the determination of the original designers has not been in vain. 6. COMBAT RADIUS AND PERSISTENCE. The F-16 blended body has worked well, but has not been emulated in most newer designs. 7. RADAR INTEGRATION. Integration of radar with visual systems has been fully successful and is now standard fighter design.

In January 1972, the Lightweight Fighter Program solicited design specifications from several American manufacturers. Participants were told to tailor their specifications toward the goal of developing a true air superiority lightweight fighter. General Dynamics and Northrop were asked to build prototypes, which could be evaluated with no promise of a follow-on production contract. These were to be strictly technology demonstrators. The two contractors were given creative freedom to build their own vision of a lightweight air superiority fighter, with only a limited number of specified performance goals. Northrop produced the twin-engine YF-17, using breakthrough aerodynamic technologies and two high-thrust engines. General Dynamics countered with the compact YF-16, built around a single F100 engine. When the Lightweight Fighter competition was completed early in 1975, both the YF-16 and the YF-17 showed great promise. The two prototypes performed so well, in fact, that both were selected for military service. On 13 January 1975 the Air Force announced that the YF-16's performance had made it the winner of its Air Combat Fighter (ACF) competition. This marked a shift from the original intention to use the two airplanes strictly as technology demonstrators. General Dynamics' YF-16 had generally shown superior performance over its rival from Northrop. At the same time, the shark-like fighter was judged to have production costs lower than expected, both for initial procurement and over the life cycle of the plane. At the same time, the YF-16 had proved the usefulness not only of fly-by-wire flight controls, but also such innovations as reclined seat backs and transparent head-up display (HUD) panels to facilitate high-G maneuvering, and the use of high profile, one-piece canopies to give pilots greater visibility. Thus, the Air Force had its lightweight fighter, the F-16. The original F-16 was designed as a lightweight air-to-air day fighter. Air-to-ground responsibilities transformed the first production F-16s into multirole fighters. The empty weight of the Block 10 F-16A is 15,600 pounds. The empty weight of the Block 50 is

19,200 pounds. The A in F-16A refers to a Block 1 through 20 single-seat aircraft. The B in F-16B refers to the two-seat version. The letters C and D were substituted for A and B, respectively, beginning with Block 25. Block is an important term in tracing the F-16's evolution. Basically, a block is a numerical milestone. The block number increases whenever a new production configuration for the F-16 is established. Not all F-16s within a given block are the same. They fall into a number of block subsets called miniblocks. These sub-block sets are denoted by capital letters following the block number (Block 15S, for example). From Block 30/32 on, a major block designation ending in 0 signifies a General Electric engine; one ending in 2 signifies a Pratt & Whitney engine. The F-16A, a single-seat model, first flew in December 1976. The first operational F-16A was delivered in January 1979 to the 388th Tactical Fighter Wing at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. The F-16B, a two-seat model, has tandem cockpits that are about the same size as the one in the A model. Its bubble canopy extends to cover the second cockpit. To make room for the second cockpit, the forward fuselage fuel tank and avionics growth space were reduced. During training, the forward cockpit is used by a student pilot with an instructor pilot in the rear cockpit.

Block 1 and Block 5 F-16s were manufactured through 1981 for USAF and for four European air forces. Most Blocks 1 and 5 aircraft were upgraded to a Block 10 standard in a program called Pacer Loft in 1982.  Block 10 aircraft (312 total) were built through 1980. The differences between these early F-16 versions are relatively minor.  Block 15 aircraft represent the most numerous version of the more than 3,600 F16s manufactured to date. The transition from Block 10 to Block 15 resulted in two hardpoints added to the chin of the inlet. The larger horizontal tails, which grew in area by about thirty percent are the most noticeable difference between Block 15 and previous F-16 versions. The F-16C and F-16D aircraft, which are the single- and two-place counterparts to the F16A/B, incorporate the latest cockpit control and display technology. All F-16s delivered since November 1981 have built-in structural and wiring provisions and systems architecture that permit expansion of the multirole flexibility to perform precision strike, night attack and beyond-visual-range interception missions. All active units and many Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units have converted to the F-16C/D, which is deployed in a number of Block variants.

Block 25 added the ability to carry AMRAAM to the F-16 as well as night/precision ground-attack capabilities, as well as an improved radar, the Westinghouse (now Northrop-Grumman) AN/APG-68, with increased range, better resolution, and more operating modes.  Block 30/32 added two new engines -- Block 30 designates a General Electric F110-GE-100 engine, and Block 32 designates a Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220 engine. Block 30/32 can carry the AGM-45 Shrike and the AGM-88A HARM, and like the Block 25, it can carry the AGM-65 Maverick.

Block 40/42 - F-16CG/DG - gained capabilities for navigation and precision attack in all weather conditions and at night with the LANTIRN pods and more extensive air-to-ground loads, including the GBU-10, GBU-12, GBU-24 Paveway laser-guided bombs and the GBU-15. Block 40/42 production began in 1988 and ran through 1995. Currently, the Block 40s are being upgraded with several Block 50 systems: ALR-56M threat warning system, the ALE-47 advanced chaff/flare dispenser, an improved performance battery, and Falcon UP structural upgrade.  Block 50/52 Equipped with a Northrop Grumman APG-68(V)7 radar and a General Electric F110-GE-129 Increased Performance Engine, the aircraft are also capable of using the Lockheed Martin low-altitude navigation and targeting for night (LANTIRN) system. Technology enhancements include color multifunctional displays and programmable display generator, a new Modular Mission Computer, a Digital Terrain System, a new color video camera and color triple-deck video recorder to record the pilot's head-up display view, and an upgraded data transfer unit. In May 2000, the Air Force certitified Block 50/52 [aka Block 50 Plus] F-16s to carry the CBU-103/104/105 Wind-Corrected Munitions Dispenser, the AGM-154 Joint Stand-Off Weapon, the GBU-31/32 Joint Direct Attack Munition, and the Theater Airborne Reconnaissance System. Beginning in mid-2000, Lockheed-Martin began to deliver Block 50/52 variants equipped with an on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS) designed to replace the obsolete, original LOX system.  Block 50D/52D Wild Weasel F-16CJ (CJ means block 50) comes in C-Model (1 seat) and D-Model (2 seat) versions. It is best recognized for its ability to carry the AGM-88 HARM and the AN/ASQ-213 HARM Targeting System (HTS) in the suppression of enemy air defenses [SEAD] mission. The HTS allows HARM to be employed in the range-known mode providing longer range shots with greater target specificity. This specialized version of the F-16, which can also carry the ALQ-119 Electronic Jamming Pod for self protection, became the sole provider for Air Force SEAD missions when the F-4G Wild Weasel was retired from the Air Force inventory. The lethal SEAD mission now rests solely on the shoulders of the F-16 Harm Targeting System. Although F-18s and EA-6Bs are HARM capable, the F-16 provides the ability to use the HARM in its most effective mode. The original concept called for teaming the F-15 Precision Direction Finding (PDF) and the F-16 HTS. Because this teaming concept is no longer feasible, the current approach calls for the improvement of the HTS capability. The improvement will come from the Joint Emitter Targeting System (JETS), which facilitates the use of HARM's most effective mode when launched from any JETS capable aircraft.  Block 60 - In May 1998 the UAE announced selection of the Block 60 F-16 to be delivered between 2002-2004. The upgrade package consists of a range of modern systems including conformal fuel tanks for greater range, new cockpit displays, an internal sensor suite, a new mission computer and other advanced features including a new agile beam radar. The Common Configuration Implementation Program (CCIP) for the USAF's F-16C/D fleet provides significant avionics upgrades to Block 40 and 50 F-16s, ensuring their

state-of-the-art capability well into the 21st century. A key element of the upgrade is a common hardware and software avionics configuration for these two blocks that will bring together the Block 40/42 and 50/52 versions into a common configuration of core avionics and software. The avionics changes consist of the following systems: Link 16 Multifunctional Information Distribution System (MIDS), Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS), commercial expanded programmable display generator, color multifunction display set, modular mission computer, mux loadable data entry display set and an electronic horizontal situation display. This package contains a number of systems being incorporated into European F-16s in the F-16A/B Mid-Life Update program. The first aircraft upgraded under CCIP were delivered to combat units in December 2001 (1). The Air Force will soon be flying only Block 40/42 and Block 50/52 F-16s in its activeduty units. Block 25 and Block 30/32 will be concentrated in Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units.

Service Life
The Falcon Up Structural Improvement Program program incorporates several major structural modifications into one overall program, affecting all USAF F-16s. Falcon Up will allow Block 25/30/32 aircraft to meet a 6000 hour service life, and allow Block 40/42 aircraft to meet an 8000 hour service life. In view of the challenges inherent in operating F-16s to 8,000 flight hours, together with the moderate risk involved in JSF integration, the Department has established a program to earmark by FY 2000 some 200 older, Block 15 F-16 fighter aircraft in inactive storage for potential reactivation. The purpose of this program is to provide a basis for constituting two combat wings more quickly than would be possible through new production. This force could offset aircraft withdrawn for unanticipated structural repairs or compensate for delays in the JSF program. Reactivating older F-16s is not a preferred course of action, but represents a relatively low-cost hedge against such occurrences. Specifications Primary Function Builder Power Plant Thrust Length Height Multirole fighter Lockheed Martin Corp. F-16C/D: one Pratt and Whitney F100-PW-200/220/229 or one General Electric F110-GE-100/129 F-16C/D, 27,000 pounds(12,150 kilograms) 49 feet, 5 inches (14.8 meters) 16 feet (4.8 meters)

Wingspan Speed Ceiling Maximum Takeoff Weight

32 feet, 8 inches (9.8 meters) 1,500 mph (Mach 2 at altitude) Above 50,000 feet (15 kilometers) 37,500 pounds (16,875 kilograms)

740 nm (1,370 km) w/ 2 2,000-lb bombs + 2 AIM-9 + 1,040 US gal external tanks Combat Radius [F- 340 nm (630 km) w/ 4 2,000-lb bombs + 2 AIM-9 + 340 US gal external tanks 16C] 200 nm (370 km) + 2 hr 10 min patrol w/ 2 AIM-7 + 2 AIM-9 + 1,040 US gal external tanks Range Over 2,100 nm (2,425 mi; 3,900 km)

One M-61A1 20mm multibarrel cannon with 500 rounds; external stations can carry up to six air-to-air missiles, conventional air-toair and air-to-surface munitions and electronic countermeasure pods. MK MK AGM AGM CBU CBU CBU GBU GBU AIM AIM 20 82 84 65 88 87 89 97 10 12 9 120 MM 6 2 2 500 2 2 2 500 2 2 2 500 Armament 2 2 2 500 4 2 2 500 4 2 2 500 4 2 2 500 2 2 2 500 6 2 2 500 2 4 500 6 500 Systems AN/APG-66 pulsed-Doppler radar AN/AAQ-13 LANTIRN NAVIGATION POD AN/AAQ-14 LANTIRN/SHARPSHOOTER AN/AAQ-20 PATHFINDER NAVIGATION POD AN/AAS-35 PAVE PENNY LASER SPOT TRACKER POD AN/ASQ-213 HARM TARGETING SYSTEM POD AN/ALQ-119 ECM POD AN/ALQ-131 ECM POD AN/ALQ-178 internal ECM

AN/ALQ-184 ECM POD AN/ALR-56M threat warning receiver [F-16C/D Block 50/52] AN/ALR-69 radar warning system (RWR) AN/ALR-74 radar warning system (RWR) [replaces AN/ALR69] AN/ALE-40 chaff/flare dispenser AN/ALE-47 chaff/flare dispenser Unit cost $FY98 [Total Program] Crew Date Deployed

F-16C/D, $26.9 million [final order]

F-16C: one; F-16D: one or two January 1979 1-seat 2-seat TOTAL F-16 A&C F-16 B&D Block 1 Block 5 Block 10 Block 15 Block 25 Block 30 Block 32 21 89 145 409 209 360 56 234 150 175 42 674 1,216 1,890 22 27 25 46 35 48 5 31 47 28 12 121 205 326 43 116 170 455 244 408 61 265 197 203 54 795 1,421 2,216

Total Production [for USAF]

Block 40 Block 42 Block 50 Block 52 F-16A/B F-16C/D


F-16C Block 50 currently in production Final 3 aircraft ordered in FY1998 15 aircraft to be delivered after 01 Jan 99 Final aircraft of 2216 delivered March 2001

PAI TAI Inventory As of Sept. 30, 2001 Active Duty 638 735 576 70

Air National Guard 462 Air Force Reserve Totals 59

1159 1381

PMAI Primary Mission Aircraft Inventory

246 Air Combat Command 126 Pacific Air Forces 72 US Air Forces Europe 60 Air Force Reserve 315 Air National Guard 105 Air National Guard Air Defense Force 924 TOTAL Only combat-coded aircraft Excludes development/ test, attrition reserve, depot maintenance, and training aircraft.

F-16 Mission Missile Configurations

F-16 Rail Stores Loadin gs

Right Wing 7 5 7 a6 R Sidewi 37 nder 0g

Cente r 5 5 L

Left Wing 3 4a 3 2 1 37 Sidewi AMR AMRA 0g nder AAM AM

Rail ID 9 8 Defens AMRA AMR ive AM AAM

Count erair

Ta nk 37 0g Ta nk 37 0g Ta nk

Ta nk 37 0g Ta nk 37 0g Ta nk

Interdi ction 1


GBU2 4


GBU2 4


Interdi ction 2 Suppr ess Enemy Air Defens e

Sidewi nder

AGM6 5


AGM6 5

Sidewi nder

Sidewi nder


37 0g Ta nk


37 0g Ta nk


Sidewi nder


Block 50D/52D F-16CJ Wild Weasel

YF-17 Cobra
The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet traces its direct ancestry to the Northrop Cobra, a twin engine multimission fighter design developed for the export market in the late 1960s. In the early 1970s the Air Force pressed for development of a new generation of lightweight fighters-single-seat jet aircraft "optimized" for agility and air combat maneuvering, with high thrust-to-weight ratios (above 1 to 1), and good acceleration. Out of this interest came the so-called "Lightweight Fighter" program. In January 1972, the Lightweight Fighter Program solicited design specifications from several American manufacturers. Participants were told to tailor their specifications toward the goal of developing a true air superiority lightweight fighter. General Dynamics and Northrop were asked to build prototypes, which could be evaluated with no promise of a follow-on production contract. These were to be strictly technology demonstrators. The two contractors were given creative freedom to build their own vision of a lightweight air superiority fighter, with only a limited number of specified performance goals. Northrop's entry was derived from the Cobra design. Northrop produced the twin-engine YF-17 using breakthrough aerodynamic technologies and two high-thrust General Electric YJ101 engines. General Dynamics countered with the compact YF-16, built around a single F100 engine. Midway down the development path the stakes changed; what had been a technology demonstration became a Department of Defense competition for a new fighter for both the Air Force and Navy, and for allied nations as well. First flight of the YF-17 was in June 1974. By this time, the Air Force had decided to proceed with Air Combat Fighter (ACF) Program, based on flight testing of the YF-16 and YF-17 prototypes. The Navy was also initiating a program to develop a new VFAX in this time period--a strike fighter to replace both the F-4s and A-7s in its carrier air wings. When the Lightweight Fighter competition was completed early in 1975, both the YF-16 and the YF-17 showed great promise. The two prototypes performed so well, in fact, that both were selected for military service. The Air Force selected the F-16 to be produced for the Tactical Air Command, and the Navy was directed by Congress to base the VFAX on either the YF-16 or YF-17 designs. The Navy, unhappy with the outcome, proceeded independently with a derivative of the YF-17 Cobra, this evolving into the Navy's Northrop F-18 Hornet fighter program. To meet Navy requirements, considerable improvements in areas such as combat radius and radar capability were incorporated, in addition to carrier suitability features. The resulting redesign was extensive and, when the McDonnell Douglas design was selected as winner in 1976, it was assigned the F-18A designation. After sitting briefly in storage, the two YF-17 prototypes flew again, this time as development aircraft for the proposed F-18. At the request of the Navy, Dryden flew the first YF-17 for base drag studies and to evaluate the maneuvering capability and limitations of the aircraft. NASA pilots-all of whom got at least one flight in the plane-

and engineers examined the YF-17's buffet, stability and control, handling qualities, and acceleration characteristics.

F/A-18 Hornet
The F/A-18 "Hornet" is a single- and two-seat, twin engine, multi-mission fighter/attack aircraft that can operate from either aircraft carriers or land bases. The F/A-18 fills a variety of roles: air superiority, fighter escort, suppression of enemy air defenses, reconnaissance, forward air control, close and deep air support, and day and night strike missions. The F/A-18 Hornet replaced the F-4 Phantom II fighter and A-7 Corsair II light attack jet, and also replaced the A-6 Intruder as these aircraft were retired during the 1990s. The F/A-18 has a digital control-by-wire flight control system which provides excellent handling qualities, and allows pilots to learn to fly the airplane with relative ease. At the same time, this system provides exceptional maneuverability and allows the pilot to concentrate on operating the weapons system. A solid thrust-to-weight ratio and superior turn characteristics combined with energy sustainability, enable the F/A-18 to hold its own against any adversary. The power to maintain evasive action is what many pilots consider the Hornet's finest trait. In addition, the F/A-18 was also the Navy's first tactical jet aircraft to incorporate a digital, MUX bus architecture for the entire system's avionics suite. The benefit of this design feature is that the F/A-18 has been relatively easy to upgrade on a regular, affordable basis. The F/A-18 has proven to be an ideal component of the carrier based tactical aviation equation over its 15 years of operational experience. The only F/A-18 characteristic found to be marginally adequate by battle group commanders, outside experts, and even the men who fly the Hornet, is its range when flown on certain strike mission profiles. However, the inadequacy is managed well with organic and joint tanking assets.

F/A-18A/B Hornet
While the general configuration of the YF-17 was retained, the F-18 became a completely new airplane. To meet the single-place fighter and attack mission capability, full use was made of new technology in digital computers. Coupled with cathode ray tubes for cockpit displays and appropriate controls based on thorough pilot evaluations in simulators, a single airplane and subsystems configuration for both missions was evolved During development, two-place trainer versions were added, to be built in limited numbers as TF/A-18s, intermingled with the basic F/As. Minimum changes were made to incorporate the second cockpit, with the two-seat airplanes retaining the ability to perform combat missions. Making the first flight in November 1978, the F/A-18 and its two-place derivative [subsequently redesignated the F/A-18B] underwent most of their development testing at the Naval Air Test Center under the new single-site testing concept. While much attention was focused on development problems, these were largely typical of those in any new program, with their resolution being part of the development process. For the most part, these occurred in the basic aircraft hardware rather than in the digital electronic systems.

The original F/A-18A (single seat) and F/A-18B (dual seat) became operational in 1983 replacing Navy and Marine Corps F-4s and A-7s. It quickly became the battle group commander's mainstay because of its capability, versatility and availability. Reliability and ease of maintenance were emphasized in its design, and F/A-18s have consistently flown three times more hours without failure than other Navy tactical aircraft, while requiring half the maintenance time. The Hornet has been battle tested and has proved itself to be exactly what its designers intended: a highly reliable and versatile strike fighter. The F/A-18 played an important role in the 1986 strikes against Libya. Flying from USS CORAL SEA (CV 43), F/A-18s launched high-speed anti-radiation missiles (HARMs) against Libyan air defense radars and missile sites, effectively silencing them during the attacks on Benghazi facilities.

F/A-18C/D Hornet
Following a successful run of more than 400 A and B models, the US Navy began taking fleet deliveries of improved F/A-18C (single seat) and F/A-18D (dual seat) models in September 1987. These Hornets carry the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) and the infrared imaging Maverick air-to-ground missile. Two years later, the C/D models came with improved night attack capabilities. The new components included a navigation forward looking infrared (NAVFLIR) pod, a raster head-up display, night vision goggles, special cockpit lighting compatible with the night vision devices, a digital color moving map and an independent multipurpose color display. F/A-18Cs have synthetic aperture ground mapping radar with a doppler beam sharpening mode to generate ground maps. This ground mapping capability that permits crews to locate and attack targets in adverse weather and poor visibility or to precisely update the aircraft's location relative to targets during the approach, a capability that improves bombing accuracy. New production F/A-18Cs received the APG-73 radar upgrade radars starting in 1994, providing more precise and clear radar displays. The F/A-18C Nigh Attack Hornet has a pod-mounted Hughes AN/AAR-50 thermal imaging navigation set, a Loral AN/AAS-38 Nite Hawk FLIR targeting pod, and GEC Cat's Eyes pilot's night vision goggles. Some 48 F/A-18D two-seat Hornets are configured as the F/A-18D (RC) reconnaissance version, with the M61A1 cannon replaced by a pallet-mounted electro-optical suite comprising a blister-mounted IR linescan and two roll-stabilized sensor units, with all of these units recording onto video tape. On the first day of Operation Desert Storm, two F/A-18s, each carrying four 2,000 lb. bombs, shot down two Iraqi MiGs and then proceeded to deliver their bombs on target. Throughout the Gulf War, squadrons of U.S. Navy, Marine and Canadian F/A-18s operated around the clock, setting records daily in reliability, survivability and ton-miles of ordnance delivered.

The Navy announced 18 May 1998 that its East Coast F/A-18 squadrons will relocate to Naval Air Station Oceana in Virginia Beach VA and Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort in Beaufort, SC. The jets will move from Naval Air Station Cecil Field in Jacksonville FL which was ordered closed by the 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Commission. Nine operational squadrons and the Fleet Replacement Squadron -- a total of 156 planes - will move to Oceana. Two squadrons totaling 24 planes will move to Beaufort. The first squadron will move in the fall of 1998 and all 11 fleet squadrons and the Fleet Replacement Squadron completed their moves by October 1999. Throughout its service, annual upgrades to F/A-18 weapon systems, sensors, etc. continued. The latest lot of the F/A-18C/D has grown to be far more capable (night attack, precision strike, low observable technologies, etc.) than the original F/A-18A/B; however, by 1991, it was becoming clear that avionics cooling, electrical, and space constraints would begin to limit future growth. Additionally, another operational deficiency was beginning to develop. As the F/A-18C/D empty weight increased the aircraft were returning to the carrier with less than optimal reserve fuel and/or unexpended weapons. The additional range and "bring back" is not as essential to shore based operations. F/A-18A/B/C/D aircraft will fly for years with the U.S. Marine Corps and eight international customers: Australia, Canada, Finland, Kuwait, Malaysia, Spain, Switzerland and Thailand. Although the F/A-18C/D's future growth is now limited, it will also continue to fill a critical role in the U.S. Navy's carrier battle group for many years to come and will be an excellent complement to the larger, longer range, more capable F/A18E/F Super Hornet.

F/A-18E/F "Super Hornet"
The multi-mission F/A-18E/F "Super Hornet" strike fighter is an upgrade of the combatproven night strike F/A-18C/D. The Super Hornet will provide the battle group commander with a platform that has range, endurance, and ordnance carriage capabilities comparable to the A-6 which have been retired. The F/A-18E/F aircraft are 4.2 feet longer than earlier Hornets, have a 25% larger wing area, and carry 33% more internal fuel which will effectively increase mission range by 41% and endurance by 50%. The Super Hornet also incorporates two additional weapon stations. This allows for increased payload flexibility by mixing and matching air-to-air and/or air-to-ground ordnance. The aircraft can also carry the complete complement of "smart" weapons, including the newest joint weapons such as JDAM and JSOW. The Super Hornet can carry approximately 17,750 pounds (8,032 kg) of external load on eleven stations. It has an all-weather air-to-air radar and a control system for accurate delivery of conventional or guided weapons. There are two wing tip stations, four inboard wing stations for fuel tanks or air-to-ground weapons, two nacelle fuselage stations for Sparrows or sensor pods, and one centerline station for fuel or air-to-ground weapons. An internal 20 mm M61A1 Vulcan cannon is mounted in the nose. Carrier recovery payload is increased to 9,000 pounds, and its engine thrust from 36,000 pounds to 44,000 pounds utilizing two General Electric F414 turbo-fan engines.

Although the more recent F/A-18C/D aircraft have incorporated a modicum of low observables technology, the F/A-18E/F was designed from the outset to optimize this and other survivability enhancements. The Hughes Advanced Targeting Forward-Looking Infra-Red (ATFLIR), the baseline infrared system for the F/A-18 E/F, will also be deployed on earlier model F/A-18s. The Hughes pod features both navigation and infrared targeting systems, incorporating third generation mid-wave infrared (MWIR) staring focal plane technology.

Although 41% interdiction mission range increase may be the most notable F/A-18E/F improvement, the ability to recover aboard with optimal reserve fuel and a load of precision strike weapons, is of equal importance to the battle group commander. The growth potential of the F/A-18E/F is more important to allow flexible employment strategies in future years. If an electronically scanned array antenna or another installation-sensitive sensor or weapon system becomes available, the F/A-18E/F has the space, power and cooling to accommodate it. Although the more recent F/A-18C/D aircraft have incorporated a modicum of low observables technology, the F/A-18E/F was designed from the outset to optimize this and other survivability enhancements. The allF/A-18C/D/E/F air wing brings an increase in capability to the carrier battle group while ensuring the potential to take advantage of technological advances for years to come.

Features of the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet: 90% Common F/A-18C/D Avionics: Avionics and software have a 90 percent commonality with current F/A-18C/Ds. However, the F/A-18E/F cockpit features a touch-sensitive, upfront control display; a larger, liquid crystal multipurpose color display; and a new engine fuel display. 34 in. Fuselage Extension: The fuselage is slightly longer - the result of a 34inch extension.

Two Additional Multi-Mission Weapons Stations: Super Hornet has two additional weapons stations, bringing the total to 11. For aircraft carrier operations, about three times more payload can be brought back to the ship. 25% Larger Wing: A full 25 percent bigger than its predecessor, Super Hornet has nearly half as many parts. 35% Higher Thrust Engines: Increased engine power comes from the F414-GE400, an advanced derivative of the Hornet's current F404 engine family. The F414 produces 35 percent more thrust and improves overall mission performance. Enlarged air inlets provide increased airflow to the engines. 33% Additional Internal Fuel: Structural changes to the airframe increase internal fuel capacity by 3,600 pounds, or about 33 percent. This extends the Hornet's mission radius by up to 40 percent. Roll-out of the first Super Hornet occurred in September 1995, and it flew for the first time in November 1995, ahead of schedule and nearly 1,000 pounds under specified weight. In January 1997, the Super Hornet successfully conducted its initial sea trials on board the Navy's newest aircraft carrier, USS JOHN C. STENNIS (CVN 74). The Navy is planning to procure a minimum of 548 Super Hornets, and possibly as many as 1,000. These numbers could vary depending on the progress of the Joint Strike Fighter Program. As part of the Quadrennial Defence Review (QDR) production of the Super Hornet was cut from 1000 to 548 units. Production of the aircraft commenced in FY 1997, and it is expected to attain initial operational capability (IOC) in FY 2001. Twelve aircraft were funded in FY 1997; procurement numbers increase to 20 in FY 1998, 30 in FY 1999, and reach a final maximum rate of 48 per year in FY 2001.

F/A-18G "Growler"
The EA-6B will begin retirement in the 2010 timeframe, after a career that exceeded 40 years of deployments in support of USN, USMC, and USAF strike forces. As of early 2000, Defense Department planning for replacing the EA-6B Prowler include a scheme under which the Navy would buy an F/A-18G "Growler" -- an F/A-18E/F modified for escort and close-in jamming. The Air Force would provide standoff jamming with modified EB-52s or EB-1s, and close-in jamming with unmanned air vehicles such as the Northrop Grumman Global Hawk or General Atomics Predator.

Contractor Boeing [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace] and Northrop Grumman (Airframe), General Electric (Engines), and Hughes (Radar) F/A-18C/D Hornet Power Plant F/A-18E/F Super Hornet

Two F404-GE-402 afterburning Twin F414-GE-400

engines, each in the 18,000 pound thrust class, which results in a combat thrust-to-weight ratio greater than 1-to-1. Depending on the mission and loading, combat radius is greater than 500 nautical miles. Accommodations

engines, each in the 22,000 pound thrust class. On an interdiction mission, the E/F will fly up to 40 % further than the C/D.

The F/A-18C and F/A-18E are single seat aircraft. The D and F models are flown by two crew members. The aft seat in the D and F may be configured with a stick and throttle for the training environment (or without when crewed with a Weapons System Officer). F/A-18C maximum speed at level flight in altitudes of 36,089 ft. Mach 1.7 F/A-18C/D can carry up to 13,700 pounds of external ordnance. Weapon stations include: two wingtip stations for Sidewinders; two outboard wing stations for air-to-air or air-toground weapons; two inboard wing stations for fuel tanks, airto-air, or air-to-ground weapons; two nacelle fuselage stations for AMRAAMs, Sparrows, or sensor pods; and one centerline station for fuel or air-to-ground weapons. M61 Vulcan 6-barrel rotary cannon with 520 rounds of 20mm ammunition is internally mounted in the nose AIM-9 Sidewinder AIM-7F Sparrow AIM-120 AMRAAM AGM-65E Maverick AGM-84 Harpoon AGM-88A HARM MK82 F/A-18E maximum speed at level flight in altitudes of 36,089 ft. Mach 1.6 F/A-18E/F can carry up to 17,750 pounds of external ordnance; two additional wing store stations have been added.



10 CBU-87 10 CBU-89 GBU-12 GBU-24 JDAM B-57 or B-61 Nuclear bomb Mission and Capabilities The F/A-18 Hornet can perform both air-to-air and airto-ground missions. Cockpit displays and mission avionics are thoroughly integrated to enhance crew situational awareness and mission capability in high threat, adverse weather/night environments. Cockpits are night vision goggle compatible. Multi-Sensor Integration and advanced data link capabilities further enhance situational awareness. $39.5 million. F/A-18A/B first entered operational service with the USN and USMC in 1982. The E/F model will be able to perform a strike tanker mission while carrying a selfprotection air-to-air missile loadout. The E/F model will also have greater payload flexibility, increased mission radius, survivability, payload bring back, and a substantial avionics growth potential. $60 million

Unit cost $FY98 [Total Program] Program Summary

The first flight of the F/A-18E/F occurred in December 1995; operational deliveries Since 1982, more than 1,458 are scheduled for late F/A-18s have been procured for 1999. the USN and USMC and for the armed services in Canada, Australia, Spain, Kuwait, Switzerland, Finland, and Malaysia. In 1987, the upgraded C/D model (with enhanced mission avionics) was introduced and upgraded with a night/adverse weather mission capability, On Board Oxygen Generating System, APG-73 Radar Upgrade, enhanced performance

F404-GE-402 engines, and upgraded mission computers.

External Dimensions
Wing span Wing span over missiles Wing chord (at root) Wing chord (at tip) Wing aspect ratio Width, wings folded Length overall Height overall Tailplane span Distance between fin tips Wheel track Wheelbase 11.43 m 12.31 m 4.04 m 1.68 m 3.52 8.38 m 17.07 m 4.66 m 6.58 m 3.60 m 3.11 m 5.42 m

Wing span over missiles Wing aspect ratio Width wings folded Length overall Height overall 13.62 meters 4.00 9.32 m 18.31 m 4.88 m

Wings, gross Ailerons (total) Leading-edge flaps (total) Trailing-edge flaps (total) Fins (total) Rudders (total) Tailerons (total) 37.16 m 2.27 m2 4.50 m2 5.75 m
2 2

Wings, gross 46.45 sq. meters

9.68 m2 1.45 m 8.18 m
2 2

Weights and Loadings
Weight empty Maximum fuel weight: Internal (JP5) External: F/A-18 (JP5) CF-18 (JP4) Maximum external stores load Take off weight: Fighter mission Attack mission Maximum Maximum wing loading (attack mission) 16,651 kg Approx 23,541 kg Approx 25,401 kg 156,80 kg/kN 4,926 kg 3,053 kg 4,245 kg 7,031 kg 10,810 kg

Weight, empty Design target Specification limit Maximum fuel weight: Internal External (JP5) Maximum external stores load (JP5) T-O weight, attack mission Maximum wing loading Maximum power loading 6.531 kg 4.436 kg 8.051 kg 29.937 kg 620.0 kg/m2 147.1 kg /kN 13.387 kg 13.865 kg

Performance (At Maximum Takeoff

Max level speed Max speed, intermediate power Approach speed Acceleration from 460 knots to 920 knots at 10,670 m Combat ceiling T-O run Minimum wind over deck: Launching Recovery Combat radius, interdiction, hi-lo-lohi Combat endurance, CAP 150 nm from aircraft carrier Ferry range, unrefueled 35 knots 19 knots 290 nm 1 h 45 min More than 1,800 nm More than Mach 1.8 More than Mach 1.0 134 knots under 2 min approx 15,240 m Less than 427 m Launching Recovery Combat radius specification: Interdiction with four 1,000 lb bombs, two Sidewinders, and two 1,818 liter (480 U.S. gallon: 400 Imp gallon) external tanks, navigation FLIR and targeting FLIR: Forward Looking Infra-Red hi-lo-lo-hi Fighter escort with two Sidewinders and 410 nm two AMRAAMs Combat endurance: maritime air superiority, six AAMs, three 1,818 liter external tanks, 150 nm from aircraft carrier. 2h 15 min 30 knots 15 knots 390 nm

Maximum level speed at altitude Combat ceiling Minimu m wind over deck: more than Mach 1.8 13,865 m

Weapons Loads FA-18E

MK AGM CBU CBU GBU GBU GBU AIM 82 88 87 89 10 12 24 JDAM 9 6 2 2 2 4 2 4 2 2 2 6 2 2 2 2 2 2

AIM 20 120 MM 2 500 2 500 2 500 2 500 2 500 2 500 2 500 2 500 6 500 8 500



F-20 Tigershark
Northrop developed the F-20 Tigershark in response to a U.S. Government call for the private development of a tactical fighter specifically tailored to meet the security needs of allied and friendly nations. The first flight of the Tigershark was made August 30, 1982. The Mach 2 class F-20 Tigershark's basic single-seat configuration was formally designated the F-20A. The F-20 combined propulsion, electronics and armament technologies with improvements in reliability to sustain high sortie rates in adverse weather. The F-20 incorporated a combination of advanced technology features. The F-20 could carry more than 8,300 pounds of external armaments and fuel on five pylons. It could carry six Sidewinder missiles on air-to-air missions. For air-to-ground missions, more than 6,800 pounds of armament could be carried. Two internally mounted 20mm guns were standard equipment on the Tigershark. The avionics system features a General Electric multimode radar, Honeywell laser inertial navigation system, General Electric head-up display, Bendix digital display and control set and Teledyne Systems mission computer. The F-20 is powered by a General Electric F404 engine, with 17,000 pounds of thrust. The F404 is recognized as one of the world's most reliable advanced technology engines. It is also used to power the U.S. Navy/Marine Corps F/A-18A Hornet strike fighter. Once airborne, the F-20 pilot utilized his multimode radar, which could detect and track targets at ranges of up to 48 nautical miles "look up" and 31 nautical miles "look down." The F-20 mission computer coordinated the aircraft's weapons systems. The head-up display placed critical weapons, target and flight data at the pilot's eye level. This allowed him to fight without having to look down. Northrop designed a new panoramic canopy for the F-20 that gave the pilot a 50 percent increase in rearward visibility over previous Northrop fighters. An improved seat and headrest design combined to substantially expand over-the-shoulder visibility, which is critical in air-to-air combat. Aerodynamic features of the F-20 included an enlarged leading edge extension to the wing, which generated up to 30 percent of the lift maneuvers. The "shark-shaped" nose allowed the F-20 to maneuver at much higher angles of attack than current operational fighters. The F-20 airframe could withstand nine G's. The F-20 was reliable and easy to maintain. Based on comparisons with the average of contemporary international fighters, the F-20 consumed 53 percent less fuel, required 52 percent less maintenance manpower, had 63 percent lower operating and maintenance costs and had four times the reliability.

Maximum Speed Mach 2 class Sea level rate-of-climb 52,800 feet/minute Combat ceiling Takeoff distance Takeoff Distance Scramble order to brake release Scramble order to 29,000 feet Time to 40,000 feet from brake release Acceleration Time Sustained Turn Rate 54,700 feet 1,600 feet 4,200 feet 52 seconds 2.5 minutes 2.3 minutes 0.3M to 0.9M, at 10,000 feet 28 seconds 0.8M at 15,000 feet 11.1 degrees/second

Maximum Load Factor 9g Length Height Wing Span Internal Fuel External Fuel Takeoff Weight 46 ft 6 in 13 ft 10 in 26 ft 8 in 5,050 lbs 6,435 lbs clean 18,005 lbs

Combat Thrust/Weight 1.1 ratio Combat Weight Maximum Weight 50% fuel, 2 AIM-9 missiles 15,820 lbs 27,500 lbs Two AIM-9 missiles Five pylons, more than 8,300 lbs external armaments


F-22 Raptor
The F-22 program is developing the next-generation air superiority fighter for the Air Force to counter emerging worldwide threats. It is designed to penetrate enemy airspace and achieve a first-look, first-kill capability against multiple targets. The F-22 is characterized by a low-observable, highly maneuverable airframe; advanced integrated avionics; and aerodynamic performance allowing supersonic cruise without afterburner. Stealth: Greatly increases survivability and lethality by denying the enemy critical information required to successfully attack the F-22 Integrated Avionics: Allows F-22 pilots unprecedented awareness of enemy forces through the fusion of on- and off-board information Supercruise: Enhances weapons effectiveness; allows rapid transit through the battlespace; reduces the enemy’s time to counter attack The F-22's engine is expected to be the first to provide the ability to fly faster than the speed of sound for an extended period of time without the high fuel consumption characteristic of aircraft that use afterburners to achieve supersonic speeds. It is expected to provide high performance and high fuel efficiency at slower speeds as well. For its primary air-to-air role, the F-22 will carry six AIM-120C and two AIM-9 missiles. For its air-to-ground role, the F-22 can internally carry two 1,000 pound-class Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM), two AIM-120C, and two AIM-9 missiles. With the Global Positioning System-guided JDAM, the F-22 will have an adverse weather capability to supplement the F-117 (and later the Joint Strike Fighter) for air-to-ground missions after achieving air dominance. The F-22's combat configuration is "clean", that is, with all armament carried internally and with no external stores. This is an important factor in the F-22's stealth characteristics, and it improves the fighter's aerodynamics by dramatically reducing drag, which, in turn, improves the F-22's range. The F-22 has four under wing hardpoints, each capable of carrying 5,000 pounds. A single pylon design, which features forward and aft sway braces, an aft pivot, electrical connections, and fuel and air connections, is used. Either a 600-gallon fuel tank or two LAU-128/A missile launchers can be attached to the bottom of the pylon, depending on the mission. There are two basic external configurations for the F-22:

Four 600 gallon fuel tanks, no external weapons: This configuration is used when the aircraft is being ferried and extra range is needed. A BRU-47/A rack is used on each pylon to hold the external tanks.  Two 600 gallon fuel tanks, four missiles: This configuration is used after air dominance in a battle area has been secured, and extra loiter time and firepower is required for Combat Air Patrol (CAP). The external fuel tanks, held by a BRU-

47/A rack are carried on the inboard stations, while a pylon fitted with two LAU128/A rail launchers is fitted to each of the outboard stations. An all-missile external loadout (two missiles on each of the stations) is possible and would not be difficult technically to integrate, but the Air Force has not stated a requirement for this configuration. Prior to its selection as winner of what was then known as the Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) competition, the F-22 team conducted a 54-month demonstration/ validation (dem/val) program. The effort involved the design, construction and flight testing of two YF-22 prototype aircraft. Two prototype engines, the Pratt & Whitney YF119 and General Electric YF120, also were developed and tested during the program. The dem/val program was completed in December 1990. Much of that work was performed at Boeing in Seattle, Lockheed (now known as Lockheed Martin) facilities in Burbank, Calif., and at General Dynamics' Fort Worth, Texas, facilities (now known as Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems). The prototypes were assembled in Lockheed's Palmdale, Calif., facility and made their maiden flight from there. Since that time Lockheed's program management and aircraft assembly operations have moved to Marietta, Ga., for the EMD and production phases. The F-22 passed milestone II in 1991. At that time, the Air Force planned to acquire 648 F-22 operational aircraft at a cost of $86.6 billion. After the Bottom Up Review, completed by DOD in September 1993, the planned quantity of F-22s was reduced to 442 at an estimated cost of $71.6 billion. A $9.55 billion contract for Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) of the F-22 was awarded to the industry team of Boeing and Lockheed Martin in August 1991. Contract changes since then have elevated the contract value to approximately $11 billion. Under terms of the contract, the F-22 team will complete the design of the aircraft, produce production tooling for the program, and build and test nine flightworthy and two ground-test aircraft. A Joint Estimate Team was chartered in June 1996 to review the F-22 program cost and schedule. JET concluded that the F-22 engineering and manufacturing development program would require additional time and funding to reduce risk before the F-22 enters production. JET estimated that the development cost would increase by about $1.45 billion. Also, JET concluded that F-22 production cost could grow by about $13 billion (from $48 billion to $61 billion) unless offset by various cost avoidance actions. As a result of the JET review the program was restructured, requiring an additional $2.2 billion be added to the EMD budget and 12 months be added to the schedule to ensure the achievement of a producible, affordable design prior to entering production. The program restructure allowed sourcing within F-22 program funds by deleting the three preproduction aircraft and slowing the production ramp. Potential for cost growth in production was contained within current budget estimate through cost reduction initiatives formalized in a government/industry memorandum of agreement. The Defense Acquisition Board principals reviewed the restructured program strategy and on February 11, 1997 the Defense Acquisition Executive issued an Acquisition Defense Memorandum approving the strategy.

The Quadrennial Defense Review Reportwhich was released in mid-May 1997, reduced the F-22 overall production quantity from 438 to 339, slowed the Low Rate Initial Production ramp from 70 to 58, and reduced the maximum production rate from 48 to 36 aircraft per year. The F-22 EMD program marked a successful first flight on September 7, 1997. The flight test program, which has already begun in Marietta, Georgia, will continue at Edwards AFB, California through the year 2001. Low rate production is scheduled to begin in FY99. The aircraft production rate will gradually increase to 36 aircraft per year in FY 2004, and will continue that rate until all 339 aircraft have been built (projected to be complete in 2013). Initial Operational Capability of one operational squadron is slated for December 2005. The F-15 fleet is experiencing problems with avionics parts obsolescence, and the average age of the fleet will be more than 30 years when the last F-22 is delivered in 2013. But the current inventory of F-15s can be economically maintained in a structurally sound condition until 2015 or later. None of the 918 F-15s that were in the inventory in July 1992 will begin to exceed their expected economic service lives until 2014.

Function Air superiority fighter Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems: F-22 program management, the integrated forebody (nose section) and forward fuselage (including the cockpit and inlets), leading edges of the wings, the fins and stabilators, flaps, ailerons, landing gear and final assembly of the aircraft. Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems: Center fuselage, stores management, integrated navigation and electronic warfare systems (INEWS), the communications, navigation, and identification (CNI) system, and the weapon support system. Boeing: wings, aft fuselage (including the structures necessary for engine and nozzle installation), radar system development and testing, avionics integration, the training system, and flight-test development and management. Pratt & Whitney: F119-PW-100 engines that power the Raptor. (partial list): Northrop Grumman, Texas Instruments,


Major Subcontractors

Kidde-Graviner Ltd., Allied-Signal Aerospace, Hughes Radar Systems, Harris, Fairchild Defense, GEC Avionics, Lockheed Sanders, Kaiser Electronics, Digital Equipment Corp., Rosemount Aerospace, Curtiss-Wright Flight Systems, Dowty Decoto, EDO Corp., Lear Astronics Corp., Parker-Hannifin Corp., Simmonds Precision, Sterer Engineering, TRW, XAR, Motorola, Hamilton Standard, Sanders/GE Joint Venture, Menasco Aerospace. Propulsion Thrust Length Height Wingspan Wing Area Horizontal Tailspan Maximum Takeoff Weight Ceiling Speed Crew Mach 1.8 (supercruise: Mach 1.5) one Two AIM-9 Sidewinders six AIM-120C Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAM) one 20mm Gatling gun two 1,000-pound Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) September 7, 1997 deliveries beginning in 2002 operational by 2004
DOD's Projected Unit Prices Before and After

two Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 engines 35,000 lbst 62.08 feet, 18.90 meters 16.67 feet, 5.08 meters 44.5 feet, 13.56 meters 840 square feet 29 feet, 8.84 meters


First flight: Date Deployed

Unit Costs

Restructuring Production ------------------------Low-rate

Full-rate --------------------Units Unit Units Unit Estimates cost cost -------------------------- ---- ------ --- -----Before restructuring 76 $142.6 362 $102.8 Restructured without 70 $200.3 368 $128.2 initiatives Restructured with 70 $200.8 368 $ 92.4 initiatives ----------------------------------------------------SOURCE: GAO June 1997 --

YF-23 Black Widow II
Two YF-23 prototypes were designed and built by the contractor team of Northrop and McDonnell Douglas as part of the demonstration and evaluation phase of the US Air Force's Advanced Tactical Fighter selection program, which concluded in 1990. According to the Air Force, factors in the selection for production of the F-22 were a better designed for maintainability, greater potential for future development, and slightly lower cost. A popular view is that the decision reflected a preference for maneuverability over stealth, and it is universally held that the YF-23 was by far the better looking aircraft. During the ATF program, one YF-23 was powered by twin Pratt and Whitney YF119 turbofan engines, while two General Electric YF120 turbofan engines were installed in the other prototype. Featuring a diamond-shaped planform, two large, sharply-canted ruddervators, and a serrated aft profile, the high performance aircraft was larger than the F-15 it was designed to replace. The YF-23 employed stealth characteristics and was capable of supersonic cruise flight without afterburner.

Contractor Mission Length Wing span Height Maximum takeoff weight Propulsion Speed Range Northrop / McDonnell Douglas Competitor, along with YF-22, in the ATF competition 67 feet, 5 inches (20.6 meters) 43 feet, 7 inches (13.3 meters) 13 feet, 11 inches (4.3 meters) 64,000 pounds (29,029 kilograms) 2 Pratt and Whitney YF119 turbofan engines, or 2 General Electric YF120 turbofan engines Mach 2 865-920 miles (750-800 nautical miles) unrefuelled 4 AIM-9 Sidewinder - internal bays in engine intake duct sides 4 AIM-120 AMRAAM - internal bays underneath air intakes One Unknown Two: 1 on display at Western Museum of Flight, in


Crew Unit Cost Inventory

Hawthorne, California 1 on display at USAF Museum USAF Test Center Museum at Edwards Air Force Base, California

F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)
The F-35 is the result of the Defense Department's Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, which sought to build a multirole fighter optimized for the air-to-ground role with secondary air-to-air capability. The JSF requirement was to meet the needs of the Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and allies, with improved survivability, precision engagement capability, and reduced life cycle costs. By using many of the same technologies developed for the F-22, the F-35 has the opportunity to capitalize on commonality and modularity to maximize affordability. The Lockheed Martin X-35 was chosen over the competing Boeing X-32 primarily because of Lockheed’s lift-fan STOVL design, which proved superior to the Boeing vectored-thrust approach. The lift fan, which is powered by the aircraft engine via a clutched driveshaft, was technically challenging but DoD concluded that Lockheed has the technology in hand. The lift fan has significant excess power which could be critical given the weight gain that all fighter aircraft experience. Lockheed Martin developed four versions of the Joint Strike Fighter to fulfill the needs of the Navy, Marine Corps, Army, Air Force and the United Kingdom Royal Air Force and Navy. All versions have the same fuselage and internal weapons bay, common outer mold lines with similar structural geometries, identical wing sweeps, and comparable tail shapes. The weapons are stored in two parallel bays located aft of the main landing gear. The canopy, radar, ejection system, subsystems, and avionics are all common among all different version as is the core engine which is based on the F119 by Pratt & Whitney. Additional systems on the F-35 include: 1. Northrup Grumman advanced electronically scanned array (AESA) multifunction radar 2. Snader/Litton Amecon electronic countermeasures equipment 3. Lockheed Martin electro-optical targeting system 4. Northrup Grumman distributed aperture infrared sensor (DAIRS) thermal imaging system 5. Vision Systems International advanced helmet-mounted display

F-35 Variants
US Air Force

The Air Force expects that to purchase 1763 F-35s to complement the F-22 Raptor and replace the F-16 as an air-toground strike aircraft. The Air Force variant includes an internal gun, infrared sensors, and laser designator. This is the technologically simplest version of the JSF, in that it does not require hover or aircraft carrier capability. Therefore it does not require the vertical thrust or the handling qualities for catapult launches, augmented control authority at landing approach speeds and strengthened structure to handle arrested landings. At the same time, the Air Force F-35 will have to improve upon the high standards created by the F-16. Since replacement of the F-16 by the F-35 will entail a significant payload reduction, the F-35 faces a very demanding one shot one kill requirement.

US Navy
The requirement for carrier operations creates the largest differences between the Air Force and Navy version. The naval version has larger wing and tail control surfaces to enable low-speed approaches to aircraft carriers. Leadingedge flaps and foldable wing tip sections account for this increased wing area. The larger wing area also provides the Navy version with an increased payload capability. To support the stresses of carrier landings and catapult launches, the internal structure of this version is strengthened. In addition, the landing gear has longer stroke and higher load capacity, and of course an arresting hook is added. Compared to the F-18C, the F-35 has twice the range on internal fuel.. The design is also optimized for survivability, which is a key Navy requirement. Like the USAF version, the Navy version will incorporate an internal gun and sensors. This new fighter will be used by the Navy as a first-day-of-war attack fighter in conjunction with the F/A-18 Hornet. The Navy plans to purchase 480 JSF.

US Marine Corps
The distinguishing feature of the USMC version of the JSF is its short takeoff/vertical landing capability (STOVL). There will not be an internally mounted machine gun, but an external gun can be fitted. This version requires controllability on all axes while hovering. Another critical design feature is its impact on the ground surface beneath it during hover. The USMC expects their version of the JSF will replace the F/A-18 Hornet and the AV-8 Harrier. The Marine Corps expects to purchase 480 STOVL versions of the F-35.

United Kingdom Royal Navy and Air Force
This version will be very similar to the one procured by the United States Marine Corps


Function Contractor strike fighter two competing teams: Lockheed-Martin Boeing U.S. Air Force U.S. Marine Corps U.K. Royal Navy Conventional Takeoff and Landing (CTOL) $28M U.S. Navy



Short Takeoff Carrier-based and Vertical (CV) Landing (STOVL) $35M $38M

Unit Cost FY94$ Propulsion Thrust Empty Weight Internal Fuel Payload Maximum Takeoff Weight

Baseline: Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 derivative from F-22 Raptor Alternate Engine: General Electric F120 core

~22,500 lbs 15,000 lbs 13,000 lbs ~50,000 lbs

~24,000 lbs 16,000 lbs 17,000 lbs

Length Wingspan Height Ceiling Speed Combat Radius Crew Armament First flight Date Deployed 36 feet

45 feet 30 feet

supersonic over 600 nautical miles one

1999 2008

Inventory Objectives

U.S. Air Force U.S. Marine 1,763 aircraft Corps 480 aircraft U.K. Royal Navy 60 aircraft

U.S. Navy 480 aircraft

Joint Strike Fighter (JSF)
The Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is a multi-role fighter optimized for the air-to-ground role, designed to affordably meet the needs of the Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and allies, with improved survivability, precision engagement capability, the mobility necessary for future joint operations and the reduced life cycle costs associated with tomorrow’s fiscal environment. JSF will benefit from many of the same technologies developed for F-22 and will capitalize on commonality and modularity to maximize affordability. The 1993 Bottom-Up Review (BUR) determined that a separate tactical aviation modernization program by each Service was not affordable and canceled the MultiRole Fighter (MRF) and Advanced Strike Aircraft (A/F-X) program. Acknowledging the need for the capability these canceled programs were to provide, the BUR initiated the Joint Advanced Strike Technology (JAST) effort to create the building blocks for affordable development of the next-generation strike weapons system. After a review of the program in August 1995, DoD dropped the "T" in the JAST program and the JSF program has emerged from the JAST effort. Fiscal Year 1995 legislation merged the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Advanced Short Take-off and Vertical Landing (ASTOVL) program with the JSF Program. This action drew the United Kingdom (UK) Royal Navy into the program, extending a collaboration begun under the DARPA ASTOVL program. The JSF program will demonstrate two competing weapon system concepts for a triservice family of aircraft to affordably meet these service needs: USAF-Multi-role aircraft (primarily air-to-ground) to replace F-16 and A-10 and to complement F-22. The Air Force JSF variant poses the smallest relative engineering challenge. The aircraft has no hover criteria to satisfy, and the characteristics and handling qualities associated with carrier operations do not come into play. As the biggest customer for the JSF, the service will not accept a multirole F-16 fighter replacement that doesn't significantly improve on the original. USN-Multi-role, stealthy strike fighter to complement F/A-18E/F. Carrier operations account for most of the differences between the Navy version and the other JSF variants. The aircraft has larger wing and tail control surfaces to better manage low-speed approaches. The internal structure of the Navy variant is strengthened up to handle the loads associated with catapult launches and arrested landings. The aircraft has a carriersuitable tailhook. Its landing gear has a longer stroke and higher load capacity. The aircraft has almost twice the range of an F-18C on internal fuel. The design is also optimized for survivability.

USMC-Multi-role Short Take-Off & Vertical Landing (STOVL) strike fighter to replace AV-8B and F/A-18A/C/D. The Marine variant distinguishes itself from the other variants with its short takeoff/vertical landing capability. UK-STOVL (supersonic) aircraft to replace the Sea Harrier. Britain's Royal Navy JSF will be very similar to the U.S. Marine variant. The JSF concept is building these three highly common variants on the same production line using flexible manufacturing technology. Cost benefits result from using a flexible manufacturing approach and common subsystems to gain economies of scale. Cost commonality is projected in the range of 70-90 percent; parts commonality will be lower, but emphasis is on commonality in the higher-priced parts.

The Lockheed Martin X-35 concept for the Marine and Royal Navy variant of the aircraft uses a shaft-driven lift-fan system to achieve Short-Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) capability. The aircraft will be configured with a Rolls-Royce/Allison shaft-driven lift-fan, roll ducts and a threebearing swivel main engine nozzle, all coupled to a modified Pratt & Whitney F119 engine that powers all three variants. The Boeing X32 JSF short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) variant for the U.S. Marine Corps and U.K. Royal Navy employs a direct lift system for short takeoffs and vertical landings with uncompromised upand-away performance.

Key design goals of the JSF system include: Survivability: radio frequency/infrared signature reduction and on-board countermeasures to survive in the future battlefield--leveraging off F-22 air superiority mission support Lethality: integration of on- and off-board sensors to enhance delivery of current and future precision weapons Supportability: reduced logistics footprint and increased sortie generation rate to provide more combat power earlier in theater Affordability: focus on reducing cost of developing, procuring and owning JSF to provide adequate force structure JSF’s integrated avionics and stealth are intended to allow it to penetrate surface-to-air missile defenses to destroy targets, when enabled by the F-22’s air dominance. The JSF is designed to complement a force structure that includes other stealthy and non-stealthy fighters, bombers, and reconnaissance / surveillance assets. JSF requirements definition efforts are based on the principles of Cost as an Independent Variable: Early interaction between the warfighter and developer ensures cost / performance trades are made early, when they can most influence weapon system cost. The Joint Requirements Oversight Council has endorsed this approach. The JSF’s approved acquisition strategy provides for the introduction of an alternate engine during Lot 5 of the production phase, the first high rate production lot. OSD is considering several alternative implementation plans which would accelerate this baseline effort. Program Status The focus of the program is producing effectiveness at an affordable price—the Air Force’s unit flyaway cost objective is $28 million (FY94$). This unit recurring flyaway cost is down from a projected, business as usual,cost of $36 million. The Concept Demonstration Phase (CDP) was initiated in November 1996 with the selection of Boeing and Lockheed Martin. Both contractors are: (1) designing and building their concept demonstration aircraft, (2) performing unique ground demonstrations, (3) developing their weapon systems concepts. First operational aircraft delivery is planned for FY08. The JSF is a joint program with shared acquisition executive responsibilities. The Air Force and Navy each provide approximately equal shares of annual funding, while the United Kingdom is a collaborative partner, contributing $200 million to the CDP. CDP, also known as the Program Definition and Risk Reduction (PDRR) phase, consists of three parallel efforts leading to Milestone II and an Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) start in FY01:

Concept Demonstration Program. The two CDP contracts were competitively awarded to Boeing and Lockheed Martin for ground and flight demonstrations at a cost of $2.2 billion for the 51-month effort, including an additional contract to Pratt & Whitney for the engine. Each CDP contractor will build concept demonstrator aircraft (designated X32/35). Each contractor will demonstrate commonality and modularity, short take-off and vertical landing, hover and transition, and low-speed carrier approach handling qualities of their aircraft. Technology Maturation. These efforts evolve key technologies to lower risk for EMD entry. Parallel technology maturation demonstrations are also an integral part of the CDP / PDRR objective of meeting warfighting needs at an affordable cost. Focus is on seven critical areas: avionics, flight systems, manufacturing and producibility, propulsion, structures and materials, supportability, and weapons. Demonstration plans are coordinated with the prime weapon system contractors and results are made available to all program industry participants. Requirements Definition. This effort leads to Joint Operational Requirements Document completion in FY00; cost/performance trades are key to the process.

LockMart JSF Design - X-35

Boeing JSF Design - X-35

Function Contractor strike fighter two competing teams: Lockheed-Martin Boeing U.S. Air Force U.S. Marine Corps U.K. Royal Navy Conventional Takeoff and Landing (CTOL) $28M U.S. Navy



Short Takeoff Carrier-based and Vertical (CV) Landing (STOVL) $35M $38M

Unit Cost FY94$ Propulsion

Baseline: Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100

derivative from F-22 Raptor Alternate Engine: General Electric F120 core Thrust Empty Weight Internal Fuel Payload Maximum Takeoff Weight Length Wingspan Height Ceiling Speed Combat Radius Crew Armament First flight Date Deployed 2008 U.S. Air Force U.S. Marine 2,036 aircraft Corps 642 aircraft U.K. Royal Navy 60 aircraft U.S. Navy 300 aircraft 1999 supersonic over 600 nautical miles one 36 feet ~22,500 lbs 15,000 lbs 13,000 lbs ~50,000 lbs 45 feet 30 feet ~24,000 lbs 16,000 lbs 17,000 lbs

Inventory Objectives

C-2A Greyhound
The C-2A Greyhound , twin-engine cargo aircraft designed to land on aircraft carriers, provides critical logistics support to aircraft carriers. Its primary mission is carrier onboard delivery. Powered by two T-6 turboprop engines, the C-2A can deliver a payload of up to 10,000 pounds. The cabin can readily accommodate cargo, passengers or both. It is also equipped to accept litter patients in medical evacuation missions. Priority cargo such as jet engines can be transported from shore to ship in a matter of hours. A cage system or transport stand provides cargo restraint for loads during carrier launch or landing. The large aft cargo ramp and door and a powered winch allow straightin rear cargo loading and downloading for fast turnaround. The C-2A's open-ramp flight capability allows airdrop of supplies and personnel from a carrier-launched aircraft. This, plus its folding wings and an on-board auxiliary power unit for engine starting and ground power self-sufficiency in remote areas provide an operational versatility found in no other cargo aircraft. The C-2A has a wide range of communications and radio navigation equipment that is compatible with both military and civil airways on a worldwide basis. Communications equipment includes HF, VHF, and UHF; radio navigation aids include GPS, OMEGA, TACAN, dual VOR, UHF/DF, LF/ADF, weather radar, Doppler radar, and two carrier approach systems. The crew consists of a Pilot, Copilot, Crewchief, and Loadmaster / Second Crewman. The original C-2A aircraft were overhauled, and their operational life extended, in 1973. In 1984, a contract was awarded for 39 new C-2A aircraft to replace earlier the airframes. Dubbed the Reprocured C-2A due to the similarity to the original, the new aircraft include substantial improvements in airframe and avionic systems. All the older C-2As were phased out in 1987, and the last of the new models was delivered in 1990. The C-2A(R) retains the characteristics of the E-2C Aircraft in the areas of structures, hydraulics, and power plants. The avionics block upgrades for the C-2A(R) provide increased reliability and maintainability. A limited development test was conducted on the C-2A(R), due to the minor differences to the previous C-2A. Development Test and Evaluation (DT&E) and Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) were previously completed on the original C-2A Production Acceptance Test and Evaluation on the C2A(R) was performed by the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD), Patuxent River, Maryland, from June 1985 to February 1986. The C-2A(R) provides tactical logistics support for deployed carrier battle groups. These aircraft have a 10,000 pound payload capacity and operate from forward area air stations in support of Atlantic and Pacific fleet operations. The aircraft's large aft door-ramp and powered winch promote a fast turnaround time via straight-in rear loading and unloading. Special missions have been developed which employ the C-2A. These missions include personnel, Combat Rubber Raiding Craft (CRRC), and air cargo drops. The CRRC drops entail disembarking a team of divers and their equipment while airborne.

During the period November 1985 to February 1987, VR-24, operating with seven Reprocured C-2As, demonstrated exceptional operational readiness while delivering two million pounds of cargo, two million pounds of mail and 14,000 passengers in support of the European and Mediterranean theatres. The C-2A is a Carrier Onboard Delivery (COD) transport aircraft assigned to Fleet Logistics Support Squadrons (VRCs). Greyhounds serve 12 carriers from two primary locations:

VRC-30, which is based at Naval Air North Island, CA and currently operates 12 C-2A aircraft throughout the Pacific and Central Commands, including two C-2A aircraft permanently forward deployed to Japan on the USS Kitty Hawk.  VRC-40 is based at Naval Air Station Norfolk, Va. C-2A Greyhounds with upgraded communications, navigation, instrumentation packages, and a Critical Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) will provide cost-effective, carrieron-board delivery for the next 20 years.

Primary Function Contractor Unit Cost Propulsion Length Height Weight Cruising Speed Ceiling Range Crew Carrier-on-board delivery (COD) aircraft Grumann Aerospace Corp. $38.96 million Two Allison T-56-A-425 turboprop engines; 4,600 shaft horsepower each 57 feet 7 inches (17.3 meters) 17 feet (5 meters) Max. gross, take-off: 57,000 lbs (25,650 kg) Max.: 300 knots (345 miles, 553 km, per hour) 30,000 feet (9,100 meters) 1,300 nautical miles (1,495 statute miles) Four

C-5A/B Galaxy
The C-5 Galaxy is a heavy-cargo transport designed to provide strategic airlift for deployment and supply of combat and support forces. The C-5 can carry unusually large and heavy cargo for intercontinental ranges at jet speeds. The plane can take off and land in relatively short distances and taxi on substandard surfaces during emergency operations. The C-5 and the smaller C-141B Starlifter are strategic airlift partners. Together they carry fully equipped, combat-ready troops to any area in the world on short notice and provide full field support necessary to maintain a fighting force. Using the front and rear cargo openings, the Galaxy can be loaded and off-loaded at the same time. Both nose and rear doors open the full width and height of the cargo compartment, allowing drive-through loading and unloading of wheeled and tracked vehicles, and faster, easier loading of bulky equipment. A "kneeling" landing gear system lowers the aircraft's cargo floor to truck-bed height. The entire cargo floor has a roller system for rapid handling of palletized equipment. Thirty-six fully loaded pallets can be loaded aboard in about 90 minutes. The Galaxy's weight is distributed on its high flotation landing gear, which has 28 wheels. The landing gear system can raise each set of wheels individually for simplified tire changes or brake maintenance. An automatic trouble-shooting system constantly monitors more than 800 test points in the various subsystems of the C-5. The Malfunction Detection Analysis and Recording System uses a digital computer to identify malfunctions in replaceable units. Failure and trend information is recorded on magnetic tape for analysis. Four turbofan engines mounted on pylons under the wings power the C-5. Each engine pod is nearly 27 feet (8.2 meters) long, weighs 7,900 pounds (3,555 kilograms) and has an air intake diameter of more than 8 1/2 feet (2.6 meters). The Galaxy has 12 integral wing tanks with a capacity of 51,150 gallons (194,370 liters) of fuel - enough to fill 6 1/2 regular-size railroad tank cars. The fuel weighs 322,500 pounds (145,125 kilograms) and permits the C-5, carrying a 204,904-pound (92,207-kilogram) payload, to fly 2,150 nautical miles (3,440 kilometers), off-load, and fly another 500 miles (800 kilometers) without aerial refueling. Features unique to the C-5 include the forward cargo door (visor) and ramp and the aft cargo door system and ramp. These features allow drive-on/drive-off loading and unloading as well as loading and unloading from either end of the cargo compartment. The C-5’s kneeling capability also facilitates and expedites these operations by lowering the cargo com-partment floor by about 10 feet to 3 feet off the ground. This position lowers cargo ramps for truck bed and ground loading and reduces ramp angles for loading and unloading vehicles. The C-5’s floor does not have treadways. The “floorbearing pressure” is the same over the entire floor. The C-5A/B can carry up to thirty-six 463L pallets. The troop compartment is located in the aircraft’s upper deck. It is self-

contained with a galley, two lavatories, and 73 available passenger seats (CB at FS 1675). Another 267 airline seats may be installed on the cargo compartment floor (maximum combined total of 329 troops including air crew over water). Except for emergencies or unusual circumstances, the C-5 does not carry troops in the lower-deck cargo compartment; but 73 seats are available in the rear compartment of the upper deck for personnel and operators of equipment being airlifted. The C-5 has carried special loads, such as large missiles, that would require extra time, manpower and dollars to transport via ship, rail or flatbed truck. The forward upper deck accommodates a crew of six, a relief crew of seven, and eight mail or message couriers. The flight deck has work stations for the pilot, co-pilot, two flight engineers and two loadmasters. The upper deck's forward and rear compartments have galleys for food preparation, as well as lavatories. The Galaxy has sophisticated communications equipment and a triple inertial navigation system, making it nearly self-sufficient. It can operate without using ground-based navigational aids. The electrical system has four engine-driven generators, each powerful enough to supply the aircraft sufficient electricity. Each of the two main landing gear pods carries an auxiliary power unit to supply electric and pneumatic power for engine starts and ground air conditioning, heating, cooling and ventilation. Air turbine motors in the landing gear pods also can power the hydraulic systems and the main landing gear kneeling motors. The Galaxy is one of the world's largest aircraft. It is almost as long as a football field and as high as a six-story building and has a cargo compartment about the size of an eight-lane bowling alley. The C-5 is the only aircraft that can transport any of the Army's combat equipment, including the 74-ton (66,600-kilogram) mobile scissors bridge, tanks and helicopters. The first C-5A was delivered to the Transitional Training Unit at Altus Air Force Base, Okla., in December 1969. The first operational C-5s were delivered to the 437th Military Airlift Wing, Charleston Air Force Base, S.C., in June 1970. In December 1984, the 433rd Tactical Airlift Wing (now the 433rd Military Airlift Wing) at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, became the first Air Force Reserve wing equipped with C-5 Galaxies. The first C-5B incorporating significant improvements such as strengthened wings and updated avionics was delivered to Altus Air Force Base in January 1986. C-5 production concluded with delivery of the last "B" model aircraft in April 1989. The C-5, with its massive payload capability, has opened unprecedented dimensions of strategic airlift in support of national defense. For 20 years it has been involved in many historic airlift missions, and is invaluable to the Air Force mission and humanitarian efforts. For example, in December 1988, four C-5s participated in the delivery of more than 885,000 pounds (398,250 kilograms) of earthquake relief supplies to the then-Soviet

Republic of Armenia. The C-5 also assisted with an Alaskan oil spill cleanup in March 1989, transporting nearly 2 million pounds (900,000 kilograms) of equipment to Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska. The most dramatic display of the Galaxy's capability and value was during operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. The C-5, along with other Air Force transport aircraft, airlifted almost a half-million passengers and more than 577,000 tons (519,300 metric tons) of cargo. This included 15 air-transportable hospitals and the more than 5,000 medical personnel to run them, and more than 211 tons (189.9 metric tons) of mail to and from the men and women in the Middle East - each day. On 04 August 2000 the CF6-80C2L1F turbofan engine has been selected by Lockheed Martin Corporation to power the C-5 Galaxy transport aircraft Reliability Enhancement and Re-engining Program (RERP). This engine is a model of the highly successful CF680C2 engine family. The C-5 re-engining program is part of a multi-phase effort by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) to modernize its fleet of 126 C-5 aircraft to achieve increased mission effectiveness and readiness. If fully implemented, the C-5 RERP effort will lead to sales of more than 500 CF6-80C2L1F propulsion systems, plus service support from GE.

