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INSDAG GUIDE FOR

THE STRUCTURAL USE OF STEELWORK IN BUILDINGS

Compiled by:

Dr. Rangachari Narayanan Dr. V. Kalyanraman

Published by:

**Institute for Steel Development And Growth
**

Ispat Niketan', First Floor 52/1A Ballygunge Circular Road Kolkata 700 019 Phone: (033) 2461 4045/47/66/76, Fax: (033) 2461 4048 E-mail: insdag@giascl2.vsnl.net.in; insdag@caj2^nLneLui March 2003 Copyright reserved

INSDAG

REVISED PRICE

1 0 0 0 / 52/1 A , Bally gunge CUcuUi Road -Kolkata-700019

7

Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge that all the data and information contained herein are correct to the extent that they relate to either matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication, Institute for Steel Development And Growth (INSDAG) assumes no responsibility for any errors in or mis-interpretations of such data and/or information or any loss or damage arising from or related to their use. __________________________________

US E M O R E S T E EL - T H E P R EF E RR E D M AT ER I A L O F TH E N E W M IL L EN IUM

FOREWARD INSDAG has played a pivotal role over the last few years in propagating the awareness amongst students, faculties of various engineering institutes and experts and professionals from various industries, about the advantages and benefits of usage of steel in the construction sector. It is now being accepted by most engineering professionals both academic and industrial, that the main stumbling block in the development of the steel construction industry in India is the primitiveness of the methods of design adopted by the Indian codes as against the international codes which allow higher flexibility in design approach. The relevant Indian codes of practice (IS: 800-1984 and IS: 801-1975) applicable for hot-rolled and cold-formed steel are based on the "Allowable Stress Design" approach as against the more internationally popular "Limit State Method" approach which has been proved to be technically sound and its use results in optimum economy of the structure.

With the technical contributions from leading academics and professionals, INSDAG has already brought out various publications on the design methodology of steel structures using the Limit State Method of Design (LSM), which have been beneficial to the engineering fraternity in learning the most intricate facets in LSM design.

On request from INSDAG, this publication in the form of a Guide book has been written and compiled by Dr. Rangachari Narayanan and Dr. V. Kalyanraman for the benefit of not only the student community both under-graduate and post graduate level, but also other engineering professionals across the country, since most of the engineering institutions have started including the LSM design in their curriculum and also the engineering professionals need to update themselves with the latest technological advancements. The publication is very timely as it coincides with the revision of IS: 800- 1984, which is at its advanced stage.

The entire book has been reviewed by^Dr. T. K. Bandyopadhyay, Deputy Director General and Mr. Arijit Guha, Manager (Civil & Structural). Comments and suggestions received from a large number of faculty member*, have been incorporated. INSDAG expresses its indebtedness to Dr. R. Narayanan and Dr. V. Kalyanraman, academics and researchers of international experience for agreeing to bring'out this publication. Kolkata: February 2003

Special Note The entire document has been written considering Limit State Method of design following stipulations laid down in the relevant British code. However. this document will be extremely useful to the students of Civil I Structural Engineering to understand the theoretical background associated with advancement in structural steel design based on Limit State Method. ______________________________ . this guide book may undergo certain modifications in some chapters after the publication of revised IS: 800 (LSM version) to accommodate the possible variation in stipulations that are likely to be considered in the revised code. Since IS: 800 (Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel) is presently being revised to Limit State version. 3 & 5 and Eurocode .3 & 4. BS: 5950 Part -1.

3. 16. 7. 4.174 175 .58 59 . 15. 8.18 19 .182 2-3 4-4 5-15 16 .CONTENTS Pages 1.153 154 . 13.65 Portal Frames Multi . D. E. B.64 and 66 . 10.Storey Buildings Connection Design Cold Formed Steel Sections Basic Concepts of Composite Construction Composite Beams and Slabs Steel .C: Relevant Indian Standards Appendix . 5.109 110 .139 140 . 6.Concrete Composite Columns LIST OF APPENDICES A.D: An Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis Appendix .21 22-31 32 .169 170-172 173 . 12.A: Terminology Appendix. 14. C.B : Symbols Appendix .167 Torsion .130 131 . 9. General Material General Design Requirements Tension Members Classification of Cross Sections Axially Loaded Columns Design of Members Subjected to Bending Elements Subjected to Axial force and Bending Beams of Hot Rolled Sections Subjectedto 65 .E: Location of Neutral Axis 168 .72 73-88 89 .180 181 . 11. Appendix . 2.

Many of the design specifications contained herein have been adopted from these Western Codes and will hopefully serve as a Draft document.1984. Dr. As a part of that initiative. Compared with competing materials of construction. which led to the latest British.1985) is based on the Limit State approach but is very limited in its coverage. The newly started Institute for Steel Development and Growth (INSDAG) was entrusted with the tasks of (a) improving the teaching standards of Structural Steel Design in Indian Universities. steel framed buildings have significantly better blast and earthquake resistance and take less than half the time to build. American. Australian and European Codes. when the Bureau of Indian Standards eventually decides to revise the Steel Codes. IS: 801 . Bandhyopadhyay of INSDAG and Professor A. besides being inconsistent with IS: 800 and IS: 801 written in Working Stress format. when the Government of India. The technical support provided by two young engineers. Santhakumar of Anna University had reviewed the document before its publication as a draft.too numerous to mention who suggested improvements in the drafting stage. The relevant Indian Codes of Practice (IS: 800 . R. We are also grateful to the many engineers . relevant to Construction. it may be noted that the Indian Codes of Practice applicable to concrete structures have been revised to conform to Limit State Methodology. Kalyanaraman 1 .1975) applicable to the structural use of hot-rolled and cold-rolled steel are largely based on "Working Stress Method".steel-insdag. which result in uneconomic designs. The more modern "Limit State Design Approach" developed in the 1970's in the West. Sambasiva Rao and Miss P. as steel is reusable and environment friendly. Rangachari Narayanan V. This situation posed a challenge. Mr. an up-to-date Resource Material for disseminating the latest Steel Design Technology has been compiled and published in the web site of INSDAG (www. This Design Guide has been complied. T.PREFACE The low usage of structural steel in India is attributable in part to the prevailing out-of-date design practices. Suggestions and comments aimed at improving this document are welcome. This is of particular advantage. Usha in compiling this document is gratefully acknowledged. as a complementary document and has been drafted after studying the background research work carried out largely in the Western World.org). S. is technologically sound and results in significant economies in completed structures. This makes the choice of steel in construction an uneconomic proposition. In passing.K. Canadian. It is also noted that the Code of Practice for steel-concrete-composite buildings (IS: 11384 . (b) organising in-career courses for enhancing the level of competence of practising engineers (c) publishing design guidance documents for disseminating latest Steel Design Technology (d) organising design competitions for encouraging state-of-the art Structural Steel Designs. Ministry of Steel initiated steps to rectify the skills shortage in Steel Construction in 1998.

BS: 5950 (various parts). however. weight. tolerances of all rivets. form. Reference to other Standards . 1.Symbols used in this Guide are defined in Appendix B.6 2 .5 1. transmission line towers.2 Terminology . weight. For actual loads to be used reference may be made to IS: 875-1987. tanks. conform to the appropriate Indian Standards.4 1.3 1.1 Scope This Guide provides general recommendations for the design of structural steel work in buildings and allied structures. wherever available. It is not intended to replace Codes of Practice. tubular structures.For the purpose of this Guide. form. nuts.All the standards referred to in this Guide are listed in Appendix C and their latest version shall be applicable: Units and Conversion Factors . storage structures.. general . the definitions of various terms are given in Appendix A. For conversion of system of units to another system. The guide provides only general advice regarding the various loads to be considered in design. INSDAG has a Memorandum of Understanding with the British Steel Construction Institute and several supporting documents are available from INSDAG at largely discounted prices for the use of steel designers in India.The SI system of units is applicable to this Guide. shall conform to the requirements of appropriate Indian Standards. wherever available. This guide is in three parts and covers the design of building structures using (i) Hot Rolled Steel section (ii) Cold Rolled Steel sections and (iii) Steel Concrete Composite sections. chimneys. tolerances of all rolled shapes and other members used in any steel structure shall. studs. This document is NOT a statutory document and intended as a guide for students and practicing engineers. 1. IS: 786-1967 (supplement) may be referred. It will not apply to bridges.principles discussed in this guide could be adopted in the design of such structures appropriately. cranes. Symbols . this guide generally follows the provisions contained in British Standard. Standard Dimensions. The dimensions. etc.SECTION 1: GENERAL 1. Form and Weight The dimensions. In the absence of an Indian Standard written in the modern Limit State Format for steel construction. bolts.

1. Shop drawings shall be made in conformity with IS: 696-1972 and IS: 962-1967. size. They shall clearly distinguish between shop and field rivets. Plans shall indicate the type of construction to be employed. Plans . bolts and welds. Symbols for welding used on plans and shop drawings shall be according to IS: 813-1961 3 . For a great majority of steel buildings which are not subject to alternate wetting and drying. Shop drawings . For additional information to be included on drawings for designs based on the use of welding.The plans (design drawings) shall show the complete design with sizes.7 Plans and Drawings Plans. sections. Floor levels. It is essential that Steel Designers familiarize themselves with protection methods for structural steelwork. Plans shall be drawn to a scale large enough to convey the information adequately. and the relative locations of the various members. column centres.Shop drawings. A marking diagram allotting distinct identification marks to each separate part of steelwork shall be prepared. drawings and stress sheet shall be prepared according to IS: 696-1972 and IS: 962-1967. moments and axial forces to be resisted by all members and their connections. as may be required for the proper preparation of shop drawings. shears. and offsets shall be dimensioned. and shall be supplemented by such data on the assumed loads. reference shall be made to appropriate Indian Standards. giving complete information necessary for the fabrication of the component parts of the structure including the location. Any special precaution to be taken in the erection of structure from the design consideration shall also be indicated in the drawing. Authentic guidance on protection methods is available from INSDAG. corrosion is NOT a problem. with regard to fire and corrosion. shall be prepared in advance of the actual fabrication. type. length and detail of all welds. The diagram shall be sufficient to ensure convenient assembly and erection at site.