Service Life
The AF took delivery of the first C-5A in 1969. The force was then retrofitted with a new wing in the mid 1980s. With a projected structural service life of over 50,000 hours, the C-5 could last structurally well into the next century, depending on the model and other factors. However, system obsolescence, reliability and maintainability, operating cost, impacts of corrosion, and required repairs all factor in the service life of an aircraft. Currently, the C-5 has the highest operating cost of any weapon system, and the trend is a rise in tariff rates and reliability and maintainability costs for the C-5. The current maintenance man hour per flying hour illustrates the difficulties in the C-5 force. The A models consumed 46.0 maintenance man hours per flying hour, 16.7 for the B model (CY96 data). With the retirement of the C-141 force, the C-5 will take a larger role in peacetime movement of cargo over the next few years. This means our mobility customers will face a more expensive option with the C-5. Our depot levels have decreased for the second consecutive year in FY96 to 18 percent of our total aircraft. However, this is still above the planned 15.4 percent BAI level. The daily mission capable rate over the past years continues to improve. However, A-model MC rates average about 10.1 percent below the B-model. These problems raise concern for the economic life of the C-5A-model.

Primary Function Contractor Power Plant strategic airlift. Lockheed-Georgia Co. Four General Electric TF39-GE-1C turbofan engines.

Thrust Length Height At Tail Maximum Takeoff Weight Maximum Wartime Takeoff Weight Takeoff/Landing Distances Wingspan Stabilizer Span Cargo Compartment Range Ceiling Speed Load

41,000 pounds (18,450 kilograms), each engine. 247 feet, 10 inches (75.3 meters). 65 feet, 1 inch (19.8 meters). 769,000 pounds (346,500 kilograms). 840,000 pounds (378,000 kilograms). 12,200 feet (3,697 meters) takeoff fully loaded; 4,900 feet (1485 meters) land fully loaded. 222 feet, 9 inches (67.9 meters). 68 feet, 9 inches (20.8 meters). Height 13 feet, 6 inches (4.10 meters); width 19 feet (5.76 meters). 5,940 miles (5,165 nautical miles) empty. 34,000 feet (10,303 meters) with a 605,000-pound (272,250-kilogram) load. 541 mph (Mach 0.72) 291,000 pounds (130,950 kilograms) maximum wartime payload. Upper deck seats 73 passengers; forward upper deck seats six, a relief crew of seven, and eight mail or message couriers. The flight deck has work stations for the entire crew. The upper deck's forward and rear compartments have galleys for food preparation and lavatories. An automatic trouble-shooting system constantly monitors more than 800 test points in the various subsystems of the C-5. The Malfunction Detection Analysis and Recording System uses a digital computer to identify malfunctions in replaceable units. Failure and trend information is recorded on magnetic tape for analysis by maintenance people. C-5A, $163.4 million; C-5B, $167.7 million Six (pilot, co-pilot, two flight engineers, two loadmasters) December 1969 (for training); June 1970 (operational); December 1984 (to Reserve).



Unit Cost Crew Date Deployed


Active-force, 70; ANG, 11; Reserve, 28.

C-9A/C Nightingale
The C-9 is a twin-engine, T-tailed, medium-range, swept-wing jet aircraft used primarily for Air Mobility Command's aeromedical evacuation mission. The Nightingale is a modified version of the McDonnell Douglas Aircraft Corporation's DC-9. It is the only aircraft in the inventory specifically designed for the movement of litter and ambulatory patients. The C-9A's airlift capability to carry 40 litter patients, 40 ambulatory and four litter patients, or various combinations thereof, provides the flexibility for Air Mobility Command's worldwide aeromedical evacuation role. A hydraulically operated folding ramp allows efficient loading and unloading of litter patients and special medical equipment. The plane has:
    

   

Ceiling receptacles for securing intravenous bottles. A special care area with a separate ventilation system for patients requiring isolation or intensive care. Eleven vacuum and therapeutic oxygen outlets, positioned in sidewall service panels at litter tier locations. A 28 VDC outlet in the special care area. Twenty-two 115 VAC-60 hertz electrical outlets located throughout the cabin permit the use of cardiac monitors, respirators, incubators and infusion pumps at any location within the cabin. A medical refrigerator for preserving whole blood and biological drugs. A medical supply work area with sink, medicine storage section and work table, fore-and-aft galleys and lavatories. Aft-facing commercial airline-type seats for ambulatory patients. A station for a medical crew director that includes a desk communication panel and a control panel to monitor cabin temperature, therapeutic oxygen and vacuum system. An auxiliary power unit that provides electrical power for uninterrupted cabin air conditioning, quick servicing during stops, and self-starting for the twin-jet engines.

The 375th Airlift Wing at Scott Air Force Base, Ill., operates C-9A Nightingales for Air Mobility Command. C-9A's are assigned to the 374th Airlift Wing at Yokota Air Base, Japan, for use in the Pacific theater. C-9s also are assigned to the 435th Airlift Wing at Rhein-Main Air Base, Germany, for use in the European and Middle East theaters. The C-9A Nightingale demonstrates its uniqueness and versatility daily by its ability to serve not only military, but Department of Veterans Affairs and civilian hospitals throughout the world, using military and commercial airfields.

The C-9 aircraft provides intra theater logistic support to Naval forces worldwide. The C9 aircraft was procured as a commercial derivative aircraft certified under an FAA Type Certificate. Throughout its life, the aircraft have been operated and organically and commercially supported by the Navy using a combination of Navy and FAA processes, procedures and certifications. It continues to be maintained organically and commercially and relies on COTS/NDI components to support airworthiness. Aircraft modification efforts are turnkey projects (non-recurring engineering, procurement, installation, test and certification) implemented as part of competitively awarded maintenance contracts.

Primary Function Contractor Power Plant Thrust Length Wingspan Height Maximum Takeoff Weight Range Ceiling Speed Load Crew Date Deployed Unit Cost Inventory Aeromedical evacuation McDonnell Douglas Corporation Two Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9A turbofan engines 14,500 pounds (6,525 kilograms) each engine 119 feet, 3 inches (35.7 meters) 93 feet, 3 inches (27.9 meters) 27 feet, 5 inches (8.2 meters) 108,000 pounds (48,600 kilograms) More than 2,000 miles (1,739 nautical miles) 35,000 feet (10,606 meters) 565 mph (Mach 0.86) at 25,000 feet (7583.3 meters), with maximum takeoff weight 40 litter patients or four litters and 40 ambulatory patients or other combinations Eight (pilot, co-pilot, flight mechanic, two flight nurses and three aeromedical technicians) August 1968 $17 million Active force, 10; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0

C-12 Huron
The C-12 Huron, a twin turboprop passenger and cargo aircraft, is the military version of the Beachcraft Super King Air. The C-12 aircraft, manufactured by Raytheon Aircraft Company (RAC) (formerly Beech Aircraft Corporation), is a high-performance, fixedwing, T-tail, pressurized, twin engine turboprop that accommodates places for a pilot, copilot, and passengers. It is powered by two Pratt and Whitney PT6A-41/42/65 turbo prop engines. The Government’s C-12 aircraft fleet is similar to the Beech Super King Air 200 & 1900C, which is operated extensively around the world by many private and commercial users. The aircraft provides operational support for military bases, sites, fleet and shore units. The C-12F can carry up to eight passengers and has a cargo capacity of 56 cubic feet. It can be used to transport patients on medical evacuation litters. There are 19 C-12Fs in the active duty Air Force. Delivery began in May 1984 and was completed by the end of that year. The Air Force acquired the C-12F at the direction of Congress to support the Defense Attaché and Security Assistance Offices. The aircraft provides on-call, rapid response, modern air transport for high priority supply and movement of key personnel. Specifically, it is used for VIP transport or to deliver repair parts; equipment; and technical, crash investigation, and accident investigation teams wherever needed. Its support role also includes such functions as range clearance, medical evacuation, administrative movement of personnel, transportation connections, and courier flights. The support concept is total contractor support wherein a commercial Contractor provides all FAA approved maintenance and material support. The contractor is solely responsible for all materials (including acquisition, storage, configuration, repair, packaging, and shipping) until they are consumed in support of the aircraft. The Contractor also provides other maintenance functions such as: crash damage repair; engine repair/overhaul; propeller repair/overhaul; and airframe and avionics overhaul, repair, and modification. Aircraft modification efforts are "turnkey" projects (procurement and installation) implemented as part of competitively awarded maintenance contracts. Where extensive integration efforts are required, the nonrecurring engineering phase, including test and certification, is typically performed by the aircraft OEM under a sole source engineering contract with the Navy.

Primary Function Contractor Unit Cost Propulsion Length Height Passenger and cargo airlift Raytheon Aircraft (Beech) $2 million Two Pratt & Whitney PT-6A-42 turboprop engines; 850 shaft horsepower each 43 feet 10 (13.3 meters) 15 feet (4.57 meters)

Weight Cruising Speed Ceiling Range Crew Armament Date deployed

Max. gross, take-off: 15,000 lbs (6,750 kg) Max.: 294 knots (334 miles, 544 km, per hour) 35,000 feet (10,668 meters) 1,974 nautical miles (3,658 km) Two None 1994 200 (A100-1 (U-21J)), 200C, 200CT, 200T, A200 (C-12A) or (C-12C), A200C (UC-12B), A200CT (C-12D) or (FWC-12D) or (RC-12D) or (C12F) or (RC-12G) or (RC-12H) or (RC-12K), or(RC12P) B200C (C-12F) or (UC-12F) or (UC-12M), or (C12R), 1900C (C-12J),


C-17 Globemaster III
The C-17 is the newest airlift aircraft to enter the Air Force's inventory. The C-17 is capable of rapid strategic delivery of troops and all types of cargo to main operating bases or directly to forward bases in the deployment area. The aircraft is also able to perform theater airlift missions when required. The C-17's system specifications impose a demanding set of reliability and maintainability requirements. These requirements include an aircraft mission completion success probability of 93 percent, only 18.6 aircraft maintenance manhours per flying hour, and full and partial mission capable rates of 74.7 and 82.5 percent respectively for a mature fleet with 100,000 flying hours. The C-17 measures approximately 174 feet long with a 170-foot wingspan. The aircraft is powered by four fully reversible Pratt & Whitney F117-PW-100 engines (the commercial version is currently used on the Boeing 757). Each engine is rated at 40,900 pounds of thrust. The thrust reversers direct the flow of air upward and forward to avoid ingestion of dust and debris. The aircraft is operated by a crew of three (pilot, copilot and loadmaster). Cargo is loaded onto the C-17 through a large aft door that accommodates military vehicles and palletized cargo. The C-17 can carry virtually all of the Army's air-transportable, outsized combat equipment. The C-17 is also able to airdrop paratroopers and cargo. Maximum payload capacity of the C-17 is 170,900 pounds, and its maximum gross takeoff weight is 585,000 pounds. With a payload of 130,000 pounds and an initial cruise altitude of 28,000 feet, the C-17 has an unrefueled range of approximately 5,200 nautical miles. Its cruise speed is approximately 450 knots (.77 Mach). The design of this aircraft lets it operate on small, austere airfields. The C-17 can take off and land on runways as short as 3,000 feet and as narrow as 90 feet wide. Even on such narrow runways, the C-17 can turn around by using its backing capability while performing a three-point star turn. Maximum use has been made of off-the-shelf and commercial equipment, including Air Force standardized avionics. The C-17 made its maiden flight on Sept. 15, 1991. The aircraft is operated by the Air Mobility Command with initial operations at Charleston AFB, S.C., with the 437th Airlift Wing and the 315th Airlift Wing (Air Force Reserve). The C-17 program is managed by the Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.

Service Life
Based on a buy of 120 aircraft, the last C-17 delivery will be in November, 2004. The original specification from McDonnell Douglas defined a service life of 30,000 hours. Modification programs will keep the aircraft in line with current and future requirements

for threat avoidance, navigation, communications, and enhanced capabilities. These modifications should include global air traffic management (GATM) and automatic dependent surveillance to meet anticipated navigation requirements. Commercially available avionics and mission computer upgrades are being investigated to reduce lifecycle costs and improve performance. Also, upgraded communication systems to enhance worldwide voice and data (including secure) transmission will support command and control.

Primary Function Prime Contractor Power Plant Manufacturer Thrust (each engine) Wingspan Length Height Cargo and troop transport Boeing [McDonnell Douglas Corp.] Four Pratt & Whitney F117-PW- 100 turbofan engines 40,900 pounds 170 feet 9 inches (to winglet tips) (51.81 meters) 173 feet 11 inches (53.04 meters) 55 feet 1 inch (16.79 meters) Length - 85 feet 2 inches (26 meters); width - 18 feet (5.48 meters); height - 12 feet 4 inches (3.76 meters) forward of the wing and 13 feet 6 inches (4.11 meters) aft of the wing 500 mph (Mach .77) 45,000 feet at cruising speed (13,716 meters) Unlimited with in-flight refueling Three (two pilots and one loadmaster) 585,000 pounds (265,306 kilos) 102 troops/paratroops; 48 litter and 54 ambulatory patients and attendants; 170,900 pounds (76,644 kilos) of cargo (18 pallet positions) June 1993

Cargo Compartment

Speed Service Ceiling Range Crew Maximum Peacetime Takeoff Weight


Date Deployed

The various versions of the C-20 are military modifications of the commercial Gulfstream aircraft. The C-20 aircraft provide distinguished visitor (DV) airlift for military and government officials. They support the long range/low passenger load DV airlift niche, offering worldwide access while including a communications suite which supports worldwide secure voice and data communications for the DV and staff. The C-20 was chosen in June 1983 as the replacement aircraft for the C-140B Jetstar, and three A models were delivered to the 89th Airlift Wing at Andrews Air Force Base MD under a cost-saving accelerated purchase plan. The three C-20As at Andrews were subsequenty transferred to Ramstein Air Base, Germany, and all C-140Bs at both locations were phased out of the Air Force inventory. Seven B-model C-20s fly special air missions from Andrews. The primary difference between the C-20A and B model is the electrical system and the avionics package. C-20B aircraft will reach their 20,000-hour service life in about 2014. Gulfstream's current production of G-IVs appears to secure the logistic support base for C-20s for the foreseeable future. Although the C-20B is not Stage 3 compliant, the C-20H (G-IV) does meet future FAA noise requirements. A Statement of Need and Operational Requirements Document has been validated for a small VC-X aircraft. The 89th Airlift Wing will receive two Gulfstream V aircraft in FY98 to be designated C-37As. AMC has conducted a SAM modernization study, approved by the CSAF, which recommends replacing C-20Bs with additional C-37As.

The C-20D is a Gulfstream III aircraft capable of all-weather, long-range, high speed non-stop flights between nominally suited airports. It is manufactured by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation (GAC) Savannah, Georgia and is powered by two Rolls-Royce Limited Spey MK511-8 turbofan engines equipped with thrust reversers. The aircraft has an executive compartment with accommodations for five passengers and a staff compartment with accommodations for eight passengers. A walk-in baggage area of 157 cubic feet, fully pressurized, is accessible from the cabin. The C-20D aircraft are operated by Fleet Logistics Support Wing Detachment at Naval Air Facility, Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, DC. The C-20D aircraft was procured as a commercial-derivative aircraft certified under an FAA Type Certificate. Throughout its life, the aircraft has been operated and organically and commercially supported by the Navy using Navy and FAA processes, procedures and certifications. It continues to be maintained organically and commercially at all levels of maintenance, and relies on COTS/NDI components and equipment to support airworthiness. Aircraft modification efforts are "turnkey" projects (procurement and installation) implemented as part of competitively awarded maintenance contracts. Where extensive integration efforts are required, the non-recurring engineering phase, including

test and certification, is typically performed by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation under a sole-source engineering contract with the Navy.

The C-20G is a Gulfstream IV aircraft capable of all-weather, long-range, high speed non-stop flights between nominally suited airports. It is manufactured by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Savannah, Georgia and is powered by two Rolls-Royce Limited Tay MK611-8 turbofan engines equipped with thrust reversers. The aircraft may be configured for cargo operations, passenger operations or combinations of the two. With passengers seats removed the aircraft may be modified to the following configurations: three pallets/no passengers, two pallets/eight passengers, and one pallet/fourteen passengers. With a full complement of seats installed, the aircraft is capable of accommodating up to twenty-six passengers and a crew of four. A hydraulically-operated cargo door is installed on the starboard side of the aircraft to facilitate loading and unloading of cargo. A ball roller cargo floor is capable of accommodating palletized cargo. A walk-in baggage area of 157 cubic feet, fully pressurized, is accessible from the cabin. The C-20G aircraft are operated Fleet Logistics Support Squadron Four Eight (VR-48) and Marine Air Support Detachment (MASD) at Naval Air Facility, Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, DC and at Fleet Logistics Support Wing Detachment, Marine Corps Base, Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. The C-20G aircraft was procured as a commercialderivative aircraft certified under an FAA Type certificate. Throughout its life, the aircraft has been operated and organically and commercially supported by the Navy using a combination of Navy and FAA processes, procedures and certifications. It continues to be maintained organically and commercially at all levels of maintenance, and relies on COTS/NDI components to support airworthiness. Aircraft modification efforts are "turnkey" projects (procurement and installation) implemented as part of competitively awarded maintenance contracts. Where extensive integration efforts are required, the non-recurring engineering phase, including test and certification, is typically performed by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation under a sole-source engineering contract with the Navy.

Primary Function Builder Power Plant Thrust Length Height Wing Span C-20A, operational support airlift; C-20B, special air missions Gulfstream Aerospace Corp Two Rolls-Royce Spey MK511-8 turbofan engines 11,400 pounds each engine 83 feet, 2 inches 24 feet, 6 inches 77 feet, 10 inches

Speed Maximum Takeoff Weight Range Load Crew Unit Cost Date Deployed Inventory

576 mph (501 nautical miles) maximum 69,700 pounds. 4,715 miles (4,100 nautical miles) long-range 14 passengers Five $22.2 million 1983 Active force, 10

The C-21A, the military version of the Learjet 35A, provides cargo and passenger airlift and can transport litters during medical evacuations. The C-21A's turbofan engines are pod-mounted on the sides of the rear fuselage. The swept-back wings have hydraulically actuated, single-slotted flaps. The aircraft has a retractable tricycle landing gear, single steerable nose gear and multiple-disc hydraulic brakes. The C-21A can carry eight passengers and 42 cubic feet (1.26 cubic meters) of cargo. The fuel capacity of the C-21A is 931 gallons (3,537.8 liters) carried in wingtip tanks. The safety and operational capabilities of the C-21A are increased by the autopilot, color weather radar and tactical air navigation (TACAN) system, as well as HF, VHF and UHF radios. Delivery of the C-21A fleet began in April 1984 and was completed in October 1985. Glasco, a subsidiary of Learjet, Inc., provides full contractor logistics support at 16 worldwide locations.

Primary Function Builder Power Plant Thrust Length Height Maximum Takeoff Weight Wingspan Range Speed Unit Cost Crew Date Deployed Inventory Passenger and cargo airlift. Learjet, Inc. (formerly Gates Learjet) Two Garrett TFE-731-2-2B turbofan engines. 3,500 pounds (1,575 kilograms) each engine. 48 feet, 7 inches (14.71 meters). 12 feet, 3 inches (3.71 meters). 18,300 pounds (8,235 kilograms). 39 feet, 6 inches (11.97 meters) 2,306 miles (2,005 nautical miles). 530 mph (Mach 0.81, 461 knots, 848 kph) $2.8 million. Two (pilot and co-pilot). April 1984. Active forces, 70; ANG, 4; Reserve, 0.

The C-22B, a Boeing 727-100, is the primary medium-range aircraft used by the Air National Guard and National Guard Bureau to airlift personnel. The C-22B's unique arrangement of leading-edge devices and trailing-edge flaps permit lower approach speeds, thus allowing operation from runways never intended for a 600-mph (Mach 0.82) aircraft. The aircraft has heated and pressurized baggage compartments - one on the right side forward and the second just aft of the wheel well. The two compartments provide 425 cubic feet (12.75 cubic meters) of cargo space. The fuselage also incorporates a forward entry door and hydraulically opened integral aft stairs in the tail cone. The flight controls consist of a hydraulically powered dual-elevator control system with control tab to assist during manual operation. Hydraulically powered rudders use two main systems with a standby system for the lower rudder. The ailerons also are powered by dual-hydraulic systems. They have balance tabs on the outboard and control tabs on the inboard, which assures adequate maneuverability in the event of a total hydraulic failure. The flight spoiler systems assist ailerons and also function as speed brakes. The aircraft's tricycle landing gear consists of a dual-wheel nose gear, left and right dualwheel main gear, and a retractable tail skid which prevents damaging the aircraft in case of overrotation. Nose wheel steering is hydraulically powered and controlled by a steering wheel to approximately 78 degrees in either direction. Fuel is contained in three main tanks inside the wing center section. Rapid pressure fueling and defueling is accomplished at the fueling station on the right wing. The total fuel capacity is approximately 50,000 pounds (22,500 kilograms) of JP-4. Fuel may be dumped down to 35,000 pounds (15,750 kilograms) from all tanks. The C-22B requires four crew members and three or four in-flight passenger specialists for passenger service and safety. The avionics package includes one UHF and two VHF radio altimeters, variable instrument switching and two Collins FD-108 flight directors. A third vertical gyro and an additional VHF transceiver are available in case of failure of the primary systems. The C-22B was introduced by the airline industry in 1963. It proved to be a major innovative design with its three Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofan engines, one on each side of the rear fuselage and the third in the tail cone. Currently, there are three C-22B's in use, all assigned to the 201st Airlift Squadron, District of Columbia Air National Guard. The C-22Bs are modified Boeing 727-100 series aircraft, out of production since 1969. Spare parts are increasingly costly and difficult to obtain as commercial operators phase out this series of Boeing 727 and supply sources dwindle. The current fleet suffers from numerous operational restrictions. The aircraft are aging and have high operating, maintenance, and support costs. Communication and navigation systems are old and fail to meet the new requirements for air traffic management and separation mandated by

Reduced Vertical Separation Minimums (RVSM) and Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) requirements. The C-22B fleet fails to meet either FAA or International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Stage 3 noise and air pollution requirements. The Pratt & Whitney (P&W) JT-8 engines, which power the C-22B, are out of production and no new spare parts are being manufactured. The engines are expensive to operate, and emit more pollutants than newer, more fuel-efficient engines. The aircraft are heavily dependent upon ground support equipment, and are the only C-22Bs flying in the USAF. The C-22 Replacement Program calls for a most probable quantity of four (one initial plus three options) FAA certified commercial intercontinental passenger aircraft reconfigurable to accommodate a minimum of 40 passengers and 7 crew (low volume, office environment with DV area) or a minimum 70 passengers and 5 crew (high volume passenger transport). The ability to reconfigure the interior for medical evacuation by installing 1 to 7 Spectrum 500 beds is also required. The aircraft shall be capable of dispatch on short notice to any suitable airfield in the world from operating locations at Andrews AFB, Maryland and shall be capable of non-stop flight from Andrews AFB, Maryland to Moscow, Russia and from Frankfurt, Germany to Andrews AFB, Maryland with 7 crew and 40 passengers. Worldwide clear and secure voice, facsimile, and data communications are required to support the passengers.

Primary Function Builder Power Plant Thrust Length Height Wingspan Maximum Take-off Weight Maximum Payload Maximum Speed Range Endurance Crew Unit Cost Date Deployed Passenger transportation Boeing Co. Three JT8D-7 turbofan engines 14,000 pounds each engine 133 feet, 2 inches (40.3 meters) 34 feet, (10.3 meters) 108 feet (32.7 meters) 170,000 pounds (76,500 kilograms) 20,000 pounds (9,000 kilograms) 619 mph (Mach 0.82) 2,000 miles (1,739 nautical miles) 5.5 hours Pilot, co-pilot, flight engineer, flight mechanic, and three or four in-flight passenger specialists No longer available. 1963.


Active force, 0; ANG, 3; Reserve, 0.

C-23 Sherpa
The Sherpa is an all-freight version of the Shorts 330 regional airliner with a 5 ft-6 inch square cabin section over an unimpeded hold length of 29 ft. Through-loading is provided via a large forward freight door, and via a full width, hydraullically operated rear ramp door with removable roller conveyors. The C-23 Sherpa is the Army National Guard’s answer to missions requiring an aircraft that is capable of faster, higher-altitude and longer-distance coverage than helicopters. The Sherpa comes with a low operating cost due to its simple, robust construction, compared to that of other cargo aircraft. The Army National Guard has procured 44 C-23B/B+ Sherpa light cargo aircraft to support theater aviation, cargo, airdrop, and aeromedical evacuation for both state and federal wartime missions. The C-23 multi-role utility airplane is the only cargo airplane in the Army, and is organized into 4 theater airplane companies. Each company has four detachments. The detachments are all located in different states. Each detachment has two aircraft. In the Alaska Army National Guard the UV-18As have been replaced by the C-23B+. Requirements exist to standardize C-23B/B+ systems to include global positioning systems, high frequency radios, airdrop equipment, aeromedical evacuation, and engine upgrades. A few of these aircraft are used as all-freight regional airliners by Air Force Material Command. The aircraft can carry up to 30 passengers in airline-type seats, along with palletized cargo, four small pallets, and do airdrop of those pallets, or 18 litter patients plus their medical personnel. It has a range of a thousand miles, cruises up to two hundred knots, and it’s square because most of the things the Army has are square rather than round. It has six-and-a-half feet of headroom. It is unpressurized, but if it flies above 10,000 feet for an extended period of time, the crew wears oxygen masks. The Sherpa has a crew of three, but sometimes flies with four man crews if there is a need for two flight engineers. The C-23B Sherpa aircraft is a light military transport aircraft, designed to operate efficiently, even under the most arduous conditions, in a wide range of mission configurations. The large square-section hold, with excellent access at both ends, offers ready flexibility to perform ordnance movement, troop & vehicle transport, airborne/airdrop missions, medical evacuation and is suitable for conversion to other specialist duties such as maritime or land surveillance. Configured as a troop transport, the Sherpa provides comfortable, air-conditioned seating for 30 passengers, features "walk about" headroom, a removable latrine unit, and has a 500 lb capacity / 345 cu. ft. baggage compartment located in the nose of the aircraft. Additional space for a 600 lb capacity optional baggage pallet is provided on the rear ramp of the aircraft. During airborne operations, the aircraft accommodates 27 paratroopers. Optionally, it can be outfitted to handle up to 18 stretchers plus 2 medical attendants. The airplane meets Army Short Take-off & Landing guidelines (STOL), can operate from unpaved runways and is equipped with self-contained ground handling equipment. Operational experience with this remarkable aircraft has proven it to have low maintenance costs and low fuel consumption.

The grey, 30-foot long Sherpa, begins life as a Shorts 360 Airliner. The Shorts Aviation Company is located in Belfast, Northern Ireland, and is one of the oldest aircraft builders in the world. The airplanes are then sent to Clarksburg, West Virginia, where each is remanufactured into an Army Sherpa. The West Virginia Air Center (WVAC) operated by Bombardier Defence Services Inc. provides Contractor Logistics Support (CLS) for the C-23 Sherpa aircraft operated by the United States Army National Guard (USARNG) and the US Air Force. This entails support of 27 C-23B and C-23B+ aircraft located at 19 different bases in the USA, Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. Additionally, the company provide CLS to the fleet of C-23A aircraft operated by the Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base CA. US Army Aviation Technical Test Center (USAATTC) has a C-23A aircraft which has been modified to acquire various electronic sensor data in support of the Program Executive Officer (PEO) Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Programs. The Sherpa (C23A) is owned by Aviation Technical Test Center (ATTC), Ft. Rucker, AL. Originally under the sponsorship of PM, Airborne Reconnaissance Low (PM ARL) and currently being transitioned to PM NV/RSTA, it acts as a UAV surrogate for payload testing. The C-23A Sherpa, with its on-board workstation and capability to carry observers, is ideal for real-time evaluations of various sensor and target detection/recognition systems.

Contractor Short Brothers PLC C-23A Sherpa Power Plant Take-off power [Sea level static, uninstalled] Design output shaft speed Speed range Span length height Weight 2 Pratt-Whitney PT6A45R turboprops 1197 shp C-23B Super Sherpa 2 Pratt-Whitney PT6A65AR turboprops 1424 shp

1700 rpm 218mph at 10,000ft 770 miles with 5000lb payload 74ft 8in 58ft 16ft 3in Gross 25,500lb max Crew of three up to 7000lb of freight, including 4 LD3 containers, and engines

1700 rpm


the size of F100 series Date Deployed Entered USAF inventory 1984

C-26 Metroliner
The C-26 is operated exclusively by the Air and Army National Guard and was first delivered in 1989. They have quick change passenger, medevac, or cargo interiors. The C-26A is the civilian equivalent of the Fairchild Metro III with the C-26B being equivalent to the Fairchild Metro 23. The C-26B(CD) [Counter Drug] and the UC-26 are National Guard Bureau aircraft used to support the Air National Guard in drug control operations. The UC-26C is a derivative of the Fairchild Merlin IVC. The C-26B provides time-sensitive movement of personnel and cargo, as well as limited medical evacuation. The UC-26C provides support to counter drug (CD) operations. Additionally, up to ten ANG C-26Bs are being modified to carry specialized electronic equipment used to support CD operations. The C-26 aircraft, manufactured by Fairchild Aircraft Incorporated, is a high performance, fixed wing, pressurized, twin engine turboprop that has accomodations for a pilot and a co-pilot and 19 passengers and/or cargo or a combination of both. It is powered by two Garrett TPE331-12URH engines, rated at 1100 shaft horsepower (820 kw) takeoff power and 1000 shaft horsepower (746 kw) maximum continuous power and equipped with 106 inch (269 cm) diameter McCauly full feathering, reversible, constant speed four bladed propellers. The aircraft represents an on-call, rapid response, modern air transport for high priority resupply and movement of key personnel to remote, unserviced or feeder sites. Specifically, the aircraft is used to deliver repair parts, equipment, technical teams, crash and accident investigation teams. In its role, such functions as range clearance, Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC), administrative movement of personnel, transportation connections and courier flights are accomplished. The C-26 Contractor Logistics Support (CLS) Follow-On Acquisition effort in 1997 focused on providing full CLS for 32 Air National Guard (ANG) and Army National Guard (ARNG) C-26B aircraft and 1 ANG UC-26C aircraft. The C-26 Program Office used acquisition streamlining initiatives to remove all Military Standards & Specifications (MIL STDs/SPECs) from the RFP. The RFP Support Office was employed to support the C-26 program. The team also reduced government-mandated Contract Data Requirements Lists (CDRLs) from 22 to 4, and substituted a performance-based Statement of Objectives (SOO) for a Statement of Work (SOW). The requirement was designed to conform to Federal Aviation Administration certifications and standards, creating a high level of interest and competition within the commercial industry. These efforts resulted in program cost avoidance of approximately $33.4M. On 23 January 1998 the US Air Force Aeronautical Systems Center Reconnaissance Systems Program Office (ASC/RAKBL) awarded a $5,489,211 contract to Versatron Corp. for a replacement Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) System for the Air National Guard C-26B Aircraft. The system is a third generation detector technology, non developmental item consisting of eleven installed and fully integrated systems and two complete spares. The FLIR system includes a Thermal Imaging System (TIS), color TV and Laser Range Finder all co-located in a single gimbal turret, plus any separate associated electronic units. The turret fits in the existing pod and weighs less than 145 pounds. The total system including the turret, electronic units and cabling weighs less

than 285 pounds. The turret rotates a full 360 degree in azimuth field of regard and elevation coverage above 0 degree level elevation and beyond -90 degrees (NADIR). The FLIR is able to receive azimuth and elevation cue commands. The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) combined must result in a Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference (MRTD) that provides thermal sensitivity and spatial resolution to detect and recognize a .5m x 2m man size target from other thermal sources or the background at 30,000 feet slant range under clear visibility weather conditions.

MODEL C-26A C-26B UC-26C Metro III Metro 23 Merlin IV-C Model SA227-AC Model SA227-DC 2 TPE331-llU601G or -611G (with Dowty Rotol propellers) TPE331-llU602G or -612G (with McCauley propellers) TPE331-12UA- TPE331701G 3U-303G TPE33112UAR-701G TPE33112UHR-701G Engines - number Engines -Type

Engine Mfg. SHP Length Wing Span Height Crew Seats Passengers Ramp Weight Takeoff Weight Landing Weight Zero Fuel Weight Usable Fuel Usable Fuel (@ 6.7 lb/gal.) Max Range (NBAA IFR reserves) 1100 42.17 ft 46.25 ft 16.83 ft 2 22 14,110 lbs 14,000 lbs 14,000 lbs 13,130 652 gal 3,480 lbs 2,025 nm

Garrett (AiResearch) 1100 840 59.33 ft 57.0 ft 16.67 ft 2 19 16,600 lbs 16,500 lbs 15,675 lbs 14,500 lbs 652 gal 3,480 lbs 2040 nm 2 14 12,560 lbs 12,500 lbs 12,500 lbs 8,320 lbs 544 gal 3,645 lbs 1,580 nm

SPEED Max Oper Ceiling

248 (ktas) 31,000 ft

248 (ktas) 25,000 ft

248 (ktas) 30,000 ft

C-27A Spartan
The C-27A Spartan is a twin turboprop engine aircraft designed to meet Air Force requirements for a rugged, medium size airland transport. The aircraft is particularly suited for short-to-medium range tactical operations into semi-prepared airfields as short as 1,800 feet. The C-27A is an all-weather, day/night transport with capabilities to perform medical evacuation missions. It can carry 24 litters and four medical attendants, or 34 ground troops. The Spartan has a cargy capacity of more than 2,000 cubic feet, or 12,000 pounds. The C-27A operates with a three person crew of aircraft commander, copilot and loadmaster. The Air Force C-27A fleet consists of 10 aircraft stationed with the 24th Wing at Howard AFB, Panama, and flown by aircrews from 310th Airlift Squadron. The Spartan is modified from the G222 airframe manufactured in Naples, Italy, by Alenia, S.P.A. Chrysler Technologies Airborne Systems, Inc., as prime contractor, procured G222-710 aircraft from Alenia, and modified those aircraft by installing upgraded navigation, communication, and mission systems required for C-27A operation.

Primary Function Power Plant/Manufacturer Shaft Horse Power Dimension Wingspan Speed Ceiling Takeoff Weight (Typical) Empty Weight Range Takeoff Distance Runway Cargo/passenger transport Two General Electric T64-P4D engines 3,400 each 74.5 feet long by 34.7 feet wide 94.2 feet 250 knots 25,000 feet 56,878 pounds 39,500 pounds 1,500 nautical miles 1,500 feet 1,800 feet by 45 feet

The UC-35A is a medium range executive and priority cago jet aircraft that is the materiel solution for the C-XX (MR) requirement. It is a commercial Off-the-shelf (COTS) Cessna Citation 560 Ultra V twin engined aircraft. Since its introduction, the Citation V has been the world's fastest-selling business jet. The aircraft has a range of 1500 to 1800 nautical miles, a cruise speed of 330 to 450 knots true airspeed, a service ceiling of FL450, and a gross weight of 16,300 pounds. The UC-35A can carry up to eight passengers.




The C-38 replaces two C-21A transports currently operated by the 201st Air National Guard based at Andrews AFB, Md. It holds 11 passengers and crew, is primarily for operational support and distinguished visitor transport and can be configured for medical evacuation and general cargo duties. The C-38, first acquired in 1997, is a US Air National Guard staff transport version of the Israel Aircraft Industries Ltd. / Galaxy Aerospace Corporation Astra SPX business jet. The Model Astra SPX is a derivative of the Model 1125 Westwind Astra. The changes include: installation of AlliedSignal (Garret) TFE 731-40R-200G engines; installation of winglets and minor structural modifications to the wing; installation of Collins pro-line 4 avionics; and a new Airplane Flight Manual to take credit for the aerodynamic and performance improvements. The C-38A is an intercontinental passenger aircraft modified by Tracor Inc., the US prime contractor. The C-38A normally carries a crew of two and has accommodations for eight passengers. The C-38A is equipped for commercial flight operations under Federal Aviation Administration guidelines. Converting the civil aircraft for its military role involved modifications to its avionics suite. The Air Force transport was equipped with US military versions of the global positioning system; tactical air navigation; secure communications capability and an identification, friend or foe system. Because of its specialized electronics and global positioning system, the C-38A can assist in command control and communications in time of disaster or war. The Air Force accepted the first of two C-38A aircraft 17 April 1998. The C-38A was procured by Aeronautical Systems Center’s commercial aircraft integrated product team, in partnership with the single program director at Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center, Tinker AFB, Okla. The program’s logistics support includes a $5.2 million contract to provide depot support and Contractor Operated and Managed Base Support functions. The C-38A acquisition program used streamlined acquisition reform techniques focused on saving time and funds. C-38As will be sustained by the integrated product team at Tinker. The designation was previously applied to the Douglas C-38, a C-33 with a DC-3 tail, of which one was built built.

Powerplant Fuel capacity Speed Maximum range Maximum service Two AlliedSignal TFE 731-40R-200G turbofans 4,247 kg. 867 km/h typical cruise speed 5,465 km.(IFR) 6,034 km.(VFR) 13,716 m.

ceiling Wingspan Length Height Maximum take-off weight Payload Price 16.64 m. 16.96 m. 5.54 m. 11,179 kg. 1,496 kg. useful load 4,247 kg maximum payload $11,750,000

The CT-39G aircraft is a twin-jet engined, pressurized, fixed wing , 8 passenger monoplane manufactured by Rockwell International as the -60 Model aircraft. The platform design was subsequently sold to Sabreliner Corporation of St. Louis, MO. Sabreliner Corporation holds all level 3 drawings, but is not in production of aircraft or even spares. Spares are sub-contracted. The aircraft is powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT-12D jet engines. The JT-12D engine and spares are no longer in production. The primary mission of the CT-39G is to provide V.I.P. airlift service at COMFLELOGSUPPWING DET New Orleans, H&HS MCAS Futenma, and MCAS El Toro. The CT-39G aircraft was procured as a commercial off-the-shelf aircraft certified under an FAA Type Certificate. Throughout its life, the aircraft has been operated and commercially supported by the Navy using FAA processes, procedures, and certifications. It continues to be maintained commercially at all levels of maintenance, and relies on COTS/NDI components and equipment to support airworthiness. Aircraft modification efforts are "turnkey" projects (procurement and installation) implemented as part of competitively awarded maintenance contracts. Where extensive integration efforts are required, the non-recurring engineering phase, including test and certification, is typically performed by Sabreliner Corporation under a sole-source engineering contract with the Navy.

The C-40A, a derivative of the 737-700C and manufactured by Boeing Information, Space, and Defense Systems, is a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certified, high performance, fixed wing aircraft that will accommodate 120 passengers, eight pallets of cargo, or a combination configuration consisting of 3 pallets and 70 passengers. It is powered by two CFM56-7 engines developed jointly by General Electric and SNECMA. The C-40A will have a state of the art flight deck, avionics that meet FAA safety mandates, and engines that are Stage III noise compliant and certified for over-water operations. The aircraft will have a range of 3,400 NM with 5,000 lbs. of cargo. The C-40A will be a one-for-one replacement for the aging C-9B/DC-9 aircraft currently flown by the Naval Reserves. The aircraft will provide long range, high priority logistical airlift in support of Fleet activities. A contract for two C-40As was signed in August 1997, with an option for a third. Delivery of the first aircraft is scheduled for December 2000. On July 30, 1999, Boeing Defense and Space Group was awarded a $43,700,000 modification to the previously awarded contract for the procurement of one C-40A aircraft, to be delivered by August 2001.

Propulsion Length Height Wingspan Weight Cruising Speed Ceiling Range Crew Two CFM56-7 SLST engines 110 Ft 4 in (33.63 meters) 41 Ft 2 in (12.55 meters) 112 Ft 7 in (34.3 meters) Max Gross, take-off: 171,000 Lbs Landing: 134,000 Lbs Empty: 126,000 Lbs 0.78 to 0.82 Mach (585 to 615 mph) 41,000 Ft 3,000 Nautical miles (with 40,000 Lbs of cargo) Four

C-130 Hercules
The C-130 Hercules primarily performs the intratheater portion of the airlift mission. The aircraft is capable of operating from rough, dirt strips and is the prime transport for paradropping troops and equipment into hostile areas. Basic and specialized versions perform a diversity of roles, including airlift support, DEW Line and Arctic ice resupply, aeromedical missions, aerial spray missions, fire-fighting duties for the US Forest Service, and natural disaster relief missions. In recent years, they have been used to bring humanitarian relief to many countries, including Haiti, Bosnia, Somalia, and Rwanda. Four decades have elapsed since the Air Force issued its original design specification, yet the remarkable C-130 remains in production. The turbo-prop, high-wing, versatile "Herc" has accumulated over 20 million flight hours. It is the preferred transport aircraft for many US Government services and over 60 foreign countries. The basic airframe has been modified to hundreds of different configurations to meet an ever-changing environment and mission requirement. The C-130 Hercules has unsurpassed versatility, performance, and mission effectiveness. Early C-130A, B, and D versions are now retired.

C-130 Missions & Variants
Missions Tactical Airlift Aerial Tanker Command & Control Maritime Patrol Special Operations Search & Rescue Humanitarian Relief Staff/VIP Transport Reconnaissance Airborne Hospital Arctic & Anarctic Support Drone Control Electronic Warfare Space & Missile Operations Test & Evaluation Specialized Variant All KC-130B, KC-130F, KC-13H, HC-130H(N), HC-130N, HC130P, KC-130R, KC-130T EC-130E (ABCCC), EC-130G, & EC-130Q C-130H-NP/PC-130H MC-130E & MC-130H SC-130B/HC-130B, HC-130E, HA-130H, HC-130H(N), HC130N, & HC-130P All VC-130B & VC-130H RC-130B C-130E (AEH) C-130BL/LC-130F, C-130D, LC-130H, & LC-130R GC-130A/DC-130A, DC-130E, & DC-130H EC-130E (CL), EC-130E (RR), EC-130H JC-130A, JC-130B, & NC-130H NC-13A, NC-130B, JC-130E, NC-130E, JC-130H, & RC-130S

Weather Reconnaissance Gunship

WC-130B, WC-130E, WC-130H AC-130A, AC-130E, AC-130H, & AC-130U

The initial production model was the C-130A, with four Allison T56-A-11 or -9 turboprops. Conceptual studies of the C-130A, were initiated in 1951. The first prototype flight took place in 1954 and the first production flight followed on April 7, 1955. A total of 219 were ordered and the C-130A joined the U.S. Air Force inventory in December 1956. Two DC-130A's (originally GC-130A's) were built as drone launchers/directors, carrying up to four drones on underwing pylons. All special equipment was removable, permitting the aircraft to be used as freighters, assault transports, or ambulances. The C-130B introduced Allison T56-A-7 turboprops and the first of 134 entered Air Force service in April-June 1959. The B model carries additional fuel in the wings, and has upgraded engines and strengthened landing gear. C-130B's are used in aerial fire fighting missions by Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units. Six C-130B's were modified in 1961 for snatch recovery of classified U.S. Air Force satellites by the 6593rd Test Squadron at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. Several A models, redesignated C-130D, were modified with wheel-ski landing gear for service in the Arctic and for resupply missions to units along the Distant Early Warning line. The two main skis are 20 feet long, six feet wide, and weigh about 2,000 pounds each. The nose ski is 10 feet long and six feet wide. The D model also has increased fuel capacity and provision for jet -assisted takeoff. The D models were flown by the Air National Guard and were recently replaced with C-130H models. C-130E is an extended-range development of the C-130B, with two underwing fuel tanks and increased range and endurance capabilities. A total of 369 were ordered for MAC (now AMC) and TAC (now ACC), with deliveries beginning in April 1962. A wing modification to correct fatigue and corrosion on USAF’s force of C-130Es has extended the life of the aircraft well into the next century. Ongoing modifications include a SelfContained Navigation System (SCNS) to enhance navigation capabilities, especially in low-level environments. The SCNS incorporates an integrated communications/ navigation management system that features the USAF standard laser gyro inertial navigational unit and the 1553B data bus; installation began in 1990. Other modifications include enhanced station-keeping equipment, 50 kHz VHF Omnirange/lnstrument Landing System (VOR/ILS) receivers, secure voice capability, and GPS capability. Another major modification installs a state-of-the-art autopilot that incorporates a Ground Collision Avoidance System. Military Airlift Command is the primary user, with more than 200 E models. The Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard also fly the E model. Similar to the E model, the C-130H has updated T56-A-T5 turboprops, a redesigned outer wing, updated avionics, and other minor improvements. The C-130E/H carries 6,700 gallons of fuel in six integral wing tanks. Under each wing of the C-130E/H is an external pylon fuel tank with a capacity of 1,300 gallons. A pressure refueling point is in the aft side wheel well fairing for ground refueling. As a response to the role played by

the tactical airlift fleet in Operation Just Cause and in the Persian Gulf War, Congress approved the procurement of more C-130H's to replace the aging E models. Delivery began in July 1974 [other sources state April 1975]. More than 350 C-130Hs and derivatives were ordered for active and reserve units of the US services, including eight funded in FY 1996. Production of the H has now ended. Units in Military Airlift Command, the Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve are equipped with this model. The Night Vision Instrumentation System was introduced from 1993; TCAS II in new aircraft from 1994. ANG and AFRC C-130Hs are used in fire-fighting missions. Specifically modified aircraft are used by the 757th AS, AFRC, based at YoungstownWarren Regional Airport ARS, Ohio, for aerial spraying, typically to suppress mosquitospread epidemics. Seven LC-130Hs, modified with wheel-ski gear, are operated by ANG’s 109th AW in support of Arctic and Antarctic operations. While continuing to upgrade through modification, the Air Force has budgeted to resume fleet modernization through acquisition of the C-130J version. Compared to older C130s, the C-130J climbs faster and higher, flies farther at a higher cruise speed, and takes off and lands in a shorter distance. This new model features a two-crew-member flight system, 6,000 skip Allison AE 21 00D3 engines and all-composite Dowty R391 propellers, digital avionics and mission computers, enhanced performance, and improved reliability and maintainability. Beginning in FY 1996, the Air Force started procuring C130Js as replacements for the older C-130Es and Hs. Priority for replacement will be combat delivery aircraft. C-130J will ensure total force structure numbers are maintained, while reducing costs of ownership. The current program procures 12 C-130Js, i.e., two per year from FY96 to FY01. This program could be expanded in FY02 to procure 12 C130Js a year to replace the active duty and ARC C-130Es which are nearing the end of their useable service life.

The WC-130E/H is used in weather reconnaissance and aerial sampling. The plane is modified to penetrate hurricanes and typhoons to collect meteorological data that make advanced warnings of such storms possible. Weather reconnaissance equipment gathers information on movement, intensity and size of storms; outside air temperature; humidity; dewpoint; and barometric pressure. WC-130s are assigned to active and Reserve units at Keesler Air Force Base, Miss. The HC-130 is an extended-range, combat rescue version of the C-130 transport aircraft. Capable of independent employment in the no-to-low threat environment. Its primary mission is to provide air refueling for rescue helicopters. The HC-130 can perform extended searches in a permissive environment and has the capability to airdrop pararescuemen and survival equipment to isolated survivors when a delay in the arrival of a recovery vehicle is anticipated. Flights to air refueling areas or drop zones are accomplished at tactical low altitude to avoid threats. NVG-assisted, low-altitude air refueling and other operations in a low-threat environment are performed by specially trained crews. The crew can perform airborne mission commander (AMC) duties in a noto-low threat environment when threat conditions permit. The maximum speed is 290 knots (at high altitude), with a low-altitude cruise speed of 210 to 250 knots. Range, depending upon internal fuel tank configuration, is 3,000 to 4,500NM (no wind). The C-130 Avionics Modernization Program (C-130X AMP) will modify approximately 525 aircraft to establish a common, supportable, cost effective baseline configuration for AMC, ACC, ANG, AFRC, PACAF, USAFE and AFSOC C-130 aircraft. The contractor will design, develop, integrate, test, fabricate and install a new avionics suite for

approximately thirteen variants of C-130 Combat Delivery and Special Mission models. The installation schedule requires a throughput of between 65 and 85 aircraft per year through 2010. The acquisition strategy is currently in development. The C-130 AMP is being worked jointly by Warner-Robins ALC (GA) and Aero Systems Center (OH) (virtual SPO) with the Development System Manager located at ASC.

The C-130J incorporates state-of-the-art technology that significantly improves performance and reduces ownership costs. Lockheed Martin projections show the C130J/J-30 will lower cost of ownership as much as 45% depending on the scenario used. Early model C-130s require more than 20 maintenance manhours per flight hour (MMH/FH). The C-130J/J-30 will require 10 or less MMH/FH. The C-130J/J-30 integrated digital technology provides the capability to airdrop in instrument conditions without zone markers, as a baseline feature of the aircraft. When the high resolution ground mapping capability of the APN-241 Low Power Color Radar is coupled with the dual INS/GPS and digital mapping systems, the C-130J/J-30 provides single-ship or formation all weather aerial delivery. This means the entire J/J-30 fleet will be all weather airdrop capable. C-130Js will be delivered as weather (WC), electronic combat (EC), and tanker (KC) configured aircraft. The United States Marine Corps has chosen the KC-130J tanker to replace its aging KC130F tanker fleet. The new KC-130J offers increased utility and much needed improvement in mission performance. As a force multiplier, the J tanker is capable of refueling both fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft as well as conducting rapid ground refueling. The refueling speed envelope has been widened from 100 to 270 knots indicated airspeed, offering more capability and flexibility. Offload rates per refueling pod can be up to 300 gallons / 2,040 lbs (1,135 liters / 925 kg) per minute simultaneously. The J tanker's offload is significantly greater than previous Herc tankers. As an example, at 1,000 nautical miles, the fuel offload is well over 45,000 lbs. Rapid ground refueling is also a premium capability. In austere conditions/scenarios, the KC-130J can refuel helicopters, vehicles, and fuel caches at 600 gallons / 4,080 lbs (2,270 liters / 1,850 kg) per minute. Additionally, the unique prop feathering capability while the engines are still running ("HOTEL Mode") offers safer and more hospitable conditions for ground refueling than in the past. The WC-130J Hercules is a special weather reconnaissance version of the new Lockheed Martin C-130J cargo plane. Its mission is to fly into the eye of hurricanes to retrieve critical information about active storms. The Air Force Reserve Command's 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron at Keesler Air Force Base, MS, a component of the 403rd Wing, is the only unit in the Department of Defense that flies this mission.

The standard C-130J has essentially the same dimensions as the C-130E/H but the J-30 (stretched version) is 15 feet longer. The J-30 incorporates two extension plugs, one forward and one aft. The foward plug is 100 inches long while the rear plug is 80 inches for a total of 180 inches or 15 feet. With its 3,000 nautical mile range, increased speed, and air refueling capability, it complements the C-5/C-17 airlift team. The J-30 can work in the strategic, as well as tactical or intratheater, environment. The J-30 can be an effective force multiplier in executing the US Army Strategic Brigade Airdrop (SBA). The J-30 can airdrop 100% of the SBA requirement. No longer is it necessary to expend scarce heavy lift resources on strategic contingency requirements. Whether it's a channel, special airlift, training, or contingency airdrop mission, the J-30 can handle it all at a significantly reduced cost. For the first time in the 40-plus year history of the popular Hercules transport, the US Air Force and Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems signed a commercial practices contract for the sale of C-130Js. Awarded on 06 November 1996, the basic contract includes an initial order for two aircraft, associated data, and spares, funded in fiscal year 1996. The contract also contains five years of options through the year 2000 for additional aircraft, interim contractor support, data, training, and support. By late 1996 Aeronautical Systems had completed assembly of the first "production" C-130J (Serial # 5440), one of 12 ordered by the Royal Australian Air Force.

Design Features
In its personnel carrier role, the C-130 can accommodate 92 combat troops or 64 fully equipped paratroops on side-facing seats. For medical evacuations, it carries 74 litter patients and two medical attendants. Paratroopers exit the aircraft through two doors on either side of the aircraft behind the landing-gear fairings. Another exit is off the rear ramp for airdrops. The C-130 can deliver personnel, equipment or supplies either by landing or by various aerial delivery modes. Three primary methods of aerial delivery are used for equipment.

In the first, parachutes pull the load, weighing up to 42,000 pounds, from the aircraft. When the load is clear of the plane, cargo parachutes inflate and lower the load to the ground.  The second method, called the Container Delivery System, uses the force of gravity to pull from one to 16 bundles of supplies from the aircraft. When the bundles, weighing up to 2,200 pounds each, are out of the aircraft, parachutes inflate and lower them to the ground.  The Low Altitude Parachute Extraction System is the third aerial delivery method. With LAPES, up to 38,000 pounds of cargo is pulled from the aircraft by large, inflated cargo parachutes while the aircraft is five to 10 feet above the ground. The load then slides to a stop within a very short distance. Efforts are underway to increase the maximum load weights for LAPES aerial delivery to 42,000 pounds. The C-130's design maximum gross weight is 155,000 pounds (175,000 pounds wartime) with a normal landing weight of 130,000 pounds. The operating weight is approximately 80,000 pounds. The airplane is capable of airlifting 92 ground troops, 64 fully equipped paratroopers, or 74 litter patients. It can also carry 45,000 pounds of cargo. FUSELAGE: The fuselage is a semimonocoque design and divided into a flight station and a cargo compartment. Seating is provided for each flight station. The cargo compartment is approximately 41 feet long, 9 feet high, and 10 feet wide. Loading is from the rear of the fuselage. Both the flight station and the cargo compartment can be pressurized to maintain a cabin pressure-altitude of 5000 feet at an aircraft altitude of 28,000 feet. WINGS: The full cantilever wing contains four integral main fuel tanks and two bladdertype auxiliary tanks. Two external tanks are mounted under the wings. This gives the C-l 30 a total usable fuel capacity of approximately 9680 U.S. gallons. EMPENNAGE: A horizontal stabilizer, vertical stabilizer, elevator, rudder, trim tabs, and a tail cone make up the empennage. This section consists of an all-metal full cantilever semimonocoque structure. It is bolted to the aft fuselage section. POWER PLANT: (prior to the C-130J) Four Allison turboprop engines are attached to the wings. The engine nacelles have cowl panels and access doors forward of a vertical firewall. Clam-shell doors are located aft of the vertical firewall. Air enters the engine through a scoop assembly at the front of the nacelle. PROPELLERS: (prior to the C-130J) Four Hamiliton Standard electro-hydromatic, constant-speed, full feathering, reversible-pitch propellers are installed on each engine. LANDING GEAR AND BRAKES: The modified tricycle-type landing gear consists of dual nose gear wheels and tandem mains. Main gear retraction is vertically, into fuselage fairings, and the nose gear folds forward into the fuselage. Power steering is incorporated into the nose gear. The landing gear design permits aircraft operation from rough, unimproved runways. The brakes are hydraulically operated, multiple-disc type. The

braking system incorporates differential braking and parking brake control. A modulating anti-skid system is provided. AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU) (C-130H): The APU supplies air during ground operation for engine starting and air conditioning. One 40 KVA AC generator is mounted on the APU as an additional AC power source. Emergency electrical power during flight is also available up to 20,000 feet. GAS TURBINE COMPRESSOR (GTC) AND AIR TURBINE MOTOR (ATM) (C130E): C-13OE model aircraft have a GTC which supplies bleed air for engine start, air conditioning, and operation of an ATM. The ATM powers a 20 KVA electrical generator to supply auxiliary electrical power on the ground only. OIL: The C-130 has four independent oil systems with a 12 gallon capacity for each engine. Oil is serviced through a filler neck located on the upper right engine cowling. FUEL: The fuel system consists of a modified manifold-flow type incorporating fuel crossfeed, single point refueling (SPR) and defueling, and fuel dumping. Latest USAF versions incorporate blue foam for fire suppression. ELECTRICAL: AC electrical power for the C-130H model is provided by five 40 KVA generators, 4 driven by the engines and one driven by the APU. On the E model, the power is supplied by four 40 KVA engine-driven generators, and a 20 KVA generator driven by the ATM. DC power is provided from AC sources through four 200 ampere transfomer rectifiers and one 24 volt, 36 ampere-hour battery. HYDRAULIC: Four engine-driven pumps supply 3000 psi pressure to the utility and booster systems. An electric AC motor-driven pump supplies pressure to the auxiliary system and is backed up by a handpump. The hydraulic system maintains constant pressure during zero or negative "g" maneuvers. AIR CONDITIONING AND PRESSURIZATION: Two independent air conditioning systems for the flight deck and cargo compartment are operated from engine bleed air in flight and by the GTC/APU on the ground. OXYGEN: Both models have a 25 liter liquid oxygen (LOX) type system which provides for 96 man-hours of oxygen at 25,000 feet. It uses diluter-demand automatic pressurebreathing regulators. Portable units are also provided. System pressure is maintained at 300 psi. FLIGHT CONTROLS: The primary flight control system consists of conventional aileron, elevator, and rudder systems. Hydraulic power boost is incorporated in each system.

WING FLAPS: The wing flaps are high-lift, Lockheed-Fowler type and are of conventional design and construction. Normal operation is by hydraulic motor. Emergency operation is by manual crank. ANTI-ICING: Engine bleed air is used for anti-icing the wing and empennage leading edges, the radome, (radome anti-icing may be removed in some models, check with aircraft forms) and engine inlet air ducts. Electrical heat provides anti-icing for the propellers, windshield, and pitot tubes. AIRCRAFT DIMENSIONS: Wing Span: 132 feet 7 inches Length: 97 feet Height: 9 inches Horizontal Stabilizer: 38 feet 5 inches 52 feet 8 inches

Typical C-130 Cargo Dimensions:

Model C-130A C-130B C-130E C-130H C-130H2 C-130H3 C-130J L-100 L-100-20 L-100-30 C-130H-30

First Delivery 1956 1959 1962 1964 1978 1992 1996 1964 1968 1970 1980

Last Delivery Nov 1959 Mar 1963 Mar 1974 In Production 1992 1997 In Production Dec 1968 Mar 1981 In Production 1997

Service Life
Although service life computations are not used to determine grounding or airframe restrictions, the Air Force does use service life estimates as a planning tool to anticipate when major aircraft structural events can be expected. A key issue is the structural service life of the C-130 airframes, which depends on mission severity, fatigue, and corrosion factors.

A severity factor accounts for the difference between normal civilian flying and military flying (low level, shortfield landings, etc.). Mission profile determines the severity factor, which is averaged over the aircraft's most recent two year history. This translates airframe clock hours into equivalent airframe damage hours which indicate the higher aging rate of the military airframes. On average, Active C-130 aircraft fly approximately 600 hours per year, while ARC C-130E and C-130H aircraft fly about 375 hours and 450 hours per year, respectively. Currently, the critical fatigue component for the C-130 fleet is the center wing box, which is structurally more susceptible to the stresses of mission profile and payload. The center wing box has a limit of 60,000 relative baseline hours (flight hours multiplied by the mission severity factor).) A corrosion limit of 40,000 flight hours is based on historical data and engineering judgment. It considers corrosion factors not considered in airframe fatigue analysis. Actual airframe service life depends on which limit, fatigue or corrosion, is reached first. The average age of the active duty C-130 fleet is over 25 years old, while the average age of Guard and Reserve C-130s is 15 years old. The average age of the C-130E model is over 28 years and average flying time is approximately 19,800 hours; the newest E-model being produced in 1972. Based on projected operations tempo and overall mission severity, C-130E aircraft have an average remaining service life of 15 years. Material solutions such as selective repair, a service life extension program (SLEP), or procurement of new aircraft are several ways to influence and resolve aging of the C-130 fleet. The service-life of the HC-130N/P is based upon the aircraft’s wing box and operations tempo. Based on the current operations tempo, the fleet will begin to lose airworthiness in 2013.

Primary Function Contractor Power Plant Length Height Wingspan Speed Ceiling Intratheater airlift. Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company. Four Allison T56-A-15 turboprops; 4,300 horsepower, each engine. 97 feet, 9 inches (29.3 meters). 38 feet, 3 inches (11.4 meters). 132 feet, 7 inches (39.7 meters). 374 mph (Mach 0.57) at 20,000 feet (6,060 meters). 33,000 feet (10,000 meters) with 100,000 pounds (45,000 kilograms) payload.

Maximum Takeoff Weight Operating Weight: Maximum Useable Fuel: Maximum Allowable Cabin Load: Normal Passenger Seats Available: Maximum Number of Pallets:

155,000 pounds (69,750 kilograms). 83,000 Pounds 60,000 Pounds 36,000 Pounds Up to 92 troops or 64 paratroops or 74 litter patients. 5 2,356 miles (2,049 nautical miles) with maximum payload; 2,500 miles (2,174 nautical miles) with 25,000 pounds (11,250 kilograms) cargo; 5,200 miles (4,522 nautical miles) with no cargo. $22.9 million (1992 dollars). Five (two pilots, a navigator, flight engineer and loadmaster); up to 92 troops or 64 paratroops or 74 litter patients or five standard freight pallets. Four (two pilots, one flight engineer, and one loadmaster) Allows for a 16 hour crew duty day (12 hour for airdrop crews) (from show at the aircraft to parking at the final destination). Six crews will normally carry one navigator as well and an extra loadmaster in addition to the minimum crew complement. Nine (three pilots, two navigators, two flight engineers, and two loadmasters) Allows for a 18 hour crew duty day (from show at the aircraft to parking at the final destination) April 1955.


Unit Cost Crew

Minimum Crew Complement

Crew Complement [airdrop missions]

Augmented Crew Complement

Date Deployed Inventory

Active force, 98; ANG, 20 Bs, 60 E's and 93 H's; Reserve, 606. The most significant issue for the C-130 entails the reassignment of CONUS-based active duty C-130s from USACOM to USTRANSCOM. As the single manage for DoD transportation, the consolidation of these air mobility assets under USTRANSCOM lends

further credence to USTRANSCOM’s single manager charter. Furthermore, as the Air Force component of USTRANSCOM, AMC now exercises both service authority (i.e., train, organize, equip, and provide) and operational control over these forces. This arrangement eliminates confusion and yields more effective and efficient service to the air mobility customer. (Theater CINCs will continue to exercise combatant command and operational control of overseas-assigned C-130 forces.)

Derived from Boeing's prototype 707 jet airliner in the early 1950s, the C-135 has been a visible successful partner of the Air Force since the first one was acquired in August 1956. Although most of the 820 units have been KC-135A Stratotankers for the air refueling mission, they have also performed numerous transport and special-duty functions. The breakdown is as follows [individual numbers do not add to total of 820 airframes due to modifications between types:
15 30 39 26 732 17 161 12 371 56 55 3 4 10 aircraft 5 10 C-135A C-135B EC-135C NKC-135 KC-135A KC-135B KC-135E KC-135F KC-135R KC-135Q KC-135T OC-135 RC-135A RC-135B (Model 707-157) - first flight May 19, 1961 (Model 707-158) - upgraded engines airborne control center modified for experiments tanker tanker re-engined with salvaged 707 engines French AF for refuelling "Mirage" IVA CFM International F108-CF-100 engines special tanker for SR-71 special tanker for SR-71 - reengined Open Skies observation aircraft (Model 739-700) - reconnaisance aircraft (Model 739-445B) - electronic reconnaisance

- VC-135B - VIP transport version of C-135B - WC-135C - weather reconnaisance aircraft - CC-137 - military transport for RCAF - VC-137A - VIP transport version of Model 707-120 - VC-137B - VIP transport version of Model 707-320B

EC-135 Worldwide Airborne Command Post System (WWABNCP) variants, in 10 different configurations varying by communications equipment fitted; 39 aircraft representing 7 versions made up the EC-135 family. Also some KC-135As were converted to RC-135s aircraft such as RC-135Ds, and RC-135T. C-135Bs were converted into RC-135Es, RC-135Ss and RC-135Ms which were later converted to RC135Ws. C-135 aircraft transport senior military leaders such as the Commander-in-Chief, US Pacific Command; Commander, Pacific Air Forces; and other high-ranking dignitaries. The C-135C Speckled Trout communications aircraft, operated by the Edwards-based 412th Flight Test Squadron, is a modified C-135 that serves as a test bed for emerging technologies. During the June 1996 Joint Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (JWID '96), a full-scale prototype phased-array antenna communications system was installed on board the Speckled Trout avionics testbed. The antenna system successfully was used to receive satellite-transmitted television, military Global Broadcast System (GBS) video and other data. Developmental tests using the C-135 Speckled Trout aircraft have demonstrated the capability to fly precision approaches using a local area differential GPS system. Speckled Trout has been fitted with a millimeter-wave camera and a new

radome this summer to test the camera's generation of video images of the forward scene in low-visibility conditions. During the first Expeditionary Force Experiment conducted in September 1998 [EFX 98], participants evaluated multiple onboard command-andcontrol software tools that receive data through a new wide bandwidth phased array antenna system. The new antenna and software allows the commander to communicate with the rear and forward air operations centers while maintaining awareness of battlefield events. The aircraft, which in the VIP transport role seats 14 passengers, gives the Joint Forces Air Component commander a limited ability to plan and control the simulated battle while in the air en route to the crisis area. Some of the equipment worked and some didn't, particularly the connectivity required to move large amounts of data and to maintain continuous contact. A suite of electronic equipment has been outfitted in a modified NKC-135 aircraft, now called the "Big Crow" EW Flying Laboratory, with the capability of generating electronic warfare (EW) threat environments and performing realtime data analysis on DoD materiel. : The Big Crow NKC-135 aircraft provides multi-Service electronic countermeasures (ECM) testing and training support. During a nine-month Program Depot Maintenance (PDM) overhaul of the Big Crow, a KC-135E was outfited and configured to serve as a large ECM aircraft as an augmentation to the existing Big Crow aircraft. Upon completion, this aircraft has essentially the same capabilities as the existing Big Crow aircraft to provide high power, long range Stand-Off Jamming that is required by DDG-51, AN/SPY-1 Radar, and SM-2 missile programs for testing in an operationally realistic electronic warfare environment.

C-141B Starlifter
President John F. Kennedy's first official act after his inauguration was to order the development of an all-jet transport to extend the reach of the nation's military forces. Lockheed's C-141 StarLifter was the result. The C-141 Starlifter is the workhorse of the Air Mobility Command. The Starlifter fulfills the vast spectrum of airlift requirements through its ability to airlift combat forces over long distances, inject those forces and their equipment either by airland or airdrop, re-supply employed forces, and extract the sick and wounded from the hostile area to advanced medical facilities. The C-141B is a stretched C-141A with in-flight refueling capability. Stretching of the Starlifter consisted of lengthening the plane 23 feet, 4 inches (53.3 centimeters), which increased cargo capacity by about one-third - 2,171 extra cubic feet (65.13 extra cubic meters). Lengthening of the aircraft had the same effect as increasing the number of aircraft by 30 percent. The C-141 was the first jet aircraft designed to meet military standards as a troop and cargo carrier. A universal air refueling receptacle on the C-141B transfers 23,592 gallons (89,649.6 liters) of fuel in about 26 minutes, allowing longer non-stop flights and fewer fuel stops during worldwide airlift missions. The C-141 force, nearing seven million flying hours, has a proven reliability and long-range capability. The Starlifter, operated by the Air Mobility Command, can airlift combat forces, equipment and supplies, and deliver them on the ground or by airdrop, using paratroop doors on each side and a rear loading ramp. It can be used for low-altitude delivery of paratroops and equipment, and high-altitude delivery of paratroops. It can also airdrop equipment and supplies using the container delivery system. It is the first aircraft designed to be compatible with the 463L Material Handling System, which permits offloading 68,000 pounds (30,600 kilograms) of cargo, refueling and reloading a full load, all in less than an hour. The C-141 has an all-weather landing system, pressurized cabin and crew station. Its cargo compartment can easily be modified to perform around 30 different missions. About 200 troops or 155 fully equipped paratroops can sit in canvas side-facing seats, or 166 troops in rear-facing airline seats. Rollers in the aircraft floor allow quick and easy cargo pallet loading. A palletized lavatory and galley can be installed quickly to accommodate passengers, and when palletized cargo is not being carried, the rollers can be turned over to leave a smooth, flat surface for loading vehicles. In its aeromedical evacuation role, the Starlifter can carry about 103 litter patients, 113 ambulatory patients or a combination of the two. It provides rapid transfer of the sick and wounded from remote areas overseas to hospitals in the United States.

The Air Force Reserve, through its associate units, provides 50 percent of the Starlifter's airlift crews, 40 percent of its maintenance capability and flies more than 30 percent of Air Mobility Command's peacetime worldwide missions. The first Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units to receive the C-141 as unit equipment became operational in fiscal 1987. The units are located at Jackson, Miss., and Andrews Air Force Base, Md. During Desert Shield and Desert Storm, a C-141 from the 437th Military Airlift Wing, Charleston AFB, S.C., was the first American aircraft into Saudi Arabia, transporting an Airlift Control Element from the 438th Military Airlift Wing, McGuire Air Force Base, N.J. In the following year, the C-141 completed the most airlift missions - 7,047 out of 15,800 - supporting the Gulf War. It also carried more than 41,400 passengers and 139,600 tons (125,690 metric tons) of cargo. The first C-141A, delivered to Tinker AFB, Okla., in October 1964, began squadron operations in April 1965. Soon, Starlifters made flights almost daily to Southeast Asia, carrying troops, equipment and supplies, and returning patients to U.S. hospitals. Several C-141s have been modified to carry the Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missile in its special container, up to a total weight of 92,000 pounds (41,400 kilograms). Some C-141s have been equipped with intraformation positioning sets that enable a flight of two to 36 aircraft to maintain formation regardless of visibility. The C-141 was the first jet transport from which U.S. Army paratroopers jumped, and the first to land in the Antarctic. A C-141 established a world record for heavy cargo drops of 70,195 pounds (31,587.7 kilograms).

Service Life
The first C-141B was received by the Air Force in December 1979. Conversion of 270 C141s from A to B models was completed in 1982. C-141 modifications aim to preserve the remaining force by reliability and maintainability improvements and capability improvements necessary for effective use through 2006. Thirteen aircraft will receive additional SOLL II upgrades under the Special Operations Forces Improvement program. Sixty-three aircraft in the current C-141 fleet will undergo major modification. Each will receive the All Weather Flight Control System (AWFCS) consisting of a digital autopilot, advanced avionics display, and Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS). Other major improvements include a Defensive Systems (DS), Fuel Quantity Indicating System, and GPS modifications. As a general rule, these 63 aircraft are the "youngest" (fewest equivalent damage hours) in the fleet and will carry the weapon system through programmed retirement in 2006.

All Weather Flight Control System (AWFCS) The AWFCS modification is necessitated to alleviate reliability and maintainability problems presently being experienced due to the aging (or rather aged) avionics systems on the C-141. The system's functionality includes: autopilot, autothrottle, yaw damping, ground

collision warning, primary flight instrument display, and warning display. LRUs installed by this modification (4 6x8" AMLCD Display Units (DUs), 2 Automatic Flight Control Processors (AFCPs), 2 Display Processor Units (DPUs), and 2 Display Avionics Management Units) replace approximately 19 antiquated LRUs, Indicators, and Controls. Additionally, a new Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) and Multi-function Standby Airspeed/Attitude/Altitude Indicator (w/independant airdata source) are installed during this modification. GPS Enhanced Navigation System (GPSENS) GPSENS integrates into the AWFCS aircraft to provide GPS based navigation and centralized and consolodated control of the majority of aircraft communication and navigation equipment via 3 Multifunction Control Display Units and 2 Navigational Processors. The Fuel Saving Advisory System (FSAS) LRUs are removed and their functionality is rehosted within the Nav. Processors. Digital Fuel Quantity Indication System (FQIS) The new digital FQIS provides a display of fuel quantity in the same manner as the old analog system - one indicator for each tank and a totalizer to sum each individual tank reading (except in a digital format vs the analog dail). All components and wiring of the old system are replaced when the new system is installed. A complete aircraft kit consists of 11 Digital Fuel Qauntity Indicators (one part number which is interchangeable for all tank indicator positions and totalizer), 68 Full Height Compensated (FHC) Fuel Probes, and associated wiring. BIT capabilities facilitate ease of maintenance and trouble shooting. Airlift Defensive System (ADS) ADS provides C-141 aircraft with a common self-protection capability against shoulder fired man portable Surface-to-Air Missile threat. L-Band Satcom System Operating on the Inmarsat and GPS satellites with interconnection to international telex, fax and switched data networks, the L-Band Satcom system provides automatic (and manual) data reporting and message transfer of position reports, performance data and operational messages on a 24 hour global basis. Coverage is provided from sea level to 55,000 feet from 70 degrees north to 70 degrees south. Interim GPS Provisions The C-141 aircraft is equipped with provisions to allow the use of hand-held GPS equipment. Power and antenna access plugs are located at the aft end of the center pedestal. Hand-held GPS units in use consist of the Precise Lightweight GPS Receiver (PLGR) and the Bendix-King KLX-100 (Comm functions not allowed for on-aircraft use). Traffic Collision Aviodance System (TCAS) Current plans include the installation of a TCAS on the C-141 aircraft.

Recently, the C-141 went through a series of major repairs. Wing Station 405, windshield post crack repairs and center wing box repair/replacement are complete. As the aircraft continues to age, it is quite possible new structural problems may limit the readiness of the force. To slow aircraft aging of the active duty fleet, 56 PAI aircraft have been transferred to the UE Guard and Reserve as of FY95. Additionally, the process of retiring high flight hour equivalent aircraft will culminate with the retirement of the entire AMC active duty fleet by FY03.

Primary Function Contractor Power Plant Thrust Length Height Wingspan Speed Ceiling Maximum Takeoff Weight Range Unit Cost Crew Date Deployed Inventory Long-range troop and cargo airlift. Lockheed-Georgia Co. Four Pratt & Whitney TF33-P-7 turbofan engines. 20,250 pounds (9,112.5 kilograms), each engine. 168 feet, 4 inches (51 meters). 39 feet, 3 inches (11.9 meters). 160 feet (48.5 meters). 500 mph (Mach 0.66). 41,000 feet (12,424 meters). 323,100 pounds (145,395 kilograms). 2,500 miles (2,174 nautical miles). $8.1 million (1992 dollars). Six (pilot, co-pilot, two loadmasters, and two flight engineers). C-141A: May 1964; C-141B: December 1979. Active force, 241; ANG, 16; Reserve, 12.

Advanced Theater Transport
In the long term (FY11-21) the Air Force plans to begin acquisition process for the Advanced Theater Transport to replace C-130s as they retire. This long term replacement aircraft for the C-130E/H includes enhanced reliability, maintainability, and availability; advanced cargo handling features; super short takeoff and landing capability; oversized/outsized cargo capability; high speed/low level airdrop capability; articulated cargo ramp; high lift systems with externally blown flaps; fly-by-wire capability; off-theshelf derivative engines; cross-shafted propellers and rotors; off runway landing gear; advanced cockpit design with autonomous landing capability and onboard mission planning. Survivability features include IR suppression, reconfigurable flight controls, damage tolerance, and California Bearing Ratio hardening. In addition, it must have at least the same capabilities as C-130J.

New Strategic Aircraft (NSA)
The current USAF "Air Mobility Master Plan" calls for the retirement of the C-141 transport by the year 2006 and retirement of the KC-135 tankers to begin in 2013. These 700+ aircraft, 80% of the current mobility fleet, are now 25 to 30 years old and are experiencing fatigue and corrosion problems leading to low availability rates. The C141B represents 35% of the current US strategic airlift capability while the KC-135 comprises 90% of the tanker fleet. Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems (LMAS) is studying a new family of mid-size jet transport aircraft, called the New Strategic Aircraft (NSA), to meet U.S. DOD, international, and commercial requirements for:
    

military strategic airlift, military air refueling, military personnel and equipment airdrop, commercial cargo and package delivery, a commercially viable, military capable CRAF aircraft.

The goal of the NSA program is to develop the standard long range mobility aircraft for the first half of the 21st century. The basic NSA airframe will be a commercially certified aircraft with provisions for modular components and systems to allow the aircraft to evolve to meet changing requirements and missions. The aircraft will be able to perform airlift and tanker missions through the use of integrated modular tanker systems. This will allow the use of one airframe, with the resulting logistics and operational advantages, to fulfill AMC airlift, airdrop, and air refueling missions. In the airlift role, the NSA can carry all the equipment of the Army's light divisions over a 4,000 NM range. The aircraft can airdrop over 150 paratroops or two 60,000 pound airdrop loads. For tanker missions, the aircraft can exceed the fuel offload of the KC-135R while retaining its basic airlift capability. LMAS Advanced Design engineers have studied over 40 aircraft concepts since the initiation of the NSA project in 1994.

Current effort is focused on the joined wing configuration and the operational advantages of a tanker aircraft with two refueling booms. Given that the USAF will not replace its current tankers on a one-for-one basis, planners will face a "boom intensive environment" in future conflicts

Global Range Aircraft
The notional Global Range Aircraft is based on the USAF Science Advisory Board (SAB) "New World Vistas" global range mission of 150,000 pounds payload over a 12,000 NM range. Aircraft technologies that could give much better performance include a large improvement in lift to drag (L/D) ratio of a wing coupled to evolutionary improvement in engines. This next generation airlifter with a high lift/drag wing/airframe design, engineered materials[5] , high temperature engine components, composite fabrication and fastening, and next generation material for airframe and skin. Worldwide coverage will require aircraft that can fly 12,000 miles, deliver cargo, and return without refueling at the terminal point. Air refueling is a logistics intensive operation, and airlifter refueling can be eliminated. Cargo capacity for airlifters of the 21st century should be 150,000 pounds. With improvements in aircraft and delivery methods, the gross takeoff weight will be 1,000,000 pounds. The Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) design approach is to maximize overall efficiency by integrating the engines, wings, and the body into a single lifting surface. The BWB synergistically combines a rigid, wide airfoil-shaped fuselage with high-aspect-ratio wings and buried engines with a common integrated nacelle. The BWB concept houses a wide double-deck payload compartment that blends into the wing. Adjacent to this central section is ample room for baggage and cargo. Preliminary analyses indicate that the BWB would outperform all conventional aircraft. An initial evaluation of this configuration indicates significant cost and performance benefits over conventional configurations: a 56-percent increase in lift-drag ratio, a 20-percent decrease in fuel burn, and a 10-percent decrease in the operating-empty weight. The cargo aircraft, with a 280foot wingspan, could carry 231,000 pounds of payload more than 7,000 nautical miles at a cruise speed of approximately 560 mph. This is almost twice the capacity of the Boeing 747-400. It would reduce fuel burn and harmful emissions per passenger mile by almost a third in comparison to today's aircraft. Other potential benefits of the BWB include increased aerodynamic performance, lower operating cost and reduced community noise levels. The BWB design uses ten intermediate chord-wise (front-to-back) ribs to connect the upper and lower wing skins. These ribs separate the interior into ten bays. Advanced composite material will be required to minimize the amount of structure needed to withstand the pressurization loads and deflections in the skins. Today's aircraft fly at speeds approaching 600mph. At these speeds, the thick wing of the BWB would experience substantial aerodynamic drag without carefully designed control of the airflow over the wing. Current transport aircraft wings are relatively thin compared to the airfoils required for the BWB and do not experience this problem as severely. Stability and control and ride quality are significant challenges to development of the BWB. Normally, all-wing configurations are difficult to stabilize without resorting to techniques that increase overall drag. The stability and control behavior of the BlendedWing-Body resembles that of a jet fighter rather than a commercial transport. Advanced flight control systems will be required to control the aircraft at various flight conditions. This approach allows the center-of-gravity to be located further aft, which helps reduces drag for this type of design.

While the idea for "flying wing" airplanes is not new, no commercial transport of this type has ever been created. The issues of high speed aerodynamics, propulsion integration and noncircular pressurized cabins have yet to be addressed by today's aircraft designers. Many challenges exist that will involve complex solutions requiring a multidisciplinary design approach. Team members studying the Blended-Wing-Body concept are McDonnell Douglas, Stanford University, the University of Southern California, Clark Atlanta University, the University of Florida, and NASA Langley and Lewis Research Centers.

Civil Reserve Air Fleet
The Civil Reserve Air Fleet is made up of US civil air carriers who are committed by contract to provid-ing operating and support personnel for DOD. The CRAF program is designed to quickly mobilize our nation’s airlift resources to meet DOD force projec-tion requirements. CRAF airlift services are divided into four operational segments:
   

Long-range international-strategic intertheater operations. Short-range international theater operations. Domestic CONUS-DOD supply distribution. Alaskan-Aerospace Defense Command support.

The CRAF airlift capability can be activated in three stages. These stages are as follows:

Stage I. Stage I may be activated by the USCINCTRANSCOM,1 to perform airlift services when the AMC airlift force cannot meet simultaneously both deployment and other traffic requirements.  Stage II. Stage II is an additional airlift expansion identified for an airlift emergency which does not warrant national mobilization but may be activated by authority of the SECDEF.  Stage III. Stage III makes available the total CRAF airlift capability when required for DOD operations during major military emergencies involving US Forces. The SECDEF issues the order to activate CRAF stage III only after a national emergency has been declared by the President or Congress. CRAF was activated for the first time in its history on 17 August 1990 when stage I aircraft were called up in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. Despite a few minor problems, which have since been addressed, the activation of the CRAF was very successful. Commercial airlines are motivated to participate in the CRAF program in part by the opportunity to compete for DoD peacetime business. In the past several years, the volume of that available business base has been expanded by over a billion dollars. That was a strong factor in overcoming resistance to CRAF participation in the wake of the Gulf War. The possibility of opening up the DoD small package business to commercial carriers--another $200-$400 million--is now also being considered. Military airfields are being opened to CRAF carriers for operations and bad weather alternates as additional incentives for CRAF participation. Boeing B747. The Boeing B747 is a wide-body aircraft. The cargo-carrying versions have a plan-ning cargo weight of about 180,000 pounds. The main deck can hold either 32 to 36 military or 28 commer-cial pallets. The passenger version carries about 364 passengers (only 237 on the B747SP). Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011. The Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 are wide-body aircraft. The cargo-carrying version of the DC-10 has an average cargo weight of about 120,000 pounds. The main deck can hold either 30 military or 22 commercial pallets. The passenger version of the DC-10 can carry about 242 passengers. The L-1011 passenger version has a capacity of 246 to 330 seats.

Douglas DC-8 and Boeing B707. The Douglas DC-8 and Boeing B707 are narrow-body aircraft. The DC-8 cargo version has a planning cargo weight that varies from 52,000 to 82,000 pounds. The main deck accommodates 14 to 18 pallets, depending on the aircraft series. The cargo version of the B707 has a planning cargo weight of about 60,000 pounds, and the main deck can carry 13 military or commercial pallets. The passenger DC-8 carries 165 to 219 passengers, and the B707, approximately 165 passengers. CRAF aircraft are neither designed nor intended to carry litter patients.

PARTICIPANTS The following air carriers are members of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet for Fiscal Year 1997: Long-Range International Section Air Transport International American International Airways American Airlines American Trans Air Short-Range International Section Alaska Airlines American Trans Air Carnival Airlines Continental Airlines Aeromedical Evacuation Delta Airlines Trans World Airlines USAir Domestic Section Alaskan Section Alaska Airlines Northern Air Cargo

America West Express Reno Air Southwest Airlines

Atlas Air Burlington Air Express Continental Airlines Delta Airlines DHL Airways Emery Worldwide Evergreen International Airlines Federal Express Airlines Fine Airlines North American Airlines Northwest Airlines Polar Air Cargo Southern Air Transport Sun Country Airlines Tower Air Trans Continental Airlines Trans World Airlines United Airlines United Parcel Service World Airways Zantop International Airlines

DHL Airways Evergreen International Airlines Miami Air International North American Airlines Omni Air Express Southern Air Transport Sun Country Airlines USAir Shuttle

KC-10A Extender
The United States Air Force/McDonnell Douglas KC-10A advanced tanker/cargo aircraft is a version of the intercontinental-range DC-10 Series 30CF (convertible freighter), modified to provide increased mobility for U.S. forces in contingency operations by: refueling fighters and simultaneously carrying the fighters' support equipment and support people on overseas deployments: refueling strategic airlifters (such as the USAF C-5 and C-l4l) during overseas deployments and resupply missions; and augmenting the U.S. airlift capability. In most instances, the KC-10A performs these missions without dependence on overseas bases and without depleting critical fuel supplies in the theater of operations. Equipped with its own refueling receptacle, the KC-10A can support deployment of fighters, fighter support aircraft and airlifters from U.S. bases to any area in the world, with considerable savings in both cost and fuel compared to pre-KC-l0A capabilities. The aerial refueling capability of the KC-10A nearly doubles the nonstop range of a fully-loaded C-5 strategic transport. In addition, its cargo capability enables the U.S. to deploy some fighter squadrons and their unit support people and equipment with a single airplane type, instead of requiring both tanker and cargo aircraft. The Air Force is calling the KC-10A the "Extender" because of its ability to carry out aerial refueling and cargo mission without forward basing, thus extending the mobility of U.S. forces. Although the KC-10A's primary mission is aerial refueling, it can combine the tasks of tanker and cargo aircraft by refueling fighters while carrying the fighters' support people and equipment during overseas deployments. The KC-10A can transport up to 75 people and about 170,000 pounds (76,560 kilograms) of cargo a distance of about 4,400 miles (7,040 kilometers). Without cargo, the KC-10A's unrefueled range is more than 11,500 miles.

The KC-10A tanker can deliver 200,000 pounds (90,719 kg) of fuel to a receiver 2200 statute miles (3539.8 km) from the home base and return, or it can carry a maximum cargo payload of 169,409 pounds (76,843 kg) a distance of 4370 statute miles (7031 km). Unrefueled ferry range of the KC-lOA is 11,500 statute miles (18,503 km). The KC-10A is powered by three General Electric CF6-50C2 high bypass-ratio turbofan engines, each generating 52,500 pounds (23,814 kg) of takeoff thrust. Versions of the CF6 engine family are installed on most of the DC-lOs in airline service and have compiled an impressive reliability record. One of the engines is mounted at the base of the tail above the aft fuselage of the KC-10A, and the other two are installed on pylons beneath the wings, one on each side of the fuselage.

Like other intercontinental-range DC-lOs, the tanker/transport is 181 feet 7 inches (55.35 m) in length and has a wingspan of 165 feet 4 inches (50.42 m) and a tail height of 58 feet 1 inch (17.7 m). Gross takeoff weight of the KC-10A is 590,000 pounds (267,619 kg), up from 555,000 pounds (251,701 kg) for the standard intercontinental commercial model. Design fuel capacity is 356,065 pounds (161,508 kg), including a maximum of 238,565 pounds (108,211 kg) in the standad wing tankage and a maximum of 117,500 pounds (53,297 kg) stored in seven fuel cells below the main deck. The KC-10A takes full advantage of the inherent capability of the commercial DC-10, retaining some 88 per cent commonality with the commercial aircraft. KC-10A modifications to the commercial DC10CF include: elimination of most upper deck windows and lower deck cargo doors; provisions for additional crew; a flexible capability for accommodating additional support people; receptacle for in-flight refueling of the KC-10A itself; military avionics; director lights for the receiver aircraft; supplemental fuselage fuel tanks; modernized aerial refueling operator station; hose reel with drogue for refueling Navy and oher probe-equipped aircraft; advanced aerial refueling boom, and an improved cargo handling system. The KC-10A supplementary fuel tankage system, selected after extensive studies, includes seven unpressurized integral-body fuel cells, four aft of the wing and three forward, all located in underdeck vented cavities. A crashworthy design makes use of keel beams and strategically placed energy absorption material to protect the tanks. Under-fuselage panels permit direct access to each cell for installation, removal, system inspection and maintenance and structural inspection. The KC-10A's boom operator controls refueling operations through a digital fly-by-wire system. Sitting in the rear of the aircraft, the operator can see the receiver aircraft through a wide window. During boom refueling operations, fuel is transferred to the receiver at a maximum rate of 1,100 gallons (4,180 liters) per minute; the hose and drogue refueling maximum rate is 470 gallons (1,786 liters) per minute. The KC-10A can be air-refueled by a KC-135 or another KC-10A to increase its delivery range.

The advanced aerial refueling boom designed by McDonnell Douglas offers significant advantages in operational safety, efficiency and fuel-flow rates. It features larger disconnect and control envelopes, independent disconnect capability, an active control system with digital fly-by-wire controls, automatic load alleviation, position rate sensing to assure disconnect within control limits, precision hand controllers with low force requirements and operator-selectable disconnect limits. An additional feature in the KC10A refueling system is the installation of the hose reel and the capability to change from hose to boom refueling, and vice versa, while in flight. The aerial refueling operator's station in the KC-10A, located aft of the rearward lower fuselage fuel tanks, features improvements in comfort, viewing capability and environment. Instead of assuming the prone position required in current tankers, the refueling operator sits in an aft-facing crew seat. Station equipment includes handy refueling controls, a wide viewing window facing the aft "customer" position and additional periscopic viewing arrangements for traffic management. Accessible from the upper deck, the station is pressurized and has independent thermal control, a quiet environment and an arrangement suited for both training and operational missions. While refueling requires only one operator, two additional seats are provided to accommodate an instructor and an observer. For its cargo-carrying assignments, the KC-10A has a total usable cargo space exceeding 12,000 cubic feet (346 cu m) in its spacious cabin. The cabin has a maximum width of almost 19 feet (5.7 m), ceiling height of 8.5 feet (2.5 m) and a floor area of 2200 square feet (304.25 sq m). In all-cargo configuration, the KC-10A acccommodates 25 standard 88 x 108-inch (223.5 by 274.3 cm) cargo pallets in the cabin with aisles down both sides, or 27 pallets with a single aisle. To facilitate the handling of cargo, the KC-10A is equipped with a versatile system to accommodate a broad spectrum of loads. The system, adapted in part from the commercial DC-10, has been enhanced with the addition of powered rollers, powered winch provisions for assistance in fore and aft movement of cargo, an extended ball mat area to permit loading of larger items, and cargo pallet couplers that allow palletizing of cargo items too large for a single pallet. The features, plus the large 102 by 140-inch (259 by 355 cm) cargo door that swings upward on the left side of the forward fuselage for loading and unloading, give the KC-10A the capability to transport a significant portion of the tactical support equipment of fighter squadrons. Several configurations exist for personnel and crew accommodations. One arrangement is for the crew of five, plus six seats for additional crew and four bunks for crew rest, with an environmental curtain between bunks and the cargo net. The same area also has space for the installation of 14 more seats for support people. In another arrangement, the bunks, environmental curtain and cargo net can be shifted rearward, making room for 55 more support people, along with the necessary utility, lavatory and stowage modules, raising the personnel capacity to a total of 80 crew and support people. Although all eight of the DC-10 upper deck passenger doors are installed as standard, three are deactivated. Normal entry and exit are through the two forward passenger doors on each side, and the

aft right-hand door is available as a ground emergency exit for people in the aerial refueling operator's station.

The Air Force announced the selection of McDonnell Douglas on December 19, 1977. The selection was based on integrated assessment of capability, price, life-cycle costs and technical features of the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. The initial contract of $28 million funded production engineering, tooling and other non-recurring activities, with quantities of aircraft to be determined by available funding in future years. An additional logistics support sum of $429,000 was awarded to McDonnell Douglas as part of a basic contract for logistics planning in preparation for subsequent total support of the KC-l0A force, with annual options for spare parts and support equipment, intermediate and depot-level maintenance, systems management and technical support. McDonnell Douglas provides maintenance support under Federal Aviation Administration ground rules. USAF personnel are responsible for accomplishing flight line maintenance tasks, as well as maintenance management functions. The commercial DC-10 entered airline service in 1971, the same year McDonnell Douglas began engineering work on the USAF version that led to the KC-10A contract. The commercial DC-10, chosen by 47 airlines, carries more passengers to more cities worldwide than any other wide-cabin jetliner. With the KC-10A program, the USAF is taking advantage of the nearly $2 billion invested by McDonnell Douglas and its subcontractors in development of the DC-10 and of the huge investments by the airlines in establishing a worldwide support system, thus reducing both the acquisition and operation costs of the KC-10A as compared to an allnew military development. The U.S. Air Force and McDonnell Douglas signed contracts totaling $148 million in November 1978 for production of the first two KC-l0s, for the balance of the non-recurring engineering costs and for the initial spare parts and other support for the KC-10 program. A second contract, calling for production of four additional KC-l0s at a cost of $173 million, was signed November, 1979. At the same time, a $10.1 million logistics support contract option to provide spares and support equipment was signed. A third contract, calling for production of six more KC-l0s at a cost of $284 million, was signed in February of 1981. A $14 million logistics support contract for those aircraft also was signed. A fourth contract, calling for production of four more KC-l0s at a cost of $196 million was signed in January, 1982, along with a $21 million contract for logistic support. The first flight of the KC-10A took place on July 12, 1980. The first aerial refueling occurred during testing on October 30, 1980, with the receiver aircraft a C-5.The first KC-10A was delivered to the Air Force on March 17, 1981. The KC-10A force of 60

aircraft is based with the Air Combat Command at Barksdale AFB, La., and at March AFB, CA, beginning in the fall of 1982. During Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm, the KC-10 fleet provided in-flight refueling to aircraft from all branches of the U.S. armed forces as well as those of other coalition forces. In-flight refueling extended the range and capability of all U.S. and other coalition fighter aircraft. Air operations continued without costly and time-consuming ground refueling. In-flight refueling was key to the rapid airlift of material and forces. In addition to refueling airlift aircraft, the KC-10A, along with the smaller KC-135, moved thousands of tons of cargo and thousands of troops in support of the massive Persian Gulf build-up. The KC-10A and the KC-135 conducted about 51,700 separate refueling operations and delivered 125 million gallons (475 million liters) of fuel without missing a single scheduled rendezvous. The KC-10A acquisition program was directed by the Air Force Systems Command's Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. Prime contractor for the design, development and production of the KC-10A is the Long Beach, California-based Douglas Aircraft Company division of McDonnell Douglas Corporation, St. Louis, Missouri.

Service Life
As one of the newest aircraft in the AF inventory, the KC-10 requires little maintenance and modifications when compared to older military systems. The KC-10 complies with FAA Stage 3 noise standards. Designed with a service life of 30,000 hours, projected structural service life of the KC-10 extends to 2043. State-of-the-art technology and commonalty with commercial counterparts ensures operations in the near future will remain economical. However, as the commercial fleet reaches maturity, major operators will discontinue DC-10 use, leaving smaller airlines as the only remaining civil users. The first round of commercial retirements by 2010 will undoubtedly impact the economy of future Air Force KC-10 operations. Studies to assess that impact and to reevaluate the economic and structural service life will be required.

Primary Function: Contractor: Power Plant: Thrust: Length: Height: Wingspan: Speed: Ceiling: Maximum Takeoff Weight: Maximum Useable Fuel: Aerial refueling/transport. Douglas Aircraft Co. Three General Electric CF-6-50C2 turbofans 52,500 pounds (23,625 kilograms), each engine 181 feet, 7 inches (54.4 meters) 58 feet, 1 inch (17.4 meters) 165 feet, 4 1/2 inches (50 meters) 619 mph (Mach 0.825) 42,000 feet (12,727 meters) 590,000 pounds (265,500 kilograms) 342,000 Pounds All fuel is usable or transferable via either boom or probe and drogue refueling Fifteen aircraft are modified with two wing-mounted air refueling pods which allow for simultaneous operations with probe equipped aircraft. 4,400 miles (3,800 nautical miles) with cargo;


11,500 miles (10,000 nautical miles) without cargo Unit Cost: Crew: Crew Ratio $86.3 million (1992 dollars) Four (aircraft commander, pilot, flight engineer and boom operator) 3.5 crews per aircraft 2.0 crews per aircraft (active duty) 1.5 crews per aircraft (associate reserve) March 1981 Active force, 59; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0

Date Deployed: Inventory:

The KC-130 is a multi-role, multi-mission tactical tanker/transport which provides the support required by Marine Air Ground Task Forces. This versatile asset provides inflight refueling to both tactical aircraft and helicopters as well as rapid ground refueling when required. Additional tasks performed are aerial delivery of troops and cargo, emergency resupply into unimproved landing zones within the objective or battle area, airborne Direct Air Support Center, emergency medevac, tactical insertion of combat troops and equipment, evacuation missions, and support as required of special operations capable Marine Air Ground Task Forces. The KC-130 is equipped with a removable 3600 gallon (136.26 hectoliter) stainless steel fuel tank that is carried inside the cargo compartment providing additional fuel when required. The two wing-mounted hose and drogue refueling pods each transfer up to 300 gallons per minute (1135.5 liters per minute) to two aircraft simultaneously allowing for rapid cycle times of multiple-receiver aircraft formations (a typical tanker formation of four aircraft in less than 30 minutes). Some KC-130s are also equipped with defensive electronic and infrared countermeasures systems. Development is currently under way for the incorporation of interior/exterior night vision lighting, night vision goggle heads-up displays, global positioning system, and jam-resistant radios. The C-130 Hercules transport aircraft, which is still in production, first flew 42 years ago and has been delivered to more than 60 countries. The C-130 operates throughout the military services fulfilling a wide range of operational missions in both peace and war situations. Basic and specialized versions perform a diversity of roles, including airlift support, Distant Early Warning Line and Arctic Ice re-supply, aero-medical missions, aerial spray missions, fire fighting duties for the U.S. Forest Service, and natural disaster relief missions. The C-130E is an extended range development of the C-130B, with large under-wing fuel tanks. A wing modification to correct fatigue and corrosion on C-130Es has extended the life of the aircraft well into the next century. The basic C-130H is generally similar to the C-130E model but has updated T56-A-T5 turboprops, a redesigned outer wing, updated avionics, and other minor improvements. While continuing to upgrade through modification, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) has budgeted to resume fleet modernization through acquisition of the C-130J version. This new model features a two-crew member flight system, Skip Allison AE2100D3 engines, all-composite Dowty R391 propellers, digital avionics and mission computers, enhanced performance, and improved reliability and maintainability. The new KC-130J, with its increase in speed, range, improved air-to-air refueling system, night systems, and survivability enhancements, will provide the MAGTF commander with a state-of-the art, multimission, tactical aerial refueler/transport well into the 21st century. The KC-130J aircraft is a medium sized transport and tanker with capability for intra-theater and inter-theater airlift and aerial refueling operations. The KC-130J is capable of in-flight refueling of both fixed and rotary wing aircraft. The fuel system is a common cross-ship manifold that serves as a refueling system, a fuel supply crossfeed, a ground refueling system, and a fuel jettisoning system. It also retains the capability for worldwide delivery of combat troops, personnel, and cargo by airdrops or airland to

austere, bare-base sites. The KC-130J is capable of day, night, and adverse weather operations. The KC-130J provides rapid logistic support to operating forces. It can be configured to provide transportation of personnel or cargo. Delivery of cargo may be accomplished by parachute, low level fly-by ground extraction, or landing. As a tactical transport, the KC130J can carry 92 ground troops or 64 paratroopers and equipment. It can be configured as a medical evacuation platform capable of carrying 74-litter patients plus attendants. The KC-130J can land and takeoff on short runways and can be used on primitive landing strips in advanced base areas. The KC-130J is also capable of providing mission support in emergency evacuation of personnel and key equipment, advanced party reconnaissance, and special warfare operations. The KC-130J Developmental and Operational Tests were completed by Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems (LMAS). The Qualification Operational Test and Evaluation (QOT&E) will be conducted at Naval Air Station (NAS) Patuxent River, Maryland, in late FY00 through late FY01. Beginning in FY96, the USAF started procuring the C-130J as the replacement for the their older C-130E and C-130H. The U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) will receive five KC130Js through an ECP to the USAF contract. The USMC KC-130J is scheduled to replace the KC-130F model aircraft. Although currently only five aircraft are under contract, additional procurements in future years are planned, but no schedule has been established. The initial procurement of five KC-130Js will replace the oldest F models. These KC-130Js will be assigned to Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Training Squadron (VMGRT)-253 at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Cherry Point, North Carolina. The KC-130J major enhancements include advanced, two-pilot flight station with fully integrated digital avionics, MIL-STD 1553B data bus architecture, color multifunctional liquid crystal displays, and head-up displays. Additional enhancements include state-ofthe-art navigation systems with dual embedded Global Positioning System, Inertial Navigation System, mission planning system, low power color radar, digital map display, and new digital autopilot. The KC-130J incorporates extensive Built-In Test (BIT) integrated diagnostics with an advisory, caution, and warning system, and new higher power turboprop engines with more efficient six-bladed all-composite propellers.

Primary function Manufacturer Power plant Power Length Width of Cargo compartment Height In-flight refueling; tactical transport Lockheed Four Allison T56-A-16 engines 4,910 shaft horsepower per engine Aircraft: 97 feet, 9 inches (22.16 meters) Cargo compartment: 41 feet (12.49 meters) 10 feet, 3 inches (3.12 meters) Aircraft: 38 feet, 4 inches (11.68 meters) Cargo compartment: 9 feet (2.74 meters)

Wing span Maximum takeoff weight Ceiling Speed Operating weight

132 feet, 7 inches (40.39 meters) 175,000 pounds (79,450 kilograms) 30,000 feet (9,140 meters) 315 knots (362.25 miles per hour) 83,300 pounds (37,818 kilograms) KC-130T and KC-130: 13,280 gallons (50,331 liters)/86,320 pounds (32,715 liters) KC-130F: 10,183 gallons (38,594 liters)/ 66,190 pounds (25,086 liters) Tanker mission: 1000 nautical mile (1150 mile) radius with 45,000 pounds of fuel (20,430 kilograms) (KC130R/T) Cargo mission: 2875 nautical miles (3306.25 miles) with 38,258 pounds (17,369 kilograms) of cargo (KC130R/T) or 92 combat troops or 64 paratroopers or 74 litters Less than 2,600 feet 2 pilots, 1 navigator/systems operator, 1 flight engineer, 1 first mechanic, 1 loadmaster (total of 6)

Total fuel capacity


Landing distance Crew In troduction date Unit Replacement Cost Inventory

KC-130F: 1962 KC-130R: 1976 KC-130T: 1983 $37,000,000 Active: 37 KC-130Fs and 14 KC-130Rs (51 total) Reserve: 24 KC-130Ts

KC-135R Stratotanker
The KC-135 Stratotanker's primary mission is to refuel long-range bombers. It also provides aerial refueling support to Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps and allied aircraft. Four turbojets, mounted under wings swept 35 degrees, power the KC-135. Nearly all internal fuel can be pumped through the tanker's flying boom, the KC-135's primary fuel transfer method. A special shuttlecock-shaped drogue, attached to and trailed behind the flying boom, is used to refuel aircraft fitted with probes. An operator stationed in the rear of the plane controls the boom. A cargo deck above the refueling system holds passengers or cargo. Depending on fuel storage configuration, the KC-135 can carry up to 83,000 pounds (37,350 kilograms) of cargo. The KC-135 tanker fleet made an invaluable contribution to the success of Operation Desert Storm in the Persian Gulf, flying around-the-clock missions to maintain operability of allied warplanes. The KC-135s form the backbone of the Air Force tanker fleet, meeting the aerial refueling requirements of bomber, fighter, cargo and reconnaissance forces, as well as the needs of the Navy, Marines and allied nations.

Because the KC-135A's original engines are of 1950s technology, they don't meet modern standards of increased fuel efficiency, reduced pollution and reduced noise levels. By installing new, CFM56 engines, performance is enhanced and fuel off-load capability is dramatically improved. In fact, the modification is so successful that two-reengined KC-135Rs can do the work of three KC-135As. This improvement is a result of the KC-135R's lower fuel consumption and increased performance which allow the tanker to take off with more fuel and carry it farther. Since the airplane can carry more fuel and burn less of it during a mission, it's possible to transfer a much greater amount to receiver aircraft. The quieter, more fuel-efficient CFM56 engines are manufactured by CFM International, a company jointly owned by SNECMA of France, and General Electric of the U.S. The engine is an advanced-technology, high- bypass turbofan; the military designation is F108-CF-100. Related system improvements are incorporated to improve the modified airplane's ability to carry out its mission, while decreasing overall maintenance and operation costs. The modified airplane is designated a KC-135R. Because the KC-135R uses as much as 27 percent less fuel than the KC-135A, the USAF can expect huge fuel savings by re-engining its fleet of KC-135s - about $1.7 billion over 15 years of operation. That's enough to fill the gas tanks of some 7.7 million American cars each year for a decade and a half. Annual savings are estimated to be about 2.3 to 3.2 million barrels of fuel, about three to four percent of the USAF's annual fuel use. This

equals the fuel needed to provide electrical power for 145 days to a city of 350,000 to 400,000. Re-engining with the CFM56 engines also results in significant noise reductions. Area surrounding airports exposed to decibel noise levels is reduced from over 240 square miles to about three square miles. This results in a reduction in the noise impacted area of more than 98 percent. Maximum take-off decibel levels drop from 126 to 99 decibels. This meets the tough U.S. Federal Air Regulation standards -- a goal for commercial aircraft operated within the U.S. In addition, smoke and other emission pollutants are reduced dramatically. Boeing has delivered approximately 400 re-engined KC-135Rs and is under contract for about 432 re-engine kits. Each kit includes struts, nacelles, 12.2 miles of wiring, and other system modification components. Engines are purchased directly by the Air Force from CFM International. Boeing has completed work on a program to re-engine all KC-135As in the Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard fleet -- a total of 161 airplanes. In that modification program, which began in 1981, KC-135As were modified with refurbished JT3D engines taken from used, commercial 707 airliners. After modification, the airplanes are designated KC-135Es. This upgrade, like the KC-135R program, boosts performance while decreasing noise and smoke pollution levels. The modified KC-135E provides 30 percent more powerful engines with a noise reduction of 85 percent. The program included acquisition of used 707s, procurement of purchased parts and equipment, basic engineering, some parts manufacturing, and refurbishment and installation of the engines, struts and cowling. Kits also included improved brakes, cockpit controls and instruments. The Multi-Point Refueling System Program is an effort to enhance the efficiency and flexibility of the Air Force’s air refueling fleet, 45 KC-135R Stratotanker aircraft are being outfitted to accept wing-tip, hose-and-drogue and air refueling pods for refueling NATO and US Navy aircraft. US Navy and many NATO aircraft cannot be refueled using the boom and receptacle refueling method of Air Force aircraft, and instead use a probe-and-drogue system where probes on the receiver aircraft make contact with a hose that is reeled out behind a tanker aircraft. With the number of worldwide joint and combined military operations on the rise, the Department of Defense directed the Air Force to outfit part of its KC-135 fleet with the capability of refueling both probe-anddrogue and boom receptacle aircraft on the same mission. This also allows refueling up to two probe-and-drogue aircraft at the same time. Managed by the KC-135 Development System Office at Aeronautical Systems Center, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, hte program completed the engineering, manufacturing and development portion of the program in 1998 year and began follow-on operational test and evaluation early in 1999. With projected modifications, the KC-135 will fly and refuel into the next century. A new aluminum-alloy skin grafted to the underside of the wings will add 27,000 flying hours to

the aircraft. Aircraft corrosion presents a significant challenge to AMC. It is presently difficult if not impossible to model this major life limiting factor over long periods of time. Technologies required to deal with corrosion have not evolved, leaving AMC with a deficiency that of not knowing exactly how long its older aircraft will operate economically. At current use rates, the KC-135 aircraft structure should remain sound. The fleet is projected to be in the Air Force service well into the next century. In fact, calculations using a predicted structural service life of 70,000 hours (structural data only) and based on current annual flight hours reveal that the structural life could extend into the twenty-second century. However, these numbers taken alone are misleading as they do not include the effects of corrosion.

Most experts agree that the R-model and T-model will continue to operate economically well into the next century. The R-models maintenance capability and reliability rates are among the highest of any weapon system AMC operates, and its operating cost is the lowest. The E-model economic service life is markedly different because of the difference in age and technology of some of its major components, most notably the engines. The basic airframe should, in theory, last as long as the R-model, but the age of the engines points to the likelihood that upkeep could become expensive (in terms of parts and maintenance man-hours). The TF-33 (E-model) engines were previously used but refurbished to an expected 6,000 hour service life. At current use rates, the TF-33 will need another major overhaul around the turn of the century. Additionally, since the TF-33 does not meet FAA Stage III noise requirements for the year 2000, more time and money must be expended to ensure compliance. The U.S. Air Force has also acknowledged that the cockpit of the KC-135 must be modernized. The Air Force issued a solicitation for PACER CRAG in May 1995. This upgrade will provide new compass and radar and add global positioning system in the

KC-135 cockpit. PSD has submitted a proposal to be the prime contractor for this activity which includes engineering, and manufacturing development, prototype installation, test and evaluation, and kit production. Contract award was expected in October 1995. Additional cockpit improvements beyond the PACER CRAG program, would maximize crew efficiency and reduce operation and maintenance costs. With extensive experience in avionics integration, Boeing could offer a new cockpit for the KC-135 that would increase avionics reliability, while allowing the potential for reducing the number of crew members. The newer cockpit would be part of an avionics modernization for the airplane. The existing cockpit consists of electro-mechanical equipment of 1950s technology with individual control panels and instrumentation distributed throughout. Failure rates are high and repair capability has been restricted significantly as technology has changed. Not only are repairs to the KC-135's existing avionics suite costly for the Air Force, but they also mean more down-time for the tanker while repairs are made. Modem commercial airplane avionics are much more reliable than those aboard the KC-135. Boeing believes that an avionics modernization program is essential to assure the KC-135 has the technology to perform its mission well in the years ahead. An integrated avionics system would be easier to operate and maintain. The new digital cockpit would include an upgraded multiplex data bus and integration software, integrating global positioning, ground collision avoidance, mission management and inertial navigation systems. Controls would include multi functional electronic displays and centralized control panels.

Primary Function: Contractor: Power Plant: Thrust: Length: Height: Wingspan: Speed: Ceiling: Weight: Maximum Takeoff Weight: Aerial refueling Boeing Military Airplanes Four CFM-International F108-CF-100 turbofans 22,224 pounds (10,000.8 kilograms) each engine 136 feet, 3 inches (40.8 meters) 38 feet, 4 inches (11.5 meters) 130 feet, 10 inches (39.2 meters) Maximum speed at 30,000 feet (9,100 meters) 610 mph (Mach 0.93) 50,000 feet (15,152 meters) 119,231 pounds (53,654 kilograms) empty 322,500 pounds (145,125 kilograms)

Range: Crew: Date Deployed: Unit Cost: Inventory:

11,192 miles (9,732 nautical miles) with 120,000 pounds (54,000 kilograms) of transfer fuel. Four or five; up to 80 passengers. August 1965. KC-135R, $53 million; KC-135E, $30.6 million; KC135A, $26.1 million. Active force, 457; Reserve, 30; ANG, 158.

VC-25A - Air Force One
The mission of the VC-25A aircraft -- Air Force One -- is to provide air transport for the president of the United States. The presidential air transport fleet consists of two specially configured Boeing 747-200B's -- tail numbers 28000 and 29000 -- with the Air Force designation VC-25A. When the president is aboard either aircraft, or any Air Force aircraft, the radio call sign is "Air Force One." Principal differences between the VC-25A and the standard Boeing 747, other than the number of passengers carried, are the electronic and communications equipment aboard Air Force One, its interior configuration and furnishings, self-contained baggage loader, front and aft air-stairs, and the capability for inflight refueling. Accommodations for the president include an executive suite consisting of a stateroom (with dressing room, lavatory and shower) and the president's office. A conference/dining room is also available for the president, his family and staff. Other separate accommodations are provided for guests, senior staff, Secret Service and security personnel, and the news media. Two galleys provide up to 100 meals at one sitting. Six passenger lavatories, including disabled access facilities, are provided as well as a rest area and mini-galley for the aircrew. The VC-25A also has a compartment outfitted with medical equipment and supplies for minor medical emergencies. These aircraft are flown by the presidential aircrew, maintained by the Presidential Maintenance Branch, and are assigned to Air Mobility Command's 89th Airlift Wing, Andrews Air Force Base, Md. The first VC-25A -- tail number 28000 -- flew as "Air Force One" on Sept. 6, 1990, when it transported President George Bush to Kansas, Florida and back to Washington, D.C. A second VC-25A, tail number 29000 transported President Bill Clinton and former Presidents Carter and Bush to Israel for the funeral of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. The VC-25A will usher presidential travel into the 21st century, upholding the proud tradition and distinction of being known as "Air Force One." VC-25 aircraft are extensively modified B-747-200s with the basic airframe technology of the 1960s. The aircraft incorporates state-of-the-art avionics and communications equipment with Stage III compliant engines. Boeing is currently delivering B-747s throughout the world, so the logistics support base appears secure for the foreseeable future. With the continuing march of technology and the prestige attached to the U.S. Presidential airlift fleet, Air Force plans recommend a system review date of 2010. At this point, the aircraft will have been in service 20 years, and commercial operators will have retired their B-747-200s counterparts from front-line service.

Primary Function Contractor Power Plant Thrust Length Height Wingspan Speed Ceiling Maximum Takeoff Weight Range Crew Introduction Date Date Deployed Inventory Presidential air transport Boeing Airplane Co. Four General Electric CF6-80C2B1 jet engines 56,700 pounds, each engine 231 feet, 10 inches (70.7 meters) 63 feet, 5 inches (19.3 meters) 195 feet, 8 inches (59.6 meters) 630 miles per hour (Mach 0.92) 45,100 feet (13,746 meters) 833,000 pounds (374,850 kilograms) 7,800 statute miles (6,800 nautical miles) (12,550 kilometers) 26 (passenger/crew capacity: 102) Dec. 8, 1990 (tail No. 28000); Dec. 23, 1990 (tail No. 29000) Sept. 6, 1990 (tail No. 28000); Mar. 26, 1991 (tail No. 29000) Active force, 2; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0

The C-32A, a military versions of Boeing's 757-200, have replaced the VC-137 aircraft that are being retired from the presidential airlift fleet. The new planes will carry cabinet members, secretaries, and other dignitaries stateside and around the world. The first of four C-32As left Boeing's Seattle plant 19 June 1998, and the second aircraft arrived at Andrews three days later. The remaining two C-32As arrived in November and December. The Air Force purchased the new aircraft, known to the civilian world as the Boeing 757200, under a new streamlined acquisition procedure that saved money and allowed the aircraft to be purchased from the existing Boeing production line. Under the plan, the Air Force is treated the same as any commercial customer, from construction and painting to test and evaluation. The new aircraft, flown by the 89th Airlift Wing, were acquired through benchmark acquisition processes adopted as acquisition practices by other military services and government agencies. Specifically, the Air Force streamlined its acquisition techniques by developing requirements compatible with commercially available aircraft and components. The acquisition team that managed procurement of the C-32, with members from Aeronautical Systems Center's Mobility Mission Group, won the Vice Presidential Hammer Award for significantly reinventing the way the Air Force acquires aircraft. The C-32A, configured for 45 passengers and 16 crew, is designed for a 4,150 nautical mile mission, roughly the distance from Andrews to Frankfurt, Germany. The aircraft is also Stage III noise level compliant. Inside the C-32A, communications take a front seat. The vice president, heads of state and other decision-makers can conduct business anywhere around the world using improved telephones, satellites, television monitors, facsimiles and copy machines. Additional equipment on the C-32As includes Tacan military navigation equipment, a military Identification Friend/Foe transponder, a UHF satellite communications radio, secure voice and data transmission capability, and a passenger flight information display system that airs videos and broadcasts real-time global positioning on a moving world map. Increased storage was also a priority when the designer included large storage areas in the overhead bins in the cabin and the cargo compartments below. Like many high-standing aircraft it's easy to see under and around the C-32A -- an important security factor for protecting the plane and its passengers. Heading the safety equipment list is the Traffic Collision Avoidance System that gives advance warning of possible air crashes. The 757-200 is equipped with two wing-mounted Pratt & Whitney 2040 engines, producing 41,700 pounds static thrust each. The aircraft is far more fuel efficient and quieter than the 707-based C-137s they are replacing. Each engine of the C-32A has 40,000 pounds of thrust, compared to the VC-137 engine that delivers 14,000 pounds. Yet, the C-32A's high-bypass-ratio engines, combined with an advanced wing design, help make the plane one of the quietest, most fuel-efficient jetliners in the world.

Length Wingspan Tail height Engines Maximum takeoff weight Fuel capacity Maximum range Altitude capability Cruise speed 155 feet 3 inches (47.3 m) 124 feet 10 inches (38.0 m) 44 feet 6 inches (13.6 m) Pratt & Whitney PW2000 220,000 pounds (99,790 kg) 11,526 U.S. gallons (43,625 L) 3,950 nautical miles; 4,550 statute miles; 7,315 kilometers 39,000 feet (11,885 m) Mach 0.80

The C-37A, a military version of the Gulfstream V business jet will, along with the 1st Airlift Squadron's new C-32As, replace the wing's aging fleet of C-137s. The first C-37A, Tail No. 70400, arrived at Andrews AFB in July 1998, and a second model arrived in September. They will join the squadron's fleet of five C-20Bs, two C-20Hs and three C9Cs. On 06 January 1999 Gulfstream Aerospace Corp. was awarded a $38,530,875 face value increase to a firm-fixed-price contract to provide for one C-37A aircraft and associated training and data with an expected contract completion date of 30 June 30 2000. The C-37A resembles the C-20H (Gulfstream IV), but is eight feet longer, with a wider wing span, a more advanced avionics package and greater performance capabilities, allowing the aircraft to carry up to 12 passengers a distance 50 percent greater than the C20B models. A typical C-37A mission will able to fly 5,500 nautical miles without refueling, carrying Cabinet secretaries, congressional delegations or senior military leaders. First deliveries of the the ultra-long-range Gulfstream V to commercial customers began at the end of 1996. On 05 May 1997 -- Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation announced that the Gulfstream V, the world's first ultra-long range business jet, had been selected by the United States Air Force (USAF) for the VC-X program to expand the mission capability of the nation's Special Air Mission Wing. The selection by the USAF marked the first sale of the ultra-long range Gulfstream V to the military and opened this market worldwide for similar applications of this new aircraft. The initial contract is for two Gulfstream V aircraft with options for up to four additional units before 2003. The initial contract is valued at $68.9million. Including options, the total contract is valued at more than $275 million. Gulfstream will provide technical and logistics support, spare parts and overhaul services to the USAF for 10 years. With this aircraft, the 89th Airlift Wing is capable of taking senior leadership nonstop to areas of the world that previously required flying much larger aircraft. The key to C37A's performance is its state-of-the-art wing design, improved aerodynamics and more powerful engines. The airframe is capable of low-speed, high-lift performance, highaltitude maneuverability and turbulence tolerance. The BMW/Rolls-Royce BR710-48 engines moves the C-37A at a cruising speed of 600 mph. Civilian versions of the aircraft have in a very short time set 15 world speed and distance records, including the first nonstop flight from New York to Tokyo. The Gulfstream V is the first aircraft of its kind, capable of cruising at altitudes up to 51,000 feet, high above most other air traffic, weather and adverse winds. Despite its more powerful engines, the C-37A is very fuel-efficient. Passengers can comfortably travel in the aircraft at altitudes as high as 51,000 feet, taking advantage of better fuel consumption rates, explained Bigler. C-37As come equipped with a number of features not found on any other business jets. The avionics system is a state-of-the-art Honeywell SPZ-8500 Flight Management System with an integrated full-function Heads-Up Display. The FMS allows crews to

program computers to have the aircraft arrive at point in space at a specific time. They also come equipped with enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System, and Microwave Landing System. Other important features include Tacan military navigation equipment and a military Identification Friend/Foe transponder. Full Authority Digital Engine Controls ensure critical engine operating parameters are maintained. The C-37A, like other Gulfstream Vs, meets the Extended Range with Two-Engine Airplanes standards, a criterion previously only met by larger commercial aircraft operating over long stretches of water. Passengers will enjoy flying on what Gulfstream claims is the quietest aircraft in production. The twin engines are located aft of the cabin bulkheads; titanium mufflers and vibration isolators will eliminate hydraulic system noise. Insulated side panels, and re-engineered windows further eliminate outside noise. The interior package includes a passenger flight information display system that can feature real-time global positioning on a moving world map, weather updates and other important information. The 89th Airlift Wing is the only unit in the Air Force to operate C-37 and C-32 aircraft. The CINC Support Aircraft Replacement Program calls for a most probable quantity of five FAA certified commercial intercontinental passenger Aircraft accommodating a minimum of 12 passengers and 5 Crew in a working office environment and capable of dispatch on short notice to any suitable airfield in the world from operating locations at MacDill AFB, FL and Hickam AFB, HI. This aircraft shall have a 5000 NM range, a separate Distinguished Visitor (DV) area, and worldwide clear and secure voice, facsimile, and PC data passenger communications.

Performance Maximum Range
(Mach 0.80, 8 passengers, 4 crew, NBAA IFR reserves)

6,500 nm

12,046 km

Long Range Cruise Speed Mmo (Maximum Allowable Mach Number) Takeoff Distance (SL, ISA, MTOW) Landing Distance (SL, ISA, MLW) Initial Cruise Altitude Maximum Cruise Altitude Weights Maximum Takeoff Weight Maximum Landing Weight

Mach 0.80, 459 ktas, 851 km/h Mach 0.885 5,990 ft 3,170 ft 41,000 ft 51,000 ft 1,826 m 966 m 12,497 m 15,545 m

90,500 lb 75,300 lb

41,051 kg 34,156 kg

Maximum Zero Fuel Weight Basic Operating Weight (including 4 crew) Maximum Payload Payload with Maximum Fuel Maximum Fuel Weight Allowance for outfitting and operating items Design Standards Engines (2) Rated Takeoff Thrust ea. Passengers (Maximum) Passengers (Typical Outfitting) Cabin Pressure Differential

54,500 lb 48,000 lb 6,500 lb 1,600 lb 41,300 lb 8,500 lb

24,721 kg 21,773 kg 2,948 kg 726 kg 18,734 kg 3,856 kg

BMW Rolls-Royce BR710 14,750 lb 19 13-15 10.17 psid, 6,000 ft cabin at 51,000 ft 65.6 kN

Interior Cabin Length Cabin Height Cabin Width Cabin Volume Baggage Compartment Volume Exterior Length Height Wingspan 96 ft 5 in 25 ft 10 in 93 ft 6 in 29.4 m 7.9 m 28.5 m 50 ft 1 in 6 ft 2 in 7 ft 4 in 1,669 cu ft 226 cu ft 15.3 m 1.9 m 2.2 m 47.3 cu m 6.4 cu m

VC-137B/C Stratoliner
The VC-137 provides transportation for the vice president, cabinet and congressional members, and other high-ranking U.S. and foreign officials. It also serves as a backup for Air Force One, the presidential aircraft. The VC-137B/C Stratoliner is a modified version of the Boeing 707 commercial intercontinental airliner that, for many years, was the presidential aircraft. Today, the president's aircraft, is the VC-25A. The VC-137B/C body is identical to that of the Boeing 707, but has different interior furnishings and electronic equipment. The passenger cabin is divided into three sections:

The forward area has a communications center, galley, lavatory and an eight-seat compartment.  The center section is designed as an airborne headquarters with conference tables, swivel chairs, projection screen for films and two convertible sofa-bunks.  The rear section of the cabin contains double reclining passenger seats, tables, galley, two lavatories and closets. Partitions may be placed throughout the cabin for added privacy.

In 1962, the first jet aircraft to be specifically purchased for use as "Air Force One," a VC-137B, entered service with the tail number 26000. It is perhaps the most widely known and has the most historical significance of the presidential aircraft. Tail number 26000 is the aircraft that carried President John F. Kennedy to Dallas, Nov. 22, 1963, and in which his body was returned to Washington, D.C., following his assassination. Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn into office as the 36th president of the United States on board 26000 at Love Field in Dallas. This fateful aircraft also was used to return President Johnson's body to Texas following his state funeral on Jan. 24, 1973. In 1972, President Richard M. Nixon made historic visits aboard 26000 to the People's Republic of China in February and to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in May. Tail number 27000, a G model VC-137, replaced 26000 and carved its place in history when it was used to fly former Presidents Nixon, Ford and Carter to Cairo, Egypt, Oct. 19, 1981, to represent the United States at the funeral of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat. C-137 aircraft are modified B-707 aircraft with 1950's airframe technology that do not comply with FAA Stage 3 restrictions. Additionally, the FAA mandated aging aircraft inspections requirements negatively affect the maintainability and availability of the C137 fleet. These aircraft are already expensive to fly, needing fuel stops and ground support equipment, and the resultant additional security and time required. A Statement of Need and Operational Requirements Document has been validated for replacing the C137 with a VC-X aircraft. Therefore the 89th Airlift Wing will receive four new Boeing

757-200 aircraft in 1998 to be designated C-32As and two Gulfstream V aircraft to be designated C-37A.

Primary Function Builder Power Plant: Four Pratt and Whitney JT3D-3B turbofan engines Thrust: 18,000 pounds (8,100 kilograms) each engine Length Height Maximum Takeoff Weight Wingspan: VC-137B, 130 feet, 10 inches (39.66 meters); VC-137C, 145 feet, 9 inches (44.17 meters) Range Ceiling Speed Load Unit Cost Crew Date Deployed: VC-137B, 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers); VC-137C, 6,000 miles (9,600 kilometers) 42,000 feet (12,727 meters) 530 miles per hour (Mach 0.81) VC-137B, 40 passengers; VC-137C, 50 passengers VC-137B, $36.6 million; VC-137C, $36.2 million 18 (varies with mission) VC-137B, October 1962; VC-137C, August 1972. Active force, VC-137B, 3 and VC-137C, 4; ANG: 0; Reserve: 0. VC-137B, 144 feet, 6 inches (48.79 meters); VC-137C, 152 feet, 11 inches (46.33 meters) VC-137B, 41 feet, 4 inches (12.52 meters); VC-137C, 42 feet, 5 inches (12.91 meters) VC-137B, 258,000 pounds (116,100 kilograms) VC-137C, 322,000 pounds (144,900 kilograms) Transport high-priority personnel and backup presidential airlift. Boeing Company.


C-130PC Quiet Knight
The Quiet Knight program uses maturing technology to demonstrate and validate affordability, applicability to all types of SOF platforms, and retrofit/forward fit of complete or partial solutions for a SOF infiltration/exfiltration mission scenario. Specific deficiencies addressed for the infil/exfil type mission scenario include passive detection, situation awareness of active threats, and crew workload. This effort will bring detection avoidance technology closer to the operational user, and allow end users to "fly before you buy." System integration issues to be investigated include sensor/resource management, fault tolerance/configuration, database management and high-speed data distribution, retrofit with existing avionics platform architectures, and extensibility to future high performance architectures. The recent C-130PC Quiet Knight demonstrations advanced the state of the art in passive ranging by exploiting emitter phenomena. Using data from recent flight tests on the Quiet Knight program, Litton Amecom demonstrated techniques for air-to-ground ranging using Doppler measurements on the emitter. The Quiet Knight program was sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory Advanced Architecture & Integration Branch [IFSC] at Wright Patterson AFB, which develops and demonstrates advanced embedded system architectures and system integration concepts for legacy and future platforms. The Branch conducts research and development programs ranging from constructive to realtime/hardware-in-the-loop simulation technology to support effectiveness evaluations and demonstrations of the evolving technologies. The Quiet Knight Display Processor provided by PortalSoft Technologies of Albuquerque NM included a Digital Map Display (with HSD, flight plan, route/threat data overlay), Ridgeline display, and a Terrain following/Terrain avoidance display.

MC-130P Combat Shadow HC-130P/N Combat Shadow HC-130P
The MC-130P (formerly the HC-130P/N) Combat Shadow flies clandestine or low visibility, low-level missions into politically sensitive or hostile territory to provide air refueling for special operations helicopters. The MC-130P primarily flies its single- or multi-ship missions at night to reduce detection and intercept by airborne threats. Secondary mission capabilities include airdrop of small special operations teams, small bundles, and zodiac and combat rubber raiding craft; as well as night-vision goggle takeoffs and landings, tactical airborne radar approaches and in-flight refueling as a receiver. MC-130P's were previously designated HC-130N/P. However, the "H" designation is a rescue and recovery mission code and not representative of the aircraft's special operations role. In February 1996, AFSOC's tanker fleet was redesignated MC-130P's, aligning the Combat Shadow with other M-series special operations mission aircraft. MC-130P Combat Shadows and MC-130E Combat Talon I aircraft have similar missions, but the Combat Talon I's have more instruments designed for covert operations. Both aircraft fly infiltration/exfiltration missions - airdrop or land personnel and equipment in hostile territory. They also air refuel special operations helicopters and usually fly missions at night with aircrews using night-vision goggles. The Combat Talon I, however, has an electronic countermeasures suite and terrain-following radar that enables it to fly extremely low, counter enemy radar and penetrate deep into hostile territory. Special operations forces improvements are being made to the MC-130P, with modifications completed in FY2000 featuring improved navigation, communications, threat detection and countermeasures systems. The fully modified Combat Shadow has a fully integrated inertial navigation and global positioning system, and night-vision goggle-compatible interior and exterior lighting. It also has a forward-looking infrared radar, missile and radar warning receivers, chaff and flare dispensers and night-vision goggle compatible heads-up display. In addition, it has satellite and data burst communications, as well as in-flight refueling capability as a receiver. The Combat Shadow can fly in the day against a reduced threat, however, crews normally fly night, low-level, air refueling and formation operations using night-vision goggles. To enhance the probability of mission success and survivability near populated areas, crews employ tactics that include incorporating no external lighting or communications, and avoiding radar and weapons detection.

Originally ordered in 1963 and first flown in 1964, the HC-130s have served in many roles and missions. The aircraft was initially modified to conduct search and rescue missions, provide a command and control platform, refuel helicopters and carry supplemental fuel for extending range or air refueling. In the Vietnam War they were used to refuel Jolly and Super Jolly Green Giant helicopters and, as an airborne command post, to direct rescue efforts. Four aircraft were modified to deploy and control 10,000pound remotely piloted vehicles. It was initially modified to conduct search and rescue missions, provide a command and control platform, air refuel helicopters and carry supplemental fuel for extending range or air refueling. In 1986, the active-force HC-130 aircraft changed to a special operations mission. MC130P's have been a part of the special operations mission since the mid-1980s. They provided critical air refueling to Army and Air Force helicopters during Operation Just Cause in Panama in 1989. They deployed to Saudi Arabia and Turkey in support of Desert Storm in 1990 to provide air refueling of special operations forces helicopters over friendly and hostile territory, as well as psychological operations and leaflet drops. Since Desert Storm, the MC-130P has been involved in operations Northern and Southern Watch, supporting efforts to keep Iraqi aircraft out of the no-fly zones. Although MC-130P's left Southern Watch in 1993, they have returned periodically to relieve Air Combat Command rescue forces. The aircraft also took part in Operation Deny Flight in Yugoslavia in 1993, and Operations Restore Democracy and Uphold Democracy in Haiti in 1994. The MC-130P has been involved in operations Deliberate Force and Joint Endeavor in Bosnia since 1995. Additionally, the MC-130P took part in Operation Assured Response in 1996, providing air refueling for the MH-53s shuttling evacuees between Liberia and the rear staging area. In March 1997, the MC-130P was diverted from Italy to provide combat search and rescue during the evacuation of non-combatant Americans from Albania. Also in 1997, the MC-130P provided command and control and refueling support during Operation Guardian Retrieval, the evacuation of Americans from Zaire. In July 1997, the aircraft provided aerial refueling for MH-53J's when U.S. forces prepared for possible evacuations of noncombatants from Cambodia. The aircraft also was part of Operation High Flight, the search to locate an American C-141 involved in a mid-air collision with another aircraft off the coast of Angola in September 1997. The HC-130P King deploys worldwide to provide combat search and rescue coverage for US and allied forces. Combat search and rescue missions include flying low-level, preferably at night aided with night vision goggles, to an objective area where aerial refueling of a rescue helicopter is performed or pararescuemen are deployed. The secondary mission of the HC-130P is peacetime search and rescue. HC-130P aircraft and crews are uniquely trained and equipped for search and rescue in all types of terrain including artic, mountain, and maritime. Peacetime search and rescue missions may include searching for downed or missing aircraft, sinking or missing water vessels, or missing persons. The HC-130P can deploy parascuemen to a survivor, escort helicopter to a survivor, or airdrop survival equipment to a survivor.

Primary Function Builder Power Plant Thrust Length Height Maximum Takeoff Weight Wingspan Speed Ceiling Range Air refueling for special operations forces helicopters Lockheed Aircraft Corp. Four Allison T56-A-15 turboprop engines 4,910 shaft horsepower each engine 98 feet, 9 inches (30.09 meters) 38 feet, 6 inches (11.7 meters) 155,000 pounds (69,750 kilograms) 132 feet, 7 inches (40.4 meters) 289 miles per hour (464 kilometers per hour) at sea level 33,000 feet (10,000 meters) Beyond 4,000 miles (3,478 nautical miles) Four officers (pilot, co-pilot, primary navigator, secondary navigator), and four enlisted (flight engineer, communications systems operator and two loadmasters) $16.5 million (1992 dollars) 1986 Active force, 23; ANG, 0; Reserve, 5


Unit Cost Date Deployed Inventory

MC-130E/H Combat Talon I/II
The mission of the MC-130E Combat Talon I and MC-130H Combat Talon II is to provide global, day, night and adverse weather capability to airdrop and airland personnel and equipment in support of U.S. and allied special operations forces. The MC-130E also has a deep penetrating helicopter refueling role during special operations missions. The MC-130H conducts infiltrations into politically denied/sensitive defended areas to resupply or exfiltrate special operations forces and equipment. These missions are conducted in adverse weather at low-level and long range. The MC-130H is supported with organic depots for the aircraft, radar, radome, and mission computer. All twentyfour aircraft have been delivered.

These aircraft are equipped with in-flight refueling equipment, terrain-following, terrainavoidance radar, an inertial and global positioning satellite navigation system, and a highspeed aerial delivery system. The special navigation and aerial delivery systems are used to locate small drop zones and deliver people or equipment with greater accuracy and at higher speeds than possible with a standard C-130. The aircraft is able to penetrate hostile airspace at low altitudes and crews are specially trained in night and adverse weather operations. Nine of the MC-130E's are equipped with surface-to-air Fulton air recovery system, a safe, rapid method of recovering personnel or equipment from either land or water. It involves use of a large, helium-filled balloon used to raise a 450-foot (136.5 meters) nylon lift line. The MC-130E flies towards the lift line at 150 miles per hour (240 kilometers per hour), snags it with scissors-like arms located on the aircraft nose and the person or equipment is lifted off, experiencing less shock than that caused by a parachute opening. Aircrew members then use a hydraulic winch to pull the person or equipment aboard through the open rear cargo door. The MC-130H features highly automated controls and displays to reduce crew size and work load. The cockpit and cargo areas are compatible with night vision goggles. The integrated control and display subsystem combines basic aircraft flight, tactical and mission sensor data into a comprehensive set of display formats that assists each operator performing tasks. The pilot and co-pilot displays on the cockpit instrument panel and the navigator/electronic warfare operator console, on the aft portion of the flight deck, have two video displays and a data-entry keyboard. The electronic warfare operator has one video display dedicated to electronic warfare data.