* 4 .All other materials including manufactured products. before fabrication conform to IS: 2062-1984. Any structural steel other than that specified in 2.1 may also be used provided that the characteristic yield stresses and other design provisions are suitably modified and the steel is also suitable for the type of fabrication adopted. Other Material . bolts and nuts and cement concrete shall confirm to the requirements of the appropriate Indian Standards.Ail structural steels used in general construction coming under the purview of this Guide shall.SECTION 2: MATERIALS Structural Steel . steel castings. IS: 8500-1977 and IS: 1977-1975. welding consumables. as appropriate.

connections and other structural components should constitute a robust and stable structure under normal loading to ensure that in the event of misuse or accident. (b) the deviation of loads from their specified values and (c) the reduced probability that the various loads acting together will simultaneously reach the characteristic value.1 Aims of Structural Design The aim of structural design is to provide. 3. Any features of the structure. one applied to forces due to loading and another to the material strength shall be employed. such as foundations. steelwork.3 General Principles of Limit State Design Structure should be designed considering the Limit States at which they would become unfit for their intended purpose. There should be no doubt of this responsibility for overall stability when some or all of the design and details are not made by the same designer. allows for. Two partial safety factors. it is necessary to define clearly the basic structural anatomy by which the loads are transmitted to the foundations. i.. 5 .SECTION 3: GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 3. For verifying the adequacy of the structure. erection and future maintenance.e. 3. a structure which is fit for its intended purpose. can then be identified and taken account of in design. based on semi-probabilistic methods described below shall be used. which have a critical influence on its overall stability. The design should facilitate fabrication. (a) the possible deviation of the actual behaviour of the structure from that of the analysis and design model. damage will not be disproportionate to the cause. it should be capable of fulfilling its intended function and sustaining the design loads for its intended life. The layout of its constituent parts. The structure should behave as a three-dimensional entity. To achieve this. Each part of the structure should be sufficiently robust and insensitive to the effects of minor incidental loads applied during service that the safety of other parts is not prejudiced. with due regard to economy. appropriate partial safety factors.2 Overall Stability The designer responsible for the overall stability of the structure should ensure the compatibility of design and details of parts and components.

25 when considering fracture ultimate stress). the design requirements are expressed as follows: where = Design value of internal forces and moments caused by the design Loads.if applicable. shear force etc) and is the calculated factored resistance of the element being checked.3. (Other loads . the safety format used in this guide is based on probable maximum load and probable minimum strengths.3. (From IS: 875 . and is a function of the nominal value of the material yield strength. are also considered) In accordance with the above concepts. Partial safety factors In general. Mode of failure (ductile/brittle). It should be noted that IS: 11384 . 6 . so that a consistent level of safety is achieved. Characteristic Loads. The value suggested is therefore consistent with that. is a function of the combined effects of factored dead.(e) (f) (g) (h) 3. 3. which is also determined on a 'probabilistic basis' when considering yield stress and 1.1 the possible deviation of the material in the structure from that assumed in design the possible reduction in the strength of the material from its characteristic value and manufacturing tolerances. live and wind loads.1985 (Code of Practice for Composite Construction) has prescribed for Structural Steel when considering yield stress.2 Limit states (1) A limit state is a state beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design requirements.1987) a load factor which is determined on probabilistic basis where = a material factor. calculations take the form of verifying that where is the calculated factored load effect on the element (like bending moment. Thus.

These values are based on recommendations adopted by Eurocodes. An illustration of partial safety factors suggested for ultimate load conditions is given in Table 3.(2) (3) Ultimate limit states are limit states of collapse or other structural failure. this Code is being revised). • Fatigue Limit State is important where distress to the structure by repeated loading is a possibility. • Ultimate Limit State is related to the maximum design load capacity under extreme conditions.0 1. Table 3. including: • Excessive deformation / formation of mechanism. (At the present time. • Rupture • Loss of stability • Loss of equilibrium Serviceability limit states are limit states beyond which specified service criteria are no longer met. including those for: • Deflection • Durability • Ponding • Vibration Thus the following limit states may be identified for design purposes and are provided for in terms of partial factors reflecting the severity of the risks.6 1.2 1.35 1.05 1. • Serviceability Limit State is related to the criteria governing normal use. The partial load factors are chosen to reflect the probability of extreme conditions. Reference to the Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design should be made. Parti) Vertical load Horizontal load Vertical load acting with horizontal load (Crabbing or Surge) Crane load acting with Wind load *If in doubt.5 1.35 1.35 Yf LL WL - 1.35 1. which might endanger the safety of people. (The Committee formed to review BIS standards have adopted these values). Unfactored loads are used to check the adequacy of the structure.35 1.05 1.1: Recommended Partial safety factors Loading Dead Load (unfavourable effects) Dead load restraining uplift or overturning Dead Load + Imposed Load Dead Load + Wind Load Dead Load + Imposed Load + wind Load (Major Load)* Dead Load + Imposed Load (Major Load) + wind Load* Crane Load effects (from BS 5950.2 1. calculations for both conditions are needed DL 1. where appropriate.5 1.1.2 7 .4 1.6 1. when loads act alone or in combination.5 1.5 1.

(b) The temperature range varies for different localities and under different diurnal and seasonal conditions. Proper provision shall be made.4. shrinkage and creep in contiguous concrete members.1 Types of loads .4. 3. Design guide on Structural Fire Safety C1B-W14) 3.3 Temperature effects (a) Expansion and contraction due to changes in temperature of the materials of a structure shall be considered and adequate provision made for the effects produced.For the purpose of computing the maximum stresses in any structure or member of a structure. where applicable: a) b) c) d) Dead Loads.5 Robustness Requirements The requirements for all buildings to maintain Structural integrity (as prescribed by BS: 5950.All loads required to be carried by the structure or any part of it due to storage or positioning of construction material and erection equipment including all loads due to operation of such equipment shall be considered as 'erection loads'.2 Erection loads . 3. e) For fire resistant design and fire rating.1991) Erection loads.4 Loading 3. reference may be made to appropriate specialist publications [For example. the following loads and secondary effects shall be taken into account. and Secondary effects due to contraction or expansion resulting from temperature changes. The structure as a whole and all parts of the structure in conjunction with the temporary bracings shall be capable of sustaining these erection loads. This requirement provides a 8 . Published data should be consulted in assessing the maximum variations of temperature for which provision for expansion and contraction has to be allowed in the structure. Part 1 following the Ronan Point Collapse) are given below: Structures should remain as complete integral units even when (due to an accident such as explosion) one of the members fail or become inoperative. Dead load. including temporary bracings to take care of all stresses due to erection loads. creep in steel. differential settlements of the structure as a whole and its components.000012 per degree centigrade per unit length. Imposed loads and Wind loads (as per IS: 875 . (c) The co-efficient of expansion for steel shall be taken as 0.4. wind load and also such parts of the live load as would be imposed on the structure during the period of erection shall be taken as acting together with the erection loads.3.1987) Earthquake loads (as per IS: 1893 .

in this event substantial permanent deformation may be accepted. Ties may be steel members or steel reinforcement. If the removal of one of these members would cause substantial damage. Collapse must not be disproportionate and the role of key elements should be identified. Each section between expansion joints should be treated as a separate building. as far as possible.total factored load /. as well as the "key elements" themselves should be checked for safety and stability. All building frames should be effectively tied together at each principal floor and roof level. This is termed as " Localisation of damage". it is possible to ensure that there is an alternative load path that would help to avoid progressive collapse. in both directions. no portion of structures should be dependent on only one bracing system.thirds of the factored vertical compressive load on the column below the splice.tie spacing . Any member or other structural component. Column splices should be capable of resisting a tensile force of two . (using appropriate load factors and including the likely accidental loads) in the appropriate directions. • 9 . At each storey in turn any single column or beam carrying a column should be capable of being removed without causing collapse beyond a limited portion of the building in the vicinity of the member.distance between columns in the direction • • • • • • At the edge of the structure. Either the beams or tie members should be designed so that they provide for the anchorage. Suggested requirements for integrity of buildings of five storeys or more are given below: • • For sway resistance. These requirements are aimed at ensuring that the collapse of one element of a structure does not trigger the failure of the structure as a whole. The minimum tie strengths (in respect of the ties referred above) should be internally and externally (but not less than 75 kN for floors and 40 kN at roof level). Columns should be continuous vertically through the floors. Precast floors must be anchored at both ends against sliding of supporting members.significant measure of safety for the occupants and is termed "Structural integrity requirement" or "Robustness requirement". By tying the structure together. which are properly anchored to the steel frame work. the member should be designed as a "key element" so that it has a very low probability of failure. columns should be restrained by horizontal ties resisting 1% of column load. which provides lateral restraint vital to the "key element". unit area . where .