The primary pilot and co-pilot display formats include basic flight instrumentation and situational data. The display formats are available with symbology alone or with symbology overlaid with sensor video. The navigator uses radar ground map displays, forward-looking infrared display, tabular mission management displays and equipment status information. The electronic warfare operator's displays are used for viewing the electronic warfare data and to supplement the navigators in certain critical phases. During Desert Storm, the MC-130E Combat Talon I played a vital role. One third of all airdrops in the first three weeks of the war were performed by MC-130s. Its primary role was psychological operations, as it air-dropped 11 BLU-82/B general purpose bombs and flew multiple missions air-dropping and dispersing leaflets. Its secondary role was combat search and rescue. Following the Persian Gulf war, MC-130s flew extensively in support of Operation Provide Comfort. The MC-130E has an improved terrain following/terrain avoidance radar with increased MTBF. The lack of spares and repairable assemblies for the current system has complicated the management of it. An upgrade will significantly increase the reliability and maintainability of the APQ-122 by increasing the MTBF to 40 hours. The acquisition strategy is to award a sole source contract to Raytheon. Reliability and maintainability upgrades for the APQ-170 radar include a package compilation of fixes to field reported problems, qualifications testing and lab testing fixes identified under the main MC-130H Combat Talon II production effort. Modifications are form, fit and function replacements for current radar components. All 66 radar equivalent ship sets will be retrofitted by the contractor. These 66 ship sets are comprised of 24 aircraft, six hot mock-ups, two sets in lab testing at the contractor facility, and 34 spare sets. The program funds will be used to procure the upgrade kits and perform the actual retrofit. The installation schedule will be driven by failure rates. This was originally a single year buy, now spread over three years by OUSD. An ECP to Lockheed Martin Federal Systems (APQ-170 contractor) will provide these upgrades. The Comm/Nav Upgrade Program integrates narrow band SATCOM (NBS), Demand Assigned Access (DAMA) modems, Single Channel Ground and Air Radio System (SINCGARS), HF Automatic Communications Processor (ACP) including common area fills, and SOF common 3.5" disk drive into Combat Talon II. Another upgrade program modifies MC-130H aircraft to add aerial refueling capability, internal fuel tanks and enlarged paratroop door window. The modification provides plumbing and Operational Flight Program (OFP) update. The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) has a requirement for a C130 engine infrared (IR) signature suppression system to provide Special Operations Forces (SOF) C-130 aircraft with an IR signature reduction equal to or better than existing systems at a lower cost of ownership. The primary difficulties with present suppressor systems are low reliability and poor maintainability. This C-130 Engine Infrared Suppression (EIRS) Program system will be used on AC-130H/U, MC-

130E/H/P, and EC-130E aircraft. The key requirements for the Engine IR Suppression system are: (a) improved reliability and maintainability over existing systems to result in lower total cost of ownership; (b) IR signature suppression levels as good as the current engine shield system (aka. Tubs); (c) no adverse impacts to aircraft performance and ability to accomplish SOF missions; (d) complete interchangeability between engine positions and identified aircraft types. The suppressor is expected to be a semi-permanent installation, with removal being primarily for servicing, allowing the aircraft to perform all required missions with the suppressors installed. There will be up to two competitive contracts awarded for the initial phases of development with a downselect to one contractor for the completion of development and production. The contract will contain fixed price options for procurement, installation, and sustainment of the system. The Directional Infrared Countermeasures (DIRCM) program develops and procures 60 systems and provides 59 SOF aircraft (AC-130H/U, MC-130E/H) with a DIRCM system capability. The DIRCM system will work in conjunction with other onboard selfprotection systems to enhance the aircraft’s survivability against currently deployed infrared guided missiles. Growth is planned to add a capability to detect and counter advanced threats. Execution of this program is in concert with a joint US/UK cooperative development/ production effort with the UK as lead. Development and acquisition of the DIRCM system will be in accordance with UK procurement laws/regulations. UK designation for this program is "Operational Emergency Requirements 3/89."

Primary Function Builder Power Plant Thrust Length Height Wingspan Speed Ceiling Load Maximum Takeoff Weight Range Crew Infiltration, exfiltration and resupply of special operations forces Lockheed Aircraft Corp. Four Allison T56-A-15 turboprop engines 4,910 shaft horsepower each engine MC-130E, 100 feet, 10 inches (30.7 meters); MC-130H, 99 feet, 9 inches (30.4 meters) 38 feet, 6 inches (11.7 meters) 132 feet, 7 inches (40.4 meters) 300 mph 33,000 feet (10,000 meters) MC-130E, 53 troops or 26 paratroopers; MC-130H, 75 troops or 52 paratroopers 155,000 pounds (69,750 kilograms) 3,110 statute miles (2,700 nautical miles); unlimited with air refueling. MC-130E - five officers (two pilots, two navigators and

one electronic warfare officer) and four enlisted (one flight engineer, two loadmasters and one communications specialist) MC-130H - four officers (two pilots, one navigator and one electronic warfare officer) and three enlisted (one flight engineer and two loadmasters) Unit Cost Date Deployed Inventory MC-130E: $42 million (1994 dollars); MC-130H: $72.5 million (1994 dollars) MC-130E in 1966; MC-130H in June 1991 Active force, 9 MC-130E's and 24 MC-130H's; ANG, 0; Reserve, 5 MC-130E's

SOF Future Aircraft
This program funds RDT&E of an advanced technology aircraft capable of meeting Special Operations Forces [SOF] long-range airlift requirements. It will provide exfiltration capability on missions exceeding the effective range of SOF vertical lift aircraft (including the CV-22) and additionally serves as a replacement for MC-130 Combat Talon Fleet in long-range infiltration and resupply roles. It builds upon future SOF aircraft studies. The system should be able to self-deploy (2400nm), Combat Radius (1000nm), STOL w/max fuel and 4000 lbs on standard day @ sea level (1500ft over 50 ft obstacle), VTOL w/4000lbs @ mid-mission point (4000ft/85 degrees F), High speed (250-400ktas) night adverse weather capable, low to moderate signature, have a system reliability of 92% with an 85% fix rate (4hrs), capable of performing clandestine missions, carrier operations, and with a survivable ground environment under hovering aircraft.

E-2C Hawkeye
The E-2C Hawkeye is the U.S. Navy's all-weather, carrier-based tactical airborne warning and control system platform. It provides all-weather airborne early warning and command and control functions for the carrier battle group. Additional missions include surface surveillance coordination, strike and interceptor control, search and rescue guidance and communications relay. An integral component of the carrier air wing, the E-2C carries three primary sensors: radar, IFF, and a passive detection system. These sensors are integrated through a general purpose computer that enables the E-2C to provide early warning, threat analyses, and control of counter action against air and surface targets. The E-2C incorporates the latest solid state electronics. Carrier-based E-2C Hawkeye airborne early warning aircraft directed F-14 Tomcat fighters that provided combat air patrol during the two-carrier battle group joint strike against terrorist-related Libyan targets in 1986, and during the crisis period preceeding and following the strike. E-2Cs and AEGIS cruisers, working together, provided total air mass superiority over the American fleet. During this time, American aircraft made 153 intercepts of Libyan air force attempts to overfly the U.S. fleet, intercept the U.S. fighter combat air patrol, or gather intelligence information. Not once did a Libyan aircraft get into firing position before it was locked into the sights of a U.S. aircraft or AEGIS platform missile. There currently is one squadron of four Hawkeyes in each carrier air wing (CVW). E-2 aircraft also have worked extremely effectively with U.S. law enforcement agencies in drug interdiction operations. The E-2C replaces the E-2B, an earlier version. E-2C aircraft entered U.S. Navy service with Airborne Early Warning Squadron 123 (VAW123) at NAS Norfolk, Va., in November 1973. Procurement of E-2Cs by the Navy is planned at six per year for FY 1988-98. The E-2C+ upgrade includes radar improvements, software upgrades, and more powerful engines. Further plans include upgrading the whole E-2 fleet to Block I and II status, which mean a new radar (APS-139 and APS-145, respectively) and overall improved processing capability. On 26 April 1999 Northrop Grumman was awarded a $1,305,400,000 multiyear advanced acquisition contract for the procurement of 21 airborne early warning E-2C aircraft in the Hawkeye 2000 configuration for the US Navy, and long lead material for one aircraft for the government of France under the Foreign Military Sales Program. Work will be performed in St. Augustine, Fla. (80%), and Bethpage, N.Y. (20%), and is expected to be completed by July 2006. Taiwan received four E-2T [for Taiwan] Hawkeyes as of September 1995 as part of a $749.5 million deal with US firm Northrop Grumman. In conjunction with F-16 and Mirage 2000 fighters, the E-2Ts will enhance Taiwan's air defence capability, increasing attack warning times from five minutes to 25 minutes. E-2C/E-2C+ AIRCRAFT DESCRIPTION
Contractor: Northrop Grumman (Prime), Westinghouse

Type: Early warning and control aircraft Power Plant: E-2C: Two Allison T56-A-425 turboprops; each has approximately 4,600 horsepower E-2C+: Two Allison T56-A-427 engines; each has approximately 5,100 horsepower; since 1988 Accommodations: Crew of five—two pilots and three operators. Performance: E-2C: maximum speed 350 knots; range 1,300 nautical miles E-2C+: maximum speed 350 knots; range 1,500 nautical miles Countermeasures: Not applicable Armament: E-2C: Lockheed Martin Ocean, Radar, and Surveillance Systems [ex General Electric Corporation] AN/APS-138 radar since 1984; AN/APS-139 since 1988 E-2C+: Lockheed Martin Ocean, Radar, and Surveillance Systems [ex General Electric Corporation] AN/APS-145 radar since 1991 All: AN/ALR-73 Passive Detection System, IFF Mission and Capabilities:  High-wing, all-weather, carrier-based airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft that patrols task force defense perimeters  Provides early warning of approaching enemy aircraft and vectors interceptors into attack position  In addition to its primary AEW function, can also provide strike and traffic control, area surveillance, search and rescue guidance, navigational assistance, communications relay, and drug interdiction.  Group II upgrade to E-2C+ is the biggest advance in AEW technology in two decades.  AN/APS-145 radar provides fully automatic overland detection and tracking and significantly extends the radar detection limits. The radar capable of detecting targets anywhere within a three-million-cubic-mile surveillance envelope while simultaneously monitoring maritime traffic.

 An Enhanced High-Speed Processor, which expands the active track file by 400% over previous versions, is incorporated into the mission computer. Each E-2C can maintain all-weather patrols, track, automatically and simultaneously, more than 600 targets, and control more than 40 airborne intercepts.  Enhanced Main Display Units provide operators with improved visual representation.  Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) incorporates several anti-jam features to allow uninterrupted voice and data communications, thereby enhancing interoperability. Program Summary:  In service with Naval Air Forces Atlantic and Naval Air Forces Pacific, as well as the armed forces of Israel, Japan, Egypt, Singapore, and Taiwan  Will be delivered to France in 1997  Discussions with several other potential customers are ongoing.  The Hawkeye entered service in 1961 as the E-2A and was updated in 1969 to the E-2B.  E-2C was introduced in 1973.  In 1978, the AN/APS-125 Advanced Radar Processing System was introduced and was succeeded in 1984 by the AN/APS-138 (now referred to as Group 0).  Retirement has begun; only 53 of these aircraft remain in the inventory.  In 1988, Group I version was introduced; this featured an upgraded T56-A427 engine, which eliminated operating restrictions imposed by growth in the aircraft’s gross weight due to incorporation of new systems.  Radar was updated to the AN/APS-139 with a High-Speed Processor that doubled the track files maintained by the system.  Eighteen Group I aircraft were built and are being upgraded to Group II configuration.  The AN/APS-145 radar alleviates saturation, track overload, and overland tracking clutter.  Group II increases radar and IFF range, radar volume, target track capability, number of targets displayed, and target recognition capability through the use of color displays.  Group I and Group II aircraft are also referred to as E-2C+.

E-2 TECHNICAL DATA: External Dimensions
Wing span Wing chord: (at root) Wing chord (at tip) Wing aspect ratio Length overall Height overall Diameter of rotodome Tailplane span 24.56 m 3.96 m 1.32 m 8.94 m 17.54 m 5.58 m 7.32 m 7.99 m

Wheel track Wheel base Propeller diameter

5.93 m 7.06 m 4.11 m

Wings, gross Ailerons (totals) Trailing-edge flaps (total) Fins, include rudders and tabs: Outboard (total) Inboard (total) Tailplane Elevators (total) 10.25 m 2 4.76 m2 11.62 m 3.72 m
2 2

65.03 m 5.76 m2


11.03 m 2

Weights and Loadings
Weight empty Maximum fuel (internal, usable) Maximum T-O weight Maximum power loading 17,859 kg 5,624 kg 5,624 kg 3.18 kg/kW

Performance (at maximum Takeoff Weight)
Maximum level speed Cruising speed (ferry) Approach speed Stalling speed (landing configuration) Service ceiling Minimum T-O run T-O to 15 m Minimum landing run Combat Radius Ferry range Time on station, 175 nautical miles from base Endurance with maximum fuel 338 knots 259 knots 103 knots 75 knots 11,275 m 564 m 793 m 439 m 1,500 Km 1,542 nm 4 hr. 24 min 6 hr. 15 min

E-3 Sentry (AWACS)

The E-3 Sentry is an airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft that provides all-weather surveillance, command, control and communications needed by commanders of U.S. and NATO air defense forces. As proven in Desert Storm, it is the premier air battle command and control aircraft in the world today. The E-3 Sentry is a modified Boeing 707/320 commercial airframe with a rotating radar dome. The dome is 30 feet (9.1 meters) in diameter, six feet (1.8 meters) thick, and is held 11 feet (3.3 meters) above the fuselage by two struts. It contains a radar subsystem that permits surveillance from the Earth's surface up into the stratosphere, over land or water. The radar has a range of more than 200 miles (320 kilometers) for low-flying targets and farther for aerospace vehicles flying at medium to high altitudes. The radar combined with an identification friend or foe subsystem can look down to detect, identify and track enemy and friendly low-flying aircraft by eliminating ground clutter returns that confuse other radar systems. Other major subsystems in the E-3 are navigation, communications and computers (data processing). Consoles display computer-processed data in graphic and tabular format on video screens. Console operators perform surveillance, identification, weapons control, battle management and communications functions. The radar and computer subsystems on the E-3 Sentry can gather and present broad and detailed battlefield information. Data is collected as events occur. This includes position and tracking information on enemy aircraft and ships, and location and status of friendly aircraft and naval vessels. The information can be sent to major command and control centers in rear areas or aboard ships. In time of crisis, this data can be forwarded to the National Command Authorities in the United States. In support of air-to-ground operations, the Sentry can provide direct information needed for interdiction, reconnaissance, airlift and close-air support for friendly ground forces. It can also provide information for commanders of air operations to gain and maintain control of the air battle. As an air defense system, E-3s can detect, identify and track airborne enemy forces far from the boundaries of the United States or NATO countries. It can direct fighterinterceptor aircraft to these enemy targets. Experience has proven that the E-3 Sentry can respond quickly and effectively to a crisis and support worldwide military deployment operations. It is a jam-resistant system that has performed missions while experiencing heavy electronic countermeasures.

With its mobility as an airborne warning and control system, the Sentry has an excellent chance of surviving in war. Among other things, the flight path can quickly be changed according to mission and survival requirements. The E-3 can fly a mission profile for more than 8 hours without refueling. Its range and on-station time can be increased through inflight refueling. The aircraft can be used as a surveillance asset in support of other government agencies during counter drug operations. U.S. Customs Service officers may fly aboard the E-3 Sentry on precoordinated missions to detect smuggling activities. Engineering, test and evaluation began on the first E-3 Sentry in October 1975. In March 1977 the 552nd Airborne Warning and Control Wing (now 552nd Air Control Wing, Tinker Air Force Base, Okla.), received the first E-3s where they are still assigned. Pacific Air Forces has four E-3 Sentries assigned to the 961st Airborne Air Control Squadron (AACS), Kadena Air Base, Japan, and the 962nd AACS, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. NATO has acquired 18 of the aircraft and support equipment. The first E-3 was delivered to NATO in January 1982. The United Kingdom has seven E-3s and France has four. The AWACS Test System-3 (TS-3) test aircraft, a militarized 707, has been flying missions since the 1970s. TS-3 is maintained and operated in Seattle by Boeing for the US Air Force and has logged more than 1,000 flights and 6,800 flight hours testing AWACS enhancements such as radar improvements, new sensors, computers and displays. E-3 Sentry aircraft were among the first to deploy during Operation Desert Shield where they immediately established an around-the-clock radar screen to defend against Iraqi aggression. During Desert Storm, E-3s flew more than 400 missions and logged more than 5,000 hours of on-station time. They provided radar surveillance and control to more than 120,000 coalition sorties. In addition to providing senior leadership with timecritical information on the actions of enemy forces, E-3 controllers assisted in 38 of the 40 air-to-air kills recorded during the conflict. For the first time in the history of aerial warfare, an entire air war has been recorded. This was due to the data collection capability of the E-3 radar and computer subsystems. Tinker AFB serves as the E-3 main operating base. Besides a full compliment of flightline support, Tinker AFB provides full back-shop support functions and the capability to access depot facilities. Kadena AB, Japan and Elmendorf AFB, Alaska are also permanent operating locations with assigned E-3s and flightline support, but limited back-shop capabilities. The E-3 is constantly deployed all over the world. Support at deployed locations ranges from full flightline support capabilities to bare base operations. However, all have limited back-shop support. A flightline maintenance support contingent is deployed with the aircraft. Back-shop support is normally not deployed.

In March 1996, the Air Force activated an AWACS Reserve Associate Program unit which will perform duties on active-duty aircraft. The unit is assigned to the 507th Operations Group at Tinker. In December 1978, the NATO Defence Planning Committee decided to acquire a NATO owned Airborne Early Warning air defence capability to provide air surveillance and command and control for all NATO commands. In October 1980, the NATO Airborne Early Warning Force Command was formed with its Headquarters co-located with SHAPE. In addition to the HQ, the Force comprises two operational components, the E3A Component at Geilenkirchen NATO Air Base, GE, and the E-3D Component at Royal Air Force Waddington, UK; three Forward Operating Bases located in Turkey, Greece and Italy and a Forward Operating Location in Norway. The E-3A Component operates 18 E-3A Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEW&C) aircraft and 3 Boeing 707 Trainer/Cargo aircraft. The E-3D Component operates 6 E-3D AEW&C aircraft. The E-3A Component is funded by 12 nations (Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey and the United States) and the NATO E-3A aircraft are manned by integrated, multinational crews from these countries, with the exception of Luxembourg. The E-3D Component represents the United Kingdom s contribution to the Force and its aircraft are manned by RAF personnel. The NAEWF is the largest commonly funded acquisition program undertaken by the Alliance and is the only NATO owned, multinational, operational force which is fully integrated into the command structure. Operational command of the Force is vested in, and collectively exercised by the MNCs through their executive agent, SACEUR, while the Force Commander exercises day-to-day Operational Control over the Force.

Service Life
All E-3 AWACS undergo a four year Programmed Depot Maintenance (PDM) cycle. PDM is accomplished on a cyclic calendar basis to correct defects that have been identified as non-correctable by any one modification and are expected to re-occur throughout the life of the weapon system. PDM items generally range from a complete remove or replace to inspect and rework as necessary. The completion of PDM keeps aircraft structurally sound and airworthy. 2018 is last year of E-3 modifications with all but 5 aircraft retired in 2025.

Upgrade and Improvement Efforts
In October 1994, the U.S. Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC), in partnership with the Air Force's Electronic Systems Center (ESC), initiated Extend Sentry, a program to upgrade and extend the life of the US E-3 AWACS fleet through the year 2025. The concept is to fix/replace aircraft systems that are most responsible for high failure rates, high abort rates, high code 3 rates, PDM days, large numbers of maintenance man-hours, and/or have a chronic negative impact on operational capability. The ACC funding strategy has been to prioritize the 66 selected projects (ranging in cost from $300K to $120M) in order of most benefit for dollar spent toward the objective. The FY98 ACC POM applied a "knee of the curve" analysis to determine a minimum funding level.

The AWACS Block 30/35 Modification is an in-progress production and installation program to add ESM, JTIDS, GPS Integrated Navigation, and additional computer processing power to the E-3. Major advantages include 200 times more accurate locations of targets passed via JTIDS (Link 16) and/or Link 11. GPS timing via 1553 bus synchronizes sensors, communications, and processors to common reference. The AWACS Radar System Improvement Program (RSIP) is a hardware and software modification to the E-3 to improve radar set performance providing enhanced detection of targets, with an emphasis toward those with a low radar cross section (RCS). RSIP utilizes a Pulse Doppler Pulse Compression (PDPC) waveform, increases data sampling rates, increases range and velocity resolution, increases signal integration time, adds new signal processing algorithms to enhance detection sensitivity and unambiguous range determination, and improves radar set monitoring and control. Improved control and processing algorithms tailored to current threat data enhances system electronic counter-countermeasure (ECCM) capabilities. Major advantages include: Increased range against reduced RCS targets to include cruise missiles; Improved electronic countercounter measures (ECCM) against current threats; Improved radar system reliability and maintainability (R&M); and Improved radar control and maintenance panel (RCMP) with embedded test equipment The AWACS Combat ID /IFF program includes: (1) the IFF Top Priority program second part, Block 30/35 APX-103B, including scan-to-scan processing for code degarble improvement, and obtaining aircraft attitude and altitude data via GINS 1553 Bus and (2) replacing the current IFF Transmitter with a new Solid State IFF Transmitter that corrects R,M,&A problems and provides Mode S compatibility. The SS IFF Transmitter is an Extend Sentry "#1 Must Do" item. Classified Combat ID may be POMed via this program but have zero required funding at this time. The IFF Top Priority must be totally in an installation phase by FY00. The SS IFF Transmitter will be acquired as a NATO and US AWACS coordinated (no MOA) Project. NATO will fund the R&D effort in FY00 but is taking a slightly different approach to IFF improvements so minor US design changes may be necessary. AWACS Communications Upgrades includes: Global Broadcast Service (GBS), digital communications system, and Intelligence Broadcast System (IBS). GBS is key to increased flow of ATO, weather and other information warfare data to be received by AWACS and key to moving mission crew to ground in future. The digital communication system is part of the NATO E-3 Mid Term and can result in deleting one or two Communication Technicians from mission crew composition. It is also key to mission recording capability for training and documentation - a top ACC/DO Extend Sentry objective. The IBS will require upgrade of MATT (currently being installed) to JTT for receipt of Broadcast Intelligence. Procurement will not be complete until 2009 at a total acquisition cost of $637.1M, and production and installation of different subprograms are on different schedules. The AWACS Computer & Display Modernization seeks to replace the E-3’s "steam driven computer" and is the highest ranked major project in the Extend Sentry priority list. Step 1 installation begins in the fall of 1998 with 1/3 of fleet complete at start of

FY00 FYDP in an effort coordinated with NATO. The migration of the E-3 processing system to open system Defense Information Infrastructure Common Operating Environment (DII COE) compliance is as important to the AWACS mission as the RSIP sensor upgrade. The modernization of US AWACS mission computing capability is evolutionary. It’s goal is to inject crucial technological improvements in two steps. This approach is being used primarily due to funding constraints and the desire to get critical mission capabilities into the hands of the warfighter as soon as possible. The key components delivered to the user in Step 1 include a better target tracker algorithm, more detailed and useful maps, increased use of colors (allowing more and different symbols to be displayed), and an overall improved Human-Computer Interface (HCI) leading to better situational awareness. ATO processing, battle management decision aids, intel data overlays, weather overlays, and other critical software will be adapted from DII COE applications and delivered after the hardware and basic capability is in place. Step 2 of the AWACS mission computing upgrade provides the warfighter with a completely open DII COE compliant computing architecture enabling rapid, low cost delivery of plug and play capability. It involves the removal of the CC-2E computer and the Airborne Operational Computer Program (AOCP) mission software and full migration to DII COE compliance. The proposed AWACS ESM Upgrades includes 4 sub-projects: (1) RF Front End Redesign to remove local oscillator leakage, increase producibility / maintainability, and remove current frequency management for cosite interference (Dem/Val flight in 4Q98/1Q99); (2) Specific Emitter ID provides ability for ESM ID to emitter serial number -key to Blue/Gray and increases correlation to tracks at higher rates than available from primary sensors; (3) Side Lobe Detection Enhancement increases the sensitivity beyond current capabilities such that emitters can be detected without the E-3 in the emitter’s main beam; and (4) Multiple Platform Geolocation uses the ESM system to passively obtain very rapid and accurate geolocation of emitters. The future ELINT/ESM Joint needs picture is too cloudy to make a major investment decision on this above program at this point. The AWACS Bistatic UAV Adjunct is a proposed $850M+ acquisition program with prototype in FY08 and completed in 2015. High Altitude Endurance (HAE) Dark Star/Global Hawk UAVs with bistatic receivers for the AWACS radar will expand area coverage of a single E-3 orbit and with the inherent significant signal to interference ratio enhancement provide increased coverage of low RCS targets while operating inside and outside an air defense threat environment. The inclusion of the Bistatic UAV adjunct to the E-3 would allow reduced E-3 operational tempo in some theaters and the ability to cover two major regional conflicts with fewer E-3s. By only carrying the receiver, IFF interrogator and a JTIDS/JCTN transmitter package, the UAV weight limitations can be met (combat ID systems might also be included if weight and size allows). The bistatic UAV would also be able to serve as an adjunct to the E-2, TPS-75 and other air/ground radars. Most important, the Bistatic UAV is a key part of the USAF transition from the E3 to UAVs and Space for the AWACS mission, with the mission crew on the ground. The Bistatic UAV will be able to serve as the receiver using a satellite as the radar transmitter instead of the E-3. The bistatic UAV is a common link to a reduced E-3 fleet and use of

Space for surveillance of large to LO/VLO air vehicles (missiles and aircraft) in the battlespace. The proposed Mission Crew to Ground program migrates the battle management function off of AWACS to the ground to reduce manpower and cost, centralizes C2 in GTACS, provides room for additional E-3 sensor growth, and provides a transition step to move the majority of AWACS functions from the E-3 to UAVs and Space in the 2025 time frame. This program will allow more sensor growth in volume and weight on-board the E-3 for enhanced surveillance tasks without loss of time on station, and will centralize command and control at AOC/CRC nodes in the TACS using sensor data from AWACS and other sources such as UAVs. AWACS sensor data would be downlinked using LOS and/or SATCOM similar to the ground element of JSTARS today, but using the GBS (AWACS Comm Upgrades) with satellite cross-link capability. Only the Communications Technician, Airborne Radar Technician, and the flight crew stay aboard the E-3) and training savings for the USAF. The cost concept includes four ground stations (CONUS, CONUS backup and two theater deployable). Of a 33 aircraft fleet, only 27 E-3s are converted to a sensor platform configuration. Total acquisition cost is $1.52 Billion.

Primary Function Contractors Power Plant Thrust Length Wingspan Height Rotodome Speed Ceiling Maximum Takeoff Weight Endurance Unit Cost Crew Airborne surveillance, command, control and communications Prime: Boeing Aerospace Co. Radar: Northrop Grumman Four Pratt and Whitney TF33-PW-100A turbofan engines 21,000 pounds each engine 145 feet, 6 inches (44 meters) 130 feet, 10 inches (39.7 meters) 41 feet, 4 inches (12.5 meters) 30 feet in diameter (9.1 meters), 6 feet thick (1.8 meters), mounted 11 feet (3.33 meters) above fuselage Optimum cruise 360 mph (Mach 0.48) Above 29,000 feet (8,788 meters) 347,000 pounds (156,150 kilograms) More than 8 hours (unrefueled) Approximately $270 million Flight crew of four plus mission crew of 13-19

specialists (mission crew size varies according to mission) Date Deployed Inventory Losses March 1977 Active force, 33; Reserve, 0; Guard, 0 An E-3 crashed 22 Sep 1995 in Alaska, reducing the US fleet by one.

Aircraft List
Production Serial number number 20518 71-01407 20519 71-01408 21046 73-01674 21047 75-00556 21185 73-01675 21207 75-00557 21208 75-00558 21209 75-00559 21250 75-00560 21434 76-01604 21435 76-01605 21436 76-01606 21437 76-01607 21551 77-00351 21552 77-00352 21553 77-00353 21554 21555 21556 21752 21753 21754 21755 21756 21757 22829 77-00354 77-00355 77-00356 78-00576 78-00577 78-00578 79-00001 79-00002 79-00003 80-00137 Type E-3B E-3B E-3C E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3B E-3C Operator 552 ACW 552 ACW Boeing 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW crashed 22 Sep 95 Delivered Comments

22830 22831 22832 22833 22834 22835 22836 22837

80-00138 80-00139 81-00004 81-00005 82-00006 82-00007 83-00008 83-00009

E-3C E-3C E-3C E-3C E-3C E-3C E-3C E-3C

552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW 552 ACW

E-4B National Airborne Operations Center
The E-4B serves as the National Airborne Operations Center (NAOC) for the National Command Authorities. In case of national emergency or destruction of ground command control centers, the aircraft provides a modern, highly survivable, command, control and communications center to direct U.S. forces, execute emergency war orders and coordinate actions by civil authorities. There are only four E-4B aircraft in the Air Force inventory, with one constantly on alert. The E-4B National Airborne Operations Center supports the National Command Authority (NCA) and the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS). Other responsibilities include a worldwide, survivable enduring node of the National Military Command System (NMCS) for the purpose of exercising national security responsibilities throughout the full spectrum. of conflict. Offutt AFB, NE serves as the ACC E-4B Main Operating Base (MOB). Offutt AFB provides full organizational level maintenance with limited intermediate level maintenance support. Higher headquarters and training missions are flown from Offutt AFB. The E-4B has numerous Forwarding Operating Bases (FOB) throughout the United States. Higher headquarters and training missions are flown from these FOBs. The FOBs have limited organizational level maintenance capability and no intermediate level maintenance. Maintenance support is provided by a deployed 1 ACCS maintenance team. Air Combat Command (ACC) is the Air Force single-resource manager for the E-4B, and provides aircrew, maintenance, security and communications support. The Joint Chiefs of Staff actually control E-4B operations and provide personnel for the airborne operations center. The E-4B, a militarized version of the Boeing 747-200, is a four-engine, swept-wing, long-range, high-altitude airplane capable of being refueled in flight. Its larger size provides approximately triple the floor space of the earlier EC-135 command post. The main deck is divided into six functional areas: a National Command Authorities' work area, conference room, briefing room, an operations team work area, and communications and rest areas. An E-4B crew may include up to 114 people, including a joint-service operations team, an ACC flight crew, a maintenance and security component, a communications team and selected augmentees. The E-4B has electromagnetic pulse protection, an electrical system designed to support advanced electronics and a wide variety of new communications equipment. Other improvements include nuclear and thermal effects shielding, acoustic control, an improved technical control facility and an upgraded air-conditioning system for cooling electrical components. An advanced satellite communications system improves

worldwide communications among strategic and tactical satellite systems and the airborne operations center. To provide direct support to the National Command Authorities, at least one E-4B is always on alert at one of many selected bases throughout the world.

The E-4B evolved from the E-4A, which had been in service since late 1974. The first B model was delivered to the Air Force in January 1980, and by 1985 all aircraft were converted to B models. All E-4B are assigned to the 55th Wing, Offutt Air Force Base, Neb. In August 1994, the E-4B assumed an additional role. With the approval of JCS chairman, the E-4B will support the Federal Emergency Management Agency's request for assistance when a natural disaster, such as hurricane, typhoon or earthquake occurs. The E-4B would be tasked to fly the FEMA Emergency Response to the disaster site, and become the FEMA command and control center until the emergency team's own equipment and facilities can be set up. With E-4B support the emergency team's response is a matter of hours as opposed to days.

Primary Function: Builder: Power Plant: Thrust: Length: Wingspan: Height: Maximum Takeoff Weight: Endurance: Ceiling: Unit Cost: Crew: Date Deployed: Inventory: Airborne operations center Boeing Aerospace Co. Four General Electric CF6-50E2 turbofan engines 52,500 pounds (23,625 kilograms) each engine 231 feet, 4 inches (70.5 meters) 195 feet, 8 inches (59.7 meters) 63 feet, 5 inches (19.3 meters) 800,000 pounds (360,000 kilograms) 12 hours (unrefueled) Above 30,000 feet (9,091 meters) $258 million Up to 114 January 1980 Active force, 4; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0

Emphasis in the design and operation of most of today's new Navy aircraft is on multimission capability. One exception, by designation and intended role, might seem to be the Boeing E-6A. Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadrons (VQs) 3 and 4 operate E-6As in the same manner as their EC-130s - as TACAMO (take charge and move out) communications platforms serving as command links to the fleet ballistic missile submarine force. The E-6 is the airborne portion of the TACAMO Communications System. It provides survivable communication links between the National Command Authority (NCA) and Strategic Forces. The E-6 is a derivative of the commercial Boeing 707 aircraft. Its a long range, air refuelable aircraft equipped with four CFM-56-2A-2 high bypass ratio fan/jet engines with thrust reversers. The weapon system is electromagnetic pulse hardened. It has an endurance of 15+ hours without refueling and a maximum endurance of 72 hours with inflight refueling. Mission range is over 6000 Nautical Miles (NM). It carries a crew of five officers, nine enlisted aircrewmen, and up to four trainees for TACAMO missions. For ABNCP missions it carries five naval officers, nine naval enlisted aircrewmen, and a eight person battle staff as determined by the United States Strategic Command (J36). The E-6 ABNCP modification program was established to upgrade TACAMO operational capabilities by incorporating a subset of United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOMM's) EC-135 ABNCP equipment into the E-6 aircraft. The modified aircraft have the designation changed from E-6A to E-6B. The E-6B modified an E-6A by adding battlestaff positions and other specialized equipment. The E-6B is a dualmission aircraft capable of fulfilling either the E-6A mission or the airborne strategic command post mission and is equipped with an airborne launch control system (ALCS). The ALCS is capable of launching US land based intercontinental ballistic missiles. The E-6B is capable of performing both the TACAMO and ABNCP missions. This modification enables USSTRATCOM to perform current and projected TACAMO and ABNCP operational tasking using the sixteen dual mission E-6B aircraft. The E-6B provides survivable Command Control & Communications (C3) force management communications for the NCA via multiple frequency band communications. The E-6B was conceived as a replacement for the Air Force's Airborne Command Post due to the age of the EC-135 fleet. The first E-6B aircraft was accepted in December 1997 and the E-6B assumed its dual operational mission in October 1998. The E-6 fleet will be completely modified to the E-6B configuration by the year 2003. In the TACAMO role, the E-6 flies independent random operations from various deployed sites for approximately 15 day intervals. Each deployed crew will be selfsupporting except for fuel and perishables. The mission requires a 24 hour commitment of resources (alert posture) in the Atlantic and Pacific regions.

In the ABNCP role, as directed by USSTRATCOM, two aircraft are flown to Offutt Air Force Base (AFB) to embark the battle staff and the ALCS components and will be placed in an alert status. Maintenance of the systems is performed by the standard compliment of squadron ground and in-flight technician personnel with the exception of the ALCS which was maintained by the Air Force for eighteen months after Navy IOC.

In spite of their new military designation, the E-6As, like the EC-130s, are part of a large family of transports that have been adapted to many roles. Prototypes of both designs first flew within a month of each other in the summer of 1954. Following Boeing's prototype four-jet transport, widely publicized as the first of the 707 series, the Air Force ordered the first production models as KC-135 tanker transports. Much modified and adapted, these still serve the Air Force, and two were transferred to the Navy in the late 1970s for use in the electronics support role. Similar in appearance, but considerably redesigned, the first 707-120 airline transports rolled off Boeing's production lines in 1957. By the time these were in service, the larger 707-320 series was following, designed for long range transoceanic service. Both models soon received turbofan engines in place of their original jets. The Navy's E-6A is the final derivative of the 707-320 series to be added to the production line, joining its better known E-3A Sentry AWACS (airborne warning and control system) predecessor. The first 707-320 series to join the military took on the duties of the presidential aircraft as "Air Force One" in 1962, two joining several earlier 707-120s in the VC-137 series. Ten years later, the two prototypes for what would become the E-3 were also designated in this series. In addition to the large radome mounted on struts above the aft fuselage, similar to that on the prototypes, many detail modifications were made to the 707-320B airframe for the subsequent production E-3As. Particular attention was paid to hardening the airframe against the effect of electromagnetic radiation and nuclear blasts. Updated E3s serve the Air Force, NATO, and other countries, and are still being produced today. With the Navy order for TACAMO versions of the 707-320B airframe, the E-6A designation was assigned for these airframes, to be built on the E-3A line. At the same time, C-18 series and E-8A designations were assigned to ex-airline 707-320Bs purchased and modified as test aircraft, both for airborne range instrumentation duties and the JSTARS (joint surveillance target attack radar) program. The former, as EC18Bs, feature a bulbous nose radome, while the latter carry an elongated under-fuselage radome for a multimode side-looking radar. The E-6A had its beginnings in studies at the Naval Air Development Center, Warminster, Pa., looking for an expanded capability airframe for the TACAMO role. Among several turbofan-powered jet transports, the basic Boeing 707-320B was particularly attractive because of the availability of the hardened E-3A airframe in production. Higher bypass ratio, more fuel efficient GE-SNECMA CFM 56 engines were being retrofitted to various first-generation, four-jet commercial transports and would

enhance the performance of a TACAMO version. Space and weight-carrying capability would accommodate the various communications systems of the EC-130 TACAMO aircraft, including the long trailing very low frequency antenna and its extension/retraction system. Based on the study results, the TACAMO replacement program got under way; the first two of a planned buy of 16 were ordered in 1984. Unusual was the concept that major components of the communications systems in squadron EC-130s would be removed and reinstalled in the E-6As as they were completed. Many features of the E-3 airframe were retained, including the in-flight refueling receptacle for the flying boom refueling system located at the top of the fuselage aft of the cockpit. A forward cargo door, as on commercial air freight transports, was installed for purposes of transporting major spare components to remote sites. Provisions for the two trailing wire antennas, one extending from under the mid-fuselage and the other from the tail cone, are among the obvious changes. Enlarged wing tip pods for special electronic equipment are also fitted. Not obvious are the structural changes required to carry the heavy communications systems in the aft fuselage and the increased level of electromagnetic pulse and nuclear blast hardening over that already incorporated in the E-3s. The first E-6A rolled out in December 1986 and made its first flight in February 1987. After initial flights at Seattle, Wash., it was ferried to the Naval Air Test Center, Patuxent River, Md., for further systems development testing. Crew training using contractorowned commercial 707-320s began for squadron personnel with no standdown required for squadron transition - a necessity to maintain the strategic communications links. Operational test and evaluation was undertaken by VX-1. Initial deliveries to VQ-3 took place in August 1989. The new flight profiles and structural characteristics that the E-6A introduced to the 707320 airframe did result in some unanticipated development challenges. Their resolution will provide the necessary survivable strategic command link to the submarine-launched leg of the strategic nuclear triad well into the future. Besides the command link to the ballistic missile submarines, the E-6A TACAMO aircraft is involved in a joint mission, to provide the vital communication link from the National Command Authority (NCA) to all strategic forces. By 1998, after completion of extensive modifications, it will also provide an Airborne Command Post for United States Command in Chief for Strategic Forces (USINCSTRAT) and theater CINCs. E-6 aircrew training is accomplished by Contract Flight Crew Training System (CFCTS) and is accomplished at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. CFCTS provides program management, flight crew instruction, system operation and maintenance, and engineering services in support of the Naval Training Support Unit (NTSU). CFCTS equipment consists of two Operational Flight Trainers (OFTs), Academic Training System (ATS) and two In Flight Trainer (IFT) TC-18F aircraft.

CFCTS provides ground training to pilots, navigators and flight engineers for initial qualification, refresher, instructor basic and upgrade, instrument ground school and basic flight engineer, utilizing instructor-based training, computer-based training and the OFTs. Flight training of the pilots (transition and in flight refueling) is accomplished in the TC18F IFTs utilizing Navy instructor pilots and Navy and contractor instructor flight engineers. NTSU provides Airborne Communications Officer (ACO) and Aircrew (TACAMO Operator, Inflight Technician, Reel Operator) ground training. NTSU also provides squadron personnel Organizational ("O") level maintenance training on the E-6 aircraft and all subsystems and "O" and Intermediate ("I") level training on the Mission Avionics System (MAS) equipment.

The TACAMO Program utilizes the Navy E-6 Enhanced Phase Maintenance (EPM) and Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Analysis Process programs:
 

Analytical process takes data (failure modes) Select significant items, Failure Modes Effects Critically Analysis (FMECA), RCM analysis of failure modes, task and interval determination, maintenance level determination, task packaging.  Structural tasks developed from E-3 maintenance requirement, Boeing maintenance planning data, RCM analysis of E-6 structural information. The maintenance concept is "O" to "D" for most components, with Contractor Logistic Support (CLS) from Boeing ,Seattle. There is limited "I" level support for mission equipment, and is expected to go away with the introduction of new mission avionics. Under the Integrated Maintenance Concept, as much as possible, airframe work done in field; CLS for airframe and flight deck avionics and Navy support for mission avionics. Problems arose with Standard Level Depot Maintenance (SDLM) cycle due to too many aircraft out of service at one time for modification over the 60 month initial estimated Operating Service Period. SDLM requires 8 to 18 months out of service time. APML issued challenges in Jan 1992 to evaluate alternatives, minimize down time. This increased on site maintenance, send depot field teams out, mandatory depot only tasks. The option selected was combination of SDLM tasks performed in conjunction with phase maintenance with depot field team augmentation of squadron phase crew:
    

Perform all scheduled maintenance when due (RCM based) Use avail manpower for appropriate level of maintenance. Plan each event based on RCM/Age exploration history Reduce costs by deleting unnecessary tasks, reducing depot inductions. Taking depot tasks to field made easier because Tinker has depot collocated with squadron.

Depot level maintenance is performed in squadron spaces during routine O-level maintenance. No change of custody, reduced disassembly duplication (if an area is opened for O-level maintenance it is not re-opened by D-level), D-level artisan assists and trains O-level technician, spacing of D-level opportunities is months, not years. Up front investment is large because maintainers must anticipate parts available prior to induction. The process results in 365 days additional operating time every 5 years. Cost analysis showed that not transferring custody of aircraft to depot saves $78 million over life of program. This program gives greater visibility of the health of the airframe and, due to frequent access, provides opportunities to prevent high cost problems from developing.

Command Post Modification
Subsequent to a year of in-depth analysis under Navy tasking, Raytheon E-Systems (RESY) is designing the E-6B Command Post Modification that will provide performanceimprovements and avionics enhancements for the E-6A Take Charge and Move Out (TACAMO)aircraft. The E-6B program has been established to upgrade TACAMO operationalcapabilities and cross-deck a subset of the Strategic Command’s (STRATCOM’s)EC-135 Airborne Command Post (ABNCP) equipment to the E-6A aircraft. The modifiedaircraft (E-6B) will be capable of performing both the TACAMO and ABNCP missions. The E-6B Command Post Modification will enable STRATCOM to perform current and projectedTACAMO and ABNCP operational tasking, using the dual mission E-6B, effectively andreliably through the twenty-first century. RESY will perform integration and installation of several systems into the E-6 aircraft: The Airborne Launch Control System (ALCS) operates through the Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Communications, Command and Control (C3) radios, enabling the E6B to function as an Airborne Launch Control Center. The ALCS system allows determination of missile status in silos, launch, or change in missile assignments. The UHF C3 Radio Subsystem adds three UHF transceivers that support 1,000 watt fullduplex transmissions using amplitude modulation (AM) or frequency modulation. It provides: UHF frequency division multiplex (FDM) (3 full-duplex groups of 15 channels each), ALCS, conventional UHF AM line of sight (3 half-duplex channels), and/or Fleet satellite communication (SATCOM) phase shift keying (1 receive-only channel). The Digital Airborne Intercommunications Switching System (DAISS) provides automated audio distribution and equipment control/configuration among the communications equipment supporting the ABNCP mission and access to the TACAMO equipment. The Military Strategic Tactical And Relay (MILSTAR) Airborne Terminal System provides Extremely High Frequency /Super High Frequency/UHF connectivity through the survivable MILSTAR satellite system.

The Mission Computer System enhances message handling and processing by providing user-friendly operations for message receipt, edit, storage, and transmit; identifying emergency action messages; and routing data among peripherals (printers, keyboards, etc.). The UHF SATCOM Receive System upgrade will replace the existing OE-242 antenna controller with a more reliable and supportable unit. The Time/Frequency Standards Distribution System replaces the existing TACAMO time standard, providing retrieval and distribution of the accurate universal coordinated time from the global positioning system. Time of day, one-pulse-per-second, and precision 5 megahertz reference signals are distributed to very low frequency (VLF) and UHF communications equipment to provide accurate reference timing. The High Power Transmit Set replaces the existing 200 kilowatt VLF High Power Amplifier and Dual Trailing Wire Assembly, providing increased capabilities (including low frequency transmission spectrum) with significant reliability and operability improvements. Three dual-redundant MIL-STD-1553B data busses accommodate future modifications to the E-6B weapon system.

Orbit Improvement Program
The E-6A communications relay mission is accomplished by trailing dual wireantennas while performing a continuous orbit maneuver. It is essential that thewires obtain as near a vertical attitude as possible for optimum very low frequencyconnectivity. Currently, there exists orbit control problems and wire/tail contactcausing bank-angle restrictions which precludes the E-6A from obtaining optimal wireverticality. Modifications to the avionics systems are required to meet the orbitoperational requirements. The E-6A Orbit Improvement Program, which corrects theE-6A deficiency, consists of the installation of autothrottles and software improvementsto the Flight Management Computer System (FMCS). The FMCS will be modified to implement the contractor developed orbit algorithm, withinterfaces to the digital autopilot. The system is designed to provide failsafecapabilities. These modifications will fine tune bank-angle and airspeed inputsenabling the aircraft to fly an orbit which maximizes the verticality of the antennas thusensuring connectivity to the strategic forces. An E-6A autothrottle system will be developed based on existing Boeing 737 commercialequipment. The orbit improvement system does not present any threat shortfalls to the TACAMO missionenvironment. There are no major cost, schedule, or performance tradeoffs to beperformed. A feasibility study for the autothrottle program was previouslyauthorized.

Based on preliminary results and background data associated withcommercial applications, the orbital improvement control system approach to correcting theE-6A deficiency was the only practical approach. Adaptation of an existingcommercial system rather than developing a new system significantly reduces costs without increasing technical risk. Production was planned for Fiscal Year (FY) 95 through FY 98 with 15 aircraft installations, plus 3 trainers, in addition to a previous engineering and manufacturing development installation for a total of 16 aircraft. The Orbit Improvement Program will enable the fleet to perform current and projectedoperational tasking effectively and reliably through the twenty first-century.

Operating Sites
Main Operating Base Tinker AFB, OK West Coast Alert Travis AFB, CA


* *

East Coast Alert Patuxent River, MD New Alert Site Mid-CONUS

Program Status

85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 Procured 1 2 3 3 3 7 Delivered 3544
High Time Aircraft - 8,959 HRS Low Time Aircraft - 5432 HRS Avg Flight Time Month - 95 HRS


Primary Function Contractor Unit Cost Propulsion Length Wingspan Height Weight Ceiling Speed Crew Range Armament

Airborne command post for fleet ballistic missile submarines Boeing $ 141.7 million Four CFM-56-2A-2 High bypass turbofans 150 feet, 4 inches (45.8 meters) 148 feet, 4 inches (45.2 meters) 42 feet 5 inches (12.9 meters) Max gross, take-off: 341,000 pounds (153,900 kg) Above 40,000 feet 522 knots, 600 miles (960 km) per hour 14 6,600 nautical miles (7,590 statute miles, 12,144 km) with 6 hours loiter time None

Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS / JSTARS)
The Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) is a long-range, air-to-ground surveillance system designed to locate, classify and track ground targets in all weather conditions. While flying in friendly airspace, the joint Army-Air Force program can look deep behind hostile borders to detect and track ground movements in both forward and rear areas. It has a range of more than 150 miles (250 km). These capabilities make Joint STARS effective for dealing with any contingency, whether actual or impending military aggression, international treaty verification, or border violation.

Aircraft Boeing 707-300 series aircraft, modified by Northrop Grumman Designation E-8A for two prototype aircraft Designation E-8C for one test aircraft and all production aircraft Primary Function: Contractor: Power Plant: Length: Height: Weight: Wingspan: Speed: Date Deployed: Inventory: Service ceiling Range: Ground Surveillance Northrop Grumman Corp. Four JT3D engines 152'11" (46.6 m); 42'6" (12.9 m); 171,000 pounds (77,565 Kg)-- Empty 155,000 pounds (70,307 Kg)-- Max Fuel 336,000 pounds (152,408 Kg)-- Max Gross 145'9" (44.4 m); .84 Mach 1996 17 production aircraft 42,000 feet 11 hours -- 20 hours with air refueling

Unit Cost: Crew Standard mission Long endurance Radar

$225 million

crew of 21 comprising 18 operators and 3 flight crew crew of 34 comprising 28 operators and 6 flight crew 24 feet length antenna, side looking, phased array. Housed in canoe shaped radome under forward fuselage aft of the nose landing gear, Scanned electronically in azimuth, Scanned mechanically in elevation from either side of the aircraft. Wide area surveillance Fixed target indication Synthetic aperture radar Moving target indicator Target classification

Radar operating modes

Radar processors

Three load sharing programmable processors each processor containing five high speed, fixed point distributed processors

Radar operation and One navigation and self defense workstation control system Seventeen identical operator workstations Functions of operator workstations: flight path planning and monitoring generation and display of cartographic and hypsographic map data. Radar management, surveillance and threat analysis, radar data review, time of arrival calculation, jammer location, distance and azimuth calculation, pairing of weapons and targets, and other functions Communications digital data links Surveillance and control data link (SCDL) for transmission to mobile ground stations Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS) for tactical air navigation (TACAN) operation and Tactical Data Information Link-J (TADIL-J) generation and processing Satellite communications link (SATCOM) Voice Communications Twelve encrypted UHF radios

Two encrypted HF radios Three VHF encrypted radios with provision for Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) Multiple intercom nets

The 452nd Flight Test Squadron at Edwards Air Force Base operates a variety of unique, highly modified C-135 and C-18 aircraft to plan and execute DoD, NASA, and operational flight test programs. Missions supported include worldwide telemetry gathering, international treaty verification, spacecraft launches, ballistic missile defense, electronic combat and vulnerability analysis, aircraft icing tests, and aerial refueling certification. The 452 FLTS accomplishes its primary mission using the Advanced Range Instrumentation Aircraft (ARIA) and the Cruise Missile Mission Control Aircraft (CMMCA). The Advanced Range Instrumentation Aircraft (ARIA pronounced Ah-RYE-ah) are EC-135E and EC-18B aircraft used as flexible airborne telemetry data recording and relay stations. These aircraft were designed and developed to supplement land and marine telemetry stations in support of DOD and NASA space and missile programs. The ARIA have the capability to acquire, track, record, and retransmit telemetry signals, primarily in the S-band (2200-2400 MHz) frequency range. In the early 1960's, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) realized that the lunar missions of the Apollo program would require a worldwide network of tracking and telemetry stations, many positioned in remote regions of the world. The Department of Defense (DoD) was also faced with similar considerations for its unmanned orbital and ballistic missile reentry test programs. Since land stations are obviously limited by geographical constraints, and instrumentation ships cannot be moved quickly enough to cover different positions during the same mission, it soon became evident that large gaps in coverage would occur. To fill these gaps, a new concept in tracking stations was developed - a high-speed aircraft containing the necessary instrumentation to assure spacecraft acquisition, tracking, and telemetry data recording. The same aircraft could provide coverage of translunar injection and recovery for NASA's manned space flight operations, as well as events of interest in the DoD orbital or ballistic missile reentry tests. To implement the concept, NASA and DoD jointly funded the modification of eight C-135 jet transport/cargo aircraft. The Apollo/Range Instrumentation Aircraft (A/RIA), designated EC-135N, became operational in January 1968, having been modified at the basic cost of $4.5 million per aircraft. The Air Force Eastern Test Range (AFETR) was selected to operate and maintain the system in support of the test and evaluation (T&E) community. McDonnell-Douglas Corporation and Bendix Corporation were the contractors for the design, aircraft modification, and testing of the electronic equipment. In December 1975, after 7 years of operation by the Eastern Test Range, the ARIA (redesignated Advanced Range Instrumentation Aircraft following completion of the Apollo program) were transferred to the 4950th Test Wing, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, as part of an Air Force consolidation of large T&E aircraft. The 4950th Test Wing provided test support, personnel, and

resources for the operational use of, and modifications and improvement to, the ARIA fleet. After arriving at Wright-Patterson AFB, the ARIA fleet underwent numerous conversions, including re-engining of EC-135N ARIA to EC-135E and the acquisition and conversion of used Boeing 707 commercial airliners to ARIA. In 1982, the Air Force bought eight used Boeing 707-320C's from American Airlines, modifying the jets to the ARIA configuration and dubbing them EC-18B's. The EC-18B, which is larger than the EC-135N, carries a bigger payload and operates on shorter runways, flew its first mission in January 1986 out of Kenya. In 1994, the ARIA fleet was relocated to Edwards AFB, California, as part of the 452d Flight Test Squadron, in the 412th Test Wing. The current ARIA fleet consists of three EC-135E and three EC18B aircraft. On 10 February 1998 the annual Force Structure Announcement formalized adjustments to the aircraft fleet at Edwards, which included the loss of one EC-18 and one EC-135 aircraft. These changes were the result a continuation of the normal fleet adjustments which occur at Edwards as test programs change and the general test aircraft fleet is upgraded and modernized. Aircraft 375 was one of the first Apollo Range Instrumentation Aircraft (ARIA) put into service. Aircraft 894 is one of two active ARIA with in flight refueling capabilities. This aircraft is a modified commercial Boeing 707, and is one of four ARIA that have been upgraded with 4 MHz Racal Storehorse recorders and Microdyne S-Band, C-Band, PBand Superheterodyne receivers. The ARIA deploy throughout the world to obtain telemetry data from orbital and reentry vehicles as well as air-to-air and cruise missile tests. This includes support of tests conducted at Cape Canaveral AFS, Vandenberg AFB, Hill AFB, Eglin AFB, and from ships and submarines. Normally, the telemetry data is obtained in locations such as broad ocean areas and remote land areas which are outside the coverage of ground stations. Selected portions of the data may be retransmitted in real time, via UHF satellite, to enable the launching agency to monitor system performance. All data is recorded on magnetic tape for post-mission analysis. The Cruise Missile Mission Control Aircraft (CMMCA) mission is different from both orbital and reentry mission types, primarily due to the mission duration which may involve continuous automatic tracking for more than five hours. Other differences include: the vehicle flies below the ARIA; real-time data is relayed via L-band transmitters directly to ground stations; and voice is relayed via ARIA UHF radios between mission aircraft (launch, chase, photo, etc.) and mission control. ARIA also flies as the primary remote command & control / flight termination system for these missions. On a typical mission, flown locally from Edwards AFB, a B-52 launch aircraft with the cruise missile departs its home base several hours prior to the ARIA takeoff. The ARIA joins the B-52 and acquires telemetry from the missile at about launch minus 90 minutes. The B-52 and the trailing ARIA then proceed to the launch area. At this point, mission control uses the ARIA telemetry data to evaluate the missile's status. Prior to launch, F16 chase and photo aircraft join the B-52 launch aircraft. After final checks are completed, the cruise missile is launched and the B-52 departs the area. The ARIA continues to track the missile after launch, receives and relays telemetry data from the missile, and relays UHF voice from the chase planes to mission control. The ARIA tracks

the cruise missile until termination of the mission. During most tests, ARIA supplies the primary remote command & control / flight termination system (RCC/FTS) signal to the missile. The Cruise Missile Mission Control Aircraft (CMMCA) Phase 0 modification provides real-time telemetry displays and redundant RCC/FTS systems. . The Advanced CMMCA, provides the same capabilities as the CMMCA Phase 0 plus a tracking/surveillance radar for stand-alone operations as well as real-time data processing and display. Each ARIA has both external and internal modifications. Externally the most obvious difference in appearance from a standard C-135 or C-18 aircraft is the large, bulbous, "droop snoot" nose, a ten-foot radome which houses a seven-foot steerable dish antenna. The ARIA also has a probe antenna on each wing tip and a trailing wire antenna on the bottom of the fuselage (EC-l35E only) used for high frequency (HF) radio transmission and reception. Further external modifications include antennas for data retransmission via UHF satellite. The internal modifications to the cargo compartment include all of the instrumentation subsystems (Prime Mission Electronic Equipment - PMEE) installed in the form of a 30,000 pound modular package. Also provided are facilities for the crew members who operate the PMEE. The Prime Mission Electronic Equipment (PMEE) is organized into eight functional subsystems to provide the ARIA mission support capability.

ARIA Prime Mission Electronic Equipment (PMEE) 7 foot parabolic dish (auto/manual track); fixed horn antenna Remote Command and Control / Flight Termination System Data Separation Console (bit synchs, decoms, data processing) Radio Frequency (receivers) Mission Commander High Frequency (communications, data relay) Record (magnetic tape recorders)



Sonobouy Missile Impact Location System

The most obvious feature of the ARIA is the nose radome which contains the 83-inch parabolic tracking antenna. The acquisition and tracking of telemetry signals is the function of this subsystem, which is controlled by the antenna control assembly (ACA), and the antenna operator. The antenna subsystem currently has the capability to receive and track telemetry signals in the S-band frequency range from 2,200-2,400 MHz, primarily, and the C-band frequency range from 4,150-4,250 MHz. With additional modifications to this subsystem, ARIA can receive and record L-band and P-band frequencies. The S-band (UHF) antenna consists of the 83-inch parabolic reflector and a focal point crossed dipole array feed assembly. The feed assembly consists of an antenna array, a comparator network, interconnecting cables and associated hardware. The antenna array consists of four sets of crossed dipoles symmetrically arranged in a cross-hair configuration. The comparator network is a system of three passive photo-printed microstrip modules encased in aluminum housings. The purpose of the network is to form the right- and left-hand circularly polarized (RHCP and LHCP) sum and difference channels. The sum (data) channels are available for patching to the telemetry/tracking receivers. The difference channels are amplitude-modulated onto the sum channels by the scanner assembly and used for automatic tracking. Programs using telemetry frequencies outside the 2,200-2,300 MHz band have been supported by ARIA in the past. Reception and tracking of alternate frequencies can sometimes be accomplished with little or no modification to the ARIA. There are two modes of antenna tracking - automatic, in which antenna positioning is controlled by the antenna control assembly, and manual, in which antenna positioning is controlled by the antenna operator by using the handwheels or joystick. Automatic acquisition mode is selected by the antenna operator. Upon acquisition of the signal, the antenna system electronically simulates a conical scan of 3 dB off boresight to generate error signals that indicate in which direction the signal is off boresight. These error signals are routed to the telemetry/tracking receivers as amplitude modulation on the sum (data) channel, demodulated from the sum channel, and sent through the signal interface assembly to the tracking combiner/converter unit (TCCU) as tracking video. The TCCU converts the tracking video error signals to DC azimuth and elevation error voltages which are then routed through the antenna control assembly (ACA) to the servo amplifier, which in turn controls the clutches which engage drive motors to reposition the antenna. The Sonobuoy Missile Impact Location System (SMILS) combines airborne equipment with prepositioned Deep Ocean Transponder (DOT) arrays located on the ocean floor in various parts of the world to enable accuracy scoring of ballistic missile impacts during test firings. It uses an array of sonobuoys launched from the support aircraft to gather background acoustic information from the ocean environment and navigation information from the DOTs, and transmit this information as audio via RF links to the aircraft where it is recorded and a database is created. When the ballistic missile reentry vehicles (RVs) impact in or around the sonobuoy array, the buoys transmit the impact audio to the aircraft where it is recorded and combined with timing and the previously gathered buoy navigation data to compute an impact location and time for each RV.

The ARIA optics system is a set of fixed staring cameras aimed out the left side of the aircraft designed for photodocumentation of ballistic missile reentries and impacts. It provides visual verification of RV cloud penetration, total number of RVs surviving to impact, visual anomalies, and time correlation of these events. During the missile reentry phase of flight, the ARIA flies a flightpath which is skew to the path of the RVs and approximately 15 or more miles away to avoid any chance of collision. During this period, the ARIA flies straight and level, the cameras are turned on, and the data is recorded on film and videotape. The heading and timing of this flight path are critical and carefully planned to ensure that all RVs remain within the field of view of both the cameras and the telemetry antenna at all times. After mission completion, the raw film is normally turned over to the using agency for processing. The rack containing the cameras and ancillary equipment is located on the left side of the aircraft next to the cargo door, surrounded by a light blocking curtain to prevent any aircraft light source from interfering with the pictures. Each camera looks through its own optical quality window, kept free of fog by forced, heated air, over a field of regard of approximately 40 to 130 degrees off aircraft heading (horizontal) and 45 above to 25 degrees below horizon (vertical). The optical windows which each camera looks through are manufactured by Perkin Elmer from Schott BK-7 type glass. These windows have been enlarged for the streak and framing cameras to expand their field of view; the windows are approximately 18 x 13 inches and 13 x 13 inches respectively. Total field of view depends upon camera and lens selected. Each of the cameras can be operated at the rack or at a remote operator station, where the operator can observe visual events in real time on a video monitor and flag events of interest on an audio track of the videotape. The system consists of four cameras, timing and control equipment, video recorder, and a vacuum pump. The ballistic streak camera is used for time exposures during twilight or nighttime conditions. As the RVs pass into the atmosphere upon reentry, they heat up and glow, and are recorded on film as streaks of light, separated horizontally due to aircraft forward motion. While the camera shutter is open, the aperture can be modulated downward at a known rate, thus providing relative time correlation. Additionally, electrical pulses corresponding to the aperture modulation and shutter opening/closing are recorded on the telemetry tape along with IRIG timing. Filters and spectral gratings are available for use with this camera. With the single available lens, it provides a field of view (az x el) of approximately 53 x 74 degrees at its optimum positioning. The framing camera is used for high quality still frame pictures at 1, 2, or 4 frames per second, and can also be used as a second "streak" camera. It places a decimal time annotation based on IRIG-B timing in the corner of each film frame with a resolution of 1 second, and also outputs electrical pulses corresponding to shutter opening/closing for recording on the telemetry tape. Filters and spectral gratings are available for use with this camera. With its single available lens, it provides a field of view (az x el) of approximately 53 x 74 degrees. The cine camera is a medium-speed motion picture camera designed to operate in a range of 10 to 200 frames per second. IRIG-B timing is placed directly onto the film edge for event correlation, and an electrical pulse corresponding to shutter opening is output for recording on the telemetry tape. Filters and spectral gratings are available for use with

this camera. With available lenses it provides a field of view (az x el) of from 7 x 5 degrees to 68 x 57 degrees. The Advanced Range Instrumentation Aircraft needs technology development and advancement to support off-range flight tests of multiple simultaneous telemetry sources. The advanced weapons will continue to increase their launch ranges and payload complexity and to increase their test telemetry data requirements during future DT&E or OT&E flight tests. These airborne telemetry sources will have to be tracked from safe distances in spite of large hazard zones. The massive and multiple data streams from the targets will also have to be collected, retranslated, and recorded without sacrifice to the data quality. The physical size of current ARIA tracking antenna is not practical to increase because of the negative impact a larger radome would have to C-135 aircraft flying performance and qualities. The ARIA antenna is a dish design which does not lend itself to simultaneous tracking and telemetry from multiple data sources without severe penalty to data signal quality. The technology application/insertion necessary to provide low-cost high- performance telemetry-receivers must complement the ARIA antenna system. Large capacity data collection, processing and recording is necessary to complement the load created by the article's sources.

Performance Factors EC-135 EC-18B 326,000 450 470 Max Takeoff Gross Wt 300,500 (lb) Normal Cruise Speed (kt TAS) Max Cruise Speed (kt TAS) Nominal Support Speed 30kft (kt TAS) Nominal Turning Radius 30 kft, 30 deg bank (nm) Minimum Turning Radius 30 kft, 45 deg bank (nm) Nominal Turn Time, 180 deg 30 kft, 30 deg bank 430 490









(min) Minimum Turn Time, 180 deg 30 kft, 45 deg bank (min) Nominal Operating Altitude (ft MSL) Maximum Operating Altitude (ft MSL) Mission Operating Altitude (ft MSL)



30,000 33,000 5,000 to 33,000

30,000 42,000 500 to 42,000

The range capability of the ARIA is influenced by:
       


Aerial refueling capability Runway length, obstacle clearance, and noise abatement restrictions Runway elevation Runway air temperature Distance to alternate base Fuel reserve requirements Enroute wind conditions Aircraft altitude during data run

Application of the above factors to some 25 worldwide airports produces maximum ranges varying from 2,800 to 4,500 nm without aerial refueling. Two ARIA currently have the capability to take on fuel while in flight. This greatly extends the maximum attainable range.
          


Dual TACAN Dual VOR ADF radio Omega N-1 compass system* True airspeed indication system APN-59 search radar on EC-135E; RDR-1F on EC-18B APN-218 Doppler radar* Periscopic sextant Dual Inertial Navigation System (INS) Global Positioning System (GPS)

*EC-135E only

E-767 Airborne Warning and Control System
The Boeing E-767 Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) developed as a natural progression from the E-3 Sentry following the closure of Boeing's 707 production line. The E-767 combines a Boeing 767-200ER airframe with the APY-2 development of the Sentry's APY-1 radar and mission system. The first flight of the completed E-767 occurred on 9 August 1996 at Everett, Washington. To date only the Japan Air Self Defense Force (JASDF) has ordered the E767, initially purchasing two in 1992, increasing the order to four in 1994. The first production E-767 is now entering an extensive testing and certification program with the aim of delivering the first two E-767s to the JASDF in 1998. Other military variants of the 767 are now under consideration, including tanker and strategic transport aircraft to replace the aging fleet of KC-135s and B707s in world wide military service.

Boeing 737 AEW
On 21 July 1999 it was announced that the Boeing Company was selected as the preferred tenderer to supply seven B737-700 Airborne Early Warning & Control (AEW&C) platforms to the Australian Defence Force. Northrop Grumman's L-band Multi-Role Electronically Scanned Array (MESA) radar will be mounted in a dorsal arrangement atop the B737 fuselage. The Boeing 737 AEW&C System is based on the commercial 737-700 airliner, which provides modern avionics and glass cockpit, minimal crew requirements and commonality with commercial airline fleets for flexibility and support. It is fitted with a Northrop Grumman ESSD (formerly Westinghouse) Multi-role Electronically Scanned Array (MESA) radar fitted above the rear fuselage of the aircraft. This is combined with a Boeing designed Open Systems Architecture (OSA) mission system with six common console stations for the mission crew. The OSA mission system is Standards based and uses 80% Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) software. Boeing have teamed with Northrop Grumman (ESSD), Boeing Australia and British Aerospace Australia for the Boeing 737 AEW&C System.

Performance B 737-700 Aircraft:
     

Max Take-off Weight > 170,000 lb Thrust > 24,000 lb Max Speed > Mach 0.80 Max Altitude > 35,000 ft Time on Station > 8 hrs Runway Length Required < 8,000 ft

MESA Radar
    

Long Range (200 nmi) 360 degree coverage in less than 10 seconds Integrated IFF Beam Steering Interleaved multi-mode operation

EC-121 Warning Star
The Lockheed Warning Star began development as the US Navy PO-1W, an early model Constellation Airliner modified to carry experimental electronic surveillance equipment. After the PO-1W proved the concept of airborne early warning in large NATO exercises, the US Navy and Air Force ordered large numbers of a developed variant based on the Lockheed Model 1049 Super Constellation. These aircraft entered service as the Navy WV-2, with 244 ordered, and the Air Force EC121, 82 ordered of which 72 were from US Navy orders. The Warning Star entered service in 1955, with the final variants being retired from the US Air Force Reserve in 1978. The Warning Star pioneered the concept of Airborne Early Warning and Control, with units being used for fleet coverage, airborne extension of the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, support of the Apollo Space Program and other force coordination tasks. Throughout its life the Lockheed Warning Star was used to test experimental radar and electronic equipment installations, including a rotodome installation on the WX-2E (above), later redesignated the EC-121L. After evaluation by the US Navy the EC-121L was used as a prototype for evaluation of systems later installed on the E-3 Sentry. USAF EC-121s were deployed to Vietnam in 1965 to provide coordination, early warning and communications relay. A USAF EC-121 made history in October 1967, when, while operating over the Tonkin Gulf off North Vietnam, it guided a US Fighter to the successful interception of a VNAF Mig 21, the first time an airborne controller had directed a successful attack, setting the stage for many future developments in the arena of AEW&C. On July 28, 1970, two EC-121 Lockheed "Super Constellations" from the 193d Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron took off from Olmsted State Airport, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. United States forces were fighting in Vietnam, and the EC-121s were headed for Korat in the neighboring country of Thailand, 12,000 miles away, where the United States Air Force was operating from a Royal Thai Air Force base. Korat Air Base would be home for 252 Air Guardsmen for the next six months. The men were rotated as part of Operation Commando Buzz, with approximately 60 officers and airmen at a time serving tours of duty of from 30 to 90 days. In addition to the aircrews and technicians, an additional 75 officers and airmen supported Commando Buzz by flying materiel and personnel from Olmsted to Southeast Asia and back. The Pennsylvania Air Guard's EC121s were laden with electronic equipment, and their mission was to act as flying radar stations and air borne control platforms. They possessed search and identification radar, interception equipment, and a battery of communications gear. The range of the EC-121s extended over all of North Vietnam and the Gulf of Tonkin, and they were a key element in Seventh Air Force control of tactical air operations. The final group of Air Guardsmen

rotated during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays of 1970, and early in January 1971, the mission was completed. Within three days after the return of the 193d to Pennsylvania the Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Air Forces sent a message to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, commending the dedication and professionalism demonstrated by the exceptional mission performance of the 193d, which won the USAF outstanding unit award that year.

Lockheed EC-130V Hercules
The Lockheed Martin EC-130V Hercules AEW&C aircraft was first developed for the United States Coast Guard as a proof of concept aircraft in 1992 by the General Dynamics company. As with the P-3 AEW, the EC-130V combined a C-130H airframe with the APS-125 Radar and Mission System of the US Navy Hawkeye. This aircraft was for counter-narcotics missions requiring greater endurance than the E-2 could provide, but has also been evaluated for Search and Rescue, Fisheries Patrols, EEZ enforcement and as a support aircraft for NASA Space Shuttle launches. Externally the EC-130 differs from a standard Coast Guard C-130 with the fitting of a large rotodome housing the APS125 radar. Internally the mission system is palletized and was rolled into the C-130 cargo bay to complete the conversion (right). Due to budget cuts the Coast Guard, the EC-130V program was terminated and the EC-130V was transferred to the USAF as the NC-130H for further development including upgrading to the latest APS-145 Radar. Lockheed Martin and the USAF have taken the concept further and are now considering a version based on the latest C-130J Hercules II for Foreign Military Sales. The C-130J-30 AEW&C is based on the stretched variant of the Lockheed C-130J Hercules II, which features a new engine and propeller combination and digital flight station for two pilots. The C-130J-30 AEW&C is fitted with the AN/APS-145 on pylons above the rear fuselage of the aircraft. A tactical command centre and crew rest module is fitted into the cargo compartment to contain seven operator consoles and the Northrop Grumman (ESID) Group II+ mission system derived from the E-2C Hawkeye. Lockheed Martin have teamed with Northrop Grumman (ESID) and Transfield Defence Systems of Australia for the C-130J AEW&C.

Performance C130J-30 Aircraft:
   

Max Take-off Weight - 155,000 lb Operating Altitude - 29,000 ft Time on Station - 11.5 hrs Runway Length Required - 2,800 ft

AN/APS-145 Radar
   

Coverage of a 6 million cubic mile cylinder from sea level to 100,000 ft. 360 degree coverage in 10 seconds IFF Continuous detection and tracking of air and surface targets

EC-130E ABCCC EC-130E Rivet Rider / Commando Solo EC-130H Rivet Fire / Compass Call
The EC-130E ABCCC consists of seven aircraft that are used as an Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center. The EC-130E is a modified C-130 "Hercules"; aircraft designed to carry the USC-48 Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center Capsules (ABCCC III). These one-of-a kind aircraft include the addition of external antennae to accommodate the vast number of radios in the capsule, heat exchanger pods for additional air conditioning, an aerial refueling system and special mounted rails for uploading and downloading the USC-48 capsule. The ABCCC has distinctive air conditioner intakes fore of the engines ("Mickey Mouse ears"), two HF radio probes-towards the tips of both wings, and three mushroom-shaped antennas on the top of the aircraft - and, of course, numerous antennas on the belly. As an Air Combat Command asset, ABCCC (A-B-Triple-C) is an integral part of the Tactical Air Control System. While functioning as a direct extension of ground-based command and control authorities, the primary mission is providing flexibility in the overall control of tactical air resources. In addition, to maintain positive control of air operations, ABCCC can provide communications to higher headquarters, including national command authorities, in both peace and wartime environments. The USC-48 ABCCC III capsule, which fits into the aircraft cargo compartment, measures 40 feet long, weighs approximately 20,000 pounds and costs $9 million each. The ABCCC provides unified and theater commanders an Airborne Battlefield Command and Control Center (ABCCC), with the capability for combat operations during war, contingencies, exercises, and special classified missions. A highly trained force of mission ready crew members and specially equipped EC-130E aircraft to support worldwide combat operations. Mission roles include airborne extensions of the Air Operations Center (AOC) and Airborne Air Support Operations Center (ASOC) for command and control of Offensive Air Support (OAS) operations; and airborne on-scene command for special operations such as airdrops or evacuations. The ABCCC system is a high-tech automated airborne command and control facility featuring computer generated color displays, digitally controlled communications, and rapid data retrieval. The platform's 23 fully securable radios, secure teletype, and 15 automatic fully computerized consoles, allow the battlestaff to quickly analyze current combat situations and direct offensive air support towards fast-developing targets. ABCCC, is equipped with its most recent upgrade the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System, allows real-time accountability of airborne tracks to capsule displays through data links with AWACS E-3 "Sentry" aircraft.

EC-130E Commando Solo / Rivet Rider
The EC-130E Commando Solo (initially known as Volant Solo) is available to commanders for localized targeting of specific avenues of communication. The EC-130E exists in Comfy Levi and Rivet Rider versions. Senior Hunter aircraft flying the SENIOR SCOUT mission support Commando Solo aircraft. This weapon system is the mainstay information operations aircraft for peacekeeping and peacemaking operations and humanitarian efforts which comprise a large percentage of today's military missions. Commando Solo conducts psychological operations and civil affairs broadcast missions in the standard AM, FM, HF, TV, and military communications bands. Missions are flown at the maximum altitudes possible to ensure optimum propagation patterns. The EC-130 flies either day or night scenarios with equal success, and is air refuelable. A typical mission consists of a single-ship orbit which is offset from the desired target audience. The targets may be either military or civilian personnel. Secondary missions include command and control communications countermeasures (C3CM) and limited intelligence gathering. With the capability to control the electronic spectrum of radio, television, and military communication bands in a focused area, the Commando Solo aircraft can prepare the battlefield through psychological operations and civil affairs broadcasts. These modified C-130Es provide broadcasting capabilities primarily for psychological operations missions; support disaster relief operations; and perform communications jamming in military spectrum and intelligence gathering. One oversized blade antenna is under each wing with a third extending forward from the vertical fin. A retractable wire antenna is released from the modified beavertail, with a second extending from the belly and held vertical by a 500 pound weight. Capabilities include:

Reception, analysis, and transmission of various electronic signals to exploit electromagnetic spectrum for maximum battlefield advantage  Secondary capabilities include jamming, deception, and manipulation techniques  Unrefueled range 2800 NM  Broadcasts in frequency spectrums including AM/FM radio, short-wave, television, and military command, control and communications channels Rivet Rider modification includes:
     

VHF and UHF Worldwide format color TV Infrared countermeasures [chaff/flare dispensers plus infrared jammers] Vertical trailing wire antenna Fire suppressant foam in fuel tank Radar warning receiver Self-contained navigation system

The modification added a pair of underwing pylon mounted 23X6 foot equipment pods, along with X-antennae mounted on both sides of the vertical fin. Six aircraft have been modified to the Rivet Rider configuration by the contractor, Lockheed Martin; Ontario, California. Commando Solo and Senior Scout operations may be long or short range missions with extended orbit delays planned at the aircraft operating ceiling, and may require one or multiple air refuelings. Some missions may require a combat profile, with a low altitude profile enroute to the mission orbit area. The electronic environment may be hostile, with enemy ability to jam all communications radios and electronic transmission systems; to intercept and use intelligence information transmitted over nonsecure electronic systems and radios; and to pinpoint the position of the aircraft emitting any electronic transmission or signal. Commando Solo supported the operation JOINT GUARD mission by shutting down antiSFOR propaganda through radio and TV broadcasts over Bosnia-Herzegovina in support of SFOR operations.

EC-130H Compass Call / Rivet Fire
Compass Call is the designation for a modified version of Lockheed corporation's C-130 Hercules aircraft configured to perform tactical command, control and communications countermeasures or C3CM. Targeting command and control systems provides commanders with an immense advantage before and during the air campaign. COMPASS CALL provides a non-lethal means of denying and disrupting enemy command and control, degrading his combat capability and reducing losses to friendly forces. The EC-130H Compass Call is the only US wide-area offensive information warfare platform, Compass Call provides disruptive communications jamming and other unique capabilities to support the Joint Force Commander across the spectrum of conflict. Specifically, the modified aircraft uses noise jamming to prevent communication or

degrade the transfer of information essential to command and control of weapon systems and other resources. It primarily supports tactical air operations but also can provide jamming support to ground force operations. Modifications to the aircraft include an electronic countermeasures system (Rivet Fire), and air refueling capability and associated navigation and communications systems. The upgrade of the fleet to Block 30 is underway to improve system reliability and currency, however a two year funding gap exists between first squadron completion and second squadron start. This gap and other funding reductions have forced the SPO to stretch out Blk 30 completion to FY04, causing both fiscal inefficiencies and issues of technical obsolescence. Although some funding has been cut, limiting COMPASS CALL response to new threat systems, with the software reprogrammability of the new Block 30 aircraft, analysis and development of countermeasures to threats can be further leveraged by being more timely and effective. The Block 35 initiative will inject new technology required to improve reliability and increase COMPASS CALL's Offensive Counterinformation (OCI) capability against modern C2 systems. Major advantages are an update of receiver subsystem to satisfy current operational shortfalls and address immediate supportability problems. Procurement funding will subsequently modify/convert seven Block 30 COMPASS CALL aircraft to Block 40. During Operation Desert Storm EC-130H Compass Call electronic warfare aircraft, operating outside Iraqi airspace, safe from Iraqi defenses, jammed communications, hindering the effectiveness of Iraq's integrated air defense network. Rivet Fire has demonstrated its powerful effect on enemy command and control networks in Panama and Iraq. Compass Call integrates into tactical air operation at any level. Although Compass Call primarily supports interdiction and offensive counter-air campaigns, the truly versatile and flexible nature of the aircraft and its crew enable the power of EC-130H to be brought to bear on virtually any combat situations. The EC-130H aircraft carries a combat crew of 13 people. Four members are responsible for aircraft flight and navigation, while nine members operate and maintain the Rivet Fire equipment. The mission crew consists of an electronic warfare officer, who is the mission crew commander (MCC), and experienced cryptologic linguist is the mission crew supervisor (MCS), six analysis operators and an airborne maintenance technician (AMT). Aided by the automated system, the crew analyze the signal environment, designate targets and ensure the system is operating effectively. Targets can be designated before the mission takes off, acquired in flight or the MCC/MCS can receive additional tasking at any time from outside agencies (i.e. Airborne Warning and Control System, RC-135 and Airborne Command and Control System.) A radio frequency signal runs from the beginning of the received path through the system and is analyzed at different points along the way. In a war situation, a signal may be received and linguists on board the plane analyze it to determine if it is an enemy signal. If the system decides there is a threat, communications would be jammed by the officer on board pressing the red

buttons. On the back of the plane is microwave powered equipment which sends out high energy radio frequency output or interference. The latest technologies, referred to as the Block 30 system, update the fleet and keep the 41st Electronic Combat Squadron’s Combat Systems Flight busy ironing out the bugs. The flight’s 25 computer and electronic warfare troops perform organizational level maintenance on EC-130H weapons systems. Block 30 totally rearranges the equipment on the EC-130H and incorporates fiber optics. There are more fiber optic terminations on this plane than any other plane flying, commercial or military today. Block 30 improvements include faster and more powerful computers and integrated work stations which enable the fleet to accomplish its primary mission of denying enemy commanders the ability to command their troops in the battlefield. Unlike Block 20, which operates through a mainframe, Block 30 is broken down into different components which communicate with each other. The conversion to the Block 30 system, designed by Lockheed and several other contractors, has been a time-consuming project. Each plane requires approximately 16 months for modification at the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works plant in Palmdale. Unlike other weapons systems which are tested before they are bought, Block 30 was purchased before being tested. All new hardware and a five-fold increase in the amount of software, which includes over one million lines of computer code, have produced the usual minor bugs that always seem to appear with new technology improvements. One common problem is the failure of a built-in self test. The main hardware issue has been getting spares. The spare issue is a problem of manufacturers not making the number of parts and components needed. Budget cuts and appropriations have caused some of this. Compass Call is tasked by all the unified commands and therefore subject to worldwide deployment in support of tactical air/ground forces on very short notice. The Compass Call EC-130H is flown by the 355th Wing's 41st and 43rd Electronic Combat Squadrons, at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Ariz. The COMPASS CALL fleet is comprised of 13 aircraft (10PAA/ 2BAI/ 1 attrition reserve) in two squadrons (41ECS and 43ECS).

EC-135, Looking Glass
A mark of America's strategic excellence is its preeminent ability to command, control, and communicate with its nuclear forces. An essential element of that ability is the Airborne Command Post, also called "Looking Glass.", which was retired from service on 01 October 1998. Its highly-trained crew and staff ensured there wass always an aircraft ready to direct bombers and missiles from the air should ground-based command centers become inoperable. Looking Glass guaranteed that U.S. strategic forces would act only in the precise manner dictated by the President. The now-deactivated Strategic Air Command (SAC) began the mission on February 3, 1961. It took the nickname Looking Glass because the mission mirrored ground-based command, control, and communications. From that date, a Looking Glass aircraft was in the air at all times 24 hours a day, 365 days a year for more than 29 years. On July 24, 1990, Looking Glass ceased continuous airborne alert, but it remained on ground or airborne alert 24 hours a day. Crews accumulated more than 281,000 accident-free flying hours. The Looking Glass aircraft is an EC-135, a Boeing 707 airframe loaded with high-tech communication equipment. Its battle staff, when airborne, was under the command of a flag officer -- an Air Force general officer or a Navy admiral. General and flag officers were from the United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), United States Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC), Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), Navy's Commander, Submarine Group NINE, Pacific (COMSUBGRU NINE) and Commander, Submarine Group TEN, Atlantic (COMSUBGRU TEN). Members of the battle staff formed seven operational teams and represented all branches of the armed services. The team chief was responsible for team training, cohesiveness and direction, and is also the head of the operational staff. The communications officer was responsible for all communications systems on the aircraft and saw to it that messages from the battle staff are handled in a timely manner. The airborne launch control officer was the missile launch team leader and, along with the communications officer, operated the airborne launch control system. This system allowed Looking Glass to transmit launch codes to the intercontinental ballistic missiles in their underground silos should ground launch control centers become disabled. It qualified the aircraft as a weapon system even though Looking Glass itself cannot fire a bullet or drop a bomb. The emergency actions non-commissioned officer was charged with knowing the formats, contents and appropriate wording for emergency action messages used to execute U S. war plans. The emergency actions non-commissioned officer and the team chief formed the emergency actions team. The force status non-commissioned officers

were experts in force accounting procedures and account for and track every strategic weapon in the U.S inventory. The single integrated operations plan advisor, the second in command, headed the planning staff and advised the Looking Glass commander of the war plans available to the President of the United States. The intelligence officer briefed the entire battle staff on current intelligence matters, developed threat assessments, and identified emerging threats to the United States. The logistics officer made sure that returning bomber and tanker forces had safe recovery bases to provide medical attention, food, and rest for the crew and expeditious repairs, refueling, and reloading for the aircraft. The above battle staff personnel were part of the Combat Operations Staff under the deputy director of Operations and Logistics, USSTRATCOM. The crew and aircraft were from the 7th Airborne Command and Control Squadron, ACC, Offutt AFB, Nebraska. The crew consisted of two pilots, a navigator, an airborne refueling systems operator, and communications systems operators. After 46 years, SAC was deactivated on June 1, 1992, and USSTRATCOM was activated. Looking Glass became part of the new command. Activation of USSTRATCOM coincided with a change from a bi-polar world to a multi-polar world in the wake of a dissolving Soviet Union. It also marked a transition for Looking Glass from an Air Force operation to a joint military mission. The basic mission remained unchanged. Looking Glass provided an around-the-clock, survivable, alternate command post for the National Command Authority and the Commander in Chief of USSTRATCOM, guaranteeing the use of strategic forces during national emergencies.

Guardrail Common Sensor
The Guardrail Common Sensor [GR/CS] is a Corps Level Airborne Signal Intelligence (SIGINT) collection/locati on system that integrates the Improved GUARDRAIL V (IGR V), Communication High Accuracy Airborne Location System (CHAALS), and the Advanced QUICKLOOK (AQL) into the same SIGINT platform -- the RC-12K/N/P/Q aircraft. Key features include integrated COMINT and ELINT reporting, enhanced signal classification and recognition, fast Direction Finding (DF), precision emitter location, and an advanced integrated aircraft cockpit. Preplanned product improvements include frequency extension, computer assisted on-line sensor management, upgraded data links and the capability to exploit a wider range of signals. GR/CS provides near real-time SIGINT and targeting information to Tactical Commanders throughout the corps area with emphasis on Deep Battle and Follow-on Forces Attack support. It collects selected low, mid, and high band radio signals, identifies/classifies them, determines locations of their sources, and provides near-realtime reporting to tactical commanders. The system uses an integrated processing facility (IPF) which is the control, data processing, and message center for the overall system. Each system consists nominally of twelve aircraft which normally fly operational missions in sets of three. Up to three airborne relay facilities (ARF)/aircraft intercept communications, noncommunications emitter transmissions, and gather LOB and TDOA data. They then transmit this data to the IPF. The ARF/aircraft also serve as the relay platforms for communications between the IPF and the supported commands. The typical system configuration uses one Integrated Processing Facility (IPF), two or three Airborne Relay Facilities (ARFs), approximately nine (up to a maximum of 32) Commanders Tactical Terminals (CTTs), and an Auxiliary Ground Equipment (AGE) van. Special Purpose Equipment (STE) vans are included for maintenance and troubleshooting.

This system incorporates the Communication High Accuracy Airborne Location System (CHAALS) to achieve target locations for its COMINT system, and CHALS-X, which is a continuation of the project which developed the CHAALS precision location subsystem currently in GR/CS systems 4 and 1. The CHALS-X system provides the targeting capability required to support the Division Commander's requirements to locate and kill the enemy by providing for precise location of High Value Targets (HVTs). Airborne systems mixed with ground based systems will be capable of precisely locating enemy weapon systems and units (regardless of whether the enemy uses conventional or modern radios) producing target locations sufficiently accurate for first round fire for effect by organic artillery. It utilizes the previously developed Time-Difference-OfArrival/Differential Doppler (TDOA/DD) techniques and incorporates advances in electronics state of the art and distributed processing to provide for improved capabilities; increases frequency range, adds frequency hopping radios to the target set, and decreases size/weight/power requirements of processing subsystems (3 racks of computer equipment now reduced to two boxes which fit into a standard 19 inch rack). GR/CS Targeting accuracy is also provided by the ELINT system. Ground to ground (including CTT) communications links also provide an interface with fixed locations and tactical users. Automated addressing to CTT field terminals provides automated message distribution to tactical commanders in near real time. Planned improvements include expanded COMINT/ELINT collection, LPI capability, embedded training, CTT(3 channel) retrofit, and automated reporting. The Radio Remote Receiving Set (AN/ARW-83) is commonly referred to as the Airborne Relay Facility (ARF). The ARF consists of equipment installed in a modified Beechcraft Super King Air aircraft with a military designation of RC-12. The ARFs are manned only by the pilots during a mission. ARF mission equipment is remotely controlled by operators in the Integrated Processing Facility (IPF). The Guardrail systems currently in service include the Guardrail V (RU-21H aircraft), the Guardrail Common Sensor Minus (RC-12H aircraft), and the Guardrail Common Sensor (RC-12K/N/P aircraft). Guardrail Common Sensor (GRCS) combines the Improved Guardrail V (IGRV) Communication Intelligence (COMINT) sensor package with the Advanced Quicklook electronics signals (ELINT) intercept, classification, and direction-finding capability, and a Communication High Accuracy Airborne Location System (CHAALS). GRCS shares technology with the Ground-Based Common Sensor, Airborne Reconnaissance Low, and other airborne systems. GRCS comprises a series of special purpose detecting systems - AN/USD 9B thru E. The GRCS systems are tactical, remotely controlled, airborne mission equipment, and ground-based intercept and emitter location systems. They have an external near realtime reporting capability that can be operated in six modes (local, isolated, remote, interoperable, training, or maintenance/calibration). These systems are assigned to a B company, military intelligence battalion, aerial exploitation, as part of a corps military intelligence brigade.

The GRCS System 1, AN/USD-9C, and System 2, AN-USD-9E, are the latest addition to this family. They have the additional capability to operate worldwide via the GRCS Tethered Medium Earth Terminal (TMET) and the Direct Air to Satellite Relay (DASR) Aircraft (RC-12Q). Other major system improvements are:
   

The new UNIX-based work stations. Faster (Micro 5) mainframe computers. The fiber-optics distributed data interface (FDDI) local area network (LAN). The GRCS Data Distribution System (DDS), elementary special signals processing.  The GRCS Integrated Processing Facility (IPF) rapid deployment capability (two vans minimum vice four).  The entire system (less aircraft) will be C-130 transportable. Information is processed and reported to joint consumers via TRIXS broadcast primarily over the Joint Tactical Terminal (JTT) which is a subsystem of the GRCS DDS. A typical mission requires the aircraft to orbit to the rear and parallel to the forward line of own troops (FLOT). The IPF sends commands to and receives information from the Airborne Relay Facility (ARF) through a secure data link. The operators in the IPF process the collected information and report the intelligence to the tactical commanders and other possible joint consumers via the JTT relay on board the aircraft. LIN / MODEL / Nomenclature Number of Operator Positions MOS Z04118 -- AN/ARW-83 (V) 5-- Improved GUARDRAIL, AN/USD-9A Van #1: 11 98C, 98D, 98G Van #2: 2 98C, 98G Van #3: Van #4: 4 10 98C, 98G 98C, 98D, 98G

Z04300--AN/ARW-83 (V) 7--GUARDRAIL Common Sensor, Sys 1-- AN/USD-9C Van #1: 10 98C, 98G, 98J Van #2: 11 98C, 98G, 98J Van #3: 7 98C, 98G, 98J, 98K Van #4: 3 98G, 98J

Jun 84 Contract awarded for GR/CS Systems 3 and 4. Dec 88 GR/CS (minus) System 3 fielded to Korea.

Jun 89 AC-12K Production award (System 1). Aug/Sept 90 GR/CS Systems 1 and 2 IPF and ARF Production contracts awarded. Aug 91 GR/CS System 4 fielded to USAREUR. Apr 94 GR/CS FY94-99 Program and Acquisition Plan approved by HQDA. Aug 94 GR/CS System 1 Fielded to FORSCOM. REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT: ROC, 1 Oct 84, updated Nov 85 and revised in Apr 92. TYPE CLASSIFICATION: GR/CS System #1 type classified LP. EVENT SCHEDULE FISCAL YEAR 96 97 98 99 00 01 QTR 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
--------- --------- --------- --1 ----

RU-21H 12K/N/P Mission weight/payload: 16,000/2,000 lb Cruise speed: Endurance: Max range: naut mi 10,200/1,126 lb 176 kt 4 hr 1,000 naut mi

RC-12D/H 14,200/1,600 lb 200 kt 5(+) hr 1,200 naut mi


250 kt 5(+) hr 1,200

GUARDRAIL I RU-21 [1971]



GUARDRAIL V RU-21 [1978]

GUARDRAIL V RU-21 [1978]









Auxiliary Ground Equipment (AGE) Van Flightline Test Set AN/ARM-163(V) SYSTEM SUMMARY


Components: CHARACTERISTICS: o ' 12 x RC-12 aircraft o ' 4 x IPF vans  ' LOS coverage 450 km from o ' 3 x IDL trackers . CTT aircraft  Sensors:  ' Mission altitude: 20,000o Advanced QUICKLOOK ELINT 30,000 ft collection & DF  ' Endurance: 5.5 hrs o COMINT coll & DF  ' Data link range: 150 mi LOS  Comms High Accuracy  Targets:  Airborne Location System o ' Communications  Flexibility: emitters o ' Remote relay capabilityC o ' Jammers o ' Scaleable system for rapid o ' Noncomms emitters deployment o ' Aircraft is self deployable


PRIME CONTRACTOR: ESL (Sunnyvale, CA) Beech Aircraft (Wichita, KS)

SUBCONTRACTORS: ESL; Sunnyvale, CA Beech Aircraft; Wichita, KS ESCO; St. Louis, MO IBM; Owego, NY UNISYS; Salt Lake City, UT

One GR/CS system is authorized per Aerial Exploitation Battalion (AEB) in the MI Brigade at each Corps. Guardrail provided collection coverage along the inter-German border from 1972 through 1990, in Korea from 1974 to the present, and in Central America from 1983 through 1994. Two systems deployed to Southwest Asia during Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM. GRCS (Minus) was fielded to Korea in 1988. The first GRCS system was fielded to Europe in 1991, and the second was fielded to XVIII Corps in 1994 with a remote relay capability that allowed forward deployment of aircraft while the ground processing facility remains in CONUS. As of May 1996, one system remained in Korea, one system was in Europe supporting Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR, the XVIII Airborne Corps system had deployed in support of the combined exercise Atlantic Resolve, and the fourth and final GRCS system is in the Engineering and Manufacturing Development phase in California to be fielded in FY97.

Related Programs
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Integrated Processing Facility for the Guard Rail V aircraft Commanders Tactical Terminals (CTTs) Tactical Reconnaissance Exchange System Relay [TRIXS]

Rivet Joint
The USAF RC-135V/W RIVET JOINT surveillance aircraft are equipped with an extensive array of sophisticated intelligence gathering equipment enabling military specialists to monitor the electronic activity of adversaries. Also known as "RJ", the aircraft are sometimes called "hogs" due to the extended "hog nose" and "hog cheeks". RIVET JOINT has been widely used in the 1990's -- during Desert Storm, the occupation of Haiti, and most recently over Bosnia. Using automated and manual equipment, electronic and intelligence specialists can precisely locate, record and analyse much of what is being done in the electromagnetic spectrum. The fleet of 14 RIVET JOINT aircraft increased to 15 in late 1999 with the addition of a converted C-135B. The jet's conversion cost about $90 million. Basic roles include:

providing indications about the location and intentions of enemyforces and warnings of threatening activity  broadcasting a variety of direct voice communications. Of highest priority are combat advisory broadcasts and imminent threat warnings that can be sent direct to aircraft in danger  operating both data and voice links to provide target info to US ground based air defenses The RIVET JOINT aircraft are capable of conducting ELINT and COMINT intercept operations against targets at ranges of up to 240 kilometers [in contrast to the 280 kilometer intercept range of the higher-flying U-2]. The RIVET JOINT aircraft operated by the 55th Wing, Offutt Air Force Base, Neb., provide direct, near real-time reconnaissance information and electronic warfare support to theater commanders and combat forces. In support of the 55th, the 95th Reconnaissance Squadron operates out of Mildenhall and provides pilots and navigators to fly the aircraft. The 488th Intelligence Squadron provides the intelligence personnel who work in the back of the plane. Since the beginning of Operation Joint Endeavor December 21, 1995 through May 1996 the 95th and 488th flew 625 hours and 72 sorties together in support of the peacekeeping operation in Bosnia-Herzegovina. RIVET JOINT (RC-135V/W) is an air refuelable theater asset with a nationally tasked priority. It collects, analyzes, reports, and exploits enemy BM/C4I. During most contingencies, it deploys to the theater of operations with the airborne elements of TACS

(AWACS, ABCCC, Joint STARS, etc.) and is connected to the aircraft via datalinks and voice as required. The aircraft has secure UHF, VHF, HF, and SATCOM communications. Refined intelligence data can be transferred from Rivet Joint to AWACS through the Tactical Digital Information Link TADIL/A or into intelligence channels via satellite and the TACTICAL INFORMATION BROADCAST SERVICE (TIBS), which is a nearly real-time theater information broadcast.

The Tactical Common Data Link (TCDL) is developing a family of CDL-compatible, low-cost, light weight, digital data links for initial application to unmanned aerial vehicles. Normally the data returns with the collecting aircraft to be downloaded and processed at base. A long-standing need remains to provide the theater CINC and/or the National Command Authority (NCA) with the ELINT environment in real-time. In the future TCDL design is expected to be extended to additional manned and unmanned applications, including RIVET JOINT. The TCDL will operate in Ku band and will be interoperable with the existing CDL at the 200 Kbps forward link and 10.71 Mbps return link data rates and is expected to interface to the Tactical Control System (TCS). On February 12, 1997 Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, was selected by the Joint Airborne Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Program Office for development and demonstration of the Joint SIGINT Avionics Family (JSAF) Low Band Subsystem (LBSS). Major subcontractors include: Radix Technologies, Inc. of Mountain View, Calif.; Applied Signal Technologies (APSG) of Sunnyvale, Calif.; and TRW System Integration Group, also of Sunnyvale. Radix will provide radio frequency (RF) and digital signal processing subsystems; APSG will develop special signal processing subsystems; and TRW will be responsible for high speed networking and computing subsystems. The JSAF low band subsystem is a platform-independent, modular, reconfigurable suite of hardware and software that can address multiple mission scenarios aboard a variety of aircraft. It will significantly enhance the ability of reconnaissance platforms to detect and locate modern enemy communications systems and provide real time intelligence on enemy intentions and capabilities to the warfighter. Initially, JSAF LBSS will be deployed on U.S. Air Force RC-135 Rivet Joint aircraft and other special Air Force platforms as well as the U.S. Army's RC-7 (Airborne Reconnaissance Low) and the U.S. Navy's EP-3 aircraft. JSAF LBSS will also be capable of deployment on unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) in the future. JSAF collection systems intercept, exploit, and report on modern modulation and low probability of detection communications and radar signals. It permits the collection of signals in the presence of co-channel interfering signals, and provides interoperability between primary DOD airborne collection platforms, establishing the infrastructure to support near-real-time exchange of information for rapid signal geolocation and targeting. Provide compliance with DOD directed Joint Airborne SIGINT Architecture (JASA). Current aircraft architecture and collection system have insufficient capability to intercept modern modulation and low probability of detection communications and radar signals. System requires improvements to accurately measure signal polarization and angle of arrival to the required accuracy, and to process signals in the presence of co-channel interfering

signals. DOD airborne collection platforms do not operate under a common architecture and are limited in their ability to exchange data among platforms for the purpose of rapid signal triangulation for geolocation and targeting. Four aircraft undergo PDM per year. Current funding in FY01/02 only supports JSAF modification for three of the four aircraft during those years. Result will be 2 different aircraft configurations moving thorugh PDM. The impact includes dual qualified aircrews, split logistics, increased training, increased cost for "out-of-cycle" modification. The RIVET JOINT Joint Airborne SIGINT Architecture (JASA) High Band SubSystem (HBSS) Upgrade procures and installs upgrades to the RIVET JOINT’s high band antennas, RF distribution network, and software to intercept, exploit, and report on modern modulation and low probability of detection communications and radar signals. It permits the collection of signals in the presence of co-channel interfering signals, and provides interoperability between primary DOD airborne collection platforms, establishing the infrastructure to support near-real-time exchange of information for rapid signal geolocation and targeting. Provide compliance with DOD directed Joint Airborne SIGINT Architecture (JASA). The JSAF CRD (CAF 002-88 Joint CAF -USA, USN, USMC CAPSTONE Requirements Document for JOINT SIGINT AVIONICS FAMILY) requires all airborne reconnaissance aircraft to migrate to JASA compliance by 2010. Current aircraft architecture and collection system have insufficient capability to intercept modern modulation and low probability of detection communications and radar signals. System requires improvements to accurately measure signal polarization and angle of arrival to the required accuracy, and to process signals in the presence of co-channel interfering signals. DOD airborne collection platforms do not operate under a common architecture and are limited in their ability to exchange data among platforms for the purpose of rapid signal triangulation for geolocation and targeting. The RIVET JOINT SHF High Gain Steerable Beam Antenna Upgrade I will procure and install a new antenna array in the cheek to provide increased sensitivity and signal separation for selected frequency bands. It provides an increased number of steerable beams in bands that currently have steerable beams, and provides steerable beams in bands not currently steerable beam capable. Increases the number of signals that can be processed simultaneously and increases signal selectivity against co-channel signals. Increasing number of low power signals and increased signal density have decreased the ability to collect tasked targets due to co-channel signal interference. Antenna improvements permit deeper target penetration against low power emitters or increased standoff ranges. The current SHF antenna array does not provide the sensitivity or selectivity required to collect low power or co-channel signals, reducing probability of intercept. RIVET JOINT SHF High Gain Steerable Beam Antenna Upgrade II procures and installs a new antenna array in the cheek to provide increased sensitivity and signal separation in selected frequency bands. Provides an increased number of steerable beams in bands that currently have steerable beams, and provides steerable beams in bands not currently steerable beam capable. Increases the number of signals that can be processed simultaneously and increases signal selectivity against co-channel signals. Increasing

number of low power signals and increased signal density have decreased the ability to collect tasked targets. Antenna improvements permit deeper target penetration against low power emitters or increased standoff ranges. The current SHF antenna array does not provide the sensitivity or selectivity required to collect low power or co-channel signals, reducing probability of intercept. The RIVET JOINT High Frequency (HF) Direction Finding (DF) System procures and installs a ten element HF array antenna on RIVET JOINT to provide HF DF capability. Upgrades the Joint SIGINT Avionics Family (JSAF) LowBand SubSystem (LBSS) receiver to process HF DF. The current RIVET JOINT HF capability is limited to a long wire antenna. This configuration supports signal reception, but not HF DF. The aircraft is tasked to perform search, classification, collection, and DF of all militarily significant signals. This tasking includes signals in the HF band. Without HF DF, the aircraft will continue to have no DF capability in this increasingly significant frequency band. A ten element HF antenna array, and receiver upgrades are needed to perform HF DF operations. Without the installation of a ten element HF antenna array, RIVET JOINT will not be able satisfy the requirement to DF signals in the HF band. The RIVET JOINT 360º Search, Acquisition, and Direction Finding System procures and installs a circular antenna array and receiver system designed to search, acquire and DF emitters over the full. The antenna will be centerline mounted on the aircraft underside. The antenna output will be routed to a new receiver dedicated to 360º intercept. The receiver output would be routed to existing processors for exploitation. The proposed implimentation will retain the high sensitivity and geolocation accuracy of the current system while adding an additional antenna array and receiver specifically for 360º coverage. RIVET JOINT is currently unable to satisfy the long-standing requirement to search, acquire, and DF emitters through the full 360º. The current radar acquisition and DF systems have a limited field of view, restricted to 120º on each side of the aircraft. Additionally, the operator can only select one side or the other. The aircraft is often employed in orbits requiring a greater antenna field of view, often from both sides of the aircraft, or from the nose and tail. The crew currently accomplishes this tasking by alternating antenna selection from side to side, and by changing aircraft headings. These tactics provide sequential, not simultaneous looks at the target area, and pose a significant probability of missing short-up-time and low-probability-of-intercept emitters. RIVET JOINT Wideband Line-of-Sight Data Link procures, installs and integrates a wideband datalink terminal on the aircraft. Datalink would be line-of-sight capable. Datalink will be interoperable with ground-tethered assets for data exchange and exploitation. Permits airborne exploitation of UAV sensors. Provides capability for cooperative direction finding for near instantaneous target geolocation. Allows aircrews to draw on in-theater intelligence center databases and processing capability. Provides for near-real-time interaction between theater assets, increasing probability of intercepting targets, and increasing geolocation accuracy of target locations. Airborne reconnaissance platforms require a wideband datalink for interaction among platforms in order to provide high probability of signal detection, provide accurate and timely target geolocation, draw on theater atabases and processing capability to exploit robust signals, and permit

airborne access to UAV sensor data. Without this upgrade, RIVET JOINT aircraft will not be able to exchange data among in-theater reconnaissance platforms and draw on CONUS based national assets to exchange data, cooperatively geolocate targets, and exploit robust targets in near-real-time. RIVET JOINT Wideband SATCOM Data Link/Global Broadcast Service (GBS) procures, installs and integrates a wideband datalink terminal on the aircraft. Datalink would expand the capability of a wideband line-of-sight datalink to add SATCOM capable. Datalink will be interoperable with ground-tethered assets for data exchange and exploitation. Permits airborne exploitation of UAV sensors. Provides capability for cooperative direction finding for near instantaneous target geolocation. Allows aircrews to draw on in-theater intelligence center databases and processing capability, or provide for reach-back to CONUS intelligence center databases and processing capability. Provides for near-real-time interaction between theater and national assets, increasing probability of intercepting targets, and increasing geolocation accuracy of target locations. Terminal will permit receipt of Global Broadcast Service. Airborne reconnaissance platforms require a wideband datalink for interaction among platforms in order to provide high probability of signal detection, provide accurate and timely target geolocation, draw on theater and CONUS databases and processing capability to exploit robust signals, and permit airborne access to UAV sensor data. RIVET JOINT aircraft will not be able to exchange data among in-theater reconnaissance platforms and draw on CONUS based national assets to exchange data, cooperatively geolocate targets, and exploit robust targets in near-real-time. RIVET JOINT Operator Workstation Upgrade procures and installs high resolution operator displays to improve target detection and signal recognition. Wide band fiber optic base audio distribution network to all operators. Wide band, high capacity COTS audio recorders. High capacity, digital, reprogramable, wideband demodulators and processors. Current display resolution is insufficient to allow accurate signal detection and recognition of modern modulation target signals. Several current target emitters exceed the bandwith of the current audio distribution system, resulting in unintelligible audio output. Several receiver outputs are routed to specific operator positions, limiting flexibility in responding to theater driven dynamic target environments. Bandwidth and capacity of current recorders is exceeded by an emerging class of wideband modern modulation target emitters. Bandwidth and capacity of current signal demodulators is exceeded by an emerging class of wideband modern modulation target emitters. Current demodulators are not reprogramable. It is expensive and time consuming to reconfigure them to process different target emitters. RIVET JOINT Cockpit Modernization includes the RIVET JOINT in the Air Force PACER CRAG initiative to upgrade the C-135 fleet cockpit, and installs the GATM/FANS avionics required to operate in the evolving civil air structure. PACER CRAG installs new compasses, radar, multi-function displays, and global positioning system/flight management system. New fuel panel, Mode S IFF, TCAS, precision altimeters, and DAMA compliant, 8.333 KHz channel radios are included in this upgrade. The upgrade provides RIVET JOINT and RJ Trainer (TC-135) aircraft commonality with

the C-135 fleet for training, logistics, and parts. Eliminated "vanishing vendor" problems associated with diverging from the KC-135 avionics. Permits aircraft to comply with ICAO navigation and communication standards to operate in the trans-oceanic and European portions of the commercial air structure. Improves safety, reliability, and maintainability of aircraft. Aircraft will be denied access to increasing portions of civil air space without proper navigation/communications equipment. Current avionics systems will become unsupportable as KC-135 migrates to newer equipment. Commonality will be lost with the rest of the C-135 fleet. Common parts supply base will not be available. CFM-56 Re-engining completes re-engining of RC-135 aircraft with CFM-56 engines, and modifies the airframes to support re-engining. The project decreases cost of ownership and increases operational capability by installing new, fuel efficient engines. The upgrade also reduces maintenance manpower and logistics costs; the new engine is more reliable than the current engine, and the engine is common with the AMC KC-135 fleet. This project extends unrefueled range and time-on-station, and permits operations at higher altitudes, increasing airborne sensor field of view and effectiveness. Increased altitude range provides flexibility to airspace planners integrating aircraft into conjested airspace just behind the FEBA. The new engines decrease dependency on tankers for air refueling, and provide a capability to takeoff on shorter runways at increased gross weights. The project facilitates two-level maintenance concept reducing costs by 32%, and supports improved aircraft environmental system prolonging sensitive sensor life. Failure to fund re-engining to completion will leave a logistically split RC-135 fleet, equipped with two completely different engines. Increased cost of ownership due to duplicate spares at each operating location. Current TF-33 engines will become more difficult and costly to support requiring significant increases in future O&M costs (TF-33 parts no longer in production). The RC-135 fleet would lack commonality with reengined KC-135 fleet, and the GAO validated $1.7B life cycle savings (total RC-135 program) would not be realized if this project was not funded. RIVET JOINT Air Conditioning (A/C) Environmental Cooling Modifications procures and installs a vapor cycle cooling system. Includes a liquid cooling loop and heat exchangers. The system will provide in excess of 10 tons of additional cooling at all operating altitudes. Permits effective operation of collection systems added to the aircraft over the last decade. Reduces the requirements for auxiliary air conditioning during ground support operations. The heat load of the "mission equipment" has exceeded the capacity of the standard C-135 air-conditioning system. Skin heat exchangers have been installed to effect additional cooling. This system is only effective at altitudes in excess of 25,000 ft and has reached its capacity. To allow future growth in system capabilities, flexibility in operations, and crew comfort, additional capacity must be obtained. Without increased A/C capability, future growth of aircraft mission equipment, operational flexibility, and crew comfort will be curtailed. The RIVET JOINT Mission Trainer (RJMT) will provide a high fidelity ground trainer for RC-135 RIVET JOINT reconnaissance compartment personnel, using aircraft hardware and software. The trainer will be equipped with signal generators to create and display a full range of radar and communications signals to the reconnaissance crew. A complex, syncronized signal environment can be presented to the crew, permitting coordinated exploitation of these signal. The trainer will be equipped with Link-11, Link16, and TIBS datalinks to train aircrew to effectively interact with other battle

management assets. The trainer will be Distributed Interactive Simulation capable, permitting RIVET JOINT participation in large scale exercises. The RJMT will provide initial qualification, currency, and upgrade training. RJMT is required to conduct efficient and cost effective initial qualification, continuation/proficiency, and specific mission area training for RC-135 reconnaissance compartment aircrew. Current RC-135 mission training devices are limited to position mock-ups, outdated part-task trainers, PC-based procedural trainers, and audio playback workstations. These devices are supplimented with extensive airborne training flights on mission aircraft. The heavy dependence upon mission aircraft directly impacts training timeliness, continuity, and costs, and this training does not adequately simulate a challenging collection environment. RJMT will relieve the training load in the ops squadron, reduce dependence on aircraft availability for training, and facilitate decreasing the total aircrew TDY rate to 120 days per year (ACC goal). RJMT will provide an improved margin of safety during contingency operations. The only contingency training available is OJT during actual operations. The simulator will provide a safe controlled environment to practice tactics, develop new procedures, and exploit new capabilities. RJMT will allow RC-135 aircrews to interact, through Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS), with other platforms’ simulators. Through electronic exercises, the RJMT will provide aircrew exposure to multiple interoperability issues, tactics, and procedures. RC-135 operational effectiveness is significantly impacted because an integrated training device is not available for the training of crewmembers in Sensitive Reconnaissance Operations (SRO), contingency support, SIOP missions, and exercises. Ops tempo is reduced to support initial training and proficiency requirements. Air crewmember TDY will continue to exceed the stated ACC goal of 120 days per year. Capability to train entire squadrons on aircraft equipment modifications/upgrades is not available. Capability for RC-135 aircrews to electronically exercise with other platform simulators developing new tactics and procedures, performing interoperability issues will not be available. RIVET JOINT Crew Comfort Upgrade installs a modern, commercial aircraft-class latrine for crew comfort. New latrine will provide increased holding capacity and the capability to be serviced, from the ground, using current field servicing equipment. Provides a sink, with fresh running water, allowing aircrews to wash their hands. Current aircraft latrine leaks and lacks privacy requirements needed for combined male/female aircrews. Waste leakage is causing corrosion problems with aircraft structural components. The smell of the waste/disinfectant fouls the cabin air. Increased aircrew stress due to inferior latrine facility which produces waste/disinfectant odors inside the mission crew area. Leakage corrodes the aircraft structural components.

AC # 62-4125 62-4127 62-4129 Greyhound 62-4130 name ordered 1996 1996 delivered notes 1998 RC-135W [ex C-135B] 1998 RC-135W [ex C-135B] TC-135W trainer [ex C135B]

Feb 87 22 Apr 88 1996

1998 RC-135W [ex C-135B]

10 62-4131 Junk Yard Dog 13 62-4132 Anticipation 12 62-4134 The Flying W 9 62-4135 Rapture Jungle Assassin

Jun 79 09 Mar 81 RC-135W [ex RC-135M] 30 Nov RC-135W [ex RC-135M] 84 07 Jan 81 05 Sep 78 09 Jan 80 16 Aug RC-135W [ex RC-135M] 81 15 Nov 80 RC-135W [ex RC-135M] Jul 81 RC-135W [ex RC-135M] 22 Jan 85 RC-135W [ex RC-135M] 17 Oct 75 04 Aug RC-135W [ex RC-135U] 77

11 62-4138

14 62-4139 Sniper 8 7 2 3 4 5 6 1 15 63-9792 6414841 6414842 6414843 6414844 6414845 6414846 6414848 Red Eye Fair Warning Don't Bet on It Problem Child Luna Landa

01 Jan 75 19 Jan 78 RC-135V [ex RC-135C] 20 Nov 05 Jan 75 RC-135V [ex RC-135C] 73 04 Dec 73 05 Feb 75 RC-135V [ex RC-135C] 08 Jan 74 03 Mar 75 RC-135V [ex RC-135C] 01 Oct 74 21 Nov RC-135V [ex RC-135C] 75

22 Jan 74 18 Dec 75 RC-135V [ex RC-135C] 01 Dec 72 08 Aug RC-135V [ex RC-135C] 73 14 Oct 99 RC-135W [ex C-135B]

Primary Function: Contractor: Power Plant: Length: Height: Weight: Signals Intelligence Collection RC-135V - LTV RC-135W - E-Systems Four JT3D engines 152'11" (46.6 m); 42'6" (12.9 m); 171,000 pounds (77,565 Kg)-- Empty

155,000 pounds (70,307 Kg)-- Max Fuel 336,000 pounds (152,408 Kg)-- Max Gross Wingspan: Speed: Range: Unit Cost: Crew: Date Deployed: Inventory: Flight crew of 4 plus mission crew (mission crew size varies according to mission) 1996 Active force, 14 (3 more to be delivered by 1998); ANG, 0; Reserve, 0 145'9" (44.4 m); .84 Mach 11 hours -- 20 hours with air refueling

Related Programs
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Developed for the USAF as reconnaissance aircraft more than 30 years ago, SR-71s are still the world's fastest and highest-flying production aircraft. The aircraft can fly more than 2200 mph (Mach 3+ or more than three times the speed of sound) and at altitudes of over 85,000 feet. For its reconnaissance mission, the aircraft was outfitted with an advanced synthetic aperture radar system [ASARS-I], an optical bar camera and a technical objective camera wet film system. All were once part of the aircraft's original equipment. The SR-71 was designed by a team of Lockheed personnel led by Clarence "Kelly" Johnson, at that time vice president of the company's Advanced Development Projects, known as the "Skunk Works." The first version, a CIA reconnaissance aircraft that first flew in April 1962 was called the A-11. The similar A12 had a lower radar cross section. An interceptor version was developed in 1963 under the designation YF-12A. A USAF reconnaissance variant, called the SR-71, was first flown in 1964. The A-12 and SR-71 designs included leading and trailing edges made of high-temperature fiberglass-asbestos laminates which among other features contributed to their reduced radar signature. Its existence was publicly announced by President Lyndon Johnson on Feb. 29, 1964, when he announced that an A-11 had flown at sustained speeds of over 2000 mph during tests at Edwards, Calif. Development of the SR-71s from the A-11 design, as strategic reconnaissance aircraft, began in February 1963. First flight of an SR-71 was on Dec. 22, 1964. The YF-12s were experimental long-range interceptor versions of the same airframe and were first displayed publicly at Edwards on Sept. 30, 1964. The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 606936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. The NASA YF-12 research program was ambitious; the aircraft flew an average of once a week unless down for extended maintenance or modification. It made 90 flights between 16 July 1971 and 22 December 1978. The SR-71 is a delta-wing aircraft designed and built by Lockheed. They are powered by two Pratt and Whitney J-58 axial-flow turbojets with afterburners, each producing 32,500

pounds of thrust. Studies have shown that less than 20 percent of the total thrust used to fly at Mach 3 is produced by the basic engine itself. The balance of the total thrust is produced by the unique design of the engine inlet and "moveable spike" system at the front of the engine nacelles, and by the ejector nozzles at the exhaust which burn air compressed in the engine bypass system. The Blackbird weighs about 34 tons empty, and can carry another 20 tons of special JP-7 jet fuel (enough for about two hours of flight time) in its fuselage and wing tanks. In flight, the fuel is redistributed automatically to maintain the plane's center of gravity and load specifications. Because the Blackbird was designed to expand during flight, it has had a history of fuel tank leaks on the ground. The airframes are built almost entirely of titanium and titanium alloys to withstand heat generated by sustained Mach 3 flight. The aircraft's largely titanium structure is coated with a special radar-absorbing black paint that helps dissipate the intense frictional heat resulting from flight through the atmosphere at faster than three times the speed of sound. It also gives the plane its distinctive "Blackbird" nickname. Aerodynamic control surfaces consist of all-moving vertical tail surfaces above each engine nacelle, ailerons on the outer wings, and elevators on the trailing edges between the engine exhaust nozzles. Although most news reports characterize the SR-71 aircraft as `radar evading', in point of fact, however, the SR-71 was one of the largest radar targets ever detected on the FAA's long-range radars. The FAA was able to track it at ranges of several hundred miles. The explanation offered was that the radars were detecting the exhaust plume. The SR-71A accommodates two crew members in tandem cockpits. The pilot flies the aircraft from the forward cockpit, while a systems operator monitors sensors and experiments in the rear station. For high-speed, high altitude missions, both crew members must wear full-pressure suites that resemble those worn by the early astronauts. Congress appropriated $100 million in the fiscal year 1995 defense budget to reactivate two A-model jets and one B-model pilot trainer aircraft. The Air Force program office for the reactivation of the Blackbirds is at Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. They are operated by Air Combat Command The move to reactivate the SR-71 Blackbird reconnaissance aircraft was not unopposed. Critics looked at the SR-71 's limitations--it can effectively operate only in good weather and cannot transmit the images it collects directly to those who need them--and concluded that the aircraft should be retired.

Primary Function: Contractor: Power Plant: Strategic Reconnaissance Lockheed-Martin Skunkworks 2 Pratt and Whitney J-58 axial-flow turbojets with afterburners

each produces 32,500 pounds of thrust Length: Height: Weight: Wingspan: Speed: Range: Altitude: Unit Cost: Crew 2
A-12 M-21 YF-12 SR-71A SR-71B SR-71C Built 13 2 3 29 2 1 Lost 5 1 2 11 1 0

107.4 feet (32.73 m) l8.5 feet (5.63 m) 140,000 pounds (52,250 kg) Gross takeoff weight 80,000 pounds (30,000 kg) JP-7 fuel weight 55.6 feet (16.94 m) over Mach 3.2 / 2,000 mph (3,200 kph) over 2000 miles (3200 km) unrefueled over 85,000 feet (26,000 m)


Tail # 60-6924 60-6925 60-6926 60-6927 60-6928 60-6929 60-6930 60-6931 60-6932 60-6933 60-6934 60-6935 60-6936 60-6937 MODEL A-12 A-12 A-12 A-12 A-12 A-12 A-12 A-12 A-12 A-12 YF-12A YF-12A YF-12A A-12 Disposition Blackbird Airpark, Palmdale, CA (AFFTC Museum) Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum, NY crashed 24 May 1963, CIA pilot ejected safely Museum of Science/Industry, LA (Stored at Skunk Works) crashed 05 January 1967, CIA pilot killed crashed 28 December 1967, pilot ejected safely Alabama Space and Rocket Center, Huntsville Minnesota ANG Museum, St Paul, MN crashed 5 June 1968, CIA pilot killed San Diego Aerospace Museum destroyed on landing 14 August 1966 USAF Museum, Dayton, OH crashed 24 June 1971, crew ejected safely Storage, Plant 42 (Skunk Works)

60-6938 60-6939 60-6940 60-6941 61-7971

A-12 A-12 A-12 M-12 SR-71A

USS Alabama Battleship Memorial Park, Mobile, AL destroyed on landing 9 July 1964, crew ejected safely Museum of Flight, Seattle crashed 30 July 1966 , pilot survived, LCO killed Evergreen Aviation Museum, Oregon destroyed on takeoff 11 April 1969, crew ejected safely Pima Air Museum, Tucson, AZ (NASA YF-12C 937) crashed 25 January 1966, pilot survived, RSO killed crashed 18 December 1969, crew ejected safely destroyed on takeoff 11 April 1969, crew ejected safely AFFTC Museum, Edwards AFB, CA Air Zoo, Kalamazoo, MI crashed 11 January 1968, crew ejected safely Robbins AFB Museum, GA Air Force Armament Museum, Eglin AFB, FL Castle Air Museum, Merced, CA Kansas Cosmosphere & Space Center, Hutchinson, KS Reserve Fleet, Plant 42, Palmdale, CA Beale AFB Museum, CA SAC Museum, Offut AFB, NE crashed 25 October 1967, crew ejected safely crashed 13 April 1967, crew ejected safely Operational (USAF), Det 2, 9th SW, Edwards AFB, CA Virginia Aviation Museum crashed 10 May 1970, crew ejected safely crashed 17 June 1970, crew ejected safely Operational (USAF), Det 2, 9th SW, Edwards AFB, CA National Air and Space Museum, Washington D.C. Blackbird Airpark, Palmdale, CA (Det 1 ASC) crashed 21 April 1989, crew ejected safely March Field Museum, March AFB, CA

64-17950 SR-71A 64-17951 SR-71A 64-17952 SR-71A 64-17953 SR-71A 64-17954 SR-71A 64-17955 SR-71A 64-17956 SR-71B 64-17957 SR-71B 64-17958 SR-71A 64-17959 SR-71A 64-17960 SR-71A 64-17961 SR-71A 64-17962 SR-71A 64-17963 SR-71A 64-17964 SR-71A 64-17965 SR-71A 64-17966 SR-71A 64-17967 SR-71A 64-17968 SR-71A 64-17969 SR-71A 64-17970 SR-71A 64-17971 SR-71A 64-17972 SR-71A 64-17973 SR-71A 64-17974 SR-71A 64-17975 SR-71A

64-17976 SR-71A 64-17977 SR-71A 64-17978 SR-71A 64-17979 SR-71A 64-17980 SR-71A 64-17981 SR-71C

USAF Museum, Dayton, OH destroyed in takeoff accident 10 October 1968 destroyed in landing accident 20 July 1972 History & Traditions Museum, Lackland AFB, TX Operational, NASA Dryden FRC, Edwards AFB, CA Hill AFB Museum, Hill AFB, UT

SOURCES: Blackbird Survivors - Where are they? Blackbird Family Losses List

A-11 / A-12



The U-2 provides continuous day or night, high-altitude, allweather, stand-off surveillance of an area in direct support of U.S. and allied ground and air forces. It provides critical intelligence to decision makers through all phases of conflict, including peacetime indications and warnings, crises, low-intensity conflict and large-scale hostilities. When requested, the U-2 also has provided photographs to the Federal Emergency Management Agency in support of disaster relief. The U-2 is a single-seat, single-engine, high-altitude, reconnaissance aircraft. Long, wide, straight wings give the U-2 glider-like characteristics. It can carry a variety of sensors and cameras, is an extremely reliable reconnaissance aircraft, and enjoys a high mission completion rate. However, the aircraft can be a difficult aircraft to fly due to its unusual landing characteristics. Because of its high altitude mission, the pilot must wear a full pressure suit.

Early Operations
The product of a remarkable collaboration between the Central Intelligence Agency, the United States Air Force, Lockheed Corporation, and other suppliers, the U-2 collected intelligence that revolutionized American intelligence analysis of the Soviet threat. The Lockheed Skunkworks CL-282 aircraft was approved for production by the CIA, under the code-name AQUATONE, with Richard M. Bissell as the CIA program manager. President Dwight D. Eisenhower authorized Operation OVERFLIGHT -- covert reconnaissance missions over the Soviet Union -- after the Soviets flatly rejected his Open Skies plan, which would have allowed aircraft from both countries to openly overfly each other's territory. An unusual single-engine aircraft with sailplane-like wings, it was the product of a team headed by Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson at Lockheed's "Skunk Works" in Burbank, CA. The U-2 made its first flight in August 1955, with famed Lockheed test pilot Tony LeVier, at the controls, and began operational service in 1956. Members of a unit innocuously designated 2nd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron (Provisional), began to arrive at Adana Air Base in Turkey in August 1956. The extremely sensitive nature of the mission dictated the construction of a secure compound within the base, which did not yet have a perimeter fence. Detachment 10-10 under the Turkey Cover Plan arrive to support a new operation, Project TL-10. The Air Force provided the squadron commander and logistical support, while the Central Intelligence Agency provided the operations officer, pilots, and mission planners. The unit's mission, contrary to its name, had nothing to do with weather. It flew U-2 aircraft at extremely

high altitudes to gather photographic imagery and electronic signals for intelligence purposes. The main target of these flights was the Soviet Union. The American intelligence community would come to rely on this information to assess Soviet technological advances. However, the Soviet Union was not the sole objective of the operation. For instance, in September 1956, Francis Gary Powers flew over the eastern Mediterranean to determine the position of British and French warships poised to assist Israel's invasion of Egypt after Egyptian forces seized the Suez Canal. Other flights followed to gather data on military activity during crises involving Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, and Yemen. By late 1957, Adana AB (renamed Incirlik AB on 28 February 1958) had become the main U-2 operating location, having absorbed the resources of a unit in Germany. One of the tasks the unit performed involved flying over missile sites in the Soviet Union from forward operating locations at Lahore and Peshawar in Pakistan. For every mission that penetrated Soviet airspace, there was at least one surveillance flight along the border to divert Soviet air defense attention from the intruder. These diversionary flights typically departed Adana AB traveling over Van (in eastern Turkey), Iran, and the southern Caspian Sea to the Pakistan-Afghanistan border; they returned along a similar route. These periphery missions usually collected communications and electronic signals instead of photographic imagery. The U-2 operation continued at the base for several years in the utmost secrecy, until 1 May 1960. On that morning Gary Powers, then a veteran of 27 missions, took off from Peshawar destined for Bødo, Norway. He was to overfly and photograph two major intercontinental ballistic missile test sites in the Soviet Union en route, one at Sverdlovsk, the other at Plesetsk. Heavy antiaircraft missile concentrations guarded both sites. Powers took off on time, as did the diversionary flight from Incirlik, and the mission continued as planned until he reached Sverdlovsk. While on the photo run at 67,000 feet, the Soviets launched a volley of 14 SA-2 surface-to-air missiles at Powers' aircraft. Although the SA-2s could not achieve the same altitude as the U-2, the aircraft disintegrated in the shock waves caused by the exploding missiles. Soviet authorities subsequently arrested Powers after he successfully ejected from the plane, and held him on espionage charges for nearly 2 years. The Turkish, Pakistani, and Norwegian governments claimed to have no knowledge of the American U-2 overflights, and shortly afterwards all U-2s and support personnel quietly returned to the United States. On October 15, 1962, Maj. Richard S. Heyser piloted a U-2 over Cuba to obtain the first photos of Soviet offensive missile sites. Major Rudolph Anderson, Jr. was killed on a similar mission on October 27, 1962, when his U-2 was shot down.


Current models are derived from the original version that made its first flight in August 1955. On Oct. 14, 1962, it was the U-2 that photographed the Soviet military installing offensive missiles in Cuba. The U-2R, first flown in 1967, is 40 percent larger than the original U-2 designed by Kelly Johnson in the mid fifties. Current U-2R models are being reengined and will be designated as a U-2S/ST. The Air Force accepted the first U-2S in October, 1994. The last R model trainer will be converted to an S model trainer in 1999. A tactical reconnaissance version, the TR-1A, first flew in August 1981 and was delivered to the Air Force the next month. Designed for stand-off tactical reconnaissance in Europe, the TR-1 was structurally identical to the U-2R. Operational TR-1A's were used by the 17th Reconnaissance Wing, Royal Air Force Station Alconbury, England, starting in February 1983. The last U-2 and TR-1 aircraft were delivered to the Air Force in October 1989. In 1992 all TR-1s and U-2s were redesignated U-2R. U-2s are based at Beale Air Force Base, Calif. and support national and tactical requirements from four operational detachments located throughout the world. U-2R/U2S crew members are trained at Beale using three U-2ST aircraft.

The U-2's modular payload design allows the aircraft to be reconfigured to perform various missions which include; mapping studies, atmospheric sampling, and collection of crop and land management photographic data for the Department of Energy. The U-2 is capable of collecting multi-sensor photo, electro-optic, infrared and radar imagery, as well as performing other types of reconnaissance functions. An Air Force initiative following Desert Storm demonstrated the ability to locate relocatable targets from the U2 all weather reconnaissance platform and transfer the data to a precision weapon platform within minutes enabling accurate targeting among multiple items. The HR-329 (H-cam) uses a high resolution, gyro- stabilized framing system with a 66inch focal length and folded optical path. Traditionally, the H-cam operates at an angle to provide greater coverage. During Desert Storm, planners experimented with the camera aimed straight down. The detail and clarity impressed planners and amazed theater commanders. Commanders were disappointed, however. that the system could not cover a greater range and still maintain the same detail and clarity. Although the H-cam imagery is especially useful for targeting, battle damage and order-of-battle assessment, targets must be preselected and the technicians must process the film after the aircraft lands.6.

The Intelligence Reconnaissance Imagery System III (IRIS-III) is an optical imagery system that uses a high resolution, panoramic camera with a 24-inch focal length. Employing a folded optical path system mounted on a rotating optical bar assembly, the IRIS-III laterally scans through 140 degrees of the total viewing area. This camera covers a 32-nautical-mile swath on both sides of the aircraft. The IRIS-III provides wider "synoptic" coverage than the H-cam, but it does not have the resolution or NIIRS quality. Other sensors include: SENIOR YEAR Electro-optical Reconnaissance Systems (SYERS) with SENIOR BLADE Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar System (ASARS) with Tactical Radar Correlator (TRAC) SENIOR GLASS SENIOR RUBY SENIOR SPEAR

U-2 Sensor Capabilities
Sensor SYERS ASARS Type electro-optical imaging radar Range 120 km 180 km


The Air Force plans to keep the U-2 in service through the year 2020. The U-2A was initially currently powered by the 11,200-lb (5,080-kg) static thrust J57-P-37A engine, which was soon replaced by the U-2B's Pratt and Whitney J-75-13B engine, the engine that powered the F-105. The J75, due to its age, was becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to maintain and operate. Additionally, increased sensor weight and the J75's high fuel consumption made it difficult to meet 24-hour coverage requirments in wartime taskings. The aircraft has been upgraded with a lighter, more powerful and more fuel-efficient engine (the General Electric F-118-101). The entire fleet was reengined by 1998. The new engine is cheaper to maintain making the U-2 a more cost effective and responsive reconnaissance platform.

Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition Druyun has directed that a new Defensive System for the U-2 by acquired using the new "Lighting Bolt" acquisition reform initiatives. The Acquisition decision Memorandum (ADM) directed that an ORD be ready for CSAF signature by 31 Dec 95, however, this was unrealistic. AFMC/CC has been designated as the Defense Acquisition Executive. The ADM also directed a preferred systems concept (PSC) be determined. DRF has requested ASC/RA to conduct a study to determine a PSC. The program consists of a reprogramable Radar Warning Receiver and Jammer capable of detecting and defeating modern threats, cockpit modifications to improve pilot situational awareness, and airframe Infra-Red (I/R) signature reduction. These modifications will greatly increase U-2 survivability, reduce dependence on HVAA and SEAD protection, and greatly increase a CINC's flexibility in employing the U-2. As of 1996 the "special" [aka SIGINT] sensors had not been upgraded since 1991 and were in several different configurations. The multi-sensor role of the aircraft was limited because the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar System (ASARS) and Senior Year Electro-optical Reconnaissance Systems (SYERS) sensors could not operate simultaneously. And because of older technologies and implementations, geolocation for precision strike targeting was insufficient for required operations. Thus in 1996 the House Intelligence Committee directed a budget increase of $57 million for critical U-2 sensor upgrades. Of this amount, $10 million was for improving and downsizing the SYERS sensor such that SYERS and ASARS can be flown simultaneously, and to improve geolocational accuracies by adding a Global Positioning System that will superimpose geo-coordinates directly on collected images. The Committee directed that up to $7 million be used for the ASARS Improvement Program (AIP) to ensure this upgrade can be fielded by fiscal year 1998. The remainder of the funding was applied to SENIOR RUBY, SENIOR SPEAR, and SENIOR GLASS commonality upgrades. The Committee directed the Air Force to upgrade the SPEAR/RUBY sensors to the GLASS configuration, and upgrade the SENIOR GLASS systems to an open architecture configuration consistent with an architectural approach approved by the Defense Cryptologic Program manager. The SENIOR YEAR Defensive System upgrades the U-2 aircraft to survive against current and expected threats and effectively meet growing intelligence requirements of the National Command Authority and warfighting CINCs. The initiative improves threat warning, RF countermeasures, and situation awareness capabilities. Provides group A wiring for all PAI U-2s plus 20 defensive systems with spares. Additionally all aircraft will receive I/R signature reduction and cockpit modifications. Growth provisions for IR warning and countermeasures are currently planned. Upgrades the ‘BANDAID’ defensive capability procured for the U-2 as a result of DESERT STORM operations. The U-2 operates in hostile territory within the engagement envelope of long range SAM and airborne interceptor threats. Currently the platform relies on limited on-board situational awareness, political factors, and the inherent protection of high altitude as its only means of defense. The changing technological and international political environments require the pilot to have greater situational awareness and a modern

defensive system to continue to operate and survive. Without survivability upgrades, the U-2 must rely on limited CAP and SEAD air assets for protection or maintain stand-off orbits which significantly reduce its ability to collect intelligence information on critical targets. This initiative is migratable to the Tier 2+ Global Hawk UAV. In a response to Joint Staff request for command input on use of U-2 as a penetrator, all CINCs queried stated they intend to employ the U-2 as a penetrating reconnaissance aircraft in future conflicts and unanimously support the fielding of an advanced defensive system capability for the U-2. The Power Distribution Backbone initiative installs a power distribution backbone which makes the increased electrical capacity available to the sensor payload. The U-2 reengining effort provided increased electrical capacity from 22 KVA to 36 KVA. The power distribution was initially part of the ‘SENIOR SMART’ program which was canceled in 1995. Advanced sensors currently in development require increased power to provide on-board processing and utilize additional capabilities. Failure to upgrade the power distribution will result in inability to conduct some simultaneous sensor operations and to fully utilize sensor capability. A related issue is rewiring and electro-magnetic interference improvements (U2007) to reduce the platform electrical emissions ‘noise’ floor and permit advanced sensors to receive and process intelligence signals to their full capability. Further savings can be realized by doing mod during PDM together with rewire and JPTS/JP-8 mods. Rewire and Electro-Magnetic Interference Reduction efforts are intended to remove legacy wiring and cabling throughout the aircraft and replaces it with shielded, grounded, low emission copper and fiber optic wiring. Will take advantage of modern wiring technology to reduce weight and inherent electro-magnetic interference with on board systems. Block upgrade includes single piece windscreen and windscreen de-icer mod. As the U-2 avionics and sensor suites evolved, wiring was added to existing cables and harnesses until it became too expensive to identify and remove old wiring before new wiring was added. As a result, platform integrators have run out of space and weight to introduce wiring for new components. In addition, many of the old systems were grounded to the airframe. This initiative is required to lower the platform electrical emissions ‘noise’ floor and permit advanced sensors to receive and process new and developing high interest intelligence signals to the necessary degree. Windscreen changes greatly improve pilot visibility and maintenance access to the cockpit, reduce weight, and conserve power. Conversion from JPTS to JP-8+100 converts aircraft fuel seals and adds fuel warmers and circulators to current fuel system to allow use of high-test JP-8 fuel rather than thermally stable fuel (JPTS) currently used. This initiative reduces fuel cost to nearly 1/2 of what is currently paid for JPTS. Reduces some special fuel storage and handling requirements at operating locations. Retrofitted aircraft are backwards compatible with JPTS. Further savings can be realized by doing mod during PDM together with rewire and power distribution mods. The Full Motion Simulator provides a full motion simulator to allow realistic training in flight conditions that are impractical or hazardous to practice. Loss of 15% of the U-2

fleet in the last 5 years signaled the need for safety improvements to compensate for a less experienced pilot force. Many flight conditions in the U-2 such as high cross wind landings or heavy weight flame-out landings cannot be safely practiced in actual flight. The Air Force is awaiting for fidelity studies to determine whether simulation of the U2’s low level handling characteristics can be accurately portrayed. The Angle of Attack Indicator (AOA), the 9th Reconnaissance Wing's first priority safety need, is a cockpit indicator which provides the pilot with a visual and audio warning of approach-to-stall. Because the U-2 operates very close to stall during most phases of flight, this tool will greatly increase pilot warning of an approaching stall. Lack of stall warning was indicated as a possible contributing factor to two of the last four U-2 mishaps. The AOA alerts the pilot to approach-to-stall during landings, takeoffs, and operations stages of flight. The U-2 has been termed by CSAF as the "most challenging of Air Force aircraft." It operates within 5 knots of stall speed through most phases of flight. It also performs unique maneuvers, such as low altitude angle of attack changes to release "auxiliary gear" (wing ‘pogos’). Preferred contractor has agreed to provide prototype hardware for testing, however the Senior Year program does not have sufficient funds to conduct test flights or acquisition. U-2 Oil Quantity Gauge provides a gauge within the cockpit to maintain pilot awareness of engine oil quantity remaining. Several instances have occurred where U-2s were found during post-flight inspections to be extremely low on oil. The U-2 System Safety Group reviewed the incidents and recommended installation of an oil quantity gauge. Little to no non-recurring engineering is required since the prototype U-2S aircraft was designed with an oil quantity gauge, but it was not included in the production program. The oil quantity guage is third priority on the 9th Reconnaissance Wing’s list of safety issues. The U-2 Crash Survivable Cockpit Data Recorder records aircraft systems data during flight to assist in mishap assessment after a crash. Other than four two-seat trainer aircraft, the U-2 is a single seat platform which often operates far from normal flight routes. The aircraft systems are extremely complex due to a wide array of sensor systems which interact with each other as well as some platform systems. The data recorder will be invaluable in identifying contributing causes after platform mishaps. The recorder is fourth on the 9th Reconnaissance Wing’s Safety Priorities list. U2 Life Support purchases initial issue and spare S-1034 space suit helmets, coveralls, gas retainer liners, and gloves, for U-2 high altitude operations to replace the no longer supportable S-1031 space suit. Also supports on-board life support and survival kits. Includes an SR-71 type oxygen line to the space suit which will greatly improve pilot comfort and safety. The space suit is necessary for high altitude operations which provide the U-2 both it’s mission capability as well as its primary defense against hostile forces. The special survival kits are necessary for the high altitude environment and compensate for the space suited pilot’s lack of mobility. A survival kit replacement is needed due to age and wear. The original kits were fabricated in 1967/1968 for the U-2R with additional kits fabricated in 1980/1981 for the TR-1. Money was saved over the years by using a four year overhaul interval instead of replacing kits. The basic components are quickly approaching the end of their serviceable life.) A recent Beale ORI levied a finding that U-2 pilots were being provided suits that did not provide chemical protection.