stability and stiffness requirement of all parts of the structure when partial continuity at the joints is to be taken into account in assessing moments and forces in the members. Where the design is based on failure loads. It is necessary to maintain stability against sway and this is ensured complying with provisions of 3. a load factor of not less than 1. not to develop The distribution of forces may be determined assuming that members intersecting at a joint are pin connected.2. assuming this to be simply supported. Semi-rigid design .The design of any structure or its parts may be carried out by one of the methods given in (a) to (d). in simple beam and column structures an allowance may be made for the inter-restraint of the connections between a beam and a column by an end restraint moment not exceeding 10% of the free moment applied to the beam.2 (c). In all cases. the tolerances then specified on the drawing shall be such that all successive structures shall be in practical conformity with the prototype.3. As an alternative. The prototype shall be accurately measured before testing to determine the dimensional tolerance in all relevant parts of the structure.Some degree of connection stiffness is assumed.5 on the loads or load 10 .6. provided that the frame is braced against side sway in both directions.The connections between members are assumed moments adversely affecting either the members or the structure as a whole. which may permit some limited plasticity. Such analysis may be made using either elastic or plastic methods. other than the fasteners. (i) The moment and rotation capacity of the joints should be based on experimental evidence. On this basis.6 General Principles and Design Methods 3. but it would be insufficient to develop full continuity. (c) (ii) (d) Design based on experiments . the details of members and connections should be such as to realise the assumptions made in design without adversely affecting any other parts of the structure. the design should satisfy the strength. (a) Simple design .The connections are assumed to be capable to developing the strength and / or stiffness required by an analysis assuming full continuity. the design may be based on full scale or model tests subject to the following conditions: (i) A full-scale test of prototype structure may be done. The necessary flexibility in connections may result in some non-elastic deformation of the materials. (b) Rigid design .6.1 Methods of design .Where structure is of non-conventional or complex in nature.

In considering the overall stability of any structure or part.1. moments and deformations under working loads shall be determined by physical measurements made when the loadings are applied to simulate the conditions assumed in the deign of the actual structure. should be adequately stiff against sway. Account should be taken of probable variations in dead load during construction or other temporary conditions. (c) Sway stability . The thrusts.6. which embraces stability against overturning. the model shall be constructed with due regard for the principles of dimensional similarity.6. The combination of imposed and dead loads should be such as to have the most severe effect on overall stability.2 Stability limit state (a) General . in addition to designing for applied horizontal loads.2 Ultimate Limit States 3. 3. The designer should consider overall frame stability. should be such that the factored loads would not cause failure. the loads should be increased by the relevant factors given in table 3.All structures. a separate check should be carried out for notional horizontal forces.combinations given in Table 3. The load capacity of each member and its connections. The factored loads should be applied in the most unfavorable realistic combination for the part or effect under consideration. (ii) In the case where design is based on the testing of a small-scale model structure. 11 . To ensure this. The distribution and duration of forces applied in the test shall be representative of those to which the structure is deemed to be subjected. Loading devices shall be previously calibrated and care shall be exercised to ensure that no artificial restraints are applied to the prototype by the loading systems. 3.The factored loads should not cause the structure or any part of the structure (including the foundations) to overturn or lift off its seating.2.1 should be used.1 Limit state of strength (a) General . as determined by the relevant provisions of this Guide. (b) Stability against overturning .6.2.1.In checking the strength and stability of the structure the loads should be multiplied by the relevant ^factors given in table 3. including portions between expansion joints. and sway stability as given below.

2.3 Foundation design .2. taken to contribute to net shear on the foundations. They should be taken as acting simultaneously with vertical loads. combined with horizontal loads. Stress changes due to fluctuations in wind loading need not be considered but account should be taken of wind-induced oscillations. Attention should be given to the method of connecting the steel superstructure to the foundations and the anchorage of any holding down bolts.6. The stiffness (deformation) of the foundation should reflect the boundary condition assumed in the analysis model of the structural system. reversal of loading should be accommodated. applied horizontally. Where they result from factored loads the relevant factors for each load in each combination should be stated.5% of factored total gravity load (dead plus vertical imposed) from that level. 12 .2. joint rigidity or by utilising staircase.6. applied horizontally. The cladding. combined with temperature effects. The notional forces should be assumed to act on all structures in any one orthogonal direction at a time and should be applied at each roof and floor level or their equivalent. Where such sway stability is provided by construction other than the steel framework.Fatigue need not be considered unless a structure or element is subjected to numerous significant fluctuations of stress.4 Fatigue . Whatever system is used. floors and roof should have adequate strength and be so secured to the structural framework as to transmit all horizontal forces to the points of sway resistance.The design of foundations should accommodate all the forces imposed on them. Sway stability may be provided for example by braced frames. 3. the steelwork designer should state clearly the need for such construction and the forces acting upon it.5 Earthquake Resistant Design .These notional forces may arise from practical imperfections such as lack of vertically and should be taken as the greater of: 1% of factored dead load from that level.The standards appropriate for earthquake resistance of buildings in various parts of the country should be carefully considered and suitable provisions should be made taking into account the Capacity design and requisite ductility. 0. The notional force should not be: • • • • applied when considering overturning. 3. lift cores and shear walls.6. 3. Where it is necessary to quote the foundation-reactions it should be clearly stated whether the forces and moments result from factored or unfactored loads.

When checking for deflections the most adverse and realistic combination of service loads and their arrangement should be checked by elastic analysis. consideration should be given to pre-camber the beams) Table 3.3. Table 3. 3. Circumstances may arise where greater or lesser values would be more appropriate. (Where the deflection due to Dead + Live load combination is likely to be excessive.Several factors affecting the durability of the buildings under conditions relevant to their intended life.3 Ponding a) All roofs with a slope of less than 5% must be checked to ensure that rainwater cannot collect in pools.3 Serviceability Limit State 3.6.3.6.The deflection under serviceability loads of a building or building component should not impair the strength of the structure/components or cause damage to the finishing. 3.1984 NOTE 1.2 gives recommended limitations for certain structural members. Allowance must be made for possible construction inaccuracies.6.2 Durability .6. deflections of roofing 13 . are listed below: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the environment.3. Detailed advice on protection of steel for various environmental/exposure conditions is contained in an INSDAG publication titled "Corrosion Protection for Structural Steel".2: Deflection limits other than for pitched roof portal frame ( a ) Deflection on beams due to unfactored imposed loads Cantilevers Length / 180 Beams carrying plaster or other brittle Span / 325 finish All other beams Span / 325 ( b ) Horizontal deflection of columns other than portal frames due to unfactored imposed and wind loads Tops of columns in single-storey Height / 325 buildings In each storey of a building with more Height of storey under consideration / 325 than one storey ( c ) Crane gantry girders Refer to IS: 800 .1 Deflection . On low-pitched and flat roofs the possibility of ponding needs consideration for Composite Construction using metal decking. the shape of the members and the structural detailing the protective measure if any. the degree of exposure. settlements of foundations. whether maintenance is possible.3.

it must be checked that collapse cannot occur due to the weight of water (or snow. c) To avoid resonance.6.3 gives limiting values for the natural frequency or the alternative total deflection to avoid resonance. b) Vibration caused by machines and oscillation caused by harmonic resonance must be considered.materials and structural members and the effects of pre-camber. pre-camber (hogging) of the beam in the unloaded state.4 Dynamic effects a) The design must make suitable provision for the effects of imposed loads. This also applies to floors of car parks and other open-sided structures. (state 0) variation of the deflection of the beam due to permanent loads immediately afterloading. which can induce impact. (state 2) 14 . b) Pre-cambering of beams can be used to reduce the likelihood of rainwater collecting in pools. which might be formed due to the deflection of structural members or roofing material. 3. vibration. c) Where the roof slope is less than 3%.if applicable) collected in pools. the natural frequencies of structures or parts of structures must be sufficiently different from those of the excitation source. provided that rainwater outlets are appropriately located.3. etc. and provided for. Fig 3. (state 1) variation of the deflection of the beam due to the variable loading plus any time dependant deformations due to the permanent load.1 Vertical deflections to be considered sagging in the final state relative to the straight line joining the supports. d) Table 3.

15 .