According to the inspection report, this violated WMP, Annex S, Appendix 10, and could "result in loss of life/U-2 asset in wartime or degraded mission effectiveness." The System Integration Laboratory (SIL) provides a ground electronic test bed of U-2 airframe and sensor systems to enable more thorough integration testing prior to flight testing. The U-2 has experienced significant flight test schedule overruns of one to 24 months for new and upgraded sensor and ground station integration, airframe improvement, discrepancy and mishap follow-ups, and ancillary equipment integration. The SIL could reduce flight testing by 20 to 30 percent. It would provide more visibility of software and hardware anomalies in systems and interfaces developed by more than 20 different providers. These anomalies might otherwise be hard to detect and/or isolate in an independent developer’s test facility prior to flight testing. Even during flight testing the ability to monitor, adjust, and restart test routines is limited. Additionally, flight tests are limited by aircraft availability, flight/weather restraints, and conflicting test requirements. Airborne Information Transmission System (ABIT) is the next generation of the Common Data Link, providing an extended wide band data link relay to move imagery and other intelligence information from collection platforms to ground stations and/or other airborne platforms anywhere in theater. It provides secure, selectable bandwidth, two way air-to-air-to-surface link with lop probability of detection/low probability of intercept. ABIT offers beyond line of sight range and improved timeliness for real time operations without further taxing already heavily used orbital communications systems. The U-2 is to be used as a test bed for the critical component miniaturization phase of the demonstration for later migration to UAVs. U-2 UHF SATCOM would provide the U-2 with secure worldwide communications capability. It would also provide for U-2 participation in the Demand Assigned Multiple Access and Future Air Navigation System programs. The U-2S mission profile requires single pilot, single aircraft trans-oceanic flight, and operations far from normal flight routes. Neither current nor proposed UHF radios meet the size, weight, power, and performance requirements necessary to allow the U-2 to in the changing civil and military communications architectures. However, follow-on programs to the UHF DAMA SATCOM Airborne Integration Terminal appear to meet the required parameters. The U-2 previously received funding for beyond line of sight communications and is currently procuring the ARC 217 HF radio. The incumbent HF does not provide worldwide coverage, and UHF trans-oceanic air traffic control networks are not available until after 2000.

Pilot Life Support
The full pressure suit truly stands between life and death for the U-2 aviator. It is the "life vest" of the skies. The U-2 can be a difficult aircraft to fly, and the suit adds one more system that can be a distracter. With decreased visual field of view due to the helmet and aircraft design, landing requires a second U-2 pilot (the mobile officer) to help bring the mission pilot down. Crew coordination [i.e., Crew Resource Management (CRM)] is critical to a successful landing after dealing with the hazards discussed earlier and other

mission hazards. A breakdown in teamwork significantly compromises flight safety and can have catastrophic results. To ensure absolute safety, every screw, bolt, nut, seam, thread, and system gets inspected each time before the aircraft flies. High altitude physiological and life support training associated with the U-2 space suit are vital to protecting the pilot. Every time a Dragon Lady takes off, the life-sustaining physiological equipment enables the pilot to successfully accomplish the mission and come home safely. As a physical environment, space begins around 125 miles above the earth; but as a physiological environment, it begins at 50,000 feet - the space equivalent zone. Flying in this zone requires the protection of a full pressure suit to protect from the high altitude hazards of hypoxia, decompression sickness, Armstrong's Line, and extreme cold. It is these threats - where regular life support equipment is unable to sustain life - that add a new element to pilot safety. The physiological support equipment the pilot wears creates an environment that minimizes the impact (both physically and physiologically) of flying at extreme altitudes. While in flight, the pilot's "cocoon" provides 100% oxygen at all times - even during an ejection. The pressure suit prevents hypoxia that would be present at the normal U-2 cabin altitude of 29,500 feet. Hypoxia is caused by a lack of oxygen reaching the bodily tissues. The symptoms of hypoxia include blurred or tunnel vision, dizziness, slow reaction time, as well as poor muscle coordination. Without a full pressure suit to provide supplemental oxygen, the pilot has 30 to 60 seconds before becoming incapacitated. In addition to preventing hypoxia, the 100% oxygen provided to the pilot at least 1 hour before takeoff as well as during flight decreases the high probability of getting decompression sickness by eliminating most of the nitrogen from the aviator's body. Decompression sickness - or the "bends" - occurs when bubbles of nitrogen develop in a person's blood and tissues. This happens after a rapid reduction in surrounding pressure, is exhibited by pain in the joints, and has the potential of being fatal. The next threat that the space suit protects pilots from is Armstrong's Line. Water boils at a higher temperature at sea level than it does in the Colorado Rockies, and at 63,000 feet in the sky, water boils at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit - body temperature. In fact, at FL 630, atmospheric pressure equals the water pressure in hte human. As a result, without a pressure suit to protect the pilot in the event of cabin pressurization loss, the water in the aviator's body would escape as a gas thereby causing damage to tissues and blocking blood flow. In this scenario, the air trapped inside the pressure suit protects the pilot from decompression. Therefore, as the cabin altitude goes from FL 295 to FL 700+, the pressure inside the suit increases to maintain a physiological altitude of 35,000 feet much better than FL 700. The last high altitude hazard that the space suit protects against is extreme cold. At operational altitudes, the air temperature is 70 degrees below zero. The suit prevents

hypothermia, frostbite, and keeps eyeballs from freezing in the event the pilot ejects or loses cabin heat. Despite all this protection, flying at extreme altitudes still takes a toll physiologically. Heat build-up in the suit due to physical activity - especially during taxi, pattern work, and landing - can be rapid and incapacitating. Discomfort, profuse sweating, fatigue, dizziness, and decreased situational awareness make flying the U-2 even more "interesting." Dehydration is a constant threat due to breathing dry aviator's oxygen for extended periods of time and the sweating associated with wearing a sealed rubber suit. Since going 9+ hours without drinking also compounds physiological problems, fluid intake is vital. All normal physiological maintenance activities - eating, drinking, urination - are complicated in the suit and can increase the stress and fatigue already associated with flying.

Primary Function high-altitude reconnaissance Contractor VARIANT Wing span Length Empty Weight Maximum Takeoff Weight Lockheed Aircraft Corp. U-2A 80 feet 49.5 feet 11,700 lbs 16,000 lb 510 mph 14,900 lbs U-2R TR-1 U-2S 103 feet 63 feet 16,000 lbs 41,000 lb (18,598 kg) 495 mph ~500 mph GE F-118-101 19,000 lbst 90,000 feet 4,600 miles +10 hours Oct 1994

Maximum Speed 528 mph Engine Engine Thrust Ceiling Range Endurance on internal fuel Date Deployed Crew Cost Production and Classified P&W J57P-37A 11,200 lbst

P&W J75-P-13B 17,000 lbst

85,000 feet 80,000 feet

2,200 miles 3,500 miles 4,000 miles 6.5 hours Aug 1955 7.5 hours 1967 12 hours Sep 1981

One (two in trainer models) $400 million Inventory

Production: Production: Production:


30 U-2A all converted to later models and retired by April 1989 Class A Mishaps 1 Total Annual Flight Hours

16 U-2B 25 TR-1A 15 U-2R 2 TR-1B all 2 ER-1 converted to later models

32 Active force + 4 trainers 0 Reserve 0 ANG


U-2 Flight History
During the early years of the U-2 program, the aircraft had mishaps. All of these mishaps were investigated, but the reports were limited in number. None were released to the general Air Force community nor were they put into the Safety Center's data base. Also, the flight hours accumulated per year were a closely guarded secret, so the ability to get an accurate mishap rate was very difficult. However, since the U-2 program has been largely declassified, this information is now available. The information provided in this chart is accurate, but the early years should be viewed with a wary eye. This chart represents all of the mishaps the Air Force Safety Center is aware of and all of the flying time flown by the U-2 since 1963. For the years FY63 to FY69, there is no accurate information on flying hours for the U-2 aircraft. The U-2 aircraft was designed and fielded during the height of the Cold War, and this aircraft was one of the most secret US weapon systems. Also, the U-2 was designed in the 1950s ago when there wasn't any computer-aided design, system safety was just a dream, and the technology was on the outer limits of the aircraft industry.

1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986

1 1 1 4,413 1 1 4,241 7,732 10,718 11,425 2 1 10,791 8,717 9,395 8,934 10,126 3 10,800 10,211 10,131 12,555 3

13,257 However, the U-2 has performed outstandingly against all these odds and has 11,788 been called upon when the nation needed 13,954

1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1 1 1 1 1



16,785 valuable information on various hot spots in the world. So the mishap rate may be higher 16,730 compared to newer aircraft (F-15 and F-16) 17,620 or against aircraft of the same era (B-52 or 18,001 C-130). But these aircraft have gone through many, many changes during the years of 19,820 their operation. 16,597 In the early 1990s the mishap rates were 18,085 relatively high. However, there was no one 15,643 main reason for the increase in the mishap rate. This fact made the management of the 17,726 U-2 program difficult at best. The aircraft is being upgraded with a new engine and other components, but as the Air Force Chief of 13,762 Staff has indicated, this weapon system is in the sunset of its career.

NOTES: Calender year through 1987, Fiscal Year thereafter No Flight hours data available prior to 1970 SOURCE: U-2 Mishap History and data table Flying Safety Magazine December 1996

U-2 Picture Gallery - imagery OF the U-2 U-2 Imagery Gallery - imagery FROM the U-2
Related Programs
Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System Deployable Ground Station SENIOR BLADE Mobile Imagery Processing Element (MIPE) Tactical Radar Correlator (TRAC) Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar System (ASARS) SENIOR GLASS SENIOR RUBY SENIOR SPEAR SENIOR YEAR Electro-optical Reconnaissance Systems (SYERS)

Operating Locations
Air Force U-2s have been used for various missions, with primary operations originating out of Air Force Plant 42 in Palmdale, CA, Beale Air Force Base, CA, and Alconbury, UK. Beale AFB serves as the U-2's Home station. Besides a full compliment of flightline support, Beale AFB provides full backshop support functions as well as the capability to

access depot facilities. Training and operational missions are flown from Beale AFB. It normally supports 12-16 aircraft on-station. All ACC special purpose U-2 aircraft deploy all over the world. These bases have flightline support capabilities, but are limited in back-shop support. ACTIVE LOCATIONS
    

Air Force Plant 42 - Palmdale, CA, Beale Air Force Base, CA Osan Air Base, South Korea RAF Alconbury, UK RAF Akrotiri Air Base, Cyprus INACTIVE LOCATIONS

 

Area 51, Groom Lake, NV Taif Air Base, Saudi Arabia

ES-3A Shadow
The ES-3A Shadow provides indications and warnings for the Battle Group commander, and is normally assigned to AQ, the Command and Control Warfare commander, for tasking and mission assignment. Lockheed's ES-3A is a high winged, jet powered, twin engine, carrier-based electronic reconnaissance mission aircraft equipped with folding wings, a launch bar, and a tailhook. The heart of the Shadow is an avionics suite based on the Aries II system of the landbased EP-3E Orion. The Shadow's fuselage is packed with sensor stations and processing equipment, and the exterior sports over 60 antennae. The ES-3A Shadow crew is comprised of a pilot, an NFO, and two systems operators. Advanced sensor, navigation and communications systems allow the Shadow's four-person crew to collect extensive data and distribute high-quality information through a variety of channels to the carrier battle group. This gives the battle group commander a clear picture of potential airborne, surface and sub-surface threats. Missions flown by the detachment include over-thehorizon targeting, strike support, war at sea and reconnaissance. On January 21st 1972, the first flight of the Navy’s S-3A "Viking" ushered in a new era in Under Sea Warfare. Built by Lockheed, this carrier based, twin-turbofan jet dramatically improved the Anti-Submarine warfare and Surface Surveillance capability of the Navy. The S-3A Viking replaced the S-2 Tracker and entered fleet service in 1974. All S-3B aircraft are capable of carrying an inflight refueling "buddy" store. This allows the transfer of fuel from the Viking to other Naval strike aircraft, thus extending their combat radius. The last production S-3A was delivered in August 1978. The ES-3A is a signal intelligence modification of the S-3 Viking anti-submarine aircraft. It replaces the EA-3B Skywarrior (commonly referred to as the Whale), a veteran of over 40 years fleet service. Flying out of NS Rota, Spain, the last EA-3B's in service were retired from the U.S. Navy Oct. 1, 1991. Lockheed Martin has converted 16 S-3A Viking antisubmarine-warfare aircraft into a replacements for the EA-3B. One squadron on each coast has been established and utilizes the designation VQ. This aircraft will serve as the over the horizon "ears" for the modern carrier battlegroup. The ES-3A is configured as an airborne refueling platform and can be utilized in the airborne tanking role.

Statistics & Characteristics


Maximum Launch Weight ........................ 52,539 Maximum Field Landing Weight ................. 45,900 Maximum Carrier Landing Weight ............... 37,700 Weight ....................................... 34,000 Internal Fuel (1,933 gals.) .................. 13,142 External Fuel (530 gals.) ..................... 3,604

lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs. lbs.


Span (folded) ................ 68 ft. 8 in. (29 ft. 6 in.) Length (folded) .............. 53 ft. 4 in. (49 ft. 5 in.) Height (folded) .............. 22 ft. 9 in. (15 ft. 3 in.)


Maximum Speed .................................. 450 knots Maximum Altitude .............................. 34,000 ft. Loiter Speed at 20,000 ft. ..................... 210 knots Maximum endurance ................................ 7 hrs. Ferry Range ........................ 3,000+ nautical miles

Operating Units
 

Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron FIVE [VQ-5] Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron SIX [VQ-6]

HU-25 Falcon
Forty-one HU-25A, medium range surveillance fan jets replaced the HU-16E Albatross and the C-131A Samaritan prop driven aircraft, in the Coast Guard aviation fleet. The Guardian's modern technology and design enhances it's performance as the services first multi-mission jet. It is twice as fast as previous Coast Guard fixed wingaircraft and can get to the scene quickly to perform its role. The HU-25A can operate from sea level to an altitude of 42,000feet at dash speed, an important capability for the Coast Guard missions of search and rescue, enforcement of laws and treaties, including illegal drug interdiction, marine environmental protection and military readiness. The airframes were assembled in Little Rock, Arkansas at Falcon Jet Corporation, a subsidiary of Dassault-Brequet Aviation. The acrylic search window, drop hatch for delivery of emergency equipment to vessels, and other fuselage modifications unique to Coast Guard aircraft were made at Grumman Aircraft Corporation in New York. The Garrett turbo fan engines were manufactured in Phoenix, Arizona specifically for the aircraft's long flights. The computer controlled air navigation system was built by Rockwell International, Collins Avionics group in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. The Guardian has surveillance system operators (SSO) console including Texas Instruments radar with 160mile range, manufactured in Dallas, Texas.

Major Missions Fuel Capacity Empty Weight Operating Range Overall Length Crew Overall Span Wing span Maximum height Powerplants Cruising Speed Search and Rescue/Law Enforcement Environmental Response/Air Interdiction Maximum Gross Weight 10431 lbs. 25,500 lbs 2045 NM 55 Ft. 2 pilots, 3 crewman 22 Ft. 54 ft 18 Ft. Two Garrett ATF3-6 turbo-Fan engines rated at 5440 pounds thrust each. 350-410 knots 32,000 lbs.

Endurance Number in service

5.75 hours 41

UH-1 Huey Helicopter
The most widely used military helicopter, the Bell UH-1 series Iroquois, better known as the "Huey", began arriving in Vietnam in 1963. Before the end of the conflict, more than 5,000 of these versatile aircraft were introduced into Southeast Asia. "Hueys" were used for MedEvac, command and control, and air assault; to transport personnel and materiel; and as gun ships. Considered to be the most widely used helicopter in the world, with more than 9,000 produced from the 1950s to the present, the Huey is flown today by about 40 countries. Bell (model 205) UH-1D (1963) had a longer fuselage than previous models, increased rotor diameter, increased range, and a more powerful Lycoming T53-L-11 1100 shp engine, with growth potential to the Lycoming T53-L-13 1400 shp engine. A distinguishing characteristic is the larger cargo doors, with twin cabin windows, on each side. The UH-1D, redesigned to carry up to 12 troops, with a crew of two, reached Vietnam in 1963. The UH-1D has a range of 293 miles (467km) and a speed of 127 mph (110 knots). UH-1Ds were build under license in Germany. UH-1D "Hueys" could be armed with M60D door guns, quad M60Cs on the M6 aircraft armament subsystem, 20mm cannon, 2.75 inch rocket launchers, 40mm grenade launcher in M5 helicopter chin-turret, and up to six NATO Standard AGM-22B (formerly SS-11B) wire-guided anti-tank missiles on the M11 or M22 guided missile launcher. The UH-1D could also be armed with M60D 7.62mm or M213 .50 Cal. pintle-mounted door guns on the M59 armament subsystem. The MedEvac version UH-1V could carry six stretchers and one medical attendant. Bell (model 205A-1) UH-1H (1967-1986) was identical to the UH-1D but was equipped with an upgraded engine that allowed transport of up to 13 troops. The UH-1H has a twobladed semi-rigid seesaw bonded all metal main rotor and a two-bladed rigid delta hinge bonded all metal tail rotor. The UH-1H is powered by a single Lycoming T53-L-13B 1400 shp turboshaft engine. More UH-1H "Hueys" were built than any other model. The UH-1H was licensed for co-production in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and in Turkey. UH-1H "Nighthawk" was equipped with a landing light and a pintle mounted M134 7.62mm "minigun" for use during night interdiction missions. The AH-1G Cobra was often flown on night "Firefly" missions using the UH-1H "Nighthawk" to locate and illuminate targets.

The UH-1N is a twin-piloted, twin-engine helicopter used in command and control, resupply, casualty evacuation, liaison and troop transport. The Huey provides utility combat helicopter support to the landing force commander during ship-to-shore movement and in subsequent operations ashore.he aircraft can be outfitted to support operations such as command and control with a specialized communication package (ASC-26), supporting arms coordination, assault support, medical evacuation for up to

six litter patients and one medical attendant, external cargo, search and rescue using a rescue hoist, reconnaissance and reconnaissance support, and special operations using a new navigational thermal imaging system mission kit. The goal of the USMC H-1 Upgrades Program is to achieve a platform that meets the growing needs of the Marine Corps. The 4BW and 4BN will be an upgraded version of the current AH-1W and UH-1N Helicopters. The 4BW and 4BN will share a common engine, Auxiliary Power Unit, four-bladed main and tail rotor system, transmission, drive train, and tail boom. The purpose of these modifications is to achieve commonality in both aircraft, thereby reducing logistical support, maintenance workload, and training requirements. The replacement of the two bladed rotor system with a common four bladed rotor system will achieve improved performance, reliability, and maintainability. The addition of an infrared suppresser to the aircraft will improve survivability. The 4BW will also include a newly developed cockpit, which will result in nearly identical front and rear cockpits that simplify operator and maintainer training and maintenance.

Primary function Manufacturer Power plant Power Length Height Rotor Diameter Speed Ceiling Maximum takeoff weight Range Crew Utility helicopter Bell Helicopter Textron Pratt and Whitney T400-CP-400 Burst: 1290 shaft horsepower (transmission limited) Continuous: 1134 shaft horsepower (transmission limited) 57.3 feet (17.46 meters) 14.9 feet (4.54 meters) 48 feet (14.62 meters) 121 knots (139.15 miles per hour) at sea level 14,200 feet (4331 meters) (limited to 10,000 feet (3050 meters) by oxygen requirements) 10,500 pounds (4,767 kilograms) 172 nautical miles (197.8 miles) Officer: 2 Enlisted: 2 M-240 7.62mm machine gun or GAU-16 .50 caliber machine gun or GAU-17 7.62mm automatic gun All three weapons systems are crew-served, and the GAU-2B/A can also be controlled by the pilot in the


fixed forward firing mode. The helicopter can also carry two 7-shot or 19-shot 2.75" rocket pods. Introduction date Unit Replacement Cost Marine Corps Inventory 1971 $4,700,000 107


SH-2 Seasprite
The SH-2 Seasprite is a multi-mission helicopter featuring dual General Electric T700 engines, which give the aircraft true single engine capability throughout any mission configuration and profile. Standard mission equipment in the US Navy configuration includes: the AN/UYS503 acoustic data processor and a state-of-the-art sonobuoy processor that incorporates the best features of any Undersea Warfare (USW) equipment in the world today. Tactical data from the radar, Electronic Support Measures (ESM), acoustic processors, and Magnetic Anomaly Detector (MAD) are integrated through the MIL-STD 1553B data bus and displayed on the AN/ASN-150 tactical navigation set. This allows the crew to function simultaneously in a multi-mission battle space scenario including USW, AntiSurface Warfare (ASuW), Anti-Ship Surveillance and Targeting (ASST), as well as utility functions such as search and rescue, vertical replenishment, and medical evacuation. The maximum gross weight of the aircraft—13,500 pounds—gives this medium weight helicopter the unique ability to operate from the smallest combatants yet carry payloads that enable diverse mission loads and extended times on station. Options include: a dipping sonar (offered in the Egyptian configuration), Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR), missile systems, and helicopter self-protection equipment such as jammers, missile warning equipment, and chaff systems. The US Navy incorporated Magic Lantern, a laser-based mine detection system, in 1996. A product of Kaman Aerospace Corporation of Bloomfield, CT, the SH-2G Super SeaSprite was originally developed in the mid-1950s as a shipboard utility helicopter for the Navy. Utilizing a unique blade flap design on the main rotors, aerodynamic action of the flaps allows the pilot to fly without the aid of hydraulic assistance. The SH-2G is configured specifically to respond to the Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS) requirement of the United States Navy. The LAMPS concept extends the search and attack capabilities of carrier and convoy escort vessels over the horizon through the use of radar/ESM equipped helicopters. Primary missions of the SH-2G are anti-submarine warfare (ASW)and anti-ship surveillance and targeting (ASST). Secondary missions include search and rescue, vertical replenishment, medical evacuation, communications relay, personnel transfer,surveillance and reconnaissance, post-attack damage assessment, and naval gunfire spotting. Armament systems consist of two search stores systems (sonobuoy's and marine location marker's), an external weapons/stores system for external fuel tanks or torpedoes, and a countermeasures dispensing system.

The original SH-2 Seasprite took off on July 2, 1959, and the US Navy over the years ordered various variants. Work on the SH-2G began in the 1980s, and an engine testbed for the T700 engines, which replace the T58, flew in April 1985. A prototype with full avionics fit followed on 28. December 1989. First new production SG-2G was accepted into service with the US Navy Reserve Squadron HSL-84 at NAS North Island (San Diego) on February 25, 1993. The Super Seasprites are used for long-range surveillance, anti-surface warfare, anti-submarine warfare, mine warfare countermeasures, SAR and utility missions. The first foreign sale of th SH-2G was announced in March 1995, when Egypt ordered 10 helicopters (all remanufactured from SH-2Fs). Official roll-out of the first SH-2G(E) was on October 21, 1997, although testing had been completed earlier. The first three machines will be used for flight training at Pensacola NAS before in-country delivery in April 1998. The helicopters will fly from frigates. Value of the deal is put at more than 150 million US-Dollars with support. Other international customers for the SH-2G are Australia (11) and New Zealand (4), which selected the Kaman helicopter after fierce competitions in January an March 1997 respectively. Contracts were signed in June, worth 600 million US-Dollars for Australia and 185 million US-Dollars for New Zealand (including training, spares and Maverick missiles). Deliveries to Australia are to start in the year 2001, and New Zealand will get its Super Seasprites from June 2000 for operation aboard ANZAC and Leander Class frigates. As an interim measure, SH-2Fs were delivered to the New Zealand Navy in 1997/98.

Type Shipboard ASW and anti-ship helicopter Latest in the H-2 series LAMPS MARK I program Entered the Fleet in 1967 and has operated from most aviation-capable ships in the U.S. Navy and international navies. Currently operated by the U.S. Naval Reserve Force; first delivered in February 1993. In 1995, the Arab Republic of Egypt contracted for 10 SH-2G aircraft in a dipping sonar configuration. The first deliveries under this program took place in 1997. The aircraft's low gross weight coupled with the power available from the T700-GE-401 engines make it attractive for small deck operations. Kaman Aerospace Old Windsor Road Bloomfield, Connecticut 06002 three (2 pilots + 1 aircrew) up to 8 fully armed troops On outriggers on the fuselage side, the SH-2G can carry 2 x Mk.46 ASW torpedo

Program Summary

Manufacturer Crew Passengers Weapons

2 x Mk.50 ALWT torpedo Mk.11 depth charge 2 x Penguin anti-ship missile 2 x Maverick 2 x Sea Skua anti-ship missile Hellfire missiles 2.75 inch rockets Power plant Power Fuel consumption Fuselage length Width Height 2 x General Electric T700-GE-401 turboshafts 2 x 1285 kW (1723 shp) contingency rating; 2 x 1690 shp for 30 minutes maximum 2 x 1437 shp maximum continuous. 0.21 kg/h/shp at intermediate power 44ft (13.5m) 12'4"ft (3.73m) 15ft (4.62m) over tail rotor

Main Rotor Diameter 44ft 4in (13.5m) Tail rotor diameter Empty Weight Max Loaded Weight Fuel Useful load Cargo hook capacity Max. take-off weigth Max. level speed Normal cruise speed Max. climb rate Service ceiling Hover in ground effect Hover out of ground effect Max. range 8ft (2.46m) 7,600lb (3,447kg) 13,500lb(6,124kg) 1800 l /476 US gal) 2300 kg 1810 kg 6115 kg 159mph (256km/h) at sea level 222 km/h (120 kts) 2,070 feet/min with Two Auxiliary Fuel Tanks (at sea level) 1,305 feet/min with One Engine (at sea level) 20400 ft (6218m) 17600 ft (5365m) 14600 ft (4450m) 450 nautical miles (with 2 auxiliary fuel tanks) 1000 km (540 NM) at 5000 ft also cited

Max. Endurance

4.5 hours at 5000 feet 5.3 hrs at 5000 ft also cited In 1993 the SH-2F to SH-2G conversion was quoted as $12 million. Ten for Egypt cost $150 million US Navy - 6 new (plus rebuilds from SH-2Fs) Egypt - 10 (rebuilds) Australia - 11 (rebuilds) New Zealand - 4 (rebuilds) >



CH/HH-3 Jolly Green Giant
The CH-3E was the USAF version of the Sikorsky S-61 amphibious transport helicopter developed for the U.S. Navy. The USAF initially operated six Navy HSS-2 (SH-3A) versions of the S-61 in 1962, eventually designating them CH-3A/Bs. They were so successful the USAF ordered 75, modified as CH-3Cs, featuring a new rear fuselage design with a ramp for vehicles and other cargo. The first CH-3C was flown on June 17, 1963. When 41 CH-3Cs were updated with more powerful engines in 1966, they were redesignated as CH-3Es. Forty-five more were newly manufactured. Later, 50 CH-3Es were modified for combat rescue missions with armor, defensive armament, self-sealing fuel tanks, a rescue hoist, and in-flight refueling capability. They were redesignated HH3Es and used extensively in Vietnam under the nickname "Jolly Green Giant."

Main rotor diameter Fuselage Length Height Weight Armament Engines Crew Cost Maximum speed Cruising speed Range Service Ceiling 62 ft. 73 ft. 0 in. 18 ft. 1 in. 22,050 lbs. loaded Provisions for two .50-cal. machine guns Two General Electric T58-GE-5 turboshaft engines of 1,500 hp. each Three $796,000 177 mph. 154 mph. 779 miles with external fuel tanks 21,000 ft.

H-3 Sea King
The H-3 is a twin engine, all-weather helicopter. The SH-3H model is used by the Navy Reserves to detect, classify, track and destroy enemy submarines. It also provides logistical support and a search and rescue capability. The UH-3H model is utility configured for logistical support and search and rescue missions. The VH-3A model supports the Executive Transport Mission. The first version of this workhorse helicopter was flown more than 35 years ago. The Sea King has been replaced by the SH60F Sea Hawk helicopters as the anti-submarine warfare helicopter. The transition was completed in the mid 1990s. The remaining Sea King helicopters have been configured for logistical support and search and rescue missions. H-3 AIRCRAFT DESCRIPTION
Contractor: Sikorsky Aircraft, Division of United Technologies Type:  General purpose, single rotary wing, twin turbine powered helicopter with emergency amphibious capabilities  Available in Anti-Submarine Warfare (SH-3H/D) and Utility (UH-3H/SH-3G) configurations Power Plant:  SH-3H/UH-3H: Two General Electric T-58-GE-402 turboshaft engines. Each engine can produce approximately 1,500 shaft horsepower. Standard since 1991.  SH-3D: Two General Electric T58-GE-10 turboshaft engines. Each engine can produce approximately 1,400 shaft horsepower.  SH-3G: Two General Electric T58-GE-8F turboshaft engines. Each engine can produce approximately 1,250 shaft horsepower. Accommodations:  SH-3H/D: Crew of four (two pilots, two sensor operators) and up to three passengers  UH-3H/SH-3G: Can be configured for up to 15 passengers in addition to the aircrew Performance:  SH-3D/H helicopters are capable of airspeeds up to 120 KIAS.  Endurance varies between 3.5 and 5.5 hours depending on the mission.  Maximum allowable weight (SH-3H/UH-3H): 21,000 pounds

 Maximum allowable weight (SH-3D): 20,500 pounds  Maximum allowable weight (SH-3G): 19,100 pounds  Provisions for carrying up to 6,000 pounds of external loads can be added. Countermeasures: Not applicable Armament:  Two MK-46/44 anti-submarine torpedoes  Various sonobouys and pyrotechnic devices Mission and Capabilities:  Class IB aircraft designed for both shore- and ship-based operations  U.S. Navy missions have included anti-submarine warfare, search and rescue, and miscellaneous utility roles, including limited external cargo capability.  In the ASW role, major sensors include: AQS-13 and AQS-18 dipping sonar systems, various sonobuoys, and the ASQ-81 Magnetic Anomaly Detector. In addition, airborne search and weather radar have been mounted on the radar.  Fully configured instruments for all weather operations  Capable of automatic approach to a stabilized sustained hover  The Teledyne AQS-123 TACNAV, a Doppler-based tactical navigation system, is installed in the SH-3H and UH-3H.  Provisions for installation of a Global Position System (GPS) are being added to some models. Program Summary:  The SH-3H completed its last active duty deployment in 1995 and has been replaced in the USN carrier force by the SH-60.  Eighty SH-3H helicopters will be converted to the UH-3H model, which are expected to remain in service with the U.S. Navy in a utility role through 2010.  The U.S. Naval Reserves use six SH-3H helicopters in the ASW mission.  The SH-3H and UH-3H have undergone a Service Life Extension Program (SLEP), which included improvements to the airframe, electrical wiring, main transmission, and main rotor systems.  SH-3D/G models and a few out-of-service SH-3H aircraft have not received the SLEP improvements.  Significant aircrew safety enhancements have been affected by the addition of the Helicopter Emergency Egress Lighting System (HEELS) and Crash-Resistant Crew Seats.  Installation of the Inflight Blade Integrity System (IBIS) for the in-service aircraft is planned during CY1996-97.  Standard Depot Level Maintenance (SDLM) capability was transitioned in 1995 from organic to civilian contract depot support at PEMCO World Air Services, Dothan, AL.  The H-3 is currently operated by numerous foreign governments, including: Spain, Egypt, Brazil, and Malaysia. These countries have active

Security Assistance cases with the U.S. Navy for maintenance, logistics, and engineering support.


External Dimensions
Main rotor diameter Main rotor blade chord Tail rotor diameter Tail rotor blade chord Distance between rotor centers Wing span Wing aspect ratio Length: overall, rotors turning fuselage Width overall Height: to top of rotor head Overall Height Ground clearance, main rotor, turning Elevator span Width over skids

Main rotor blades (each) Tail rotor blades (each) Main rotor disc Tail rotor disc Vertical fin Horizontal tail surfaces

Weights and Loadings
Weight empty Mission fuel load (usable) Maximum useful load (fuel and disposable ordinance) Maximum Take off and landing weight Maximum disc loading Maximum power loading

Never -exceed speed (Vne) Maximum level speed at S/L Rate of climb at S/L, OEI Service ceiling Service ceiling, OEI Hovering ceiling IGE OGE

The TH-6B (a Navy derivative of the MD-369H) program consists of six McDonnell Douglas TH-6B Conversion-in-Lieu-of-Procurement aircraft used as an integral part of the United States Naval Test Pilot School’s test pilot training syllabus. The aircraft and associated instrumentation and avionics are used for the in-flight instruction and demonstration of flying qualities, performance and missions systems flight test techniques. Each aircraft will fly an average of 150 hours per year. The USNTPS plans to utilize the TH-6B indefinitely. The program office obtains sustaining engineering services from the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (MDHS). MDHS developed the TH-6B configuration of the USNTPS aircraft, and provides technical information necessary to achieve the aircraft’s programmed service life and readiness rate, aircraft modification engineering and associated FAA certification efforts, and access to customer support and OEM publication services. All modifications will comply with the proven approach used in the FAA system. The aircraft are being operated by the military, and are maintained iaw FAA/commercial processes. To ensure aircraft reliability, the OEM inspected each aircraft and issued a Statement of Conformance certifying their conformance to the TH-6B configuration. Aircraft modification efforts are "turnkey" projects (procurement and installation) implemented as part of competitively awarded maintenance contracts. Where extensive integration efforts are required, the non-recurring engineering phase, including test and certification, is typically performed by MDHS under a sole-source engineering contract with the Navy.

V-22 Osprey
The V-22 Osprey is a tiltrotor vertical/short takeoff and landing (VSTOL), multi-mission air-craft developed to fill multi-Service combat operational requirements. The MV-22 will replace the current Marine Corps assault helicopters in the medium lift category (CH-46E and CH-53D), contributing to the dominant maneuver of the Marine landing force, as well as supporting focused logistics in the days following commencement of an amphibious operation. The Air Force variant, the CV-22, will replace the MH-53J and MH-60G and augment the MC-130 fleet in the USSOCOM Special Operations mission. The Air Force requires the CV-22 to provide a long-range VTOL insertion and extraction capability. The tiltrotor design combines the vertical flight capabilities of a helicopter with the speed and range of a turboprop airplane and permits aerial refueling and world-wide self deployment. Two 6150 shaft horsepower turboshaft engines each drive a 38 ft diameter, 3-bladed proprotor. The proprotors are connected to each other by interconnect shafting which maintains proprotor synchronization and provides single engine power to both proprotors in the event of an engine failure. The engines and flight controls are controlled by a triply redundant digital fly-by-wire system. The airframe is constructed primarily of graphite-reinforced epoxy composite material. The composite structure will provide improved strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and damage tolerance compared to typical metal construction. Battle damage tolerance is built into the aircraft by means of composite construction and redundant and separated flight control, electrical, and hydraulic systems. An integrated electronic warfare defensive suite including a radar warning receiver, a missile warning set, and a countermeasures dispensing system, will be installed.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION The V-22 is being developed to meet the provisions of the April 1995 Joint MultiMission Vertical Lift Aircraft (JMVX) Operational Requirements Document (ORD) for an advanced vertical lift aircraft. The JMVX ORD calls for an aircraft that would provide the Marine Corps and Air Force the ability to conduct assault support and long-range, high-speed missions requiring vertical takeoff and landing capabilities. Since entry into FSD in 1986, the V-22 T&E program has concentrated principally on engineering and integration testing by the contractors. Three periods of formal development test by Naval Air Warfare Center-Aircraft Division (NAWCAD) Patuxent River, plus OTA participation in integrated test team (ITT) activities at Patuxent River, have provided some insight into the success of the development effort. After transition to

EMD in 1992, an integrated contractor/government test team conducted all tests until OT-IIA in 1994. Since then, two additional periods of OT&E have been conducted. The first operational test period (OT-IIA) was performed by COMOPTEVFOR, with assistance from AFOTEC, from May 16 to July 8, 1994, and accomplished 15 hours of actual flight test operations, within an extremely restricted flight envelope. The Navy, with Air Force support, published a joint evaluation report addressing most mission areas the V-22 is to perform. OT-IIB was conducted from September 9, to October 18, 1995, and comprised 10 flight hours in 18 OT&E flights, plus ground evaluations. A joint Air Force/Navy OT-IIB report was published. Partly in response to DOT&E concern expressed over the severity of V-22 downwash in a hover observed during OT-IIA, the Navy conducted a limited downwash assessment concurrently with OT-IIB, from July to October 1995.

TEST & EVALUATION ACTIVITY In accordance with the approved TEMP, OT-IIC was conducted in six phases at NAS Patuxent River and Bell-Boeing facilities in Pennsylvania and Texas, from October 1996, through May 1997. Significant flight limitations were placed on the FSD V-22 in OT&E to date, including:
   

not cleared to hover over unprepared landing zones until OT-IIC no operational internal or external loads or passengers moderate gross weights only not cleared to hover over water.

In addition, FSD aircraft equipment was not representative of any mission configuration. Together, these aircraft clearance and configuration limits produced an extremely artificial test environment for OT-IIC. The OT-IIB report expressed serious concerns regarding the potential downwash effects, and recommended further investigation. While a limited assessment of downwash and workaround procedures was included in OT-IIC, complete resolution of the downwash issue will not be possible until the completion of OPEVAL, just prior to milestone III in 1999. The Navy is conducting an aggressive LFT&E program on representative V-22 components and assemblies, in compliance with a DOT&E-approved alternative LFT&E plan. The V-22 program was granted a waiver from full-up, system-level LFT&E in April, 1997. The vulnerability testing that the program is performing is appropriate and will result in the improvement of aircraft survivability. The V-22 program TEMP was last approved by DOT&E on September 28, 1995, and will be updated prior to each OT&E period scheduled.

TEST & EVALUATION ASSESSMENT With DOT&E encouragement, the Navy greatly expanded the scope of OT-IIC to get better insight into the effectiveness and suitability of the EMD design. The results, while not yet conclusive regarding the potential operational effectiveness and suitability of operational aircraft, were encouraging. The six phases of the OT-IIC Assessment included: (1) shipboard assessment, (2) maintenance demonstrations, (3) tactical aircraft employment via FSD aircraft and manned flight simulator, (4) operational training plans, (5) program documentation review, and (6) software analysis. In assessing the operational effectiveness and suitability COIs, COMOPTEVFOR and AFOTEC found that in most cases, only moderate risk exists that the COIs will not be satisfactorily resolved when development is complete. Enhancing features observed during OT-IIC included aircraft payload, range and speed characteristics better than the stated operational requirements. In addition, reliability, availability and maintainability of the EMD aircraft appeared to be significantly improved over those of the FSD aircraft. Several areas of concern first discovered in OT-IIA or OT-IIB remain unresolved because of limitations to the EMD flight test operations. These concerns include severe proprotor downwash effects during personnel insertion and extraction via hoist or rope. In addition, concerns exist in the areas of communications, navigation , and crew field of view. New concerns arising from OT-IIC regarding the EMD schedule are being addressed by the program manager. Also, the reliability and maintainability of a few subsystems will require management attention. Despite these concerns, the V-22 design remains potentially operationally effective and suitable.

The aircraft's prime contractors include Boeing Company's helicopter division in Ridley Park, PA, and Bell Helicopter Textron of Fort Worth TX. In 1986 the cost of a single V-22 was estimated at $24 million, with 923 aircraft to be built. In 1989 the Bush administration cancelled the project, at which time the unit cost was estimated at $35 million, with 602 aircraft. The V-22 question caused friction between Secretary of Defense Richard B. Cheney and Congress throughout his tenure. DoD spent some of the money Congress appropriated to develop the aircraft, but congressional sources accused Cheney, who continued to oppose the Osprey, of violating the law by not moving ahead as Congress had directed. Cheney argued that building and testing the prototype Osprey would cost more than the amount appropriated. In the spring of 1992 several congressional supporters of the V-22 threatened to take Cheney to court over the issue. A little later, in the face of suggestions from congressional Republicans that Cheney's opposition to the Osprey was hurting President Bush's reelection campaign, especially in Texas and Pennsylvania where the aircraft would be built, Cheney relented and suggested spending $1.5 billion in fiscal years 1992 and 1993 to develop it. He made clear that he personally still opposed the Osprey and favored a less costly alternative. The program was revived by the incoming Clinton administration, and current plans call for building 458 Ospreys for $37.3 billion, or more than $80 million apiece, with the Marines receiving 360 Ospreys, the Navy 48 and the Air Force 50. The first prototype flew in 1989. As of early 2000 three test aircraft had crashed: no one was killed in the 1991 crash, an accident in 1992 killed seven men, and the third in April 2000 killed 19 Marines.

Primary function Amphibious assault transport of troops, equipment and supplies from assault ships and land bases Boeing Defense and Space Group, Philadelphia, PA Bell Helicopter Textron, Ft Worth, TX Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, IN The V-22 Osprey is a multi-engine, dual-piloted, selfdeployable, medium lift, vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) tiltrotor aircraft designed for combat, combat support, combat service support, and Special Operations missions worldwide. It will replace the Corps' aged fleet of CH-46E and CH-53D medium lift helicopters CV-22 will be utilized by the Air Force for their Special Operations missions maintaining maximum commonality with the MV-22. Aircraft avionics peculiar to the Air Force unique mission requirements constitute aircraft differences.

Prime Contractor(s)



HV-22 will be used Navy the for Combat Search and Rescue and fleet logistics support. Length Width Height 57' 4" - Spread 63' 0" - Folded 84' 7" - Spread 18' 5" - Folded 22' 1" - Spread 18' 1" - Folded 47,500 lb Vertical Takeoff/Landing (VTOL) 55,000 lb Short Takeoff/Landing (STOL) 60,500 lb Self Deploy STO 200nm Pre-Assault Raid with 18 troops 200nm Land Assault with 24 troops 50 nm (x2) Amphibious Assault 500 nm Long Range SOF Missions (USAF/CV-22) 2100 nm Self Deploy (with one refueling) 50 nm External Lift Operations with 10,000 lb load 240 kts (MV-22) 230 kts (CV-22) First Flight - March 19, 1989 First Sea Trials - USS Wasp (LHD-1), December, 1990, Aircraft # 3 & 4 First EMD Flight - February 5, 1997 2nd Sea Trials - USS Saipan (LHA-2), January, 1999, Aircraft #10 First LRIP Delivery - May 25, 1999 OPEVAL - Scheduled October, 1999 to May, 2000 Full Rate Production - First Quarter, 2001 IOC - USMC - 2001; US SOCOM - 2004 $40.1M (Total Program Recurring Flyaway, Constant Year, FY94$) 12 MV-22(authorized through FY98) 348 MV-22 (USMC) 50 CV-22 (USAF) 48 HV-22 (USN) MV-22s will be deployed to all Marine Corps medium lift active duty and reserve tactical squadrons, the medium lift training squadron (FRS), and the executive support squadron (HMX)

Takeoff Weights


Cruise Airspeed Milestones

Unit Cost Number Procured Planned Inventory

Deployed to

CH-46E Sea Knight
Mission: The mission of the CH-46E Sea Knight helicopter in a Marine Medium Helicopter (HMM) squadron is to provide all-weather, day/night, night vision goggle (NVG) assault transport of combat troops, supplies, and equipment during amphibious and subsequent operations ashore. Troop assault is the primary function and the movement of supplies and equipment is secondary. Additional tasks are: combat and assault support for evacuation operations and other maritime special operations; over-water search and rescue augmentation; support for mobile forward refueling and rearming points; aeromedical evacuation of casualties from the field to suitable medical facilities. Background: The CH-46 Sea Knight was first procured in 1964 to meet the medium-lift requirements of the Marine Corps in Viet Nam with a program buy of 600 aircraft. The aircraft has served the Marine Corps in all combat and peacetime environments. However, normal airframe operational and attrition rates have taken the assets to the point where a medium lift replacement is required. The safety and capability upgrades are interim measures to allow continued safe and effective operation of the Sea Knight fleet until a suitable replacement is fielded. Primary function: Medium lift assault helicopter Manufacturer: Boeing Vertol Company Power plant: (2) GE-T58-16 engines Thrust: Burst: 1870 shaft horsepower (SHP) Continuous: 1770 SHP Length: Rotors unfolded: 84 feet, 4 inches (25.69 meters) Rotors folded: 45 feet, 7.5 inches (13.89 meters) Width: Rotors unfolded: 51 feet (15.54 meters) Rotors folded: 14 feet, 9 inches (4.49 meters) Height: 16 feet, 8 inches (5.08 meters) Maximum takeoff weight: 24,300 pounds (11,032 kilograms) Range: 132 nautical miles (151.8 miles) for an assault mission Speed: 145 knots (166.75 miles per hour) Ceiling: 10,000 feet (+) Crew: Normal: 4 - pilot, copilot, crew chief, and 1st mechanic Combat: 5 - pilot, copilot, crew chief, and 2 aerial gunners Payload:

Combat: maximum of 14 troops with aerial gunners Medical evacuation: 15 litters and 2 attendants Cargo: maximum of 4,000 pound (2270 kilograms) external load Introduction date: January 1978 Unit Replacement Cost: No current medium-lift replacement, would not replace. Inventory: 239

CH-47 Chinook
The CH-47 is a twin-engine, tandem rotor helicopter designed for transportation of cargo, troops, and weapons during day, night, visual, and instrument conditions. The aircraft fuselage is approximately 50 feet long. With a 60-foot rotor span, on each rotor system, the effective length of a CH-47 (with blades turning) is approximately 100 feet from the most forward point of the forward rotor to the most rearward point on the aft rotor. Maximum airspeed is 170 knots with a normal cruise speed of 130 knots. However, speed for any mission will vary greatly depending on load configuration (internal or external), time of day, or weather conditions. The minimum crew for tactical operations is four, two pilots, one flight engineer, and one crew chief. For more complex missions, such as NVG operations and air assaults, commanders may consider using five crew members and add one additional crew chief. Development of the medium lift Boeing Vertol (models 114 and 414) CH-47 Series Chinook began in 1956. Since then the effectiveness of the Chinook has been continually upgraded by successive product improvements, the CH-47A, CH-47B, CH-47C, and CH47D. The amount of load a cargo helicopter can carry depends on the model, the fuel on board, the distance to be flown, and atmospheric conditions. The CH-47A, first delivered for use in Vietnam in 1962, is a tandem-rotor medium transport helicopter. The Chinook's primary mission is moving artillery, ammunition, personnel, amd supplies on the battlefield. It also performs rescue, aeromedical, parachuting, aircraft recovery and special operations missions. On June 25, 1958 the Army issued an invitation for a General Management Proposal for the US Army Medium Transport Helicopter. Five aircraft selected Vertol to produce the YCH-1B as the Army’s new medium transport helicopter. In July 1962 DoD redesignated all U.S. military aircraft and the HC-1B was redesignated the as the CH-47A. Early production CH-47A’s operated with the 11th Air Assault Division during 1963 and in October of that year the aircraft was formally designated as the Army’s standard medium transport helicopter. In June 1965 the 11th Air Assault Division was redesignated as the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) and readied for deployment to Viet Nam. Chinooks from the 11th Air Assault formed the nucleus of the 228th Assault Helicopter Battalion which began operations in Viet Nam in September, 1965. CH-47A’s deployed to Viet Nam were equipped with Lycoming T55-L7 engines generating 2650 shp. The aircraft had a maximum gross weight of 33,000 pounds allowing for a maximum payload of approximately 10,000 pounds. The hot mountainous conditions of Viet Nam limited the A models performance capabilities and generated a requirement for increased payload and better performance. The CH-47B was introduced by Boeing after a production run of over 350 CH-47A’s . The B model introduced the Lycoming T55-L7C engine, a beefed up airframe. Nonsymmetrical rotor blades, and the blunted aft pylon for better stability. Boeing began delivering the CH-47B in May of 1967 and eventually produced a total of 108 B models before production shifted to the CH-47C. The CH-47C Chinook model has a maximum cargo hook capacity of 20,000 pounds. The CH-47C has only a single cargo hook below the center of the aircraft. When hooking a single load, soldiers use the main hook. They must coordinate closely with the aircrew as

to which hooks to use when carrying multiple loads. The planning figure for the fore and aft hooks is 10,000 pounds each. The Army’s continued need for further performance improvements lead to the development of the CH-47C. Designed to meet an Army requirement to transport a 15,000 pound sling load over a 30 mile radius, the C model boasted an increased gross weight to 46,000 pounds, increased fuel capacity, the Lycoming T55-L11 engine developing 3750 shp, and addition structural improvements. The first C model flew in late 1967 and became the mainstay of the Chinook fleet until the advent of the CH-47D. Production of the C model continued until 1980 with improvements such as the crash worthy fuel system and fiberglass rotor blades being incorporated into the fleet. The CH-47D was the result of June 1976 contract for a modernized Chinook. The Army recognized that that the Chinook fleet was rapidly reaching the end of its useful life and signed a contract with Boeing to significantly improve and update the CH-47. Three airframes, CH-47A, CH-47B, and a CH-47C, were stripped down to their basic airframes and then rebuilt with improved systems to provide three CH-47D prototypes. Improvements included upgraded power plants, rotor transmissions, integral lubrication and cooling for the transmission systems, and fiberglass rotor blades. Other improvements included a redesigned cockpit to reduce pilot workload, redundant and improved electrical systems, modularized hydraulic systems, an advanced flight control system, and improved avionics. The Chinook has two tandem three-bladed counterrotating fiberglass rotors. The CH-47D is powered by two Allied Signal Engines T55-L712 3750 shp turboshaft engines and has a maximun speed of 163 mph (142 knots). The CH-47D was rolled-out in March 1979. The CH-47D carrys twice the load of a CH-47A and has improved performance. The CH-47D can operate at night and in nearly all weather conditions. The CH-47D is equipped with an air-to-air refueling probe. The Chinook can accommodate a wide variety of internal payloads, including vehicles, artillery pieces, 33 to 44 troops, or 24 litters plus two medical attendants. The Chinook can be equipped with two door mounting M60D 7.62mm machine guns on the M24 armament subsystem and a ramp mounting M60D using the M41 armament subsystem. The "D" model can carry up to 26,000 pounds externally. The CH-47D has three cargo hooks: a center (main) hook and two additional hooks fore and aft of the main hook. During Desert Storm "the CH-47D was often the only mode of transportation to shift large numbers of personnel, equipment, and supplies rapidly over the vast area in which US forces operated. The cargo capacity and speed provided commanders and logisticians a capability unequalled by any Army in the world." (Army Aviation in Operation Desert Storm, 1991) During the ground phase, the flanking maneuver executed by the XVIII Airborne Corps was planned with the CH-47D as the keystone. Forward Operating Base Cobra was deliberately positioned to accommodate the combat radius of a fully loaded CH-47D. Cobra was initially secured by an air assault of the 101st's 2nd Infantry Brigade. This air assault, consisting of 5000 soldiers, was accomplished by a total of 126 Blackhawks and 60 Chinooks. By the end of the first day the CH-47Ds had lifted 131,000 gallons of fuel along with pallets of combat-configured ammunition for the next day's fight. Forty separate refueling and rearming points were active in FOB Cobra in less than two hours. During peacekeeping operations in Bosnia, a Chinook company (A company, 5th Battalion, 159th Aviation Regiment) of 16 aircraft flew 2,222 hours, carried 3,348

passengers, and transported over 3.2 million pounds of cargo over a six month period. These numbers equate to carrying 112 infantry platoons, 545 HMMWVs, or 201 M198 Howitzers. The most publicized mission was assisting the 502d Engineer Company build a float bridge across the flooded Sava River allowing the 1st Armored Division to cross into Bosnia. On 29 and 30 December 1995, Big Windy lifted bridge bays and dropped them into the Sava River so the engineers could quickly assemble the bridge. When the Sava River flood washed away the engineer's tentage and personal equipment, Big Windy quickly resupplied the engineers so they could continue their vital mission. Additionally, a key early mission in support of NATO was the recovery of Admiral Smith's aircraft. The Blackhawk had performed a precautionary landing for what was later found to be a transmission seizure. A CH-47D sling-loaded the Blackhawk back to the Intermediate Staging Base (ISB). Big Windy began redeploying to Giebelstadt on 14 June 1996. One platoon of six CH-47Ds remained in Hungary throughout 1997. The Fatcow is a CH-47 with the Extended Range Fuel System [ERFS] II system located in the cargo bay. The configuration consists of three or four fuel tanks attached to a refueling system. The system contains 2400 gallons of JP4/8 excluding the CH-47 internal fuel load of 1050 gals. The Fatcow can set up a 1,2,3,or 4 point system using HTARS. The fuel cells must be crash-worthy and self sealing up to 50 caliber hits. The The Improved Cargo Helicopter (ICH) is a remanufactured version of the CH-47D Chinook cargo helicopter with the new T55-GA-714A engines. The ICH program is intended to restore CH-47D airframes to their original condition and extend the aircraft's life expectancy another 20 years (total life of 60 years) until the 2025-2030 timeframe. The program will remanufacture CH-47 aircraft, reduce the aircraft's vibration, thereby reducing Operations and Support costs, and allow the aircraft to operate on the digitized battlefield by incorporating a 1553 data bus. The ICH will also acquire the capability to carry 16,000 pounds of external/internal cargo for a 50 NM combat radius at 4000 feet pressure altitude and 95 degrees fahrenheit. In addition, the following improvements will be incorporated into the aircraft:

Fuselage stiffening and possible active systems for vibration reduction (this is expected to lead to improved reliability and therefore reduced operating and support costs)  Integrated cockpit  Digital architecture for Force XXI compatibility Additional improvements may be incorporated into the aircraft if funding permits. The ICH will transport weapons, ammunition, equipment, troops, and other cargo in general support of combat units and operations other than war. The ICH is a dominant maneuver platform that provides focused logistics to the force. The ICH program was built as a "bare bones" program to satisfy the battlefield requirements of operations on the 21st century digital battlefield by replacing the existing 1970s technology cockpit with a new cockpit.

The 101st Air Assault Division is scheduled to receive the first ICH in FY03. The First Unit Equipped (FUE) date to the 101st, a company of sixteen aircraft, is FY04. The 101st, 18th Airborne Corps, Korea, and USAREUR will complete fielding through FY09. ICH completes the fielding of 300 aircraft in 2015. Only 300 of the 431 CH-47Ds convert to ICHs based on the fielding of JTR. As the Army fields JTR to Force Package One units, the ICH aircraft will cascade to units that retained CH-47Ds. Those CH-47Ds would retire.

Separate programmatically from the ICH program, the 714 engine program is an Engineering Change Proposal (ECP) to convert the present T-55-712 engines to a T-55-714 engine. This buys back performance on high/hot days lost over time by the addition of weight through modification work order enhancements. Specifically, it will provide an increased lift capability allowing the CH-47 to transport 16,000 pounds for an unrefueled combat radius of 50 nautical miles at 4,000 feet PA and 95 degrees F. The ICH Operational Requirements Document (ORD) requires the CH-47F(ICH) to carry 16,000lbs at 4000ft/95’ for a 50nm combat radius (50nm with load, return empty). The CH-47D -714A engine program achieves this requirement. The -714A engine program converts current CH-47D -712 engines to -714A engines. The engine program converts the engines on all 431 CH-47D aircraft. The -714A engine begins fielding in FY99 and, because of recent budget cuts, completes in FY09. 160th (Hunter), 101st, 18th AB Corps, Korea, and Germany are scheduled to be fielded through FY05. The -714A budget constantly fluctuates because of plus-ups and decrements. For this reason, the fielding dates may change. The MH-47E Special Operations Aircraft (SOA) is a derivative of the Boeing CH-47 Chinook. Included with other modifications is a significantly increased fuel capacity with modified main and auxiliary fuel tanks. The aircraft has modified integrated avionics suites and multi-mode radars and is intended to provide adverse-weather infiltration/exfiltration and support to US Military Forces, country teams, other agencies and special activities. The CH-47D Chinook has been specially modified to perform the special operations mission and has been tested in combat. The three versions of the CH47 in the Army inventory are the CH-47D, the MH-47D, and the MH-47E. The MH-47D and the MH-47E are air refuelable. It provides long-range penetration, medium assault helicopter support to special operations forces. Depending on the version, it can be ferried 1,100 to 2,000 nautical miles unrefueled. During Operation Just Cause, CH-47s conducted H-hour assaults to support other elements who were air-landing SOF to disrupt enemy responses and seize key facilities. During Operation Desert Storm, the CH-47 conducted infiltration and exfiltration of SOF and CSAR of downed pilots. MH-47E testing was limited to the major change to the aircraft which affects vulnerability. In the

case of the MH-47E, this was the addition of an 800 gallon Robertson Auxiliary Fuel Tank in the cabin and Boeing designed sponson tanks with expanded capacity and honeycomb shell construction. Analyses conducted during the test planning phase revealed that the largest potential vulnerability was associated with projectiles entering the fuel tanks in the volume above the liquid fuel. Such impacts could ignite the fuel vapors and cause explosions and/or fires with serious consequences. During test planning, USSOCOM decided to add an inerting system to the fuel tanks to avoid such fires/explosions. This will be a lead-the-fleet system that will be available for similar helicopter variants in other fleets as well.

Powerplant: Two Textron Lycoming T55-L712 engines Three blades per hub (two hubs) Fiberglass construction Speed: 225 r/min Manual folding blades SL cruise: 143 kn. Rate of climb: 1,522 ft/min. Range: SL and ISA, 230 nmi. Cockpit-crew seats: 2 Cabin-troop seats/litters: 33/24 Max gross: 50,000 lbs. Empty: 23,401 lbs. Rotor System:

Performance at 50,000 lb: Crew: Weights:


CH-53 Sea Stallion MH-53E Sea Dragon MH-53J Pave Low III
The CH-53D Sea Stallion is designed for the transportation of equipment, supplies and personnel during the assault phase of an amphibious operation and subsequent operations ashore. Capable of both internal and external transport of supplies, the CH53D is shipboard compatible and capable of operation in adverse weather conditions both day and night. The CH-53D is now filling a role in the Marine Corps' medium lift helicopter fleet. The twin-engine helicopter is capable of lifting 7 tons (6.35 metric tons). Improvements to the aircraft include an elastomeric rotor head, external range extension fuel tanks, crashworthy fuel cells, ARC-182 radios, and defensive electronic countermeasure equipment. The helicopter will carry 37 passengers in its normal configuration and 55 passengers with centerline seats installed. Inventory: Active - 54; Reserve - 18 The CH-53D is a more capable version of the CH-53A introduced into the Marine Corps in 1966. Used extensively both afloat and ashore, the Sea Stallion was the heavy lift helicopter for the Marine Corps until the introduction of the CH-53E triple engine variant of the H-53 family into the fleet in 1981. The CH-53D has performed its multi-role mission lifting both equipment and personnel in training and combat, most recently in Operation Desert Storm, where the helicopter performed with distinction. The CH-53E, the Marine Corps' heavy lift helicopter designed for the transportation of material and supplies, is compatible with most amphibious class ships and is carried routinely aboard LHA (Landing, Helicopter, Assault: an amphibious assault ship), LPH (Landing Platform, Helicopter: an amphibious assault ship) and now LHD (Landing, Helicopter, Dock: an amphibious assault ship) type ships. The helicopter is capable of lifting 16 tons (14.5 metric tons) at sea level, transporting the load 50 nautical miles (57.5 miles) and returning. A typical load would be a 16,000 pound (7264 kilogram) M198 howitzer or a 26,000 pound (11,804 kilogram) Light Armored Vehicle. The aircraft also can retrieve downed aircraft including another CH-53E. The 53E is equipped with a refueling probe and can be refueled in flight giving the helicopter indefinite range.

The CH-53E is a follow-on for its predecessor, the CH-53D. Improvements include the addition of a third engine to give the aircraft the ability to lift the majority of the Fleet Marine Force's equipment, a dual point cargo hook system, improved main rotor blades, and composite tail rotor blades. A dual digital automatic flight control system and engine anti-ice system give the aircraft an all-weather capability. The helicopter seats 37 passengers in its normal configuration and has provisions to carry 55 passengers with centerline seats installed. With the dual point hook systems, it can carry external loads at increased airspeeds due to the stability achieved with the dual point system. Inventory: 160 Derived from an engineering change proposal to the twin-engine CH-53D helicopter, the CH-53E has consistently proven its worth to the Fleet commanders with its versatility and range. With four and one half hours' endurance, the Super Stallion can move more equipment over rugged terrain in bad weather and at night. During Operation Eastern Exit two CH-53Es launched from amphibious ships and flew 463 nautical miles (532.45 miles) at night, refueling twice enroute, to rescue American and foreign allies from the American Embassy in the civil war-torn capital of Mogadishu, Somalia in January of 1990. Two CH-53Es rescued Air Force Capt. Scott O'Grady in Bosnia in June 1995. From FY 1996 through FY 1997, a Service Life Assessment Program (SLAP) was conducted to develop usage and fatigue life profile, and an Integrated Mechanical Diagnostic (IMD) system for the H-53E. FY 1998 Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) begins to correct deficiencies in aircraft dynamic components and mission systems. The effort will increase reliability, maintainability, and safety while reducing the cost of ownership. The Marine Corps Aviation Plan shows the CH-53D remaining in service through 2015. Therefore a Service Life Assessment Program (SLAP) must be conducted in order to ascertain what actions must be taken to safely operate the aircraft until it is replaced by the MV-22. The results of these efforts will be used to justify APN5 funding of a SLEP for the CH-53D if warranted. FY 99 funding is also utilized for Phase II of the CH-53E SLEP.

MH-53E Sea Dragon
The newest military version of Sikorsky's H-53E/S80 series, the MH-53E Sea Dragon, is the Western world's largest helicopter. The MH-53E is used primarily for Airborne Mine Countermeasures (AMCM), with a secondary mission of shipboard delivery. Additional mission capabilities include air-to-air refueling, hover in-flight refueling, search and rescue, and external cargo transport operations, in both land and seaborne environments.

The MH-53E was derived from the CH-53E Super Stallion and is heavier and has a greater fuel capacity than its ancestor. The MH-53s can operate from carriers and other warships. Sea Dragon is capable of carrying up to 55 troops or a 16-ton payload 50 nautical miles or a 10-ton payload 500 nautical miles. The MH-53E is capable of towing a variety of mine-sweeping countermeasures systems, including the Mk 105 minesweeping sleed, the ASQ-14 side-scan sonar, and the Mk 103 mechanical minesweeping system.

MH-53J Pave Low III
The MH-53J's mission is to perform low-level, longrange, undetected penetration into denied areas, day or night, in adverse weather, for infiltration, exfiltration and resupply of special operations forces. The MH-53J Pave Low III heavy-lift helicopter is the largest and most powerful helicopter in the Air Force inventory, and the most technologically advanced helicopter in the world. Its terrain-following, terrainavoidance radar and forward-looking infrare d sensor, along with a projected map display, enable the crew to follow terrain contours and avoid obstacles, making low-level penetration possible. The helicopter is equipped with armor plating, and a combination of three 7.62mm miniguns or .50 caliber machine guns. It can transport 38 troops or 14 litters and has an external cargo hook with a 20,000-pound (9,000-kilogram) capacity. The MH-53J has twin turbo-shaft engines; self-lubricating, all-metal main and tail rotors; and a large horizontal stabilizer on the tail rotor pylon's right side. The MH-53J Pave Low is a modified version of the HH-53 Super Jolly Green Giant helicopter used extensively during the Vietnam War for special operations and rescue of combat personnel. During past space programs, the HH-53 was on duty at the launch site as the primary astronaut recovery vehicle. Under the Air Force's Pave Low IIIE program, nine MH-53H's and 32 HH-53s were modified for night and adverse weather operations and designated MH-53J's. Their modifications included forward-looking infrared, iner tial global positioning system, Doppler navigation systems, a terrain-following and terrain-avoidance radar, an on-board computer and integrated avionics to enable precise navigation to and from target areas. MH-53J's were used in a variety of missions during Desert Storm. Pave Lows were among the first aircraft into Iraq when they led Army AH-64 Apaches to destroy Iraqi early warning radars and opened a hole in enemy air defenses for the opening air armada. In addition to infiltration, exfiltration and resupply of special forces teams throughout Iraq and Kuwait, Pave Lows provided search and rescue coverage for coalition air forces in Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Turkey and the Persian Gulf.