1 and 4. is the yield stress of the material (in MP a).SECTION 4: TENSION MEMBERS 4. is the ultimate stress of the material. is the net area of the cross section after deductions for the hole and is the partial safety factor against ultimate tension failure by rupture (The suggested value of . Fig. as calculated by Eqn. is given by and Ym is where. is the gross area of cross section in the partial safety factor for failure in tension by yielding. the load-causing yield across the section is taken as one of the limiting loads.2.1 Limiting Load on Plates in Tension In the design of tension members. 4. (The suggested value of The design strength in tension as governed by net cross-section at the hole. is the root area of the threaded section. Similarly threaded rods subjected to tension could fail by rupture at the root of the threaded region and hence net area. will govern the tensile design strength of a plate with holes.1 Plates with Bolt Holes under Tension 16 . The corresponding design strength for the member under axial tension is given by where. 4. The lower value of the design tension capacities.

n is the number of bolt holes in the staggered section and the summation over is carried over all inclined legs of the section. the potential for "block shear failure" should also be assessed. accounts for the end fastener restraint effect. respectively.4). is evaluated accounting for this phenomenon by 1. respectively. In addition.5). and (4. and are the yield and ultimate stress of the material. The design tensile strength. 2. and are the net area of the connected leg and the gross area of the outstanding leg. will be the minimum value obtained from (4. the stress in the outstanding leg at the ultimate stage will be closer to the yield stress (due to shear lag) while the net section of the connected leg will often reach the ultimate stress The tensile strength of angles connected by one leg. limiting the stress in the outstanding leg to (the yield stress) and the connected leg having holes to (the ultimate stress).3) where. when the number of fasteners when the number of fasteners is 3 the number of fasteners is 1 or 2 and if the connection is adequately welded if 17 .6) below: (i) Strenfith as governed by the yielding of gross section: where. (ii) Strength as governed by tearing at net section: where.2 4. The design strength in tension will be obtained by substituting the value of in Eqn. the net area corresponding to the staggered section will be given by (4.1). (4. is the gross area of the angle section.2 Limiting Load on Angles under Tension When a connection is made through one leg of an angle. 4.When multiple holes are arranged in a staggered fashion in a plate (Fig 4.

perpendicular to the line of force. Fig. It will also provide a margin for avoiding excessive self-weight deflection). If the centroid of bolt pattern is not located between the heel of the angle and the centerline of the connected leg. The corresponding design strength in tension shall be evaluated as the lower of the value obtained from the following equations. 4. and = minimum gross and net area in tension from the hole to the toe of the angle.(iii) Strength as governed by block shear failure: A tension member may fail along end connection due to block shear as shown in Fig. and = minimum gross and net area in shear along a line of transmitted force. 4. 4. 18 .2 Block Shear Failure where. the connection shall be checked for block shear strength.3 Maximum Slenderness Ratio The maximum slenderness ratio (length/least radius of gyration of the cross section) of a tension member is limited to 400 (This will provide a margin of safety for members normally acting as ties but subject to reversal of stresses due to wind and earthquake. respectively. respectively.2.

and it exhibits considerable "ductility" is the rotation at the onset of plasticity.1 Elastic/plastic moment-rotation curve. This section is termed as 'semi-compact'.e. 5.1. is the lower limit of rotation for treatment as a plastic section) Fig. If the section were to be even more slender (higher ratios of it may only be able to sustain an elastic moment up to the attainment of yield strength in the extreme fibres. before attaining the theoretical elastic moment capacity. Such a section is termed as 'slender'. i. the stress distribution across the section will consist of two rectangles and a significant rotation will take place. these four different modes of behaviour can be expressed graphically on a plot of stress against strain at the 19 . On the other hand. A beam capable of developing full plasticity would exhibit an idealised elastic/plastic moment-rotation curve as shown in Fig. Such a stocky section is termed as a 'plastic' section. At failure.SECTION 5: CLASSIFICATION OF CROSS SECTIONS 5.e. 5. Such a cross-section is termed 'compact' section. yet higher values of local buckling would occur before the attainment of yield stress in the extreme fibres. Assuming that the flange plate or the web does not buckle locally. with a triangular stress distribution. a cross section may develop fully plastic stress distribution across the entire cross section but may not have adequate ductility The horizontal part of the moment-rotation diagram will be limited.1 Basis The proposed classification of cross sections is illustrated by considering the idealised moment-rotation characteristics of a symmetrical beam subjected to incremental flexural loading continued till its collapse. If the section were to be further more slender still (i.

Moment resistance.2). 20 . flange plates and web plate. 5. Compact sections can generally be used in simply supported beams failing soon after reaching at one section.2 Stress/strain relation of extreme fibres for different classes of sections Fig. These different modes of behaviour can also be shown by the stress patterns. In elastic design. semi-compact sections are to be used with the understanding that they will fail at The slender section design is discussed in the section on Cold-Form Steel member design. 5.3 Bending stress distribution for different classes of sections The class of a section is determined by the lowest class of all its constituent elements. shear resistance etc.g.). Only plastic sections can be used in forming plastic collapse mechanisms. 5. The class of section determines its resistance (e.e. as in Fig. Fig. 5.3. i.extreme fibres (Fig.

21 . Limits on Width to Thickness Ratio of Plate Elements* Type of Element Type of Section Outstand element of Welded compression flange Rolled Internal element of Welded compression flange Rolled Web with neutral axis at mid depth Web under uniform compression Single/double angle T-stems Circular tube with outer diameter D where are the limits for b/t width of the flange overhang depth of the web outer diameter of the circular tubular section thickness of the plate All Welded Rolled Rolled * This table is derived from BS 5950: Part 1.Table 5.1.

SECTION 6: AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS 6. The design axial load resistance for a member subjected to axial compression is given (Note that no calculations for is needed when as the column would fail by squashing at The compressive strength curves obtained for the various types of sections are shown in Fig 6.1. The choice of axis of buckling to obtain the design strength is not always clear. Axially loaded columns having a slenderness ratio values below are "stocky" and will fail by yielding across the entire cross section. For columns having values in excess of the following computations are necessary. 22 . so calculations have to be canned out in respect of both principal axes and the lower value of load resistance chosen.1 Axial Compression Resistance of Columns The axial load resistance of steel columns is governed by the type of cross section and the axis of buckling.

6. 23 .1 Compressive strength curves for struts for different values'of 250 Mpa.Fig.1 to 6.2 gives the ultimate compressive stress values in compression members corresponding to various values of and for Graphs (similar to Fig. 6.6.1) and Table 6.2 may be constructed for different values of using equations 6. Based on BS 5950: Part 1J Table 6.1: Choice of appropriate values of [For = Welded Sections: for cross sections fabricated by welding of plates 20 N/mm2 should reduce the value of Table 6.

which would be expected to have the same strength and stiffness as the column being designed.Table 6.2 Effective Length of Columns Designs of columns have to be checked using the appropriate effective length for buckling about both the strong and weak axes. Effective length. may be regarded as the equivalent length of a pin-ended column having the same cross section. The recommended effective lengths for design purposes are given below 24 .2: Ultimate Compressive stress i 6.

4 for various built-up sections may be employed. 6.2: Cross Section Shapes for Rolled Steel Compression Members ( d ) Plated I Section (e) Built .up I Section Fig 6. approximate values of radii of gyration given in Fig. built-up sections will be used.6. 6.3 Cross Sectional Shapes for Compression Members and Built . Fig 6.2 and Fig. Cross section shapes of rolled steel compression members and built-up or fabricated compression members are shown in Fig.up or fabricated Compression Members 25 .3.Up Columns When compression members are required for large structures like bridges. For preliminary calculations.3: Cross Section Shapes for Built . 6.

Fig 6.4: Approximate radii of gyration (Continued in next page) 26 .

they should be connected at their ends with welds or bolts. If bolts are used they should be spaced longitudinally at less than 4 times the bolt diameter and the connection should extend to at least times the width of the member. the weld length must be not less than the maximum width of the member.4: Approximate radii of gyration 6.25 times the factored axial load and the effective length taken as the centre-to-centre distance of the intersection at each end. assuming the effective length to be 0.85 times the centre to centre distance of the intersection at each end. When single angle discontinuous struts connected by a single bolt are employed.4 General Guidance for Connection Requirements When compression members consist of different components. When welds are used. which are in contact with each other and are bearing on base plates or milled surfaces.Fig 6. it may be designed for 1. Single angle discontinuous struts connected by two or more bolts in line along the member at each end may be designed for the factored axial load. 27 .

The width of the lacing bar should be at least 3 times the diameter of the bolt. the slenderness ratio of individual components should be less than 50 or 70% of the slenderness ratio of the built up column (whichever is less). All double angle struts must be tack bolted or welded.For double angle discontinuous struts connected back to back to both sides of a gusset or section by not less than two bolts or by welding. (A value between is chosen depending upon the degree of restraint provided at the ends). To prevent local buckling of unsupported lengths between the two constituent lattice points (or between two battens). For members of large thickness M20 bolts may be used. the lacing should be symmetrical in any two opposing faces to avoid torsion. A minimum of two bolts at each end and a minimum of two additional connectors spaced equidistant in between will be required. (Additionally if the columns are subjected to moments or lateral loading the lacing should be designed for the additional bending moment and shear).7) 28 . Lacings and battens are not combined in the same column. The slenderness ratio of the lacing bars should not exceed 145. The load that these tying forces cause may be assumed to cause a shearing force equal to 2. The effective length of lacing bars is the length between bolts for single lacing and 0. Thickness of lacing bars should be at least l/40th of the length between bolts for single lacing and 1/60 of this length for double lacing (both for welded and bolted connections). The spacing'of connectors must be such that the largest slenderness ratio of each component member is neither greater than 60 nor less than 40. the factored axial load is used in design.with an effective length conservatively chosen. The inclination of lacing bars from the axis of the column should not be less than 40° nor more than 70°. 6. In laced columns.5(a) and 6.5% of axial load on the column. The slenderness ratio formula: of battened columns shall be calculated using the following (6. The following guide values are suggested for initial choice of members: (i) (ii) (iii) 6. M16 bolts may be used unless otherwise noted. Spacing of tack bolts or welds should be less than 600 mm.7 of this length for double lacing. shown in Fig.5 Single angle size: 1/30 of the length of the strut Double angle size: 1/35 of the length of strut Circular hollow sections diameter = 1/40 length Design Considerations for Laced and Battened Columns The two channel constituents of a laced column. Solid washers or packing plates should be used in-between. For member thickness up to 10 mm.5 ( b ) have a tendency to buckle independently.