An MH-53J made the first successful combat recovery of a downed pilot in Desert Storm. Following the war, MH-53J's were deployed to Northern Iraq to support Operation Provide Comfort, assisting displaced Kurds. Pave Lows were also used extensively during Operation Just Cause in Panama.

General Characteristics
Unit cost: $25 million (1993 dollars) Crew: Two officers (pilots); four enlisted (two flight engineers, two aerial gunners) Date Deployed: 1981 Inventory: Active force, 41; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0 H-53 AIRCRAFT DESCRIPTION: [CH-53E] | [MH-53E]
CH-53E Sea Stallion Contractor: Sikorsky Aircraft (Prime), General Electric (Engines) Airframe:                Seven-blade main rotor Four-blade canted tail rotor Designed for land- and ship-based operations Automatic flight control and anti-icing systems give the helicopter an allweather flight capability. Empty weight: 33,226 pounds Maximum gross weight: 73,500 pounds Fuel capacity: 15,483 pounds (2,277 gallons/JP-5) Overall length: 99 ft 1/2 in Height: 28 ft 4 in Rotor diameter: 79 ft Can be configured for wheeled or palletized cargo Seats for 55 passengers or litters for 24 patients External cargo of up to 36,000 pounds may be transported by using either the single- or two-point suspension system. Can conduct air-to-air refueling and helicopter in-flight refueling (HIFR) Has provisions for internal range extension tanks

Power Plant:  Three General Electric T64-GE-416/416A turboshaft engines  Each engine can produce 4,380 shaft horsepower

Performance:     Maximum range (unrefueled): 480 nautical miles Ferry range: 990 nautical miles Maximum endurance (unrefueled): 5.1 hours Maximum allowable airspeed: 150 knots

Countermeasures: APR-39 Radar Hazard Warning Set ALE-39 Chaff and Flare Dispenser ALQ-157 Infrared Jammer AAR-47 Missile Warning System Mission and Capabilities:  Primary mission is movement and vertical delivery of cargo and equipment.  When properly equipped, can be used for airborne mine countermeasures (AMCM)  Designed to carry 32,000 pounds of cargo at cruise speed to a range of no less than 50 nautical miles  At destination, the helicopter can discharge its cargo, equipment, or troops and return no less than 50 nautical miles—arriving with at least 20 minutes of fuel in reserve.  Designed to retrieve another CH-53E at a range of 20 nautical miles Program Summary:  The U.S. Navy and Marine Corps have purchased 172 CH-53Es and have accepted delivery of 149.  Operated by six tactical squadrons, one training squadron, and one special mission squadron.  Current procurement objective for support of active force requirements is 186 aircraft.  Slated to replace the aging RH-53D in two Marine Corps Reserve squadrons.  Planned to be operational through 2025  Improved operational capability at night and during periods of reduced visibility will be provided by incorporating Helicopter Night Vision System (HNVS) and the Aviator Night Vision System/Head-Up Display (ANVIS/HUD).  Enhanced night fighting capability is provided by modifying interior and exterior lighting systems for Night Vision Goggle (NVG) compatibility.  Pilot and copilot crashworthy seats have been incorporated.  Improved troop seats, which allow for rapid cabin reconfiguration, will also be incorporated.  Additional modifications include: the Global Positioning System (GPS), the AN/ARC-210 radio, improved engine fire detection, and a tail rotor coupling monitor.

MH-53E Sea Dragon Airframe:              Seven-blade main rotor Four-blade tail rotor Designed for land- and ship-based operations Empty weight: 36,745 pounds Maximum gross weight: 69,750 pounds Internal fuel capacity: 21,844 pounds (JP-5) Overall length: 99 ft 1/2 in Height: 28 ft 4 in Rotor diameter: 79 ft Can be configured for wheeled or palletized cargo Seats for 55 passengers or litters for 24 patients External cargo hook system rated for 36,000 pounds Capable of conducting air-to-air refueling

Engines:  Three General Electric T64-GE-416/A turboshaft engines  Each engine can produce 4,380 shaft horsepower Performance:  Maximum range (main fuel; SL; STD day): 700 nautical miles  Maximum endurance (main fuel; SL; STD day): 6.6 hours  Maximum allowable airspeed: 150 knots Countermeasures: Not applicable Missions and Capabilities:  Two primary missions—airborne mine countermeasures (AMCM) and vertical on-board delivery (VOD)  AMCM mission includes: mine sweeping, mine neutralization, mine hunting, floating mine destruction, and channel marking.  VOD mission includes transporting cargo, supplies, and personnel to/from ships and shore facilities. Program Summary:  U.S. Navy took delivery of the last of 48 MH-53Es in September 1994; 12 were procured for the Naval Reserve.  Three fleet squadrons operate the MH-53E: HM-14 and HM-15 (combined active/reserve AMCM squadrons) and HC-4 (NAS Sigonella, Italy-based VOD squadron).  Training conducted in HMT-302.  A validation/verification contract was awarded in FY95 for the Global

Positioning System/cockpit upgrade integration effort. This program, known as the MH-53E Navigation/Communication System, will meet GPS navigation requirements and will correct a mission navigation system deficiency.  Three of four fleet retrofit contracts have been awarded for the T64-GE419 engine upgrade program. Retrofit of the 419 engines are scheduled to commence in FY97. The 419 engine can produce 5,000 shaft horsepower and will correct a deficiency concerning one-engine-inoperative performance during AMCM operations.  Additional H-53 generic modification programs include: the AN/ARC-210, No. 2 engine thermal detector, NVG compatible exterior lighting, tail rotor drive shaft disconnect coupling monitor, integrated mechanical diagnostic system, and a service life extension program.

MH/CH-53 TECHNICAL DATA: External Dimensions
Main rotor diameter Main rotor blade chord Tail rotor diameter Tail rotor blade chord Distance between rotor centres Wing span Wing aspect ratio Length: overall, rotors turning fuselage length Width of fuselage Height: to top of rotor head Overall Height, (tail rotor turning) Ground clearance, main rotor, turning Elevator span Width over skids 30.19m 22.35m 2.69m 5.32m 8.97m 24.08m 0.76m 6.10m

Main rotor blades (each) Tail rotor blades (each) Main rotor disc Tail rotor disc Vertical fin Horizontal tail surfaces 455.38m 2 29.19m 2

Weights and Loadings
Weight empty 16,482kg

Maximum useful load (fuel and disposable ordinance) Maximum Take off and landing weight Maximum disc loading Maximum power loading

Performance :
Never -exceed speed (Vne) Maximum level speed at S/L Rate of climb at S/L, OEI (25,000lb load) 170 knots 762m/min

Service ceiling @ max continuous power Hovering ceiling @ max power: IGE OGE


3,520m 2,895m

The TH-57 aircraft is the military version of the commercial Model 206 Jet Ranger helicopter manufactured by Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. The aircraft is powered by one Allison Gas Turbine 250-C20J turboshaft engine downrated to 317 shaft horsepower. The primary mission of TH-57 is to train student naval aviators in the fundamentals of helicopter flight for their transition to operational fleet aircraft in the U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, and selected international armed forces. TH-57 aircraft was procured as a commercial derivative aircraft certified under FAA Type Certificate. Throughout its’ life, the aircraft has been commercially supported using COTS/NDI components and a combination of Navy and FAA processes, procedures and certifications to support airworthiness. Aircraft modification efforts are "turnkey" projects (non-recurring engineering, procurement, installation, test and certification) implemented as part of competitively awarded maintenance contracts.

OH-58D Kiowa Warrior
The OH-58D Kiowa Warrior is a two-place single engine armed reconnaissance helicopter. The OH58D's highly accurate navigation system permits precise target location that can be handed-off to other engagement systems. The OH-58D has an infrared thermal imaging capability and can display night vision goggle flight reference symbology. It's laser designator/laser rangefinder can provide autonomous designation for laser-guided precision weapons. Airto-Air Stinger (ATAS) issiles provide the Kiowa Warrior with protection against threat aircraft. The primary mission of the Kiowa Warrior is armed reconnaissance in air cavalry troops and light attack companies. In addition, the Kiowa Warrior may be called upon to participate in the following missions or tasks:
   

Joint Air Attack (JAAT) operations Air combat Limited attack operations Artillery target designation.

The Kiowa Warrior is an armed version of the earlier OH-58D Kiowa Advanced Helicopter Improvement Program (AHIP) aircraft, which itself was a highly modified version of the OH-58A/C Kiowa. A hostile gunboat presence at night in the Persian Gulf in 1987 created the need for a small armed scout helicopter for interdiction. Close team work between the U.S. Armed Forces and Bell Helicopter Textron, Inc. developed the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior in less than 100 days, to counter this threat. The Kiowa Warrior procurement plan is to acquire, through modification or retrofit of existing OH-58A and D aircraft, approximately 401 Kiowa Warriors. There are two concurrent programs which produce Kiowa Warriors: a program which modifies OH-58A aircraft, and a retrofit program that will eventually re-configure all 185 OH-58D Army Helicopter Improvement Program models. The Department of the Army has specified an acquisition objective of 507 Kiowa Warriors even though the current procurement authorization is for only 401 of them. The first Kiowa Warrior was delivered to the Army in May 1991. It is replacing selected AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters (those that function as scouts in air cavalry troops and light attack companies), and OH-58A and C Kiowas in air cavalry troops. Initially a Full Material Release decision was scheduled for Q4FY94. However, the aircraft has been able to attain only a "conditional" material release from the Army Materiel Command due

to the autorotation issue described below and other safety concerns. The Kiowa Warrior was placed on the OSD oversight list in 1990 for DT, OT, and as a LFT candidate. There is no B-LRIP report or acquisition decision required for this system, however a LFT&E report will be submitted to Congress. The Mast Mounted Sight (MMS) is one of the key elements of the Kiowa Warrior. Its unique day/night capabilities allow the crew to scan the battlefield with the ability to acquire, identify, and derive the coordinate locations of potential targets. The US Navy selected the Kiowa Warrior Mast Mounted Sight for use on their ships. They were so pleased with it's performance that they entered into a program to update the technology in the existing platform. Their current Mast Mounted Sight II sight is smaller, lighter in weight, and half the cost of the US Army MMS. In addition, the optics have been upgraded through the application of technology insertion. The dollar cost avoidance in acquisition, operations and support cost, and spare components to support this system on the Kiowa Warrior is potentially significant. The AIM-1 MLR (and DLR), a class IIIb infrared (IR) laser, provides a beam of light invisible to the naked eye. Its beam is said to be effective for aiming at ranges up to 3km. It is designed to operate in conjunction with standard night vision devices (its beam's impact point visible). The AIM-1 laser is boresighted to a point 2.8 inches vertically above the .50 Cal machine gun barrel bore center line of sight at a distance of 500 inches. This provides the proper offset for firing at a range of 1000 meters. The principal difference between the Kiowa Warrior and its immediate OH-58D predecessor is a universal weapons pylon on both sides of the aircraft capable of accepting combinations of the semi-active laser Hellfire missile, the Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS) missile, 2.75" Folding Fin Aerial Rocket (FFAR) pods, and a 0.50 caliber machine gun. In addition to these weapons, the Kiowa Warrior upgrade includes changes designed to provide improvements in air-to-air and air-to-ground communications, mission planning and management, available power, survivability, night flying, and reductions in crew workload through the use of on-board automation and cockpit integration. Since the last OA conducted in FY94, the Army determined that modifications in mission and equipment over time have created a deficiency in the Kiowa Warrior autorotation capability. In general terms, the cumulative addition of new equipment caused the weight of the aircraft to increase dramatically, meaning that in the event of an engine failure or other similar occurrence, the aircraft lost some of its original autorotative capability, causing the aircraft to descend faster and experience an extended ground slide upon touchdown. As a result, the Army developed a two-phase Safety Enhancement Program (SEP) to reduce the safety risk to Kiowa Warrior aviators. The SEP consists of both training and material changes. An improved version of the T-703 (R-3) engine will be installed which provides higher reliability and double the current overhaul interval, greater hot day power, and a Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC). The FADEC provides automatic rotor

speed control, inflight restart, and performance recording, as well as more precise fuel metering capabilities. Additionally, an integrated body and head restraint system, a cockpit air bag system, and energy absorbing seats will be installed to enhance survivability in any crash situation. Beginning in March 1997, a number of improvements were introduced into new production OH-58Ds resulting from Task Force XXI exercises that took place at Fort Irwin, CA in March 1997, to demonstrate the Army's concept of the "digital battlefield". These improvements include an improved Allison 250-C30R/3 650 shp engine equipped with an upgraded hot section to improve high-altitude/hot-day performance. The C30R/3 will be fitted with a full authority digital electronic control system that will replace the hydromechanical fuel control unit. The improved production Kiowa Warrior will have an integrated cockpit control and display system, master control processor with digital map and video crosslink, along with an improved data modem, secure radio communications, and a GPS embedded in the inertial navigation system. Additional improvements include an infrared jammer, infrared suppressor, radar warning receivers, and a laser warning detector to improve aircraft survivability. The robust sensor capabilities of the KW in its mission as an armed reconnaissance aircraft, would be greatly enhanced by more effective communications within today’s digitized battlefield. By using the highly integrated avionics already on the aircraft, this capability can be added with only minor hardware and software changes. Video Image Crosslink (VIXL) provides the KW with the capability to send and receive still frame images over one of the FM radios. The VIXL consists of a circuit card installed in the IMCPU. In 1996 the KW Product Manager’s Office (PMO) developed four VIXL ground stations, which consist of an Aviation Mission Planning Station (AMPS) with a Tactical Communication Interface Modules (TCIM) and a SINCGARS radio. The ground stations will be used to transfer VIXL images on the ground. Improved Mast Mounted Sight System Processor (IMSP) will replace the current configuration MMS System Processor (MSP). The product improved aircraft will include a new high-speed digital signal processor that will provide improved tracking capabilities by split-screen in both TV and Thermal Imaging Sight (TIS) modes, low contrast target tracking, simultaneous multi-target tracking of up to six targets, moving target indicator, aided target recognition, and automatic reaquiring of targets lost due to obstruction. The operator video display will reflect real time TV zoom and still frame capabilities. The IMSP enhancements consist of the use of high-speed Gallium Arsenide based digital signal processor integrated circuits in the MMS signal processor. The Circuit Card Assembly count in the processor will be reduced from 30 to 16. This reduction and use of state-of-the-art component technology enhances reliability, maintainability, and supportability. The IMSP will provide for enhanced growth and will not require substantial aircraft hardware changes. An update to the aircraft software, however, is required to execute the enhanced functions of the upgraded processor. This provides for future insertion of neural net automatic target recognition, identification of friend or foe, passive ranging, and real-time image enhancements. Form and fit of the existing MMS system processor is maintained, and is backwards compatible with the MMS System Processor (MSP). As of July 1997, all aircraft delivered from the Bell Helicopter production lots will have the IMSP installed. All retrofit aircraft will be equipped MSPs. As the MSPs are removed through attrition, they are replaced with IMSPs.

The addition of weapons, improved cockpit integration, and better navigational capability have resulted in an aircraft that is much more capable than its predecessor. Furthermore, the potential enhancements to mission planning and management provided by the aviation mission planning system (AMPS) and data transfer system (DTS) were very apparent during the DSUFTP. All of these improvements were achieved without any noticeable impact on readiness, as indicated by the aircraft's operational availability.

Crew Height Length Rotor diameter Maximum gross weight Maximum airspeed Cruise airspeed Endurance Cargo hook capacity Litter capacity Troop-carrying capacity 2 pilots 12 feet 10.6 inches 41 feet 2.4 inches 35 feet 4,500 pounds (unarmed); 5,500 pounds (armed) 125 KIAS 80 KIAS 2 hours 2,000 pounds 4 (externally) 6 (externally). Data transfer system ground station, data transfer module, data transfer receptacle in the aircraft. Video tape recorder records up to 2 hours of copilot's MFD. ANVIS display symbology system provides basic flight information. Thermal imaging sensor. Television sensor. Laser range finder/designator. Optical boresight system. .50-caliber heavy machine gun. 70-millimeter folding fin aerial rocket. Air-to-air Stinger missile. Hellfire modular missile system. Two VHF-FM AN/ARC-186 or AN/ARC-201 SINCGARS.


Mast-mounted sight


Communication equipment

One UHF AN/ARC-164 Have Quick. One VHF-AM AN/ARC-186. Two TSEC/KY-58. HF capable (radio not installed). TSEC/KY-75 (device not installed). Retransmission capabilities. FM homing (AN/ARC-186 only). Airborne target handover system (digital communications). Navigation equipment Attitude and heading reference system (Litton LR-80 Inertial). AN/ASN-137 doppler. AN/ASN-43 directional gyro.

AN/APX-100 IFF. AN/ALQ-144 IR jammer. Aircraft survivability AN/APR-39A radar warning receiver. equipment AN/APR-44(V)3 radar warning receiver. AN/AVR-2 laser detecting set.


SH-60 LAMPS MK III Seahawk
The Seahawk is a twin-engine helicopter. It is used for anti-submarine warfare, search and rescue, drug interdiction, anti-ship warfare, cargo lift, and special operations. The Navy's SH-60B Seahawk is an airborne platform based aboard cruisers, destroyers, and frigates and deploys sonobouys (sonic detectors) and torpedoes in an anti-submarine role. They also extend the range of the ship's radar capabilities. The Navy's SH-60F is carrierbased. Some versions, such as the Air Force's MH-60 G Pave Hawk and the Coast Guard's HH-60J Jayhawk, are equipped with a rescue hoist with a 250 foot (75 meter) cable that has a 600 pound (270 kg) lift capability, and a retractable in-flight refueling probe. The Army's UH-60L Black Hawk can carry 11 soldiers or 2,600 pounds (1,170 kg) of cargo or sling load 9,000 pounds (4,050 kg) of cargo. The UH-60 Black Hawk was fielded by the Army in 1979. The Navy received the SH60B Seahawk in 1983 and the SH-60F in 1988. The Air Force received the MH-60G Pave Hawk in 1982 while the Coast Guard received the HH-60J Jayhawk in 1992. The SH-60B typically has a crew of three: a pilot, an airborne tactical officer (ATO) and a sensor operator, or “senso.” The ATO is responsible for the tactical situa-tion, deciding what assets will be used to prosecute the target and handling the coordination of other assets on scene. The sensor operator is an enlisted Sailor who operates the radar and magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) equipment, interprets acoustic data and performs SAR rescues. All sensos must maintain their qualifications as rescue swimmers. LAMPS is the acronym for Light Airborne Multipurpose System. The SH-60B helicopter is configured specifically in response to the LAMPS requirement of the U.S. Navy. The LAMPS MK III system bas been designed to the Navy's sea control mission. In fulfilling the mission, LAMPS MK III will encounter a threat that has many dimensions. The threat encompasses a hostile submarine fleet and missile-equipped surface ships. The system extends the search and attack capabilities of LAMPS MK III configured destroyer, frigate, and cruiser platforms,deploying helicopters directly from these ships. The primary missions of the LAMPS MK III are those of ASUW and ASW. Aircraft prior to BUNO 162349 are capable of the antiship surveillance and targeting (ASST) and ASW roles only. Effective with BUNO 162349 and subsequent, LAMPS MK III are equipped to employ the Mk 2 Mod 7 Penguin missile. LAMPS MK III equipped with the missile can be used in the additional role of ASUW attack. In an ASW mission, the aircraft is deployed from the parent ship to classify, localize, and potentially attack when a suspected threat has been detected by the ship's towed-array sonar, hull-mounted sonar, or by other internal or external sources. When used in an

ASUW mission, the aircraft provides a mobile, elevated platform for observing, identifying, and localizing threat platfoms beyond the parent ship's radar and/or electronic support measure (ESM) horizon. When a suspected threat is detected, classification and targeting data is provided to the parent ship via the datalink for surfaceto-surface weapon engagement. Penguin missile equipped aircraft may conduct independent or coordinated attack, dependent upon the threat and tactical scenario. Secondary missions include search and rescue (SAR), medical evacuation (MEDEVAC), vertical replenishment (VERTREP), naval gunfire support (NGFS), and communications relay (COMREL). In the VERTREP mission, the aircraft is able to transfer material and personnel between ships, or between ship and shore. In the SAR mission, the aircraft is designed to search for and locate a particular target/object/ship or plane and to rescue personnel using the rescue hoist. In the MEDEVAC mission, the aircraft provides for the medical evacuation of ambulatory and litterbound patients. In the COMREL mission, the aicraft serves as a receiver and transmitter relay station for over-the-horizon (OTH) communications between units. In the NGFS mission, the aircraft provides a platform for spotting and controlling naval gunfire from either the parent ship or other units. Equipment of the SH-2G includes an AQS-18A dipping sonar, an ARR-84 sonobuoy receiver, AQS magnetic anomaly detector, LN-66 radar and AKT-22 data link. Also, a 600 kg rescue hoist can be installed. Small arms mountings for guns and 2.75 inch rockets are available. The SH-60F uses a variable depth sonar and sonobuoys to detect and track enemy submarines. Detection is primarily accomplished by using the AQS-13F dipping sonar which is deployed on a 1575 foot cable while the aircraft hovers 60ft above the ocean. The pilots are assisted in maintaining their 60ft day or night all weather hover by an automatic flight control system. There are two data link antennas--one forward and one aft on the underside of the aircraft. The search radar antenna is also located on the underside of the aircraft. Other antennas (UHF/VHF, HF, radar altimeter, TACAN, ESM, sonobuoy receivers, doppler, ADF, IFF, and GPS) are located at various points on the helicopter. The left inboard, left outboard, and right weapon pylons accommodate BRU-14/A weapon/stores racks. Fittings for torpedo parachute release lanyards are located on the fuselage aft of each weapon pylon. Effective on BUNO 162349 and subsequent, the left and right inboard pylons have wiring and tubing provisions for auxiliary fuel tanks. All pylons have wiring provisions to accommodate the MK 50 torpedo. The left outboard weapon pylon can accommodate a missile launch assembly (MLA) which is used to mount the MK 2 MOD 7 Penguin air-to-surface missile. The magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) towed body and reeling machine are mounted on a faired structure that extends from the forward tail-cone transition section on the right side of the aircraft. It is positioned above and aft of the right weapon pylon. The sonobuoy launcher is located on the left side of the aircraft above the left weapon pylon. The sonobuoy launcher is loaded from ground level outside the aircraft. Sonobuoys are pneumatically launched laterally to the left of the aircraft.

The airborne RAST system main probe and external cargo hook are on the bottom fuselage centerline, just aft of the main rotor center line. Fuel service connections, for both gravity and pressure refueling, are located on the left side of the aircraft aft of the weapon pylons. Dual-engine waterwash is manifolded from a single-point selector valve connector on the left side of the aircraft above the sensor operator's (SO) window. The long strokes of both main and tail wheel oleos are designed to dissipate high-sink-rate landing energy. Axle and high-point tiedowns are provided at each main gear. Fuselage attachments are provided above the tail gear for connection to the RAST tail-guide winch system allowing aircraft maneuvering and straightening aboard ship (41k) and for tail pylon tiedown. Emergency flotation bags are installed in the stub wing fairing of the main landing gear on both sides of the aircraft. The easiest way to externally identify a LAMPS helicopter is the large cylindrical fairing under the nose, housing the 360-degree- a MAD, an electronic surveillance/ support measures (ESM) system, missile jamming equipment and missile plume detectors. The SH-60B can be armed with both MK 46 and MK 50 torpedoes and a single M60 machine gun. A recent SH-60B modification incorporated the ability to carry the AGM-119B Penguin missile, giving the Seahawka potent surface strike capability. The Global Positioning System has also become standard equipment on most SH-60Bs. Some LAMPS MK III Seahawksalready carry Hellfire missiles and night vision goggles. In addition, funding has been allo-cated to retrofit all SH-60Bs in the HSL community with forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensors.

The Navy’s Helicopter Master Plan prescribes reducing the variety of operational helicopters in fleet service to one primary aircraft. Plans to remaanufacture and upgrade the current fleet of Sikorsky-built H-60 S Seahawks and to procure Sikorsky’s CH-60 utility helicopter are putting the Navy closer to a achieving that goal. Within the next two decades, anyone flying in a US Navy fleet helicopte will almost assuredly be flying one of two HH-60 versions -- the SH-60R or the CH-60. The Helicopter Master Plan calls for the remanufacture of SH-60B, SH-60F and HH-60H Seahawks into a common, more versatile SH-60R configuration that will meet Navy requirements through 2015. The SH60R will combine the traditional mission areas of the SH-60B and SH-60F, but will be more capable. With the Navy’s helicopter antisubmarine (HS) and helicopter antisubmarine light (HSL) squadrons operating the same helicopter, opportunities for adjustments in the force structure will emerge, such as reducing the number of fleet readiness squadrons that support the SH-60 fleet. The distinction between the HS and HSL communities may even disappear altogether. The SH-60(R) Multi-Mission Helicopter Upgrade (formally called LAMPS MK III Block II Upgrade) brings improvements to the SH-60 B/F helicopters now in the fleet. The SH60R program will give Seahawks a life extension to 20,000 flight hours, to provide a multi-mission platform capable of conducting undersea and surface warfare for the next 20 to 25 years. This upgrade improves the capability of the LAMPS MK III Weapons System to provide battle group protection and to add significant capability in coastal

littorals and regional conflicts. The SH-60R’s systems will be able to deal with high numbers of air and sea contacts in a confined space, in shallow water. It will operate with a carrier group, or with a surface action group, where no air cover is available. To fight and survive in this environment, detection systems will be added to the SH-60R that include a new multimode radar, FLIR sensor, ESM system and a retrievable, active, lowfrequency sonar with significantly greater processing power. Improvements include the addition of two stores stations, a data bus, advanced lowfrequency sonar, acoustic processor, multimode radar, Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) sensor, upgraded ESM system and integrated self-defense system. The MAD gear will be deleted. Cockpit mission system improvements include the addition of an upgraded mission computer, improved communications suite, high-resolution displays, programmable keysets and tactical aids. The SH-60R will carry AGM-119 Penguin antishipping missiles and AGM-114 Hellfire anti-armor missiles, as well as the current MK 46 and MK 50 ASW torpedoes and a door-mounted 7.62 mm machine gun. The Upgrade represents a significant avionics modification to the SH-60 series aircraft enhancing USW, ASUW, surveillance and ID and power projection, supporting the operational requirements of full-dimensional protection. The Upgrade develops the Airborne Low Frequency Sonar (ALFS) and increases sonobuoy and acoustic signal processing using the UYS-2A Enhanced Modular Signal Processor. In addition, the aircraft will employ a Multi-Mode Radar (MMR), (including Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) and imaging and periscope detection modes), an ESM upgrade, and a fully automated self protection system. The improved electronics surveillance measures system (ESM) will enable passive detection and targeting of radar sources not currently detectable. The added multi-mode radar includes an inverse synthetic aperture radar mode (permits stand-off classification of hostile threats). Additionally, the aircraft will employ a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) sensor, with laser designator and capability to launch Hellfire missiles. The Airborne Low Frequency Sonar (ALFS) and increased sonobuoy processing capability for the SH-60 helicopter will maintain and improve undersea warfare mission effectiveness against the quiet submarine threat in deep and shallow water environments. The ALFS project provides a dipping sonar with demonstrated capabilities typically 3 to 6 times (square miles of ocean searched per hour) the existing deep water capability. This improvement will significantly increase battle group and independent ship protection providing improved survivability and operating flexibility. ALFS provides longer detection ranges and a greater detection capability by using lower frequencies, less signal attenuation, longer pulse lengths, improved processing and increased transmission power. ALFS utilizes the Enhanced Modular Signal Processor, designated UYS-2A, for improved sonobuoy processing capability. LAMPS MK III completed OPEVAL in February 1982 and was found to be effective and suitable. FOT&E which tested the LAMPS MK III Block I Upgrade was completed in 1993 with similar results. The Block II Upgrade entered EMD in FY93 and building on the Block I Baseline, includes major avionics modifications. The Navy plans to install

this upgrade in former SH-60B, SH-60F or HH-60H airframes that have undergone "remanufacture" in the H-60 Service Life Extension Program (SLEP), the resultant aircraft to be designated a SH-60R. Although the airframe itself is not new, the SH-60R program has considerable risk due to the reliability problems with ALFS, higher than expected false alarm rates on the Advanced Radar Detection and Discrimination (ARPDD) program of the MMR, anticipated additional problems with the MMR and incorporation of a new cockpit that will be common to the CH-60. Remanufacture of the SH-60B fleet has started and will continue through FY 2009. Remanufacture of the SH-60F and HH-60H fleets will begin in FY 2004 and continue through FY 2012. Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor for low-rate initial production of four SH-60Rs, with Sikorsky as major subcontractor. The SH-60R is scheduled to reach operational capability in 2002. SH-60B AIRCRAFT DESCRIPTION
Contractor: Loral Federal Systems (Prime), Sikorsky Aircraft Corp. Type: Maritime twin-turbine helicopter with folding single main rotor and tail rotor dynamic system Power Plant:  Two General Electric T700-GE-401C turboshaft engines coupled to a 3,400 shaft horsepower transmission  Each engine can produce 1,662 shaft horsepower Crew:  Pilot  Airborne Tactical Office/Copilot  Sensor Operator Performance:       Range: 450 nautical miles Mission Endurance: 4 hours Dash Speed: 160 knots Service Ceiling: 13,000 feet DA Rate of Climb (at sea level): 1,800 ft/min Rate of Climb with One Engine (at sea level): 480 ft/min


Not applicable Armament: Three external store stations for two MK-46/50 torpedoes and one AGM-119B Penguin air-to-surface missile. Mission and Capabilities:  Combat-capable, multi-mission helicopter  Currently operates from U.S. Navy frigates and cruisers  LAMPS (Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System) extends the ship's horizon of engagement by 100 nautical miles or more by providing an airborne platform from which all-weather detection, classification, localization, and interdiction of submarines and surface ships can be performed.  Missions include: Undersea Warfare (USW), Anti-Surface Warfare (ASUW), Anti-Ship Surveillance and Targeting (ASST), as well as utility missions such as vertical replenishment and communications relay.  Equipped with radar, Electronic Support Measures (ESM), Global Positioning System (GPS), acoustic sensing, and onboard mission and acoustic processors.  Has a secure, dedicated, high-speed data link.  Although processing of acoustic, ESM, and sensor data can be performed aboard the aircraft, LAMPS uses the data link for real-time communication between ship and air platforms, which minimizes verbal interface and significantly increases combat effectiveness.  Airframe has enhanced corrosion protection, an emergency flotation system, a rescue hoist, and a 6,000 pound external cargo hook.  Shipboard compatibility is enhanced with automatic blade fold, manual tail pylon fold, and a Recovery, Assist, Secure, and Traversing (RAST) system.  An automatic flight control system provides redundant stability augmentation and autopilot capabilities.  Expanded night capabilities will be provided with the Forward Looking Infra-Red (FLIR) system (available in 1996). Program Summary:  First production contract signed in 1980.  Since 1980, 175 aircraft have been delivered; six were procured by the Spanish Navy and have been operating successfully in conjunction with NATO forces since 1988.  In 1989, a Block I improvement program resulted in the full system integration of GPS, self-defense systems, Penguin missile, MK-50 torpedo, and an improved sonobuoy receiver.  A Block II improvement program is currently being planned that will further enhance the system's versatility by adding a lowfrequency dipping sonar, a multi-mode radar subsystem, and improvements to the aircraft's survivability systems, data link,

communications system, and operator interfaces.

H-60 TECHNICAL DATA: External Dimensions
Main rotor diameter Main rotor blade chord Tail rotor diameter Tail rotor blade chord Distance between rotor centers Wing span Wing aspect ratio Length: overall, rotors turning fuselage Width overall Height: (to top of rotor) head Overall height, (tail rotor turning) Ground clearance, main rotor, turning Elevator span Width over skids 19.76m 15.26m 2.36m 3.79m 5.18m 16.36m 0.53m 3.35m

Main rotor blades (each) Tail rotor blades (each) Main rotor disc Tail rotor disc Vertical fin Horizontal tail surfaces 4.34m2 0.41m

210.15m2 8.83m 3.00m
2 2


Weights and Loadings
Weight empty (ASW) Mission fuel load (usable) Maximum useful load (fuel and disposable ordinance) Maximum takeoff and landing weight Maximum disc loading Maximum power loading 47.2kg/m2 3.92kg/m


Never-exceed speed (Vne) Maximum level speed at S/L (Dash Speed) Rate of climb at S/L, OEI Service ceiling 126 knots 213m/min 5,790m

Service ceiling, OEI Hovering ceiling IGE OGE Range at S/L with standard fuel, no reserves 319 nm 2,895m

UH-60 Black Hawk UH-60L Black Hawk UH-60Q MEDEVAC MH-60G Pave Hawk HH-60G Pave Hawk CH-60 Sea Hawk
UH-60 Black Hawk
The Black Hawk is the Army’s front-line utility helicopter used for air assault, air cavalry, and aeromedical evacuation units. It is designed to carry 11 combat-loaded, air assault troops, and it is capable of moving a 105-millimeter howitzer and 30 rounds of ammunition. First deployed in 1978, the Black Hawk’s advanced technology makes it easy to maintain in the field. The Black Hawk has performed admirably in a variety of missions, including air assault, air cavalry and aeromedical evacuations. In addition, modified Black Hawks operate as command and control, electronic warfare, and special operations platforms. The UH-60A, first flown in October 1974, was developed as result of the Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS) program. The UTTAS was designed for troop transport, command and control, MedEvac, and reconnaissance, to replace the UH-1 Series "Huey" in the combat assault role. In August 1972, the U.S. Army selected the Sikorsky (model S-70) YUH-60A and the Boeing Vertol (model 237) YUH-61A (1974) as competitors in the Utility Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS) program. The Boeing Vertol YUH-61A had a four-bladed composite rotor, was powered by the same General Electric T700 engine as the Sikorsky YUH-60A, and could carry 11 troops. In December 1976 Sikorsky won the competition to produce the UH-60A, subsequently named the Black Hawk. The Black Hawk is the primary division-level transport helicopter, providing dramatic improvements in troop capacity and cargo lift capability compared to the UH-1 Series "Huey" it replaces. The UH-60A, with a crew of three, can lift an entire 11-man fullyequipped infantry squad in most weather conditions. It can be configured to carry four litters, by removing eight troop seats, in the MedEval role. Both the pilot and co-pilot are provided with armor-protective seats. Protective armor on the Black Hawk can withstand hits from 23mm shells. The Black Hawk has a cargo hook for external lift missions. The Black Hawk has provisions for door mounting of two M60D 7.62mm machine guns on

the M144 armament subsystem, and can disperse chaff and infrared jamming flares using the M130 general purpose dispenser. The Black Hawk has a composite titanium and fiberglass four-bladed main rotor, is powered by two General Electric T700-GE-700 1622 shp turboshaft engines, and has a speed of 163 mph (142 knots). Elements of the US Army Aviation UH-60A/l Blackhawk helicopter fleet will begin reaching their sevice life goal of 25 years in 2002. In order for the fleet to remain operationally effective through the time period 2025-2030 the aircraft will need to go through an inspection, refurbishment, and modernization process that will validate the structural integrity of the airframe, incorporate improvements in sub-systems so as to reduce maintenance requirements, and modernize the mission equipment and avionics to the levels compatible with Force XXI and Army After Next (AAN) demands. A Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) is planned for the UH-60 beginning in FY99. The UH-60 modernization program will identify material requirements to effectively address known operational deficiencies to ensure the Black Hawk is equipped and capable of meeting battlefield requirements through the 2025-2030 timeframe. Primary modernization areas for consideration are: increased lift, advanced avionics (digital communications and navigation suites), enhanced aircraft survivability equipment (ASE), increased reliability and maintainability (R & M), airframe service life extension (SLEP), and reduced operations and support (O & S) costs. Suspense date for the approved Operational Requirements Document (ORD) is December 1998.

The Army began fielding the UH-60 in 1978. From 1978 until 1989 the Army procured UH-60A model aircraft. In October 1989, a power train upgrade resulted in a model designation change from UH-60A to UH-60L. The UH-60L version that provides 24 percent more power than the original 1970 UH-60A model. As of the end of FY97, the Army had procured 483 UH-60L models for a total UH-60 acquisition of 1,463 aircraft. The Army is in the fifth and final year of a multi-year procurement contract calling for the delivery of 60 aircraft per year. UH-60L In October 1989, the engines were upgraded to two General Electric T700-GE701C 1890 shp turboshaft engines, and an improved durability gear box was added, resulting in a model designation change from UH-60A to UH-60L. The T700-GE-701C has better high altitude and hot weather performance, greater lifting capacity, and improved corrosion protection. The helicopter can carry a gross weight of 22,000 Lbs and an external load of 9,000 Lbs. The UH-60L

variant can utilize an External Stores Support System or ESSS to expand its capabilities. The ESSS system consists of removable "four-station pylons" that can carry external fuel tanks that can extend the Blackhawk range up to 1,150 nautical miles or sixteen Hellfire missiles. Furthermore, Sikorsky states that the Blackhawk can store an additional sixteen Hellfire missiles internally, and deploy a wide range of weapons systmes ranging from guns to mine dispensers.

Manufacturer Performance Sikorsky Aircraft Max Cruise Speed 4,000 ft; 95°F 152 knots 2,000 ft; 70°F 159 knots SLS 155 knots VNE 193 knots Vertical rate of Climb 95% MRP 4,000 ft; 95°F 1,550 ft per minute 2,000 ft; 70°F 2,750 ft per minute SLS > 3,000 ft per minute Service Ceiling (ISA day) 19,1510 ft Hover Ceiling MRP-OGE 95°F 7,650 ft 70°F 9,375 ft Standard Day 11,125 ft Weight Empty 11,516 Lbs Mission gross weight - 17,432 Lbs Maximum gross weight - 22,000 Lbs Maximum gross weight (ferry) - 24,500 Lbs Length Height Rotor 64 ft 10 in 16 ft 10 in Diameter 53 ft 8 in Four titanium and fiberglass blades

UH-60 Firehawk

is a Reseach and Development program to provide the UH-60 series helicopter with both a wartime and peacetime fire fighting capability by use of a detachable 1,000 gal. belly tank. Qualification issues include design and testing required to maintain the combat capabilities of the UH-60 Black Hawk and the safe flight envelope of the aircraft with the tank.

Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) variant has a unique external antenna designed to intercept and jam enemy communications. The EH-60E is powered by two General Electric T700-GE-700 1622 shp turboshaft engines.

version was a Stand-Off Target Acquisition System designed to detect the movement of enemy forces on the battlefield and relay the information to a ground station.

The UH-60Q MEDEVAC helicopter provides significant enroute patient care enhancements. The UH-60Q provides a 6 patient litter system, on-board oxygen generation, and a medical suction system. UH-60Q is a UH-60A derivative and incorporates approximate UH-60A characteristics. It is simply the best in aeromedical evacuation. Building on the BLACK HAWK's heritage of saving lives in Grenada, Panama, Kuwait and Somalia, the UH-60Q delivers exceptional patient care, increased survivability, longer range, greater speed and added missions capability. For military combatants. War victims. Civilians injured in natural disasters. It has a state-of-the-art medical interior that can accomodate a crew of three and up to six acute care patients. The UH-60Q's leading-edge technology incorporates an improved environmental control system. Cardiac monitoring systems. Oxygen generation, distribution and suction systems. Airway management capability. Provision for stowing IV solutions. And an external electrical rescue hoist. And in addition to extensive immediate care, the UH-60Q can perform all weather terrain battlefield evacuation, combat search and rescue, hospital ship lifeline missions, deep operations support, forward surgical team transport, medical logistics resupply, medical personnel movement, patient regulating, disaster/humanitarian relief, and MAST/HELP state support. The UH-60Q's medical interior can accomodate three to six acute care patients and their medical attendants. Ergonomic design has maximized the UH-60Q cabin space, placing sophisticated, life-saving instruments and equipment at the fingertips of the medical attendants. A unique platform design allows the interior to transport either six litter of seven ambulatory systems, oxygen distribution and suction systems, airway management capability, and provisions for stowing intravenous solutions. The interior also features these additional capabilities, essentical to providing the highest degree of patient care when every second counts:

     

Oxygen Generating Systems NVG Compatible Lighting Throughout Environmental Control System Medical Equipment Patient Monitoring Equipment Neonatal Isolettes

The UH-60Q communications architecture provides situational awareness and digital communications and is expected to be the model for anticipated fleet-wide improvements to the UH-60. Other improvements include integrated Doppler/GPS, Personnel Locator System, NVG interior lighting, and FLIR. Modernizing the Medical Evacuation (MEDEVAC) system is the Army Surgeon General's number one near term priority. The General Accounting Office identified the evacuation deficiency in its report to Congress in 1992. The Army Plan states, "Enhance the battlefield medical system by acquiring modern medical evacuation aircraft" Lessons learned from Operations Just Cause and Desert Storm showed a need for medical version of the UH-60. The UH-60Q was a TRADOC FY96-10 and FY97-11 "must have" Warfighting Lens Analysis solution in order to decrease risk, improve deployability, supportability and training of the force and ensure survivability of Early Entry/Dismounted Forces. Medical Evacuation was the Surgeon General’s number one near-term medical modernization priority in the FY94-08, FY95-09, &FY96-10 Army Modernization Plan. CINC requests the replacement of UH-1 MEDEVAC aircraft with UH-60Q.

Manufacturer Length Width Height Weight Propulsion Crew Speed Vertical Rate of Climb Max Range Sikorsky Aircraft 64 feet 10 inches(rotor turning) 53 feet 8 inches (rotor turning) 16 feet 10 inches (overall) 11,500 pounds Two T700-GE-701Cs Three 150 knots 185 FPM 315 nm (internal fuel)

MH-60G Pave Hawk

The Pave Hawk is a twin-engine medium-lift helicopter operated by the Air Force Special Operations Command, a component of the U.S. Special Operations Command. The MH-60G's primary wartime missions are infiltration, exfiltration and resupply of special operations forces in day, night or marginal weather conditions. Other missions include combat search and rescue. During Desert Storm, Pave Hawks provided combat recovery for coalition air forces in Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the Persian Gulf. They also provided emergency evacuation coverage for U.S. Navy sea, air and land (SEAL) teams penetrating the Kuwait coas t before the invasion. The MH-60G is equipped with an all-weather radar which enables the crew to avoid inclement weather. To extend their range, Pave Hawks are equipped with a retractable inflight refueling probe and internal auxiliary fuel tanks. Pave Hawks are equipped with a rescue hoist with a 200-foot (60.7 meters) cable and 600-pound (270 kilograms) lift capacity. All MH-60G's have an automatic flight control system to stabilize the aircraft in typical flight altitudes. They also have instrumentation and engine and rotor blade antiice systems for all-weather operation. The non-retractable landing gear consists of two main landing gears and a tail wheel. Aft sliding doors on each side of the troop and cargo compartment allow rapid loading and unloading. External loads can be carried on an 8,000-pound (3,600 kilograms) capacity cargo hook. Pave Hawks are equipped with folding rotor blades and a tail stabilator for shipboard operations and to ease air transportability. MH-60K is the standard special operations version of the Black Hawk. It is capable of providing long-range airlifts far into hostile territory in adverse weather conditions. Modifications include two removable 230 gallon external fuel tanks, two .50 cal. machine guns, an air-to-air refueling probe, and an external hoist. The MH-60K can also be armed with two M134 7.62mm "miniguns". A new avionics suite includes interactive Multi-Function Displays (MFDs), Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR), digital map generator, and terrain avoidance/terrain following multi-mode radar. Survivability equipment includes radar and missile warning systems and IR jammers. The MH-60K has full shipboard operability. It is powered by two General Electric T700-GE-701C 1843 shp turboshaft engines. The older MH-60L can be adapted to the attack mission by attaching dual weapons pylons to both sides of the fuselage. Pylon mounting cannon, rockets, or missiles can be supplemented by door or port mounting guns or launchers, limited mainly by the range, duration, cargo, or troops required to complete the mission. The helicopter's mission is insertion and extraction of special operations troops. Survivability equipment includes radar and missile warning systems and IR jammers. The MH-60L is powered by two General Electric T700-GE-701C 1843 shp turboshaft engines.

Primary Function Builder Infiltration, exfiltration and resupply of special operations forces in day, night or marginal weather conditions. Sikorsky Aircraft Corp.

Power Plant Thrust Length Height Rotary Diameter Speed Maximum Takeoff Weight Range Armament

Two General Electric T700-GE-01C engines 1,630 shaft horsepower, each engine 64 feet, 8 inches (17.1 meters) 16 feet, 8 inches (4.4 meters) 53 feet, 7 inches (14.1 meters) 184 mph (294.4 kph) 22,000 pounds (9,900 kilograms) 445 nautical miles; 504 statute miles (unlimited with air refueling) Two 7.62mm mini-guns $10.1 million (1992 dollars) Unit Cost


Crew Date Deployed Inventory

Two pilots, one flight engineer and one gunner 1982 Active force, 10; ANG, 0; Reserve, 0

HH-60G Pave Hawk
The HH-60G's primary wartime mission is combat search and rescue, infiltration, exfiltration and resupply of special operations forces in day, night or marginal weather conditions. The HH-60G Pave Hawk provides the capability of independent rescue operations in combat areas up to and including medium-threat environments. Recoveries are made by landing or by alternate means, such as rope ladder or hoist. Low-level tactical flight profiles are used to avoid threats. Night Vision Goggle (NVG) and Forward

Looking Infrared (FLIR) assisted low-level night operations and night water operation missions are performed by specially trained crews. The basic crew normally consists of five: pilot, co-pilot, flight engineer, and two PJs. The aircraft can also carry eight to 10 troops. Pave Hawks are equipped with a rescue hoist with a 200-foot (60.7 meters) cable and 600-pound (270 kilograms) lift capacity. The helicopter hoist can recover survivors from a hover height of 200 feet above the ground or vertical landings can be accomplished into unprepared areas. The hoist can recover a Stokes litter patient or three people simultaneously on a forest penetrator. The helicopter has limited self-protection provided by side window mounted M-60, M240, or GAU-2B machine guns. Pave Hawk is equipped with two crew-served 7.62mm miniguns mounted in the cabin windows. Also, two .50 caliber machine guns can be mounted in the cabin doors. An APR-39A(V)1 radar warning receiver, ALQ-144A infrared jammer, Hover Infrared Suppression System (HIRSS), M-130 chaff dispenser, and precision navigation equipment (GPS, Inertial Navigation System (INS), Doppler) afford additional threat avoidance and protection. Mission systems on the HH-60H make it ideally suited for operations with special warfare units. Combat-equipped personnel can be covertly inserted and/or extracted in any terrain with precise GPS navigation accuracy. A variety of insertion and extraction techniques are available, including landing, hoisting, fastrope, rappel, paradrop, McGuire or SPIE Rig, and CRRC. Additionally, Helicopter Visit Board Search and Seizure (HVBSS) operations may be conducted using one or more of these insertion/extraction techniques. HVBSS missions are designed to take control of a ship considered to be a Contact of Interest (COI). The ability to interdict or 'take down' shipping during enforcement of a naval blockade requires precise planning and execution. Tethered Duck (T-Duck) was implemented to rapidly insert troops and a Combat Rubber Raiding Craft (CRRC) to water areas. The troops fastrope down to the CRRC after it is lowered into the water, and the motor is then hoisted down to the troops to complete the procedure. Parachute operations are used for inserting troops when the helicopters are unable to land with a minumum free-fall drop altitude of 2500 feet AGL (above ground level). The maximum speed is 193 knots with a cruise speed of 120 to 140 knots. Unrefueled range is 480 nautical miles (NM), with a combat load and aircraft at maximum gross weight of 22,000 lbs; the combat radius is approximately 200NM. Inflight refueling greatly extends this range. Pave Hawks are equipped with a retractable in-flight refueling probe and internal auxiliary fuel tanks. All HH-60G's have an automatic flight control system to stabilize the aircraft in typical flight altitudes. They also have instrumentation and engine and rotor blade anti-ice systems for all-weather operation. The HH-60G is equipped with an all-weather radar which enables the crew to avoid inclement weather. Pave Hawks are equipped with folding rotor blades and a tail stabilator for shipboard operations and to ease air transportability. The non-retractable landing gear consists of two main landing gears and

a tail wheel. Aft sliding doors on each side of the troop and cargo compartment allow rapid loading and unloading. External loads can be carried on an 8,000-pound (3,600 kilograms) capacity cargo hook. The Pave Hawk can be equipped with the external stores support system. The HH-60 is stationed throughout the world. MAJCOMS include AFRC, ANG, AFSOC, PACAF, AFMC, AETC, and ACC. ACC is the lead command. Besides a full complement of flightline support, home stations provide two and three level maintenance support functions. HH-60 helicopter is a worldwide deployable aircraft. Two 365 day a year contingencies are currently being conducted. In deployment scenarios some locations have full flightline support capabilities with limited backshop support, while other deployed sites have less support, down to a bare base scenario. A flightline support contingent is deployed with the aircraft. Depending on the deployment location and duration, varying levels of backshop maintenance support might also be deployed. HH-60G is rapidly approaching its flying hour service life limit. Consequently, CAF will soon require either a service life extension program (SLEP) for HH-60G or procurement of a replacement aircraft for conducting CSAR operations. The HH-60G System Program Office (WR-ALC/LU) is assessing whether HH-60G’s service life limit is 8,000 flight hours, IAW the Army specification for the H-60 airframe, or actually closer to 7,000 flight hours based upon AF configuration and operating gross weights of the HH-60G. Depending on the assessment results, HH-60G aircraft (1981 models) will begin reaching their service life limit as early as FY00, if service life limit is determined to be 7,000 flight hours. Otherwise, if the limit is determined to be 8,000 flight hours, 1981 model HH-60G aircraft will begin reaching their service life limit in FY03.

Air Combat Command (ACC) is analyzing concepts/alternatives to assess their relative cost effectiveness and affordability for sustaining the U.S. Air Force's Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) capability. After complete concepts/alternatives (aircraft platformlevel,including subsystems, and support/training systems) are received, the Air Force intends to analyze those that provide the most opportunity to satisfy currently deficient mission capabilities while maintaining, as a minimum, existent Combat Rescue capability. A detailed Analysis of Alternatives (AoA) will follow to ascertain whether or not the concepts/alternatives exceed/meet/do not meet the specific measures of effectiveness. The AoA will include modeling, simulation, and CSAR scenarios projected for 2010. If this analysis results in the initiation of an acquisition program to procure a replacement for the HH-60G aircraft, the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) would be in place by the end of FY07.

CSAR - Combat Rescue Analysis of Alternatives PIXS - Preaward Information eXchange System  CSAR - Combat Rescue Analysis of Alternatives Industry Day - 17 November 1999 o AoA Backgound o AoA Mission Description o CSAR Baseline Performance o CSAR Operations and Support

o o o

Combat Rescue Mission Needs & Deficiencies AoA Overview AoA Analysis

CH-60 Sea Hawk
The current Fleet Combat Support Helicopter provides the Navy's Combat Logistics Force (CLF) with an at-sea Vertical Replenishment (VERTREP) capability. It also serves as the primary Search and Rescue (SAR) helicopter for the Amphibious Task Force (ATF), providing essential support to amphibious operations. The primary missions of the CH-60 will include day and night VERTREP, day and night amphibious SAR, vertical onboard delivery, and airhead operations. Secondary missions of the CH-60 will include Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR), Special Warfare Support (SWS), recovery of torpedoes, drones, unmanned aerial vehicles, and unmanned undersea vehicles, noncombatant evacuation operations, aeromedical evacuations, humanitarian assistance, executive transport, and disaster relief. The CSAR/SWS version of the CH-60 will have additional mission equipment installed that will provide the Navy with capabilities for CSAR and SWS in both the active carrier-based Helicopter Antisubmarine Squadrons (HS) and in the Reserve Helicopter Combat Support (Special) (HCS) Squadrons. Based on the current deployment schedule, the CH-60 will first replace the H-46D helicopters in active Navy Helicopter Combat Support (HC) Squadrons. After the H-46s have been replaced, the CH-60 will replace the HH-60H helicopters in the Reserve HCS squadrons, then the UH-3H and HH-1H helicopters used as Naval Air Station SAR, range support, and executive transport missions. Finally, the CH-60 will replace the HH-60H helicopters in active Navy HS squadrons. The CH-60 configuration evolved to fill the Navy’s need for a comprehensive, rugged utility helicopter to replace the helicopters engaged in vertical replenishment (CH-46D, UH-46D and HH-46D), amphibious assault ship search and rescue (HH-46D), strike rescue and special warfare (HH-60H), station search and rescue (HH-1N and UH-3H), utility transport and target recovery (UH-3H), and VIP transport (VH-3A and UH-3H). The CH-60 will also be capable of carrying FLIR and Hellfire missiles, making it an even more versatile platform. The Navy needed a Seahawk variant but could not afford a utility version. Since the Army Black Hawk was much less expensive, the solution was to build a hybrid—a “navalized” Black Hawk that would meet the cost constraints but could be modified to operate in a ship-board environment. This takes advantage of the existing H-60 support infrastructure and reduces the number of different types of aircraft in the inventory. The Navy will save an estimated $20 billion in life-cycle costs over the life of the program. The CH-60 will be an Army UH-60 Blackhawk utility airframe in combination with Navy SH/HH-60 transmissions and dynamic components. The CH-60 will incorporate new design items that are not in use by either the UH-60 or SH/HH-60 airframe lines. The CH-60 will adapt the Naval H-60 Tail Pylon to the Blackhawk tail cone with a CH60 unique canted bulkhead at the tail cone, tail pylon interface. This bulkhead will

“marry” the two components by providing a Naval H-60 interface on its aft face to accommodate the Naval H-60’s fold hinges and quick disconnect mechanism; and a UH60 interface on its forward face to accommodate the UH-60’s tail landing gear and tail cone interface. The Blackhawk’s tail cone flight controls will be rerouted to accommodate the Naval H-60 rapid fold tail pylon. With a large cabin, double cargo doors and external stores support system winglets, the aircraft externally resembles a Black Hawk. Most of its Seahawk features are internal: engines, rotor brake, folding tail pylon, automatic flight control system, rescue hoist and a more durable gearbox. The production version of the aircraft will be equipped with reversible floor-boards on the cabin cargo floor, and one side will be fitted with rollers to handle up to two standard four-foot-square cargo pallets. The CH-60 will be able to operate day or night, under adverse weather conditions, including flight in light icing. The helicopter will be compatible with all current and future Aircraft Carriers, CLF, and ATF ships to include fitting inside the hangars of all CLF ships without ship alteration. The helicopter will be capable of operating over all designated ship hover areas, both day and night, and be compatible for limited operation aboard both aviation and air capable ships proportionate with a fixed fore-to-aft wheelbase of 29 feet. Sikorsky has tooled up for CH-60 production, and configuration options and a cockpit common with the SH-60R have being engineered. The first major assemblies of the CH60 entered production late in 1998; first deliveries occured in late 1999. Reducing the types of helicopters in the fleet inventory to two airframes may enable the Navy to consolidate its HS and HC (helicopter combat support) squadrons. One possibility now being considered is for a carrier battle group to deploy with SH-60Rs and CH-60s on board the carrier, with other CH-60s detached to the battle group’s logistics ship. The CH-60 has several advantages over the HH-60H Seahawk as a strike rescue and special warfare helicopter. The Black Hawkstyle tail wheel, positioned further aft, allows for a steeper landing approach to a confined area. The CH-60’s larger cabin will enable it to carry more troops; its two larger cargo doors will allow more rapid deployment of the rigid inflatable boats for Navy sea-air-land team members (SEALs). The CH-60 also will be more crash-worthy, and will be fitted with better self-sealing fuel tanks capable of withstanding rounds up to 7.62 mm. The external stores support system installed on the CH-60 will allow more fuel and weapons to be carried. The Navy hopes that the CH-60 will be able to meet its biggest challenge—replacing the gigantic Sikorsky-built MH-53E Sea Dragon minesweeping helicopter. Although the CH60 is too small to tow the heavy MH-53E minesweeping sleds, lightweight towed systems and laser imaging detection and ranging systems promise to make the CH-60 a capable mine hunter. Because it is a hybrid of the Black Hawk and the Seahawk, the CH-60 presents a quandary for Sikorsky’s marketing strategy: what does one call the CH-60? A possibility being considered, partly in tribute to the H-46 Sea Knight that the CH-60 will replace, is Knighthawk. The Navy still has not assigned a type/model/series designation to the CH-

60; the next letter available in the H-60 series is “S.” If used, the aircraft’s official designation would be CH-60S.

VRML 3-D Model

UH-60J UH-60 Blackhawk VRML by Soji Yamakawa VRML by Soji Yamakawa





HH-65A Dolphin
The United States Coast Guard has added 96 short range HH-65A helicopters to its fleet to replace the HH-52A Sikorsky Sea Guard.The twin-engine Dolphins operate up to 150 miles off shore and will fly comfortably at 120 knots for three hours. Though normally stationed ashore, the Dolphins can be carried on board medium and high endurance Coast Guard Cutters. They assist in the missions of search and rescue, enforcement of laws and treaties, including drug interdiction, polar ice breaking, marine environmental protection including pollution control, and military readiness. Helicopters stationed aboard icebreakers are the ship's eyes to find thinner and more navigable ice channels. They also airlift supplies to ships and to villages isolated by winter. The HH-65A minimum equipment requirements exceed anything previously packaged into one helicopter weighing in at less than 10,000 pounds. HH-65As are made of corrosion-resistant, composite-structure materials. The shrouded tail rotor is unique to the Dolphin. Also a unique feature of the Dolphin is its computerized flight management system which integrates state-of-the-art communications and navigation equipment. This system provides automatic flight control. At the pilot's direction, the system will bring the aircraft to a stable hover 50 feet above a selected object. This is an important safety feature in darkness or inclement weather. Selected search patterns can be flown automatically, freeing the pilot and copilot to concentrate on sighting the search object. The Dolphin is manufactured by Aerospatiale Helicopter Corporation in Grand Praire, Texas. Textron Lycoming builds the LTS-101 750B-2 turboshaft engines in Williamport, Pennsylvania and Rockwell International, Collins Avionics Group manufactures the electronics system in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

Mission Maximum Gross Weight Empty Mission Weight Maximum Range Fuel Capacity Overall Length Short range recovery (SRR) helicopter twin-engine Replaced aging HH-52A fleet 9,200 lbs 6,092 lbs 400 NM 291 gallons 38 ft.

Cargo Sling Capacity 2000 lbs Overall Height 13 ft.

Rescue Hoist Capacity Rotor Diameter Maximum Speed Cruising Speed Max Endurance Powerplants number in service

600 lbs 39 ft. 165 knots 120 knots 3.5 hours Two Lycoming LTS-101-750B-2 engines rated at 742 Shaft HP each 96

Joint Replacement Aircraft [JRA]
The H-1 Helicopter Upgrade program will provide a bridge to a Joint Replacement Aircraft in the 2020 timeframe. Under this program, the Marine Corps is making extensive improvements to its aging fleets of UH-1N utility and AH-1W attack helicopters. The program provides for 280 existing airframes (100 UH-1N and 180 AH-1W) to be remanufactured and fitted with a newly developed drivetrain incorporating a four-bladed, all-composite rotor system. Increased commonality between the aircraft will enhance maintainability and deployability. The planned avionics upgrade will also enhance joint interoperability. Together, these upgrades will reduce program life-cycle costs, significantly improve operational capability, and extend the service life of both helicopter fleets.

Joint Transport Rotorcraft (JTR) Aerial Cargo Transport (ACT)
The purpose of the CH-47F(ICH) is to bridge the gap until funding is available for a new start (FY 2020 timeframe) cargo program, the Joint Transport Rotorcraft (JTR). The ICH concept began to materialize in the early 90's following Desert Storm. The initial concept was a four bladed system called Aerial Cargo Transport (ACT) with long range external fuel tanks, internal cargo handling system, and low maintenance rotor system (dry hub). This concept was dropped as being too expensive.

Light Utility Helicopter (LUH)
The Light Utility Helicopter will provide organic general support at Corps and Division Levels. The primary mission for the LUH is to provide aerial transport for logistical and administrative support. Considerations for the LUH include SLEP of the UH-1 fleet, or the purchase/lease of an Aircraft already in production. The requirements for the LUH are not yet determined. First Unit Equipped goal is 30 October 2008. The LUH is intended to replace Vietnam era UH-1H and OH-58A/C aircraft. Light Utility Helicopter is a program to fill the niche missions in which the UH-60 capability may be less than optimal. The LUH will provide organic general aviation support at Corps and Division level. The primary mission for the LUH is to provide aerial transport of staff and liaison elements, air messenger service, air movement of supplies, maintenance support, and limited command and control. Through it’s speed and agility, the LUH will meet time sensitive transport requirements for urgently needed documents, supplies/equipment, and/or limited number of forces that are not already available through an existing ground transportation network.

T-1A Jayhawk
The T-1A Jayhawk is a medium-range, twin-engine jet trainer. It is used by the US Air Force's Air Education and Training Command to train student pilots to fly airlift or tanker aircraft.The swept wing T-1A is a version of the Beech 400A. It has cockpit seating for an instructor and two students and is powered by twin turbofan engines capable of an operating speed of Mach .73. The T-1A differs from its commercial counterpart with a single-point refueling system with greater capacity and increased bird strike protection in the windshield and leading edges for sustained low-level operation. The Jayhawk represents the first new training aircraft procured by the Air Force in 30 years and marks the beginning of a new era in undergraduate pilot training. The first aircraft was delivered to Reese Air Force Base, Texas in January 1992. Student training in the T-1A began at Reese in 1993. Since the late 1950s, Air Force undergraduate pilot training students have trained in two aircraft: the T-37 Tweet, the primary trainer and the T-38 Talon, the advanced trainer. With the introduction of specialized undergraduate pilot training in 1993, students continue to receive their primary flying training in the T-37. Advanced training for students identified to go into bombers and fighters will be in the T-38. Those selected for airlift or tanker aircraft will receive their advanced training in the T-1A. The T-1A is used at all undergraduate pilot training bases: Columbus AFB, Miss.; Laughlin AFB, Texas; and Vance AFB, Okla. It is also used at Randolph AFB, Texas, to train instructor pilots.

Primary Function Builder Power Plant Thrust Length Height Wingspan Speed Ceiling Maximum Takeoff Weight Range Advanced trainer for airlift and tanker pilots Raytheon Corp. Two Pratt and Whitney JT15D-5 turbofan engines 2,900 pounds each engine 48 feet, 5 inches (14.75 meters) 13 feet, 11 inches (4.24 meters) 43 feet, 6 inches (13.25 meters) 538 miles per hour (Mach .73) 41,000 feet (12,500 meters) 16,100 pounds (7,303 kilograms) More than 2,100 nautical miles

Armament Crew Date Deployed Unit Cost Inventory

None Three (pilot, co-pilot, instructor pilot) and observer February 1992 $4.1 million Active force 180 [by end of 1997); ANG, 0; Reserve, 0

T-2 Buckeye
T-2C Buckeye jet trainer aircraft was produced for the US Navy by North American Aviation [purchased by Rockwell, which was purchased by Boeing] at Columbus. T-2C trainers were used by the Naval Air Training Command to conduct basic jet flight training for future Navy and Marine Corps aviators. The trainer established an outstanding record of safety and reliability while providing training for more than 11,000 students to pilot 18 different models of Navy jet aircraft. Buckeyes also were purchased by Venezuela (T-2D) and Greece (T-2E). The two-place, high-performance T-2C Buckeye was used for a wide variety of pilot training, from the student's first jet flight to fully qualified flight. The aircraft was used for teaching a wide range of skills, including high-altitude, high-speed formation and aerobatic flights; basic and radio instruments; night and day navigation; and gunnery, bombing, and carrier operations. The T-2 has been grounded three times in 1997 due to safety problems. Over the next few years the T-45 Goshawk will replace the T-2 Buckeye in the Intermediate Jet Pilot Training Program.

DIMENSIONS: Span: 38.13 feet (11.6 meters) Length: 38.70 feet (11.8 meters) Height: 14.80 feet (4.5 meters) Empty: 8,115 pounds (3,681 kilograms) Take-off gross weight: 13,179 pounds (5,978 kilograms) 465 knots (862 kilometers/hour) 45,200 feet (13,777 meters) Instructor pilot, student pilot Fuselage tank: 387 gallons (1,465 liters) Wing tip tanks: 102 gallons (386 liters) each tank Wing leading edge: 50 gallons (189 liters) each wing 930 nmi (1,723 kilometers) (10% reserve)
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LS-1A Election Seats Speed Brakes Duplicate controls and instruments in each cockpit  Variety of communications and navigation systems Two J85-GE-4 engines; each rated at 2,950 pounds (1,338 kilograms) maximum thrust (standard day at


sea level)
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Two 320-pound (145 kilograms) capacity underwing store stations 50-caliber gun package Bomb racks Rocket packs Tow target containers Fire control package (baggage compartment) An armament accessory kit was available that provided six store stations.


Tricycle; hydraulic retracted; conventional air/oil shock strut
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  

Workstands or ladders not required for servicing or maintenance Large quick-open access doors for equipment, accessories, and engines System components grouped together in spacious compartments Engines accessible and easily removed from ground level Battery starting

T-3A Firefly
The T-3A Firefly is a propeller driven aircraft used by the U.S. Air Force's Air Education and Training Command to screen pilot candidates by exposing them to military style traffic patterns, aerobatics and spins. It replaced the T-41 aircraft which is incapable of performing these maneuvers. It also teaches students takeoffs and landings, stalls, slow flight, ground operations and mission planning. The T-3A is a Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23 aerobatically certified aircraft. It enables students to learn basic military style maneuvers which will be refined and built upon in future aircraft. The instructor sits in the left seat and the student in the right seat. The cockpit has dual throttles, stick controls, electric elevator trim and a sliding canopy. The aircraft has a fully composite structure, an integral fuel tank in each wing and tricycle style, fixed landing gear. The fuel is automatically transferred by an enginedriven pump. The T-3A is the newest version of Slingsby Aviation's T-67 Firefly line of military training aircraft. The prototype began flying in the summer of 1991, and the Air Force accepted delivery in February 1994. Of the total fleet of 110 T-3s which originally cost $32 million, 57 were stationed with the Air Force Academy's 557th Flying Training Squadron in Colorado Springs, with another 53 with the 3rd Flying Training Squadron in Hondo, Texas. Final assembly of the British-made T-3 was done in Hondo by Northrup Grumman. The Air Education and Training Command at Randolph AFB announced on 12 October 1999 that the T-3A Firefly would be dropped by the Air Force, after having been grounded for more than two years. In 1998 the Air Force intiated the privately run Introductory Flight Training which uses private flight schools to screen pilot candidates. The success of this program persuaded the Air Force to drop the T-3 from service. The T3 fleet was grounded in July 1997, following an inexplicable engine failure in Colorado. Three instructors and three students were killed in crashes since the plane went into service in 1994. Two crashes were the result of pilot error, while a third occurred because of a stall condition from which the pilot was unable to recover. The predecessor T-41 had no fatal accidents in 30 years of flight, although the T-41 was incapable of performing the aerobatics and spins that were the hallmark of the T-3. The T-3's engine had failed 66 times at takeoff or landing, and the Air Force grounded 57 of the planes on 10 occasions due to problems with the engines, fuel systems and brakes.

Primary Function Contractors Primary screener in specialized undergraduate pilot training Slingsby Aviation Ltd., and Northrop Worldwide Aircraft Services Inc.