8) = calculated using values given in Eqn.8) The strength of the battened column is evaluated from = effective slenderness with computed as given in Eqn.5 Built-up column members 29 . is lower value of slenderness of the individual vertical members between centre to centre of batten intervals and is slenderness of the overall column. (6.where. using the radius of gyration of the whole built up section. (6. 6. The imperfection factor is calculated from (6.7) Fig.

some form of stiffening must be provided.6. Concrete support area should be significantly larger than the base plate area so that the applied load can disperse satisfactorily on to the foundation. These base plates can be welded directly to the columns or they can be fastened by means of bolted or welded lug angles. 6. Fig. and to ensure there is good contact between the two. If column base plates are insufficient to develop the applied bending moment or if thinner plates are used. If uplift or overturning forces are present. it is customary not to grind or machine the underside of the base plate.6 When there is a large moment in relation to the vertically applied load a gusseted base may be used. but for larger columns. For this second case the columns are connected to the footing with anchor bolts that pass through the lug angles. These connection methods are illustrated in Fig.6 Base Plates for Concentrically Loaded Columns For a purely axial load. but grout it in place.6 ( a ) .6 Column base plates A base plate welded directly to the columns is shown in Fig. a more positive attachment is necessary. 6. For small columns these plates will be shop-welded to the columns. To spread the column loads uniformly over the base plates. This type of arrangement is shown in Fig. which have been shop-welded to the columns. a plain square steel plate or a slab attached to the column is adequate. it may be necessary to ship the plates separately and set them to the correct elevations. 6.6. . 6.

7 Base plates subjected to concentric force 5.4 (where = cube strength ofconcrete) Actual bearing pressure to be less than or equal to 0. Determine the factored axial load and shear at the column base.6.Columns supporting predominantly axial loads are designed as being pin-ended at the base. = pressure in on underside of plate. 6. Check shear stress on weld. Check for adequacy of weld. 6. Check maximum co-existent factored shear and tension. on the holding down bolts. Check for bolt.7] = smaller plate projection from column = design strength of mild steel plate. Determine base plate thickness For channel. Vector sum of all the stresses carried by the weld must not exceed the design strength. = larger plate projection from column [See Fig.4 4. The design steps for a base plate attached to an axially loaded column with pinned base are explained below. 9. assuming a uniform distribution. 2. Maximum allowable bearing strength = 0. of the weld. 6. 6. Decide on the number and type of holding down bolts to resist shear and tension. Select weld size. 3. 7. similar to the arrangement sketched in Fig. Calculate the total length of weld to resist axial load. 8. Procedure for empirical design of a slab base plate for axial load only (pinned connection) 1. if any. Check the bolts for adequacy. 10. The chosen number of bolts is to be arranged symmetrically near corners of base plate or next to column web. box or columns but not less than the thickness of the flange of the supported column. but not greater than divided by Fig. .

Such a beam is termed restrained beam". "Long beams" which are not suitably braced in the lateral direction will fail by a combination of lateral deflection and twist. which will not fail by lateral instability. (b) local crushing of the web or (c) buckling of thin flanges may sometimes be encountered.2. • • • 7. Adequate restraint may be regarded as being available if there is a positive connection of a floor or other construction fixed to the compression flange capable of resisting a lateral force of not less than 2. all rolled steel sections used as beams are classified in four ways in order to reflect the effect of local buckling of the beam elements. and the component elements are compact or plastic.1 General The main failure modes of hot rolled beams of compact or plastic cross section are as follows: • If the beam is prevented from buckling laterally. These are termed "unrestrained beams". Lateral Instability or Lateral Torsional Buckling of beams can be prevented by providing full restraint to the compression flange of member. This type of failure is unlikely to be encountered in hot rolled sections. . Local failure by (a) shear yield of the web.1 Laterally restrained beams "Laterally Restrained Beams" are those. The influence of local buckling of flanges and webs In section 5. The design adequacy of a laterally restrained beam is verified using the following criteria: • • • • lateral restraint force bending resistance of the cross section shear resistance of the cross section combined bending and shear at locations where there are (a) combinations of maximum factored bending moment and co-existent shear and (b) combinations of maximum factored shear force and the co-existent bending moment. in the case of (c). then the failure will be triggered by excessive flexure and the collapse will follow the formation of plastic hinges.1. Fabricated plate girders may fail by web shear buckling or local buckling of a flange.5% of the maximum factored force in the compression flange of the member. 7.SECTION 7: DESIGN OF MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO BENDING 7.1. These are to be eliminated by provision of web stiffeners for (a) and (b) and the welding of additional flange plates to reduce the plate ratio.

the design bending resistance of the cross section is given by Slender cross sections will not be able to resist a moment equal to the elastic moment resistance.1. . as the maximum fibre stress at failure will be less than The design bending resistance in these sections is given by 7. • Plastic .• Slender . For the plastic or compact sections. 7.4 Length of cantilevers: The length of a cantilever should be taken as the distance from the effective point of the support to the tip of the cantilever. Hot rolled sections used as beams are generally of the "plastic" or "compact" cross sections.1.3 Span of beams: The span of a beam should be taken between the effective points of support.5 General conditions: All members in bending should meet the following conditions.The plastic moment capacity can be attained.1.as for compact. but there is sufficient rotation capacity in the cross section.the elastic moment capacity of the cross section can NOT be attained • Semi-compact .The elastic moment capacity of the cross section can be attained. but the cross section has little rotation capacity. but NOT the plastic moment capacity • Compact . 7. so that the frame can be designed by plastic methods.

the shear stress should be calculated from first principles assuming elastic behaviour. (e) When loads or reactions are applied through the flange to the web.2) for semi-compact sections and 34 .2) should be adhered to.1.2.2.6 times the design shear resistance the design moment resistance.should be taken Equation (7. the resistance of the member to lateral torsional buckling should be checked in accordance with specifications detailed in 7. 7.6 for web buckling and web bearing should be met.2.3 Moment resistance with low shear load Where the design shear force of the cross section as the value obtained from • • is less than 0.(a) At critical points the combination of maximum moment and coexistent shear. the conditions of 7.5 and 7. load parallel to webs (c) Solid bars and plates Where = thickness of the web = Total depth of the section = depth of the web = area of the plate or bar.1 Plastic and compact sections The design shear resistance. (c) Unless the compression flange has full lateral restraint.2 Shear 7.1) for plastic and compact sections Equation (7. 7.2. load parallel to web (b) Built-up sections and boxes. of a plastic or compact cross section is taken as Where = shear area given by the following for the three cases: (a) Rolled and channel sections.3 section (d) Local buckling should be considered as given in Table 5.2 Elastic shear stress In sections where webs vary in thickness or have holes significantly larger than those required for fasteners.2. 7.and the combination of maximum shear and co-existent moment should be checked at the ultimate limit state (b) The deflection limits prescribed under "serviceability Limits" (Table 3.

4.2. (defined in equation 7. 7.3) for slender sections When the depth to thickness ratio. of a web exceeds where then it should be checked for shear buckling in accordance with the requirements set out under Section 7. 7.• Equation (7.2. is given by .4) the moment resistance. (a) For plastic or compact sections: and is taken as follows: For sections with equal flanges: the plastic modulus of the shear area.5 Web buckling To prevent the web buckling under point loads or reactions (applied through the compression flange) the following check is required to be carried out on all beams The buckling resistance.6 times the design shear resistance. For sections with unequal flanges: the plastic modulus of the gross section less the plastic modulus of that part of the section remaining after deduction of the shear area. should be taken as follows.4 Moment resistance with high shear load Where the design shear force exceeds 0.

7. is given by where = crippling resistance of the webin buckling =design yield stress of the web = length obtained by dispersion through the flange-to-web connection at a slope of 1:2. .1 Effective width for web buckling If the applied load or reaction (as the case may be) exceeds should be provided. The buckling resistance in crippling.6 Web Bearing suitable stiffness For all beams. suitably designed bearing stiffeners should be provided.Fig.5 of the plane of the flange. the web crippling resistance should also be checked at its junction with the flange to the flange-to-web connection at a slope of 1:2. 7.2. 7.5 to the plane of the flange.2 Effective width of web bearing If the applied load or the reaction exceeds the crippling resistance of the web. Fig.

• • When the hole diameter exceeds 10% of the depth of the girder. equal to the depth of the girder.2.3 Laterally Unrestrained Beams of Plastic and Compact Sections 7. the load on the member is substantially uniform and no point loads are situated within a distance from the edges of the hole.7. When designing holes in webs.7 Plastic and compact beams with web openings Beams with web openings are frequently required for passing service ducts. provided that • • the holes are located within the middle third of the depth and middle half of the span of the member.3. Beams having (a) an isolated hole (b) a series of web openings at regular intervals are included in this guide. the spacing between the centres of any two adjacent openings measured parallel to the axis of the member is at least 2.1 Lateral torsional buckling of symmetric sections The elastic critical moment resistance of a symmetrical I beam subjected to equal end moments undergoing lateral torsional buckling between points of lateral support is obtained as . the net section properties should be computed and the adequacy of the design should be verified. or if any of the above conditions are not satisfied.5 times the diameter of the larger opening. Unreinforced circular openings having a diameter not exceeding 10% of the web depth may be located within the web of compact beams without considering the net section properties. the following aspects should be kept in view: • • • • The effect of bending The possible need to provide stiffening around the hole The effect of openings on slender webs (covered in the section 7. it may be either around the hole or as a flat reinforcement carried past the opening for such a distance that the local shear stress due to the load being transferred from the reinforcement does not exceed 7. If web reinforcement is provided. the factored maximum shear at the support does not exceed 60% of the shear resistance of the section.4) The effect of opening on the stiffness of the section and deflections.