Power Plant Thrust Length Height Wingspan Maximum Takeoff Weight Speed Ceiling Range Armament Crew Unit Cost Date Deployed Inventory

One Textron Lycoming Ltd. AEIO-540-D4A5 engine 260 horsepower 24 feet, 9 inches (7.5 meters) 7 feet, 9 inches (2.3 meters) 34 feet, 9 inches (10.6 meters) 2,550 pounds (1,159 kilograms) 155 miles per hour (.21 Mach) 19,000 feet (5,790 meters) 352 miles (305.89 nautical miles) None Two (student pilot and instructor pilot) $295,000 February 1994 Active force, 112; Reserve, 0; ANG, 0

T-6A JPATS [Texan II / Harvard II]
The Raytheon T-6A Joint Primary Air Training System (JPATS) turboprop is designed as a dedicated training aircraft possessing jet-like handling characteristics. Replacing the Air Force's T-37 and the Navy's T-34C aircraft, which are 37 and 22 years old, respectively, the T-6A will offer better performance and significant improvements in training effectiveness, safety, cockpit accommodations and operational capabilities. Seven hundred and forty T-6A aircraft will be purchased by the United States Air Force and the United States Navy. The Air Force and Navy transition to the T-6A is expected to take approximately 10 years. The Air Force will steadily replace T-37s with T-6s at all Air Education and Training Command joint specialized undergraduate pilot training bases. The T-6A Texan II is named after the classic T-6 Texan trainer used by the Navy and Air Force in the 1940s and 1950s. The T-6A will support a variety of joint flight-training programs, including joint primary pilot training for entry-level aviation students. It will provide the skills necessary for pilots to progress to one of five training tracks: a bomber/fighter track (T-38); a strike track (T-45); an airlift/tanker track (T-1A); a maritime track (T-44); or a helicopter track. It also will support joint navigator and naval flight officer training at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Fla. Also slated for use in companion trainer programs for Air Combat Command and Air Mobility Command, the T-6A may support Euro-NATO joint jet-pilot training administered by the Air Education and Training Command, Randolph AFB, Texas. The T-6A Texan II offers better performance and significant improvements in training effectiveness, safety, cockpit accommodations and operational capabilities than present aircraft. Powered by a single, Pratt & Whitney PT6A-68 turboprop engine with a fourblade propeller, it features a stepped-tandem, cockpit configuration, with the instructor's rear seat raised slightly to improve visibility from the rear cockpit; modern avionics; and improved egress systems. Both T-6A cockpits are covered by a single, side-opening, nonjettisoned canopy. The T-6A offers increased birdstrike protection over current training aircraft, and will improve the safety of landing and low-level training at Air Force and Navy bases. It has a pressurized cockpit to permit training at higher, less-congested altitudes and reduce the stress on student pilots. The aircraft is equipped with an onboard oxygen-generating system that reduces the time needed to service the aircraft between flights. The T-6A's tricycle-type landing-gear is hydraulically retracted through electric controls and is equipped with both differential brakes and nosewheel steering. The aircraft is fitted with electrically controlled, hydraulically operated, split flaps, used for takeoff and landing. It also has a single, ventral-plate, speed brake located between the flaps. All flight controls are manually activated, with electrically activated trim controls. Flight controls and avionics can be operated from both cockpits. For single-pilot operations, the pilot will fly in the front cockpit. A low-wing, training aircraft approved for night and day Visual Flight Range (VFR) and Instrument Flight Range (IFR) flight, the T-6A Texan II has a cockpit designed to accommodate the widest possible range of pilots, both male and female, and will open flying careers to the largest possible pool of qualified applicants.

The current T-6A Texan II program calls for buying up to 711 production aircraft (372 for the Air Force and 339 for the Navy) from Raytheon Aircraft Co., Wichita, Kan., at an estimated cost of $4 billion. This numbre may increase to some 860 JPATS aircraft, based on projections of the number of aviators both services need and the number of joint squadrons they must develop. The Flight Training System Program Office at WrightPatterson AFB is managing the acquisition of the Texan. JPATS is seeking to maximize the benefits of allowing the prime contractor to operate using commercial practices with its subcontractors and vendors. The program will be conducted using commercial style practices to the greatest extent possible; however, due to the nature of the acquisition strategy, current government acquisition, auditing and domestic content policies will continue to be applied to the prime. In response to FY89 Congressional direction, DoD submitted the 1989 Trainer Aircraft Master Plan which documented the status of USAF and USN pilot training programs. In December 1990 the Joint Requirements Oversight Council validated the JPATS Mission Need Statement, with a need for nearly 900 trainer aircraft. Operational requirements were subsequently codified in the JPATS Operational Requirements Document. In January 1992 JPATS was designated a Defense Acquisition Pilot Program. The JPATS selection process began formally on May 18, 1994, when the request for proposal was issued. The source selection process included assessment of each contestant's proposals and flight evaluations of the candidate aircraft. This was one of the longest and most closely scrutinized source-selection competitions ever." The selection process took fourteen months and entailed evaluation of seven aircraft, seven cockpit mockups, and thousands of pages of contractor proposals. Raytheon was awarded the contract Feb. 5, 1996. The US General Accounting Office denied protests lodged by Cessna Aircraft Company against the selection of Raytheon, and an lier protest, lodged by Rockwell, was also denied. The contract contains a nine year period of performance through FY2004 (including production options). The production follow-on will run through FY2017. The total program value is expected to be approximately $4 billion. The results of the ground-based training system source selection were announced on 21 April 1997. Flight Safety Services Corp., Flushing N.Y., is developing the ground-based training system for the T-6A. Hughes Training, Inc. was the other competing finalist not chosen to develop the Ground Based Training System. Production of the JPATS began with the award of the Lot 2 option for three aircraft to Raytheon Aircraft Co., in February l996. On Sept. 23, l996, the Air Force awarded a $31 million Lot 3 contract option to RAC for the next six JPATS production aircraft, technical manuals, and engineering/management/support data. The first aircraft was assigned to the 12th Flying Training Wing, Randolph AFB, where it is used to train the first Air Force and Navy T-6A instructor pilots, who form the initial cadre of instructors at Laughlin AFB, Texas. Follow-on aircraft will be assigned to Vance AFB, Okla.; Columbus AFB, Miss.; and Sheppard AFB, Texas. Current plans call for continued aircraft production through 2017. Delivery of the first production aircraft was slated for May 1999 at Randolph, and actually took place in May 2000. The initial value

of the ground-based training system contract with all options is for approximately $202 million through 2005, and approximately $500 million over a 24-year period. The Navy will begin receiving the T-6A in November 2002 at Naval Air Station (NAS) Whiting Field in Milton, Fla. Follow-on naval air stations include NAS Corpus Christi, Texas, and NAS Pensacola, Fla. Air Force initial operational capability (IOC) for the T6A is planned for 2001, with Navy IOC scheduled for 2003. The original AT-6 Texan advanced trainer was one of the most widely used aircraft in history. Evolving from the BC-1 basic combat trainer ordered in 1937, 15,495 Texans were built between 1938 and 1945. The USAAF procured 10,057 AT-6s; others went to the Navy as SNJs and to more than 30 Allied nations. Most AAF fighter pilots trained in AT-6s prior to graduation from flying school. Many of the "Spitfire" and "Hurricane" pilots in the Battle of Britain trained in Canada in "Harvards," the British version of the AT-6. To comply with neutrality laws, U.S. built Harvards were flown north to the border and were pushed across. In 1948, Texans still in USAF service were redesignated as T-6 when the AT, BT and PT aircraft designations were abandoned.

Length overall Wing span Height overall Wing aspect ratio Maximum internal fuel Basic weight empty Design maximum take-off POWERPLANT Average unit cost (TY$) 33 ft 4 in / 10.16 m 33 ft 5 in / 10.18 m 10 ft 8 in / 3.25 m 6.29 149.0 Imp gal / 677.5 liters 4707 lb / 2135 kg 6300 lb / 2857 kg Pratt & Whitney PT6A-68 turboprop Hartzell four blade propeller Engine rating 1100 SHP (continuous) $5M

T-34C Turbo Mentor
The T-34C aircraft is an unpressurized two-place, tandem cockpit low-wing singleengine monoplane manufactured by Raytheon Aircraft Company (Formally Beech Aircraft), Wichita, Kansas. The aircraft is powered by a Model PT6A-25 turbo-prop engine manufactured by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft of Canada. The primary mission of the T-34C is to provide primary flight training for student pilots attached to the Chief of Naval Air Training. As a secondary mission, approximately 10% of the aircraft provide pilot proficiency and other aircraft support services to AIRLANT, AIRPAC, and NAVAIR "satellite sites" operated throughout CONUS. The T-34C aircraft was procured as a commercial-derivative aircraft certified under an FAA Type Certificate. Throughout its life, the aircraft has been operated and commercially supported by the Navy using FAA processes, procedures and certifications. It continues to be maintained commercially at all levels of maintenance, and relies on COTS/NDI components and equipment to support airworthiness. Aircraft modification efforts are "turnkey" projects (procurement and installation) implemented as part of competitively awarded maintenance contracts. Where extensive integration efforts are required, the non-recurring engineering phase, including test and certification, is typically performed by Raytheon Aircraft Company under a sole-source engineering contract with the Navy.

WingSpan Length Height Weight Armament Engine Maximum speed Range Service Ceiling Cost Crew 35 ft. 5 in. (10 meters) 28 ft. 8 in. (9 meters) 9 ft. 11 in. (3 meters) 4,425 lbs. loaded (appx 3,000 Lb empty) None Model PT6A-25 turbo-prop engine (Pratt & Whitney Aircraft of Canada) 280 Knots (322 mph) 600 nautical miles 25,000 ft. $1 million Two (Instructor and Pilot)

T-37 Tweet
The T-37 Tweet is a twin-engine jet used for training undergraduate pilots, undergraduate navigator and tactical navigator students in fundamentals of aircraft handling, and instrument, formation and night flying. The twin engines and flying characteristics of the T-37 give student pilots the feel for handling the larger, faster T-38 Talon or T-1A Jayhawk later in the undergraduate pilot training course. The instructor and student sit side by side for more effective training. The cockpit has dual controls, ejection seats and a clamshell-type canopy that can be jettisoned. The T-37 has a hydraulically operated speed brakes, tricycle landing gear and a steerable nose wheel. Six rubber-cell, interconnected fuel tanks in each wing feed the main tank in the fuselage. The T-37B has improved radio navigational equipment, UHF radio and redesigned instrument panels. Many foreign air forces fly the T-37B, including those of Thailand, Greece, Chile, Jordan, Turkey and Pakistan. Students from 12 North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries train in T-37B's at Sheppard Air Force Base, Texas. Flying the T37C are the air forces of Portugal, Peru, Colombia and Greece, among others. The T-37C is similar to the T-37B, but has provisions for both armament and wingtip fuel tanks. The plane can carry two, 250-pound (112.5 kilogram) bombs. Associated equipment includes computing gun sights and a 16mm gun camera. The aircraft can be fitted with cameras for reconnaissance missions. The T-37A made its first flight in 1955 and went into service with the Air Force in 1956. The T-37B became operational in 1959. All T-37A's have been modified to T-37B standards. A contract was awarded in August 1989 to Sabreliner Corp. for the T-37B Structural Life Extension Program. The contract included the design, testing and production of kits, installed by a U.S. Air Force contract field team, which modified or replaced critical structural components for the entire fleet, extending the capability of the T-37 into the next century. More than 1,000 T-37s were built, and 507 remain in the U.S. Air Force inventory. All have been repainted in a distinctive dark blue and white to help formation training and to ease maintenance.

Primary Function Builder Power Plant Thrust Primary trainer in undergraduate pilot training, undergraduate navigator and tactical navigator training Cessna Aircraft Co. Two Continental J69-T-25 turbojet engines 1,025 pounds (461.25 kilograms), each engine

Length Height Maximum Takeoff Weight Wingspan Speed Ceiling Range Armament Unit Cost Crew Date Deployed Inventory

29 feet, 3 inches (8.9 meters) 9 feet, 2 inches (2.8 meters) 6,625 pounds (2,981 kilograms) 33 feet, 8 inches (10.2 meters) 315 mph (Mach 0.4 at sea level) 35,000 feet (10.6 kilometers) 460 miles (400 nautical miles) T-37B, none; T-37C has provisions for external armament $164,854 Two, student pilot and instructor pilot December 1956 Active force, 507; ANG, 0; Reserve 0


T-38 Talon
The T-38 Talon is a twin-engine, high-altitude, supersonic jet trainer used in a variety of roles because of its design, economy of operations, ease of maintenance, high performance and exceptional safety record. It is used primarily by Air Education and Training Command for undergraduate pilot and pilot instructor training. Air Combat Command, Air Mobility Command and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration also use the T-38 in various roles. The T-38 has swept-back wings, a streamlined fuselage and tricycle landing gear with a steerable nose wheel. Two independent hydraulic systems power the ailerons, flaps, rudder and other flight control surfaces. The instructor and student sit in tandem on rocket-powered ejection seats in a pressurized, air-conditioned cockpit. Critical components are waist high and can be easily reached by maintenance crews. Refueling and preflight inspections are easily performed. The T-38 needs as little as 2,300 feet (695.2 meters) of runway to take off and can climb from sea level to nearly 30,000 feet (9,068 meters) in one minute. Student pilots fly the T-38A to learn supersonic techniques, aerobatics, formation, night and instrument flying and cross-country navigation. More than 60,000 pilots have earned their wings in the T-38A. Test pilots and flight test engineers are trained in T-38A's at the U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif. Air Force Materiel Command uses T-38A's to test experimental equipment such as electrical and weapon systems. Pilots from most North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries are trained in the T-38A at Sheppard AFB, Texas, through the Euro-NATO Joint Jet Pilot Training Program. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration uses T-38A aircraft as trainers for astronauts and as observers and chase planes on programs such as the space shuttle. Air Education and Training Command uses a modified version, the AT-38B, to prepare pilots for fighter aircraft such as the F-15, F-16 and A-10. and F-111. This model carries external armament and weapons delivery equipment for training. The Talon first flew in 1959. More than 1,100 were delivered to the Air Force between 1961 and 1972 when production ended. Approximately 562 remain in service throughout the Air Force. An ongoing program called Pacer Classic, the structural life extension program for the T38, is integrating 10 modifications, including major structural renewal, into one process. As a result, the service life of T-38s should extend to the 2010. Additionally, the introduction of the T-1A Jayhawk significantly relieved the T-38's work load.

Primary Function Builder Power Plant Thrust Length Height Wingspan Speed Ceiling Maximum Takeoff Weight Range Armament Unit Cost Crew Date Deployed Inventory Advanced jet pilot trainer Northrop Corp. Two General Electric J85-GE-5 turbojet engines with afterburners 2,900 pounds (1,315 kilograms) with afterburners 46 feet, 4 1/2 inches (14 meters) 12 feet, 10 1/2 inches (3.8 meters) 25 feet, 3 inches (7.6 meters) 812 mph (Mach 1.08 at sea level) Above 55,000 feet (16,667 meters) 12,500 pounds (5,670 kilograms) 1,000 miles (870 nautical miles) T-38A: none; AT-38B has provisions for external armament $756,000 Two, student and instructor March 1961 Active force, 562; ANG, 0; Reserve 0

The T-41 Mescalero, a short-range, high-wing trainer aircraft, is the military version of the Cessna 172. It is used primarily for pilot candidate screening. The T-41 trainer is equipped with avionics and other equipment consistent with military missions. The T-41A model is used by Air Training Command for preliminary flight screening of Air Force pilot candidates before their entry into undergraduate pilot training. A more powerful version, designated T-41C, is used for cadet flight training at the United States Air Force Academy. The screening is conducted at Hondo, Texas. Pilot candidates train for approximately 14 hours in the T-41A before passing on to T-37 primary jet training at one of the six Air Force pilot training schools. Between September 1964 and July 1965, The Air Force began receiving the T- 41A in September 1964. The Air Force Academy acquired the T-41C in 1968 for use in its pilot indoctrination program, which allows cadets to experience in an aerial environment principles learned in other academic courses. Cadets in the program fly approximately 21.2 hours dual and solo, and receive their first U.S. Air Force flight check. The first 170 T-41As were ordered in 1964, and an additional 34 were ordered in 1967. Beginning in August 1965 the propeller-driven Cessna T-41 Mescalero provided 30 hours of what was, for many pilots, their first flights. Most went into service at various civilian contract flight schools, each located near one of Air Training Command's Undergradute Pilot Training (UPT) bases. In 1968 and 1969 the USAF Academy acquired 52 T-41Cs, with more powerful engines, for cadet flight training. The T-41 program was consolidated Air Force-wide at Hondo, Texas, in 1973. The Air Force began replacing the T-41 with a more advanced aircraft capable of aerobatics beginning in 1993.

Span Length Height Weight Armament Engine Maximum speed Cruising speed Range 35 ft. 10 in. 26 ft. 11 in. 8 ft. 10 in. 2,300 lbs. loaded None One Continental O-300-C six-cylinder piston engine of 145 hp. 139 mph. 117 mph. 720 miles

Service Ceiling Cost INVENTORY

13,100 ft. $13,465 50 at Hondo, Texas, 50 at the U.S. Air Force Academy at Colorado Springs, Colo.

The T-43A is a medium-range, swept-wing jet aircraft. Equipped with modern navigation and communications equipment to train navigators for strategic and tactical aircraft, the T-43A is primarily used in the Air Force's undergraduate navigator training program. Several T-43s are configured for passengers and provide operational support to assigned commands and the Air National Guard. The T-43A is the Air Force version of the Boeing 737 transport. One jet engine is mounted under each wing. The exterior differences between the military and commercial aircraft include the addition of many small blade-type antennas, sextant ports, a wire antenna for high-frequency radio and fewer windows. The aircraft has considerably more training capability than the plane it replaced, the T29C. Inside each T-43A training compartment are two minimum proficiency, two maxiumum proficiency and 12 student stations. Two stations form a console, and instructors can move their seats to the consoles and sit beside students for individual instruction. The large cabin allows easy access to seating and storage, yet reduces the distance between student stations and instructor positions. The student training compartment is equipped with advanced avionics gear identical to that of Air Force operational aircraft. This includes mapping radar; VOR (VHF omnirange) and TACAN (tactical air navigation) radio systems; inertial navigation system; radar altimeter; and all required communications equipment. Five periscopic sextants spaced along the length of the training compartment are used for celestial navigation training. The majority of the T-43A trainers are used for navigator training at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas, where the Air Force also trains Air National Guard, Air Force Reserve, U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine and international students. The remaining planes are assigned to the Air National Guard at Buckley Air National Guard Base, Colo., where they are used for the U.S. Air Force Academy's airmanship program and to provide travel service for academy sports teams. In addition, U.S. Southern Command has a CT-43 used for commander transport. The first T-43A was delivered to the Air Force at Mather Air Force Base, Calif., in September 1973. The last deliveries were made in July 1974. Air Education and Training Command's T-43 fleet relocated to Randolph Air Force Base, Texas, in May, 1993, due to the closure of Mather AFB.

Primary Function Builder Navigator trainer Boeing Co.

Power Plant Thrust Length Height Maximum Takeoff Weight Wingspan Speed Ceiling Range Armament Crew Date Deployed Unit Cost Inventory

Two Pratt & Whitney JT8D-9A engines 14,500 pounds (6,525 kilograms) each engine 100 feet (30.3 meters) 37 feet (11.2 meters) 115,000 pounds (67,500 kilograms) 93 feet (28.2 meters) 535 mph (Mach 0.72) at 35,000 feet 37,000 feet (11,212 meters) 2,995 miles (2,604 nautical miles) None 12 navigator students, six instructor navigators, pilot and co-pilot September 1973 $5,390,000 Active force, 13; ANG, 2; Reserve, 0

T-44A Pegasus
The T-44A aircraft is a twin-engine, pressurized, fixed-wing monoplane manufactured by Raytheon Aircraft Company (formerly Beech Aircraft), Wichita, Kansas. The aircraft is powered by two model PT6A-34B turbo-prop engines manufactured by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft of Canada. The primary mission of the T-44A is to provide advanced maritime flight training for the Chief of Naval Air Training in Corpus Christi, TX. The T-44A aircraft was procured as a commercial-derivative aircraft certified under an FAA Type Certificate. Throughout its life, the aircraft has been operated and commercially supported by the Navy using FAA processes, procedures and certifications. It continues to be maintained commercially at all levels of maintenance, and relies on COTS/NDI components and equipment to support airworthiness. Aircraft modification efforts are "turnkey" projects (procurement and installation) implemented as part of competitively awarded maintenance contracts. Where extensive integration efforts are required, the non-recurring engineering phase, including test and certification, is typically performed by Raytheon Aircraft Company under a sole-source engineering contract with the Navy.

T-45 Goshawk
The T-45A aircraft, the Navy version of the British Aerospace Hawk aircraft, is used for intermediate and advanced portions of the Navy pilot training program for jet carrier aviation and tactical strike missions. The T-45A replaces the T-2 Buckeye trainer and the TA-4 trainer with an integrated training system that includes the T-45 Goshawk aircraft, operations and instrument fighter simulators, academics, and training integration system. Selected as the basis for the airplane portion of the Navy's VTXTS jet training system, the British Aerospace Hawk is well established as the Royal Air Force's (RAF) principal jet trainer, and has also found a similar niche with other countries' air forces. One of several multipurpose trainer/light ground attack aircraft developed in various European countries during the seventies, it was found adaptable to the U.S. Navy's training role, including carrier operations, with a minimum of aerodynamic modification --a tribute to the excellent characteristics of the basic design. The Hawk's beginnings go back to the late sixties when Hawker Siddeley (one of the predecessor companies of today's British Aerospace) began design studies for a prospective new RAF jet trainer suitable for basic/advanced training and also for strike/weapon delivery mission type training. The RAF settled on its final requirements in 1970 and Hawker Siddeley's final HS-1182 design proposal was the winner of the subsequent competition. In the spring of 1972, development and a total of 176 airplanes were ordered. Powered by a 5,200-pound-thrust Rolls-Royce/Turbomeca Adour turbofan engine, the new trainer featured a compact, low-wing configuration, with the instructor in a raised position behind the student, both under a large single-piece, sideway-opening canopy, providing excellent visibility. Five external stores stations accommodate a wide variety of weapons, including a 30mm gun pod as one of the alternates on the fuselage centerline station. While construction was fairly conventional, every effort was devoted to improving the reliability and maintainability of the new trainer through appropriate selection of operating system design and components and their installation. The first Hawk made its initial flight on 21 August 1974, flying at that year's Farnborough show in early September. Subsequent aircraft joined the flight development program which resulted in minor modifications--enlargement of the ventral fins being one of the more obvious changes -- by the time the Hawk T.1s went into RAF training squadron service in late 1976. Assignment to the tactical weapons unit followed in 1978. Meanwhile, one extra Hawk had been registered for company use as G-Hawk, while the Mk 50 series export Hawk found customers in various parts of the world. Finland was the first foreign purchaser, with plans for production there. Active NavAir interest in the Hawk as one candidate for possible replacement of T-2s and TA-4s in the Training Command began in 1977 as part of a general study of what could be accomplished through various alternatives, including new development as well as derivatives of the newly-developed European advanced jet trainers. In 1978, the VTXTS program was initiated and McDonnell Douglas' Douglas Aircraft Company proposed jointly with

British Aerospace a carrier-suitable version of the Hawk as one of their approaches for the VTXTS initial 4 competition. With this proposal selected as the winner, another British Aerospace design has found its place in Naval Aviation alongside the already well-known Harrier. Over the next few years the T-45 Goshawk will first replace the TA-4J Skyhawk in the Advanced Jet Training Program and then replace the T-2 Buckeye in the Intermediate Jet Pilot Training Program. The Goshawk Training System combines academic, simulation, and flight phases into an integrated computer-based training approach that greatly improves training efficiency and safety. In the long run, the Navy projects savings of more than $400 million by completing the acquisition and delivery of new T-45's by the year 2002 instead of 2005.

Contractor Wing span Length Height Max grossweight Boeing [McDonnell Douglas] - prime British Aerospace (airframe) Rolls-Royce (engine) 30 feet 8 inches 38 feet 9 inches 13 feet 1 inch 13,000 pounds (5,897 kg) approx.

Internal fuel capacity 2,893 pounds (1,312 kg) Powerplant Speed Ceiling Range Power plant Crew Design life Rolls-Royce F405.RR-401 Adour Mk. 871 5,845 pounds (26.0 kN) Thrust maximum: 560 knots 0.85 Mach Max level flight speed 50,000 feet maximum: 1,400 nautical miles one Rolls-Royce Adour Mk 851 turbofan engine one instructor, one student 14,400 flight hours (20 years at 720 hours per year in a "carrier environment")

The X-29
Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (soon to be renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate advanced concepts and technologies. The multi-phased program was conducted from 1984 to 1992 and provided an engineering data base that is available in the design and development of future aircraft. The X-29 almost looked like it was flying backward. Its forward swept wings were mounted well back on the fuselage, while its canards horizontal stabilizers to control pitch were in front of the wings instead of on the tail. The complex geometries of the wings and canards combined to provide exceptional maneuverability, supersonic performance, and a light structure. Air moving over the forward-swept wings tended to flow inward toward the root of the wing instead of outward toward the wing tip as occurs on an aft swept wing. This reverse air flow did not allow the wing tips and their ailerons to stall (lose lift) at high angles of attack (direction of the fuselage relative to the air flow). The concepts and technologies the fighter-size X-29 explored were the use of advanced composites in aircraft construction; variable camber wing surfaces; the unique forwardswept wing and its thin supercritical airfoil; strake flaps; close-coupled canards; and a computerized fly-by-wire flight control system to maintain control of the otherwise unstable aircraft. Research results showed that the configuration of forward swept wings, coupled with movable canards, gave pilots excellent control response at up to 45 degrees angle of attack. During its flight history, the X-29's were flown on 422 research missions 242 by aircraft No. 1 in the Phase 1 portion of the program; 120 flights by aircraft No. 2 in Phase 2; and 60 flights in a follow-on "vortex control" phase. An additional 12 non-research flights with X29 No. 1 and 2 non-research flights with X-29 No. 2 raised the total number of flights with the two aircraft to 436.

Reverse airflow-forward-swept wing vs aft swept wing. On the forward-swept wing, ailerons remained unstalled at high angles of attack because the air over the forward swept wing tended to flow inward toward the root of the wing rather than outward

toward the wing tip as on an aft-swept wing. This provided better airflow over the ailerons and prevented stalling (loss of lift) at high angles of attack.

Program History
Before World War II, there were some gliders with forward-swept wings, and the NACA Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory did some wind-tunnel work on the concept in 1931. Germany developed a motor-driven aircraft with forward-swept wings during the war known as the Ju-287. The concept, however, was not successful because the technology and materials did not exist then to construct the wing rigid enough to overcome bending and twisting forces without making the aircraft too heavy. The introduction of composite materials in the 1970's opened a new field of aircraft construction, making it possible to design rugged airframes and structures stronger than those made of conventional materials, yet lightweight and able to withstand tremendous aerodynamic forces. Construction of the X-29's thin supercritical wing was made possible because of its composite construction. State-of-the-art composites permit aeroelastic tailoring, which allows the wing some bending but limits twisting and eliminates structural divergence within the flight envelope (i.e., deformation of the wing or breaking off in flight). In 1977, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory (now the Wright Laboratory), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, issued proposals for a research aircraft designed to explore the forward swept wing concept. The aircraft was also intended to validate studies that said it should provide better control and lift qualities in extreme maneuvers, and possibly reduce aerodynamic drag as well as fly more efficiently at cruise speeds. From several proposals, Grumman Aircraft Corporation was chosen in December 1981 to receive an $87 million contract to build two X-29 aircraft. They were to become the first new X-series aircraft in more than a decade. First flight of the No. 1 X-29 was Dec. 14, 1984, while the No. 2 aircraft first flew on May 23, 1989. Both first flights were from the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility soon to be renamed the Dryden Flight Research Center.

Flight-Control System
The flight control surfaces on the X-29 were the forward-mounted canards, which shared the lifting load with the wings and provided primary pitch control; the wing flaperons (combination flaps and ailerons), used to change wing camber and function as ailerons for roll control when used asymmetrically; and the strake flaps on each side of the rudder that augmented the canards with pitch control. The control surfaces were linked electronically to a triple-redundant digital fly-by-wire flight control system (with analog back up) that provided an artificial stability.

The particular forward swept wing, close-coupled canard design used on the X-29 was unstable. The X-29's flight control system compensated for this instability by sensing flight conditions such as attitude and speed, and through computer processing, continually adjusted the control surfaces with up to 40 commands each second. This arrangement was made to reduce drag. Conventionally configured aircraft achieved stability by balancing lift loads on the wing with opposing downward loads on the tail at the cost of drag. The X-29 avoided this drag penalty through its relaxed static stability. Each of the three digital flight control computers had an analog backup. If one of the digital computers failed, the remaining two took over. If two of the digital computers failed, the flight control system switched to the analog mode. If one of the analog computers failed, the two remaining analog computers took over. The risk of total systems failure was equivalent in the X-29 to the risk of mechanical failure in a conventional system. X-29 - designed with relaxed static stability to achieve less drag, more maneuverability, increased fuel efficiency. Arrows in upper illustration indicate drag-producing opposing downward forces on rear stabilizers to achieve stability. X-29 canards share lifting loads, reducing drag.

Phase 1 Flights
The No. 1 aircraft demonstrated in 242 research flights that, because the air moving over the forward-swept wing flowed inward, rather than outward as it does on a rearwardswept wing, the wing tips remained unstalled at the moderate angles of attack flown by X-29 No. 1. Phase 1 flights also demonstrated that the aeroelastic tailored wing did, in fact, prevent structural divergence of the wing within the flight envelope, and that the control laws and control surface effectiveness were adequate to provide artificial stability for this otherwise extremely unstable aircraft and provided good handling qualities for the pilots. The aircraft's supercritical airfoil also enhanced maneuvering and cruise capabilities in the transonic regime. Developed by NASA and originally tested on an F-8 at Dryden in the 1970s, supercritical airfoils flatter on the upper wing surface than conventional airfoils delayed and softened the onset of shock waves on the upper wing surface, reducing drag. The phase 1 flights also demonstrated that the aircraft could fly safely and reliably, even in tight turns.

Phase 2 Flights
The No. 2 X-29 investigated the aircraft's high angle of attack characteristics and the military utility of its forward-swept wing/canard configuration during 120 research flights. In Phase 2, flying at up to 67 degrees angle of attack (also called high alpha), the aircraft demonstrated much better control and maneuvering qualities than computational

methods and simulation models had predicted. The No. 1 X-29 was limited to 21 degrees angle of attack maneuvering. During Phase 2 flights, NASA, Air Force, and Grumman project pilots reported the X-29 aircraft had excellent control response to 45 degrees angle of attack and still had limited controllability at 67 degrees angle of attack. This controllability at high angles of attack can be attributed to the aircraft's unique forward-swept wing- canard design. The NASA/Air Force-designed high-gain flight control laws also contributed to the good flying qualities. Flight control law concepts used in the program were developed from radio-controlled flight tests of a 22-percent X-29 drop model at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va. The detail design was performed by engineers at Dryden and the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards. The X-29 achieved its high alpha controllability without leading edge flaps on the wings for additional lift, and without moveable vanes on the engine's exhaust nozzle to change or "vector" the direction of thrust, such as those used on the X-31 and the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle. Researchers documented the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft at high angles of attack during this phase using a combination of pressure measurements and flow visualization. Flight test data from the high-angle-of-attack/military-utility phase of the X-29 program satisfied the primary objective of the X-29 program to evaluate the ability of X-29 technologies to improve future fighter aircraft mission performance.

Vortex Flow Control
In 1992 the U.S. Air Force initiated a program to study the use of vortex flow control as a means of providing increased aircraft control at high angles of attack when the normal flight control systems are ineffective. The No. 2 X-29 was modified with the installation of two high-pressure nitrogen tanks and control valves with two small nozzle jets located on the forward upper portion of the nose. The purpose of the modifications was to inject air into the vortices that flow off the nose of the aircraft at high angles of attack. Wind tunnel tests at the Air Force's Wright Laboratory and at the Grumman Corporation showed that injection of air into the vortices would change the direction of vortex flow and create corresponding forces on the nose of the aircraft to change or control the nose heading. From May to August 1992, 60 flights successfully demonstrated vortex flow control (VFC). VFC was more effective than expected in generating yaw (left-to-right) forces, especially at higher angles of attack where the rudder loses effectiveness. VFC was less successful in providing control when sideslip (relative wind pushing on the side of the aircraft) was present, and it did little to decrease rocking oscillation of the aircraft.

Vortex flow control involves pneumatic manipulation of forebody vortices as shown in the diagram. Exhausting air through the nozzles at the top of the airplane's forebody results in alteration or movement of the forebody vortices. As the diagram shows, air exhaused through the right nozzle accelerates the flow of the right vortex and pulls it closer to the forebody. As this occurs, the left vortex is pushed further away from the body. This results in lower pressure on the side of the blowing right nozzle, resulting in a right yawing movement of the aircraft as shown.

Overall, VFC, like the forward-swept wings, showed promise for the future of aircraft design. The X-29 did not demonstrate the overall reduction in aerodynamic drag that earlier studies had suggested, but this discovery should not be interpreted to mean that a more optimized design with forward-swept wings could not yield a reduction in drag. Overall, the X-29 program demonstrated several new technologies as well as new uses of proven technologies. These included: aeroelastic tailoring to control structural divergence; use of a relatively large, close-coupled canard for longitudinal control; control of an aircraft with extreme instability while still providing good handling qualities; use of three-surface longitudinal control; use of a double-hinged trailing-edge flaperon at supersonic speeds; control effectiveness at high angle of attack; vortex control; and military utility of the overall design.

The Aircraft
The X-29 is a single-engine aircraft 48.1 feet long. Its forward-swept wing has a span of 27.2 feet. Each X-29 was powered by a General Electric F404-GE-400 engine producing 16,000 pounds of thrust. Empty weight was 13,600 pounds, while takeoff weight was 17,600 pounds. The aircraft had a maximum operating altitude of 50,000 feet, a maximum speed of Mach 1.6, and a flight endurance time of approximately one hour. The only significant difference between the two aircraft was an emergency spin chute deployment system mounted at the base of the rudder on aircraft No. 2. External wing structure is primarily composite materials incorporated into precise patterns to develop strength and avoid structural divergence. The wing substructure and the basic airframe itself is aluminum

and titanium. Wing trailing edge actuators controlling camber are mounted externally in streamlined fairings because of the thinness of the supercritical airfoil.

Program Management
The X-29 program was funded initially by the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The program was managed by the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Aeronautical Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command, WrightPatterson AFB, Ohio. The flight research program was conducted by the Dryden Flight Research Center, and included the Air Force Flight Test Center and the Grumman Corporation as participating organizations.

VRML 3-D Model


X-30 National Aerospace Plane (NASP)
There is also the possiblity that the SR-71 follow-on was hidden in plain sight. The program to develop what is called the National Aerospace Plane (NASP), designated the X-30, had its roots in a highly classified, Special Access Required, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) project called Copper Canyon, which ran from 1982 to 1985. Originally conceived as a feasibility study for a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) airplane which could take off and land horizontally, Copper Canyon became the starting point for what Ronald Reagan called:<1> "...a new Orient Express that could, by the end of the next decade, take off from Dulles Airport and accelerate up to twenty-five times the speed of sound, attaining low earth orbit or flying to Tokyo within two hours..." The next stage of the program, called Phase 2, with Copper Canyon being Phase 1, was intended to develop the technologies for a vehicle that could go into orbit as well as travel over intercontinental ranges at hypersonic speeds. There were no commitments to undertake Phase 3, the actual design, construction and flight testing of the aircraft. The decision to undertake Phase 3 based on the maturity of the requisite technologies, originally planned for 1990, was currently been postponed until at least April of 1993.<3> There were six identifiable technologies which are considered critical to the success of the project.<3&g; Three of these "enabling" technologies are related to the propulsion system, which would consist of an air-breathing supersonic combustion ramjet, or scramjet. A scramjet is designed to compress onrushing hypersonic air in a combustion chamber. Liquid hydrogen is then injected into the chamber, where it is ignited by the hot compressed air. The exhaust, consisting primarily of water vapor, is expelled through a nozzle to create thrust. The efficient functioning of the engine is dependent on the aerodynamics of the airframe, the underside of which must function as the air inlet mechanism and the exhaust nozzle. Design integration of the airframe and engine are thus absolutely critical to project success. The efficient use of hydrogen as a fuel for such a system is another crucial element in the development of the X-30. Other enabling technologies include the development of advanced materials including various composites and titanium-based alloys which maintain structural integrity at very high temperatures. The enormous heat loads associated with hypersonic flight, sometimes in excess of 1,800 degrees fahrenheit, will necessitate the development of active cooling systems and advanced heat-resistant materials.<4>

Although the NASP effort was announced by President Reagan in his State of the Union address, much of the project remains shrouded in secrecy. Indeed, the paucity of publicly

available information on this project is remarkable, given the scope of the effort to date. This very high level of classification derives at least in part from the core technological innovation that was the genesis of the X-30 project.

Prior analyses of scramjet propulsion systems had concluded that they would only be able to achieve speeds of about Mach 8. At this speed, the thrust emerging from the rear of the plane would be balanced by the heat generated by atmospheric drag and the high temperature of the air as it entered the front of the engine. Thus limited to a maximum speed that was only one-third the orbital velocity of Mach 25, a scramjet-propelled vehicle would need rocket motors to achieve the remaining speed needed to reach orbit. Analyses concluded that such a vehicle would be heavier and more complicated that a conventional rocket. However, the Copper Canyon project discovered that higher speeds could be achieved through the imaginative use of active thermal management. By circulating, and thus heating, the scramjet's hydrogen propellant through the skin of the vehicle prior to injection into the engine, energy generated through atmospheric drag was added to the thrust of the scramjet, enabling it to accelerate beyond the Mach 8 thermal barrier. Initially, there was optimism that this active thermal management approach would permit speeds of up to Mach 25 using air- breathing engines alone, eliminating the need for rocket propellants to achieve orbit.<5>


The mass saved by eliminating the final rocket propellants had to be balanced, however, against the mass of the active thermal management system. This system became more complex and massive at higher speeds. At some point, the additional mass of the thermal management system needed to continue the acceleration of the air breathing scramjet would become greater than the mass of the rocket motors and propellant needed to continue the ascent to orbit.

As the NASP effort began, analysis suggested that this transition speed, at which rocket propulsion would be more efficient than continued scramjet operations, would be quite high, above Mach 20. Although this fell short of the initial promise of Copper Canyon, it nonetheless suggested that a scramjet vehicle might offer superior performance compared to conventional rockets. Over time, however, as the complexity of the active thermal management system was better appreciated, estimates of the transition speed declined to below Mach 17.<6> This diminished performance significantly reduces the attractiveness of scramjet propulsion compared with all-rocket vehicles.

Though the protection of this technological principle may explain part of the secrecy surrounding the NASP program, studies of the missions that such a vehicle might perform remain even more closely held. Defining the mission of NASP to attract maximum support and funding has been a tricky business for program proponents. Original cost projections of $3.1 billion dollars have more than tripled, now at approximately $10 Billion total cost for the development of a pair of single-stage-to-orbit vehicles.<7> A decision to undertake Phase 3 flight testing would have brought total program costs up to as much as $17 billion<8&t;. The target date for the first test flight of the X-30 was pushed back to the 2000-2001 period<9>, 11 years behind schedule and 500% over budget. Many years and a further $10 to $20 billion would have been required for the development of an operational vehicle. Funding this significant increase in a time of general budget cutting is not easy, and program cost overruns and delays in scheduling have made the project less attractive to many supporters. Though the X-30 was originally touted by the Reagan administration for its civilian commercial applications and as a possible follow-on to the Space Shuttle for NASA<10>, the funding structure of the program tells another story. The Department of Defense was

scheduled to fund approximately 80% of the project, or $2.65 out of $3.33 billion over the 8 years of the original project.<11> Budget allocations come primarily from the Air Force, which has seen NASP as potentially having a range of military missions. The mystery remains of what military mission would justify this level of effort. Or perhaps there is no mystery at all. The X-30 may have been the purloined letter of military aircraft, an SR-71 follow-on hidden in plain sight. This would certainly jibe with the statement of Senator John Glenn, noted earlier and repeated here,<12> "...what you are talking about on that system, I know what you are talking about. That is many years down the road and is still a very speculative system..." Such a possibility would also explain the tenacious position of Congressman Dave McCurdy, the only member of Congress at the time to sit on both the Armed Services Committee and the Space and Technology Committee. From 1989 through 1992, McCurdy fought hard for continued funding for and Air Force involvement in NASP.<13> "It's important to remember that NASP is not a NASA program. NASP is not an Air Force program. It is a national program. We believe that it is important to the country." Presumably, an SR-71 follow-on would also be a national program of importance to the entire country. These arguments are, of course, predicated on the assumption that the NASP vehicle could fullfill such a defense mission. Concentrating on hypersonic flight in the upper stratosphere, possible military applications of a NASP derived vehicle include:<14>
   

space launch; strategic bombing missions; strategic air defense; reconnaissance and surveillance.

While the reconnaissance and surveillance mission would be similair to the SR-71, closer examination reveals that the possible military applications provide a less than compelling rationale for the NASP effort. As a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle with a claimed turnaround time of as little as 24 hours<15>, proponents of the Strategic Defense Initiative initially saw the X-30 leading the way to faster, cheaper access to low earth orbit, a critical aspect of lowering the cost of any space-based ballistic missile defense systems.<16> However, as it became clear that the time required for the development of an operational capability would extend far beyond the time horizon envisioned for deployment of space-based anti- missile systems, the SDI program soon lost interest in the NASP effort. A similar disenchantment has emerged within the Air Force and NASA, as the high technical risk of the project has become increasingly clear. What has also become increasingly clear is that the claims made for NASP as a space launch vehicle are eerily reminiscent of the initial claims

made for the Space Shuttle in the early 1970s. The assertions that NASP will have airplane-like operating characteristics, with lower costs and fast turnaround times on the ground, are assumptions, rather than conclusions based on detailed analysis. The potential for using NASP derived vehicles for strategic bombardment, as a hypersonic B-3, has not escaped the notice of the Air Force. Gen. Lawrence Skantze, commander of the Air Force Systems Command, observed:<17> "We're talking about the speed of response of an ICBM and the flexibility and recallability of a bomber, packaged in a plane that can scramble, get into orbit, and change orbit so the Soviets can't get a reading accurate enough to shoot at it. It offers strategic force survivability -- a fleet could sit alert like B-52s." The idea of reaching targets anywhere in the world in a an hour or two may be a tempting idea, but the challenge of accurately dropping a gravity bomb while travelling 20 times the speed of sound would be non-trivial. This challenge was eagerly embraced by the Energy Department, however. A Hypervelocity Aircraft- Delivered Weapon is among the five new nuclear weapons concepts currently under study by the Energy Department, as phase one or pre-phase one studies.<18> "The need for the Hypervelocity Aircraft-Delivered Weapon derives from the ability of such a system to rapidly deliver, or threaten to deliver, nuclear weapons into a theater, while maintaining the launch platform well outside potential defenses. Hypersonic velocities enhance defense penetrability and survivability of the weapon and the delivery aircraft against state of the art defenses, while precision guidance can lead to reduced yield requirements, and consequently, collateral damage." But a hypersonic aircraft would have high visibility to hostile defense due to its enormous heat signature and non-stealth composition of the fuselage, resembling nothing so much as a barn on fire. This is hardly a major selling point for a reconnaissance aircraft. As a bomber, a NASP derived vehicle would combine the worst features of an aircraft and a missile. With the large signature of an aircraft and the limited maneuverability of a missile warhead, it would provide a ready target for defensive systems. A third suggested mission for NASP derived vehicles would be as a interceptor for defense of the continental United States. Robert Cooper, Director of DARPA, suggested that it could:<19> "... fly up to maybe 150,000 to 200,000 feet, sustain mach 15 plus for a while, slow down and engage an intercontinental bomber or cruise missile carrier at ranges of 1000 nautical miles..." But the elaborate preparations needed to maintain a liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft on alert, combined with the limited maneuverability of this type of vehicle, would limit its utility for this mission. And given the relatively low priority the United States has

traditionally attached to strategic air defense, it is doubtful that the large investment required by NASP could be justified on these grounds. A final application of NASP was as an intelligence collection platform. Robert Cooper suggested that it could provide:<20> "... a globe-circling reconnaissance system, a kind of super SR-71 that would... get anywhere on the Earth within perhaps half an hour of take-off..." (emphasis added). But such reconnaissance and surveillance activities of hypersonic craft are constrained by the high speeds and altitudes at which the X-30 or its derivatives would travel. At altitudes nearly three times that of standard reconnaissance aircraft<21> and a fuel cost 3 times that of aviation grade kerosene,<22> it would certainly seem more economical to get information of comparable (or better) resolution from a satellite in low earth orbit, which could make another pass in 90 minutes instead of being forced to return to base for refuelling.<23> Although some proponents have viewed these military missions as potentially attractive, a Committee of the National Research Council expressed doubts about the operational effectiveness of NASP derived vehicles:<37> "Another restriction is inherent in the base support requirements associated with cryogenic fuels. They will require a complete departure from conventional airport storage and distribution facilities. For economic reasons alone, we are unable to envision a network of airfields giving the flexibility that today's aircraft enjoy. "... sustained cruising flight in the atmosphere roughly between Mach numbers 8 and 20 ... is a very stressful flight environment with high skin temperatures, control and maneuvering difficulties, ionized boundaries through which sensors must operate, and high infrared signatures which would make the vehicle vulnerable to detection. For these reasons, we have great reservations about the military utility of sustained hypersonic flight in the atmosphere above Mach number 8." A draft analysis done at the RAND Corporation was even more pessimistic:<25> "Grave doubts exist that NASP could come anywhere near its stated/advertised cost, schedule, payload fees to orbit, etc.... On the basis of current knowledge, it is hard to defend previous DoD plans for NASP on the basis of any singular mission utility sufficiently attractive to operators... NASP could do many missions (but none is singularly persuasive)... No compelling "golden mission" exists for NASP." NASA was disinclined to significantly increase its share of program costs given its current budgetary constraints<26>, and the Air Force, which has borne the brunt of development costs of Phase 2, expressed doubts about the future viability of the program. According to Martin Faga, Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Space:<27>

"...these are exciting ideas... but they are not ready for commitment." Clearly, no single vehicle can serve commercial, civil space and military masters at the same time. In spite of efforts to be all things to all people, the NASP remained without a truly credible mission, and ultimately proponents were unable to save it from termination. The Hypersonic Systems Technology Program (HySTP), initiated in late 1994, was designed to transfer the accomplishments made in hypersonic technologies by the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program into a technology development program. On January 27, 1995 the Air Force terminated participation in (HySTP).

NASA's Langley Research Center continues work on hypersonic technologies for airbreathing, single-stage-to-orbit flight. The NASA LoFlyte will test neural-network flight control for hypersonic aircraft.

X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Demonstrator
The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator, flown at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., provided information which is invaluable for proceeding with the designs of the next generation highly maneuverable fighters. The X-31 program showed the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems, to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result is a significant advantage over conventional fighters in a close-in-combat situation. "Angle-of-attack" (alpha) is an engineering term to describe the angle of an aircraft's body and wings relative to its actual flight path. During maneuvers, pilots would like to fly at extreme angles of attack to facilitate rapid turning and pointing against an adversary. With older aircraft designs, entering this flight regime often led to loss of control, resulting in loss of the aircraft, pilot or both. Three thrust vectoring paddles made of graphite epoxy and mounted on the X-31's aft fuselage are directed into the engine exhaust plume to provide control in pitch (up and down) and yaw (right and left) to improve maneuverability. The paddles can sustain temperatures of up to 1,500 degrees centigrade for extended periods of time. In addition, the X-31s is configured with movable forward canards, wing control surfaces, and fixed aft strakes. The canards are small wing-like structures located just aft of the nose, set on a line parallel to the wing between the nose and the leading edge of the wing. Normally "weathervaned" with the prevailing airflow, these devices are programmed to be used for aerodynamic recovery from high angles of attack in event of thrust vectoring system failure. The strakes are set along the same line between the trailing edge of the wing and the engine exhaust. The strakes supply additional nose down pitch control authority from very high angles of attack. Small fixed nose strakes are also employed to help control sideslip. The X-31 flight demonstration program was focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. This is expected to lead to design methods providing better maneuverability in future high performance aircraft and make them safer to fly.

Phase One
Phase I was the conceptual design phase. During this phase the payoff expected from the application of EFM concepts in future air battles was outlined and the technical requirements for a demonstrator aircraft were defined.

Phase Two
Phase II carried out the preliminary design of the demonstrator and defined the manufacturing approach to be taken. Three major government design reviews were held during the phase to thoroughly examine the proposed design. Technical experts from the U.S. Navy, Federal Ministry of Defense and NASA all contributed to the careful examination of all aspects of the design.

Phase Three
Phase III initiated and completed the detailed design fabrication and assembly of two aircraft. This phase required that both aircraft fly a limited test flight program. The first aircraft rolled out on March 1, 1990, followed by a first flight at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, Calif., on Oct. 11, 1990. The aircraft was piloted by Rockwell chief test pilot Ken Dyson, and reached a speed of 340 mph and an altitude of 1 0,000 feet during the initial 38-minute flight. The second aircraft made its first flight on Jan.19, 1991, with Deutsche Aerospace chief test pilot Dietrich Seeck at the controls.

Flight Summary
During the program's initial phase of flight test operations at the Rockwell Aerospace facility in Palmdale, Calif., the two aircraft were flown on 108 test missions, achieving thrust vectoring in flight and expanding the post-stall envelope to 40 degrees angle of attack. Operations were then moved to Dryden in February 1992 at the request of the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). At Dryden, the International Test Organization (ITO) expanded the aircraft's flight envelope, including military utility evaluations that pitted the X-31 against similarly equipped aircraft to evaluate the maneuverability of the X-31 in simulated combat. The ITO, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), includes NASA, U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany, and Deutsche Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm). The first NASA flight under the ITO took place in April 1992. By July 1992, the X-31 program was continuing the initial stage of post stall envelope expansion. The X-31 achieved controlled flight at 70 degrees angle of attack at Dryden on Nov. 6, 1992. On the same day, a controlled roll around the aircraft's velocity vector was accomplished at 70 degrees angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the No. 2 X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum radius, 180degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. The revolutionary maneuver has been dubbed the "Herbst Maneuver," after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-

to-air combat. The term "J Turn" is also used to describe this type of maneuver, when flown to an arbitrary heading change. The first tactical maneuver with a cooperative F/A-18 as adversary was accomplished in June 1993. In August 1993, the X-31 demonstrated full capability in flying Basic Fighter Maneuvers. In October 1993 the program logged its 300th flight. The final tactical evaluation phase, consisting of Close-In-Combat (CIC) tests with unchoreographed flights against the F/A18 adversary, began in November 1993. During November and December 1993 the X-31 also reached supersonic speed (Mach 1.28). A total of 160 flights were completed by the X-31 program in 1993 setting a new annual experimental aircraft record. One of the two X-31s flew 103 of those flights. The program also set a new monthly record of 21 research flights in August 1993. The evaluation of the X-31's unique capabilities in close combat (CIC) was completed on March 1, 1994. Evaluation of the X-31 as a fighter maneuverability demonstrator by the ITO is expected to conclude in early 1995. The No. 1 X-31 ship was lost in an accident Jan. 19, 1995. The pilot, Karl Lang, ejected safely at 18,000 feet before the aircraft crashed into an unpopulated region of the desert just north of Edwards Air Force Base. There was no private property damage.

Quasi-Tailless Demonstration
In 1994, software was installed in the X-31 to demonstrate the feasibility of stabilizing a tailless aircraft at supersonic speed, using thrust vectoring. This software allows destabilization through the control laws of the aircraft in incremental steps to the goal of simulation 100 percent tail-off. Quasi-tailless tests began in 1994. The first phase started with supersonic evaluations at Mach 1.2. Later subsonic evaluations were performed. During the flights the aircraft was destabilized with the rudder to stability levels that would be encountered if the aircraft had a reduced size vertical tail. The quasi-tailless testing is providing data to industry on the benefits of drag reduction, radar cross section, and weight reduction that could be used for future commercial and military designs and modifications.

Helmet Mounted Visual/Audio Display
Installation of a Helmet Mounted Visual/Audio Display (HMVAD) was completed on the X-31 (aircraft No. 2) in October 1993. The purpose of the HMVAD is to provide out-of-

the-cockpit situation awareness and a simulated helmet-mounted sight to the pilot during high angle of attack combat maneuvering. The system consists of a GEC Viper helmet with symbology projected on its visor by a monocular CRT. Also included is a Polhemus head tracker and an angle-of-attack audio cueing device. Both of these features have been demonstrated on the X-31, during poststall close-in-combat, a first for any aircraft. This equipment will be the baseline for a follow-on virtual adversary program to demonstrate the feasibility of combat training against onboard and uplinked targets displayed by the helmet. An international test organization, managed by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), is conducting the flight tests. In addition to ARPA and NASA, the International Test Organization (ITO) includes the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Air Force, Rockwell Aerospace, the Federal Republic of Germany and Deutsche Aerospace. About 110 people from the ITO agencies are assigned to the program. NASA is responsible for flight test operations, and aircraft maintenance. Research engineering is an ITO team effort. The X-31 is the first international experimental aircraft development program administered by a U.S. government agency. It is one, if not the most, successful effort initiated by the NATO Cooperative Research and Development Program. The X-31 program logged an X-Plane record total of 524 flights in 52 months with 14 pilots from NASA, U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Air Force, German Air Force, DASA, Rockwell International, and Deutsche Aerospace, flying the aircraft. Designed and constructed as a demonstrator aircraft by Rockwell Aerospace, North American Aircraft and Deutsche Aerospace. The X-31 is a single seat aircraft with a wing span of 23.83 feet (7.3 m). The fuselage length is 43.33 feet (1 2.8 m). The X-31 is powered by a single General Electric P404-GE-400 turbofan engine, producing 16,000 pounds (71,168 N) of thrust in afterburner. Typical takeoff weight of the X-31 is 16,100 pounds (7,303 kg). The X-31's normal flight envelope includes speeds up to Mach 0.9 with an altitude capability of 40,000 feet (12,192 m). For specific tests to determine thrust vector effectiveness at supersonic speeds the aircraft was flown to Mach 1.28 at 35,000 feet.

X-33 VentureStar
The Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Program is a partnership between NASA and industry to design a new generation of launch vehicles expected to dramatically lower the costs of putting payloads in space. Today's launch systems are complex and costly to operate. The RLV program stresses a simple, fully reusable vehicle that will operate much like an airliner. NASA hopes to cut payload costs from $10,000 a pound, as it is today, to about $1,000 a pound. To accomplish this goal, NASA sought proposals from US aerospace industries for the RLV Technology Program. On August 5, 1994, President Clinton issued the National Space Transportation Policy and designated NASA as the Lead Agency for advanced technology development and demonstration of the next generation of RLVs. Three concepts and preliminary designs were prepared independently by: (1) Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, Palmdale, California; (2) McDonnell-Douglas Aerospace, Huntington Beach, California; and (3) Rockwell International Corporation, Space Systems Division, Downey, California. >In July 1996, NASA selected Lockheed Martin Skunk Works of Palmdale CA to design, build and test the X-33 experimental vehicle for the RLV program. The selected team consists of Lockheed-Martin (lead by the Skunk Works in Palmdale, CA), Rocketdyne (Engines), Rohr (Thermal Protection Systems), Allied Signal (Subsystems), and Sverdrup (Ground Support Equipment), and various NASA and DoD laboratories. NASA has budgeted $941 million for the X-33 program through 1999. Lockheed Martin will invest at least $212 million in its X-33 design. Specific technology objectives of the X-33 space vehicle include:

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demonstrate a reusable cryogenic tank system, including the tanks for liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX), cryogenic insulation, and an integrated thermal protection system (TPS) verify TPS durability, low maintenance, and performance at both low and high temperatures demonstrate guidance, navigation, and control systems, including autonomous flight control of checkout, takeoff, ascent, flight, reentry, and landing for an autonomously controlled space vehicle achieve hypersonic flight speeds (speeds up to Mach 15 or 18,000 km/hr(11,000 mph)) demonstrate composite primary space vehicle structures integrated with the TPS demonstrate ability to perform 7-day turnarounds between three consecutive flights (a turnaround is the amount of time required from a takeoff and flight until the vehicle is serviced, refueled, and ready to fly again) demonstrate ability to perform a 2-day turnaround between two consecutive flights demonstrate that a maximum of 50 personnel performing hands-on vehicle operations, maintenance, and refueling can successfully accomplish flight readiness for two flights.

Specific test flight objectives would include demonstration of:
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successful interaction of the engines, airframe, and launch (also referred to as takeoff) facility engine performance, thrust, and throttling capability meets specifications operability and control of the X-33's flight control surfaces (canted fins, flaps, ailerons, etc.) durability of the metallic thermal protection system during repeated flights performance of the guidance, navigation, and control system performance of primary operations facilities, including takeoff infrastructure automated landing at a designated point on the runway verification of tasks required to service the vehicle on landing and prepare it for next flight in minimal time.

The reusable, wedge-shaped X-33, called VentureStar, will be about half the size of a full-scale RLV. The X-33 will not take payloads into space; it will be used only to demonstrate the vehicle's design and simulate flight characteristics of the full-scale RLV. Lockheed Martin plans to conduct the first flight test in March 1999 and achieve at least 15 flights by December 1999. NASA has budgeted $941 million for the project through 1999. Lockheed Martin will invest $220 million in its X-33 design. After the test program, government and industry will decide whether or not to continue with a fullscale RLV. The RLV will fly much like the Space Shuttle. It will take off vertically and land on a runway. However, there are differences between the two vehicles. The RLV will be a means of transport only. It will not be used as a science platform like the current Space Shuttle. Also, the RLV will be a single-stage-to-orbit spacecraft it does not drop off components on its way to orbit. It will rely totally on its own built-in engines to reach orbit, omitting the need for additional boosters. Unlike the shuttle, the RLV will use a new linear aerospike engine, which looks and runs much differently than the bell-shaped Space Shuttle Main Engine. NASA considered the aerospike engine for the Space Shuttle 25 years ago, but opted to use the Space Shuttle Main Engine, also built by Rocketdyne. The aerospike has been revived and enhanced to power the RLV. The aerospike nozzle is shaped like an inverted bell nozzle. Where a bell nozzle begins small and widens toward the opening of the nozzle like a cone, the aerospike decreases in width toward the opening of the nozzle. The aerospike is 75 percent shorter than an equivalent bell nozzle engine. It is also lighter, and its form blends well with the RLV's lifting body airframe for lower drag during flight. The shape spreads thrust loads evenly at the base of the vehicle, causing less structural weight. The half-scale X-33 test vehicle will use two smaller test versions of the aerospike, whilet the full-scale RLV will use seven aerospike engines. The X-33 main propulsion system (full system of engines and propellant tanks) consists of two J-2S aerospike engines, one aluminum LOX tank in the front, and two LH2 tanks in the rear for short- and mid-range flights. The vehicle could sustain one engine out at liftoff and still have sufficient power from the remaining engine to continue acceleration and make a safe landing at the intended runway or an abort landing area depending on where the engine out occurred

during flight. For the long- range flights an engine out situation could be tolerated approximately 30 seconds after liftoff. The X-33 was scheduled to complete its first flight by March of 1999. As of early 1999 the projected date for the X-33 rollout was May 1999, with its first flight planned for that July. The program is scheduled to be completed by the year 2000. The baseline test program would include a combined total of approximately 15 flights beginning in July 1999 and concluding in December 1999. The baseline test flight plan includes three short-range, seven mid-range, and five long-range test flights. Actual numbers of test flights to any range may vary due to changing plans and/or actual test flight data evaluation. Test flights involve: (1) launching the X-33 from a vertical position like a conventional space launch vehicle—this reduces the weight of the landing gear and wheels to only that required to support an unfueled vehicle (baseline dry weight of vehicle is approximately 29,500 kg (65,000 lb) and fueled weight of X-33 is approximately 123,800 kg (273,000 lb)); (2) accelerating the vehicle to top speeds of Mach 15 (15 times the speed of sound or approximately 18,000 km/hr (11,000 mph) and reaching high altitudes up to approximately 75,800 m (250,000 ft); (3) shutting down the engines; gliding over long distances up to 1,530 km (950 mi) downrange of the launch site followed by conducting terminal area energy maneuvers to reduce speed and altitude; and (4) landing like a conventional airplane. Optimally, the flight test plan to meet Program objectives would involve flights of approximately 160, 720, or 1,530 km (100, 450, and 950 mi). Landing sites meeting the above criteria and providing 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of hard surface are referred to as short-, mid-, and long-range landing sites, respectively. The X-33 Program prefers to land the vehicle on a dry lake bed at least for its first flight in order to have a wider and slightly safer landing area than conventional runways offer. The same philosophy was used for the Orbiter's and most X-planes' first landings. The launch site is located within Edwards Air Force Base, California. A total of fifteen launches are scheduled over a period of approximately one year. The X-33 will blast off from the site near Haystack Butte, located at the eastern edge of the Base near the AFRL/PR. Predominantly local NASA and USAF tracking and command assets will be utilized to support this phase of flight. Construction of the X-33 launch site at was completed in December 1998, just a little more than 12 months after groundbreaking. Once the X-33 is readied for flight, the engines will be fired two times on the launch pad, with the second firing having a duration of 20 seconds. The longest flight will be approximately 20 minutes at an altitude of about 55 miles. The plan is to demonstrate a 2day turnaround for the vehicle. Landing sites include Silurian Dry Lake Bed, Michael Army Air Field and Malmstrom Air Force Base. One of NASA's 747s will be used to carry the X-33 from its landing destinations back to Edwards. Silurian Dry Lake Bed near Baker, California is approximately 3000 feet wide and 12000 feet long. The lake bed will be the site of the first landing attempts for the X-33 vehicle. Three flights are scheduled to Silurian Lake that will include vehicle speeds in excess of Mach 3. The flights are scheduled to start in mid 1999.

Michael Army Airfield will be the second landing site for the X-33. This will also be the first downrange runway landing. Michael Army Airfield is part of the Utah Test and Training Range, located south of Salt Lake City. This airfield is located on the eastern boundary of Dugway. The airfield has a 3,960 m (13,000 ft) long by 61 m (200 ft) wide hard surfaced runway. Immediate surrounding terrain is relatively flat. It is a secure facility with a long history of flight operations. The airspace above Dugway Proving Ground is restricted military airspace controlled by Hill Air Force Base which manages and approves use of the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Seven flights are scheduled to Michael with vehicle speeds in excess of Mach 10. Flights are scheduled to start in the latter part of 1999. Malmstrom Air Force Base will be the third and final landing site for the X-33. The airfield was closed on Decmeber 31, 1996, except for the area used by helicopters of the Malmstrom's Air Rescue Flight. The airfield has a hard surface runway approximately 3,500 m (11,500 ft) long and 61 m (200 ft) wide with a 305 m (1,000 ft) overrun at each end. Since closure of the airfield, the USAF has no plans or budget to operate the runway. Five flights are scheduled to the Malmstrom runway with vehicle speeds in excess of Mach 15. Flights are scheduled to start in the spring of 2000.

On August 28, 1996, NASA awarded to Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) a contract for the design, development, and testing of the X-34 technology testbed demonstrator vehicle. First flight was scheduled before the end of 1998. The intent of the X-34 program is to demonstrate "key technologies" integratable to the Reusable Launch Vehicle program. This vehicle was conceived as a bridge between the Clipper Graham (DC-XA) and the X-33. The contract is managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. (MSFC) The objective of the X-34 program is flight demonstration of key reusable launch vehicle operations and technologies directed at the reusable launch vehicle goals of low-cost space access and commercial space launch competitiveness. The vehicle is being designed and developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation. It will be powered by a government-furnished engine. The main engine is a 60,000 pound thrust version of the Fastrac LOX/kerosene engine being developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. This is a simple engine which uses a gas generator cycle, and a single turbopump based on the previously developed Marshall Simplex LOX pump. The X-34 is considerably smaller and lighter than the X-33. It is capable of hypersonice flight to Mach 8, compared with the X-33's Mach 15. Consequently, it is considerably less expensive and simpler to develop, to operate, and to modify for flight experiments. It has different embedded technologies and a different operational concept. The flight testing will focus on RLV-type operations, the embedded technologies, and technology test articles to be carried as experiments. Test-bed instrumentation will satisfy the needs for the embedded technolgoies demonstration, and for some additional experiments to be carried. Additional instrumentation requirements will be dictated by the demands of the experiments to be conducted. This test-bed vehicle is designed to be air-launched from Orbital Science's L-1011 aircraft, then accelerated to speeds up to Mach 8, reaching altitudes up to 250,000 feet. It will land horizontally on a conventional runway. The X-34 will have a wing span of 27.7 feet and is 58.3 feet long. The modular X-34 design permits easy engine removal and replacement. It may be adaptable for subsequent testing of more advanced propulsion technologies such as rocket based combined cycle, plug nozzle, pulse detonation wave rocket, and dual expansion engines. The X-34 program is divided into two phases: In Phase I, the vehicle will be designed and built, and two envelope expansion flights limited to Mach 3.8 will be made. In Phase II, 25 flight throughout the range of achieveable speeds will be undertaken during a 12month period, from locations selected to assure operational experience over a variety of weather and environmental conditions.

McDonnell Douglas and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have developed a tailless research aircraft that could dramatically change the design of future stealthy fighters. Named the X-36, the vehicle has no vertical or horizontal tails and uses new split ailerons to provide yaw (left and right) and pitch (up and down) directional control. This innovative design promises to reduce weight, drag and radar signature and increase range, maneuverability and survivability of future fighter aircraft. The 28-percent scale prototype was designed, developed and produced in just 28 months for only $17 million. The X-36 began a six-month flight test program in the summer of 1996. McDonnell Douglas and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) embarked on a joint project in 1994 to develop a prototype fighter aircraft designed for stealth and agility. The result -- after only 28 months -- was a subscale tailless aircraft called the X-36. The 28 percent scale, remotely piloted X-36 has no vertical or horizontal tails, yet it is expected to be more maneuverable and agile than today's fighters. In addition, the tailless design reduces the weight, drag and radar cross section typically associated with traditional fighter aircraft. In a series of flight tests, the low-cost X-36 research vehicle demonstrated the feasibility of using new flight control technologies in place of vertical and horizontal tails to improve the maneuverability and survivability of future fighter aircraft. During flight, the X-36 used new split ailerons and a thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The Ailerons not only split to provide yaw (right-left) control, but also raise and lower asymmetrically to provide roll control. The X-36 vehicle also incorporated an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system developed with commercially available components. Fully fueled, the X-36 prototype weighed 1,300 pounds. It is 19 feet long and measures 11 feet at its widest point. It is 3 feet high and is powered by a Williams Research F112 engine that provides about 700 pounds of thrust. Using a video camera in the nose of the vehicle, a pilot controls the flight of the X-36 from a virtual cockpit -- complete with head-up display (HUD) -- in a ground-based station. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminates the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems. McDonnell Douglas has been working under contract to NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., since 1989 to develop the technical breakthroughs required to achieve tailless agile flight. Based on the positive results of extensive wind tunnel tests, McDonnell Douglas in 1993 proposed building a subscale tailless research aircraft. In 1994 McDonnell Douglas and NASA began joint funding of the development of this aircraft, now designated the X-36. Under the roughly 50/50 cost-share arrangement,

NASA Ames is responsible for continued development of the critical technologies, and McDonnell Douglas for fabricating the aircraft. McDonnell Douglas built the X-36 with a combination of advanced, lowcost design and manufacturing techniques pioneered by the company's Phantom Works research-anddevelopment operation. Among these techniques are:
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advanced software development tools for rapid avionics prototyping; low-cost tooling molds; composite skins cured at low termperatures without the use of autoclaves, and; high speed machining of unitized assemblies.

Two identical subscale research vehicles were produced by the team for use in the flight test program. Including design and production of the two aircraft and flight testing, the total cost of the X-36 program was only $17 million. A total of 25 flights, conducted by McDonnell Douglas, took place during a six-month flight test program designed to prove the aircraft's superior agility. Initial tests focused on the low-speed, high angle-of-attack performance of the X-36.

X-37 / Future X / Advanced Technology Vehicle (ATV)
NASA is considering asking for funding for an X-37 flight test vehicle. This will provide the agency has a sustainable research and technol