The effect of various support conditions is taken into account by way of a parameter called effective length. namely lateral bending.7. .Comparing the two cases covered by Eqns. twisting and warping. Several factors affect the lateral stability of beams and these are outlined below: (a) Support conditions Lateral buckling involves three kinds of deformations. For a beam with simply supported end conditions and no intermediate lateral restraint. Various types of end conditions are consequently possible but the supports should either completely prevent or offer no resistance to each type of deformation (Solutions for partial restraint conditions are complicated).3. if the load is applied below the centroid. The effective length factor would indirectly account for the increased lateral and torsional rigidities provided by the restraints. On the other hand. As an illustration.7) the ratio of the tw constants is often termed "the equivalent uniform moment factor" Its value is a direct measure of the severity of a particular pattern of moments relative to the basic case.6) and (7. (b) Level of application of transverse loads (Stabilising and destabilising loads) The lateral stability of a transversely loaded beam is dependent on the arrangement of theloads as well as the position of application of the loads with respect to the centroid of thecross section. This is clear from Fig. the effective length is equal to the actual length between the supports. the effective lengths appropriate for different end restraints according to BS 5950 are given in Tables 7. it produces astabilising effect. (7.2. A load applied above the centroid of the cross section causes an additional overturning moment and becomes more de-stabilising than when the same load is applied at the centroid.1 and 7.

Effective length. for cantilever of length .2.Table 7.1 Effective length of beams of Compact Plastic Cross section between supports Table 7.

loading patterns would vary widely from the basic case. the basic design procedure is modified by comparing the elastic critical moment for the actual case with the elastic critical moment for the basic case. In this case. But.3 Equivalent uniform moment 40 . Cases of moment gradient. Fig. where the end moments are unequal. in reality. only the basic case of beams loaded with equal and opposite end moments has been considered. are less prone to insiability and this beneficial effect is taken into account by the use of "equivalent uniform moments". The equivalent uniform moment is defined as where m = equivalent uniform moment factor and bending moment.(c) Influence of the type of loading So far. 7.

4 Slenderness Correction Factor 41 . Fig 7.4 for a few cases of loading. where n is the slenderness correction factor. a modification to the slenderness. as illustrated in Fig.(d) Slenderness correction factor ( n ) For situations.7.g. may be used. The allowable critical stress is determined for an effective slenderness. when the beam is uniformly loaded in the span. e. where the maximum moment occurs away from a braced point.

3. In any case.6.7.5 compares a typical set of lateral torsional buckling test data using actual hot rolled sections with theoretical elastic critical moments given by Eqn 7.6 and 7.2 Limitations of the elastic buckling theory for beams Direct use of the theory described in the foregoing pages for design purposes is in appropriate because • • Formulae (such as Eqns. Significant differences exist between the assumptions forming the basis of the theory and the observed behaviour of beams under ultimate load tests. these are derived on the basis of elastic behaviour and cannot be extrapolated to check the ultimate bending resistance. can be expressed in a non-dimensional form using The beam slenderness Fig.7.7) are too complex for routine use.5 Comparison of test data (mostly I sections) with theoretical elastic critical moments Fig 7. 7. using the non-dimensional slenderness so that the results from many test series (using different 42 .

7. The buckling resistance moment.3. which largely fail by elastic instability.6) The three categories of beams are listed under section 7.3. The designs must be based on inelastic buckling.In region I. (See Fig 7. Region III covers beams. The formulae derived so far will provide an upper bound.2. is obtained as the smaller root of the equation 43 . Region II covers much of the practical range of beams without lateral restraint. The design method will consequently involve some degree of empiricism. lateral instability does not influence the design as these beams will collapse by developing full plasticity. A simple method of computing the buckling resistance of compact and plastic beams is given below and is analogous to the Perry-Robertson approach for columns.3 Design method As discussed previously the basic theory of elastic lateral stability cannot be directly used for design purposes because of limitations and its extension to the ultimate range. with suitable modifications to account for residual stresses and geometric imperfections.

For more slender beams.9 for rolled steel I. 44 .16) = a buckling parameter. is a function of given by.0 for all other sections.where = bending strength allowing for susceptibility to lateral -torsional buckling and are supplied in Tabulated form by steel makers. which may be conservatively taken as 0.sections and channels and 1. (7.

1 Plate Girders General A fabricated plate girder is employed for supporting heavy loads over long spans. Stiffeners are provided at a spacing of as shown in Fig. 45 . the bending moments are assumed to be carried by the flanges by developing compressive and tensile forces and shear is carried by the web.4. To effect economy. 7.7.4 7.7. the web depth is chosen to be large enough to result in low flange forces for the design bending moment. In these girders.

For stiffened web In practice.8).3 times the depth of the section as a thumb rule. In the design of thin webs with shear buckling should be considered. The recommended web thickness are (Fig. is rarely used . i. It is also necessary to choose the breadth to thickness ratio of the flange such that the section classification is generally limited to plastic or compact sections only This is 46 . For un-stiffened web ii. In general we may have an un-stiffened web. a web stiffened by transverse stiffeners (Fig. d/t exceeding 250 is rarely used.7): i. To avoid flange buckling into web. For un-stiffened web where is the design stress of flange material. 7. Similarly. For stiffened web Flange proportions: Generally the thickness of flange plates is not varied along the spans for plate girders used in buildings.7. but the webs vulnerable to buckling may have to be stiffened if necessary. Constant depth beams used in simply-supported composite and non-composite girders with concrete decking Constant depth beams in continuous composite and noncomposite girders Simply-supported crane girders Web proportions: When the web plate will not buckle.4. iii. The design. By choosing a minimum web thickness the self-weight is reduced. in such cases.if at all . 7. ii.1 Recommended Proportions (Indicative values) Span to Depth Ratios: The recommended span / depth ratios for initial choice of cross-section in a plate girder used in a building are given below as indicative values: i. however.7) or a web stiffened by both transverse and longitudinal stiffeners (Fig.1. 7.in plate girders used in buildings and bridges. ii. For non-composite plate girder the width of flange plate is chosen to be about 0. is similar to rolled steel beams.

to avoid local buckling before reaching the yield stress. Where the end panel near support is designed without using the tension field action a smaller spacing of is adopted. For preliminary sizing.15) 47 . Fig. The design stress of the flange steel = Plastic section modulus of flanges about the transverse axis of the section. The web is able to sustain shear in excess of shear force corresponding to because of vertical stiffeners. Horizontal stiffeners are generally not provided in plate girders used in buildings.8 End panel strengthened by longitudinal stiffener Stiffener spacing: Vertical stiffeners are provided close to supports to increase the bearing resistance and to improve shear capacity.2. where. 7.7) is chosen in the range of 1.e. 7.Moment resistance resistance of the flanges. Sometimes double stiffeners are adopted near the bearing (see Fig. When vertical stiffeners are provided. the panel aspect ratio a/d (see Fig. 7. bottom flange of a simply supported girder) the width can be increased by 30% if needed. For the tension flanges (i. = Material safety factor for steel (= 1.6.9) and in such cases the overhangs beyond the supports are limited to 1/8 of the depth of the girder. Intermediate stiffeners also may not be required in the mid-span region.2 Design methodology is computed from the plastic moment 7.4.1 Moment Resistance . the overall flange width-to-thickness ratio may be limited to 24.7. Thus. Vertical stiffeners help to support the tension field action of the web panel between them.2 to 1.4.

Webs without intermediate stiffeners: The shear resistance of unstiffened webs is limited to its elastic shear buckling resistance. = Elastic critical shear strength values to be used in design for different values of a/d and d/t are tabulated in Table . given by The values for for webs. Design strength of web = = Material safety factor for steel (= 1.4.3.3 7.7.2 Shear Resistance Thin webs are designed either with or without stiffeners.4) depend on the slenderness parameter defined as where.7.2. These two cases are described individually below.3: Elastic critical stress related to aspect ratio 48 .15) The elastic critical stress has been simplified and given based on a/d and t/d Table as given in Table 7. which are not too slender (see Table 7.

The web develops tension field action and thus resists considerably larger stress than the elastic critical strength of web in shear.. is a parameter that relates to the plastic moment capacity of the flange and the web described later. i) ii) Increase in buckling resistance due to reduced a/d ratio. Fig. Webs with intermediate stiffeners: The shear resistance of the plate girders with intermediate stiffeners may be improved by the following two ways. When the flanges reach their ultimate capacity they form hinges.4 gives the values of for design purposes. The full shear buckling resistance is calculated as. Note that for very slender webs is limited to elastic critical shear stress.e. 49 .9 shows the diagonal tension fields anchored between top and bottom flanges and against transverse stiffeners on either side of the panel. In other cases the value of is a function of design stress of web steel.Table 7. The first term co mprises of critical elastic stress an d the tension field strength of the panel i.7. The term represents the contribution of the flanges to the post buckling strength and depends on plastic moment capacity of the flanges The flanges support the pull exerted by the tension field.

50 . the contribution of flange to shear resistance will be reduced by the longitudinal stress induced because of overall bending moment. When the girder is to resist pure shear.10 (c)]. as it does not utilise the post-buckling strength of end panel especially where the shear is maximum.4.3 End panels For tension field action to develop in the end panels. then However in presence of overall bending moment. In this case. 7. This will result in the a/d value of end panel spacing to be less than that of other panels. The anchor force required to anchor the tension field force is The end panel. For a simple design it may be assumed that the capacity of the end panel is restricted to so that no tension field develops in it [Fig. The plastic moment capacity of the web. The end stiffener should be designed for compressive forces due to bearing and the moment. when designed for tension field will impose additional loads on end post and hence it will become stout [Fig. end panel acts as a beam spanning between the flanges to resist shear and moment caused by and produced by tension field of penultimate panel. is given by 7. adequate anchorage should be provided all around the end panel. due to tension field in the penultimate panel. by the factor When approaches at maximum moment region.The flange-dependent shear strength is simplified and given as where. This approach is conservative. the factor nearly becomes zero and hence the contribution of flanges to shear resistance will become negligible. 7.10(a)].

10(d). 7.In order to be economical the end panel also may be designed using tension field action. Nowadays. but sometimes they are used in highway bridge girders for aesthetic reasons. In its limit will be equal to of the web without stiffeners. Such combined loads are common.4. especially owing to concentrated loads. In order to obtain greater economy and efficiency in the design of plate girders. The longitudinal stiffeners are generally located in the compression zones of the girder. load-bearing stiffeners are provided.4 Stiffeners Stiffeners are provided to transfer transverse concentrated compressive force on the flange into the web and are essential for desired performance of web panels. Intermediate stiffeners: The intermediate stiffeners are provided to prevent out of plane buckling of web at the location of stiffeners. In such cases stiffeners are considered for their satisfactory resistance under combined load effects. slender webs are sometimes reinforced both longitudinally and transversely.10 (b) is assumed to act along with the stiffener provided to resist the compression as an equivalent cruciform shaped strut of effective length 0. 7. Intermediate web stiffeners are provided to improve web shear capacity. Design of these stiffeners is discussed below. They are not as effective as transverse stiffeners. In this case the bearing stiffener and end post are designed for a combination of stresses resulting from compression due to bearing and a moment equal to 2/3 caused due to tension in the flanges. The stiffener will be stout. Instead of one stout stiffener we can use a double stiffener as shown in Fig. Normally a web width of 20 t on both sides as shown in Fig. Load bearing stiffeners: Whenever there is a risk of the buckling resistance of the web being exceeded. Here the end post is designed for horizontal shear and the moment 7. The main function of the longitudinal stiffeners is to increase the buckling resistance of web by subdividing the web and limiting the web buckling to smaller web panels. Sometimes the stiffeners are provided for more than one of the above purposes. Longitudinal stiffeners: Longitudinal stiffeners are hardly used in building plate girders. 51 . The buckling resistance of the stiffeneracting as a strut (with a cruciform section as described earlier) should be not less than where is the maximum shear force in the panel and is the buckling resistance of web without considering tension field action. These are referred to as bearing stiffeners.7 times its actual length between the top and bottom flanges. the use of longitudinal stiffeners is rare due to higher welding costs. The additional cost of welding the longitudinal stiffeners invariably offsets any economy resulting in their use. The bearing stress in the stiffener is checked using the area of that portion of the stiffener in contact with the flange through which compressive force is transmitted.

7.10 Various treatments for end panel 3 .(a) End panel designed using tension field action and end post designed for both bearing and to resist tension field (d) End panel designed using tension field strengthened by additional stiffener (Double stiffener) Fig.

when the plate girder is simply supported at the ends. sometimes it becomes necessary to make flange splices. The plates are manufactured up to a limited length. When the maximum manufactured length of the plate is insufficient for full length of the plate girder. It gives economy as regards to the material and cost. Generally. It also becomes essential when the length of plate girder is too long to handle conveniently during transportation and erection. 7. e. the maximum bending moment occurs at one section usually. The vertical ordinates are non-dimensionalised using (Yield shear of the web) and the horizontal ordinates by (the fully plastic moment resistance of the cross section). then. i. The portion of the curve between points A and C is the region in which the girder will fail by predominant shear. 7. The flange splices should be avoided as far as possible. where the shear capacity is plotted in the axis and the bending capacity in the axis. The splice plates are provided on each side of the web or direct butt welding. Therefore the flange plates may be curtailed at a distance from the centre of span greater than the distance where the plate is no longer required as the bending moment decreases towards the ends. Generally. 7. The interaction diagram is generally expressed in the form seen in Fig.28. its ultimate capacity is conditioned by the interaction between the effects of the bending moment and shear force. web splice becomes essential.e.7. Flange joints should preferably be located at the points away from section of maximum bending moment.g. and subjected to the uniformly distributed load. Flange splices: A joint in the flange element provided to increase the length of flange plate is known as flange splice. Splices in the web of the plate girder are designed to resist the shear and moment at the spliced section. In spite of the availability of full length of flange plates. 53 . web splices are mainly used in bridges and not buildings.5 Curtailment of flange plates For a plate girder subjected to external loading. the flange area designed to resist the maximum bending moment is not required at other sections.4. Since the values of bending moment decreases towards the end. maximum bending moment occurs at the centre.5 Webs Subjected to Co-existent Bending and Shear When a girder is subjected to predominant bending moments and low shear.4. shear mechanism of the type represented in Fig.12 will develop at collapse. 7. Any point in the interaction diagram shows the co-existent values of shear and bending moment that the girder can sustain.11.7. the flange plates can be obtained for full length of the plate girder.6 Splices Web splices: A joint in the web plate provided to increase its length is known as web splice. At least one flange plate should be run for the entire length of the girder. The vertical ordinate at A presents the shear capacity given by Eqn.

7.11 Interaction between bending and shear effects 54 .Fig.

the point F. 7. This value represents the horizontal co-ordinate of the point C. the left of represents shear failure and the right of flexural failure.1 When high axial forces are developed in the flanges due to bending moments. 7. • • • The reduction in the web buckling stress due to the presence of bending stresses. the presence of additional bending moment requires the following three factors to be considered. 7. The influence of bending stresses on the value of membrane stress required causing yield in the web.e. The reduction of plastic moment capacity of flanges due to the presence of axial flange stresses caused by bending moment.Fig. Reduction of plastic moment capacity of flanges 7.11(a). In zone ABC. Thus there is a distinct change in failure criterion represented by line in Fig. neglecting the contribution from the web. the reduced capacity is given by 55 .12 Collapse of the panel This shear capacity will reduce gradually due to the presence of co-existent bending moment. Beyond point in Fig. From plasticity theory.5.11 when the applied moment is high. the failure will be triggered by the collapse of flanges by one of the following: (i) by yielding of flange material or (ii) by inward buckling of the compression flange or (iii) by lateral buckling of the flange. Generally the flange failure mode will be triggered. i. their effects in reducing plastic moment capacity of flange plates must be taken into account. when the applied bending moment is approximately equal to the plastic moment resistance provided by the flange plates only.

the resulting calculations are complex. so the failure is by bending moment.2 is the average axial stress for the portion of the flange between hinges. the curve is horizontal. 7. 7.29). The moment corresponding to C is given by The point D represents nearly the ultimate capacity of the flanges and the shear values when high bending is present. The horizontal ordinate as stated previously is given by the value of (See Eqn 7.reduced because of the effects of web buckling. The compression flange will therefore carry practically all the compressive stresses.where. by provision of adequate lateral supports). the girder will fail by inward collapse of compression flange at an applied moment which is approximately equal to the moment required to produce first yield in the extreme fibres of compression flange. In a thin walled girder. The 56 . (ii) (iii) Webs subjected to pure bending: The region beyond C of the interaction diagram represents a high bending moment. The horizontal ordinate B is given by maximum bending moment in the end panel given by but limited to a value of Between B and C. This is discussed in the next section.g. thereby losing its capacity to carry further compressive stresses.5.of course . 7. al (1978) and validated by them by experiments is summarised below: The shear load capacity at point C of the interaction diagram may be obtained approximately from an empirical relationship given below. Consequently the girder is unable to develop full plastic moment of resistance of the cross section.11(6)]: (i) Between A and B.11(a)]. The interaction diagram is constructed in stages as follows [See Fig. Design procedure The simplified design procedure due to Rockey et. If no lateral buckling occurs (e. as the web is unable to be fully effective. Though the concept is simple. This equation gives the vertical ordinate of the point C in the interaction diagram [Fig. the web subjected to compressive bending stress will buckle. the curve may be straight (for simplicity). This moment is .

5D. Web opening should be away from the support by at least twice the beam depth. neglecting web buckling) This value of is the moment required to produce yield in the extreme fibres of the flange.5D for un-stiffened openings. D or 10% of the span whichever is greater The best location for the opening is within the middle third of the span. Clear Spacing between the openings should not be less than beam depth. The depth of the rectangular openings should not be greater than 0. The corresponding stresses in the web will be below yield. unless they are located in low shear and low bending moment regions. 7. • • • • • • • • The hole should be centrally placed in the web and eccentricity of the opening is avoided as far as possible. The best location for opening is where the shear force is the lowest.5D and the length not greater than 1. The above rule regarding spacing applies. The clear spacing between such opening should be at least equal the longer dimension of the opening. The diameter of circular openings is generally restricted to 0. • • • 57 . The ordinate of D can be calculated approximately from The complete interaction diagram can now be drawn.6D and the length not greater than 2D for stiffened openings.e. Unstiffened openings are not always appropriate. Depth of rectangular openings should not be greater than 0. D.ultimate moment capacity to be determined by a simple formula due to Cooper (1971) is given below: = Bending moment required to produce yield in the extreme fibre of flange assuming fully effective web (i. Corners of rectangular openings should be rounded Point loads should not be applied at less than D from side of the adjacent opening.6 Plate Girders with Web Openings The following general guidance is given for plate girders with web openings. (Point D in the interaction diagrams).

where necessary. the shear resistance is reduced by If a rectangular opening of is provided.• If stiffeners are provided at the openings. When a circular web opening of depth is provided. the reduction in shear resistance may be approximately evaluated as Suitable reinforcement to recover this loss of shear resistance may be designed. the length of the welds should be sufficient to develop the full strength of the stiffener. 58 .

the columns are subjected to sway deflection and bending. the failure is triggered by the material reaching its ultimate capacity. In "long" columns. the realistic assessment of the vertical load of the column is necessary. • In braced rigid portal frames. and in some cases due to the material strength having been reached at the ends of the column. An overestimate of the vertical loading may inadvertently make the design unsafe by reducing the moment resistance capacity of the column. In practice.1 Basic Behaviour of Beam Columns Columns subjected to a combined axial force and bending moments are referred to as Beam-Columns. when the beam is subjected to gravity loads.SECTION 8: ELEMENTS SUBJECTED TO AXIAL FORCE AND BENDING 8. it will transfer the bending moments to the column in addition to axial loads When a multi-storey multi-bay un-braced frame is subjected to gravity loads as well as lateral loads due to wind or earthquake. thereby subjecting the columns to axial compression as well as bending moments Beams from orthogonal directions in corner columns in buildings may be subjected to bending about both principal axes in addition to axial compression • • A beam-column may be subjected to single curvature bending over its length or reverse curvature bending as shown in causing variation of the nature (positive or negative) of the bending moment and curvature over the length of the column. Hence. all columns experience bending about one or both axis in addition to axial compression. In "short" columns. the failure is normajly due to overall instability of the column. • The compressive force may be eccentrically transferred to the column [Fig. due to one or more of the following reasons. The presence of bending moments in the beam-columns reduces the axial force at which they fail. 59 .

fails by yielding.Columns made of Plastic and Compact Cross sections A short member (stub column). by give 60 .Fig.2 Short Beam .1 Beam-Columns in Frames 8.8. made of non-slender (plastic / compact) section under axial compression. at the squas load.

8. given by [Fig. in the case of plastic and compact sections. and is the gross area of the cross section. and the member fails at a load below given by Eqn.Where. Similarly a short member made of plastic or compact section and subjected to only bending moment fails at the plastic moment capacity.2(6)] where. 8.8.1. S = plastic section modulus of the cross section. Fig. • • in a column within a floor between the ends of the columns (sway) at adjacent floors The consequent magnified deflection and bending moments are approximately allowed for in the design method described in section 8. This causes reduction in the effective area of the cross section to a value below the gross area. If the stub column is made of slender cross section.3 Long Beam-Columns Typically steel columns in practice are long and slender: Such slender columns when axially compressed tend to fail by buckling rather than yielding.2 Stresses in Short Beam-Columns 8. the plate elements of the cross section undergo local buckling before reaching the yield stress. 61 . is the yield strength of the material. The additional deflection and bending moment are due to the axial load acting on the deformed column as given below.5.

4. 8.4 Modes of Failure The following are the possible modes of failure of beamcolumns 8. simplified equations are available. using which it is possible to obtain the resistance of members.3. 8. conservatively.{a) Single curvature ( b ) Double curvature ( c ) Swav Deformation Fig.1 Local section failure This is usually encountered in the columns with relatively small axial compression ratio reverse curvature.3 Deflection and Moment Magnification 8. For design purposes. stocky beam and beam-columns bent in 62 . case of short. These are discussed below. The actual mode of failure will depend upon the magnitude of the axial load and eccentricity as well as the slenderness ratio.1 Effects of slenderness ratio and axial force on modes of failure Beam-columns may fail by flexural yielding or torsional flexural buckling.

8. compact sections and semi-compact or by elastic local buckling in the case of slender sections. In the case of weak axis bending of slender members the failure may be by weak axis buckling. The resistance of the section may be governed by plastic buckling of plate elements in the case of plastic.1 Local section failure The interaction equation is given by: 63 .5. 8. under the combined axial compression and magnified bending moment. 8.4. • The member fails by reaching the ultimate resistance of the member at a section over the length of the member. • • The section failure may be due to elastic or plastic buckling of plate elements depending on the slenderness ratio (b/t) of the plate.3 Overall instability by torsional flexural buckling This is common in slender members subjected to large ompression and uniaxial bending about the major axis or biaxial bending. or failure of the maximum moment section under the combined effect of axial force and magnified moment. 8. • At the ultimate stage the member undergoes biaxial bending and torsional instability mode of failure.4.2 Overall instability failure under flexural yielding This type of failure is encountered in the case of all members subjected to larger compression and single curvature bending about the minor axis as well as not very slender members subjected to axial compression and single curvature bending about the major axis.• • The resistance of the end section (reached under combined axial force and bending moment) governs the failure.5 Design Equations The design rules are given below in the form of linear interaction equations to verify resistance of the section against local section failure as well as member failure by flexural yielding and torsional flexural buckling. These are conservative implifications of the complex non-linear failure envelopes.

are the moment amplification factors which account for the effect of moment gradient over the member length. These design strengths have to be calculated considering the type of section (plastic / compact). The effect is accounted for by taking effective length to be greater than one in sway frames. These are calculated considering minor buckling in the case of compression and lateral torsional buckling in the case of bending about major axis. In very tall buildings with a large axial compression and large lateral sway. he is free to do so. are the actual axial compression. the end moments after accounting for the effects have to be considered. the moments obtained from the linear-elastic analysis would suffice for normal buildings with only a few storeys and low axial compression. respectively. 8. More accurate evaluation of beam-column strength is possible by resorting to non-linear analysis. When a designer feels that a detailed and rigorous analysis is warranted. and magnification of moments due to the axial force acting on the deformed column The values of corresponding to the appropriate axis are evaluated from: = 1. and are the plastic section moduli of the cross section about the major and minor axis.5. instead of uniform moment over the entire length. and the bending strength about the and axis. and actual bending moments about the major and minor axes. is the gross area of cross section in the case of plastic / compact cross sections.3 (For inplane lateral UDL over the member) = 1. are the design compressive strength. not withstanding the approximate analysis procedure detailed in this chapter.where and are the actual compressive force and bending moments about the major axis and minor axis of the cross section. respectively. respectively.2 Overall member failure The interaction equation to check the member capacity as governed by overall member buckling is given by where.4 (For inplane lateral concentrated load over the member) = Axial compressive strength about the respective axis = Plastic and elastic section moduli. respectively and should be substituted for the corresponding x or y-axis. The is the design yield strength given by Normally. 64 . respectively. when only the corresponding axial force/bending moment is acting.

reference may be made to IS: 456 .1 Introduction Torsional moments are invariably introduced in beams when the line of action of the resultant transverse force does not pass through the shear centre of the cross section. It is well to remember that torsion will not occur if the section is loaded such that the resultant force passes through the shear centre of the cross section. interconnected bridge girders.SECTION 9: BEAMS OF HOT ROLLED SECTIONS. SUBJECTED TO TORSION AND BENDING 9. When necessary. beams carrying loads predominantly on one side are all examples of structures where torsional moments are important. When significant torsion is unavoidable. Careful detailing. particularly when considering the load path. Beams circular in plan and supported on a few columns. For fuller description of "equilibrium torsion" and compatibility torsion. the designer should consider using box girders or hollow rolled or plated sections.beams subjected to combined flexure and torsion should be determined from Moment .2 Practical Advice Designing for torsion is complex and it is wise not to transfer loads by Torsional mode. When torsion is unavoidable due to detailing difficulties. Factored resistance of I . The connections and bracing of such members should be carefully designed to ensure that the reactions are transferred to the supports. When possible.2000. 9. the designer should ensure the following conditions: • Beams subjected to torsion should have sufficient stiffness and strength to resist the torsional moment and forces in addition to other moments and forces. the framing should be arranged so as to minimise any torsion. • • • • 6 . Stresses and deflections due to combined effects should be within the specified limits. Members subjected to compatibility torsion deformations need not be designed to resist the associated torsional moments provided that structure satisfies equilibrium. and the way loads are transferred to members of the frame will generally help to minimise or eliminate many potential difficulties associated with torsional effects.Torque interaction diagrams. the designer may incorporate more accurate methods of combined torsion and bending from the relevant literature.

depending upon rotational restraint provided by the foundation and the connection detail between the stanchion and foundations. axial thrust and shear force transferred by the joining members. larger spacing of frames is used in the case of taller buildings. with eaves height ranging from 6 -15 m . For the design of portal frames. hinges can develop at their ends.1).e. The saving in weight is usually sufficient to offset the additional cost of haunch.1) vary in the range of 1 in 10 to 7 in 3 depending upon the type of sheeting and its seam impermeability. Therefore the lever arm of the bolt group is usually increased by haunching the rafter members at the joints. 10. It is very difficult to develop sufficient moment resistance at these connections by providing 'tension' bolts located solely within the small depth of the rafter section. Moment-resisting connections should be provided at the eaves and crown to resist moments under lateral and gravity loadings. frame deflections must be carefully controlled and the large horizontal thrusts that occur at the base should be accounted for. connections are usually located at positions of high moment. The common practice is to make the haunch at the connection interface approximately twice the depth of the basic rafter section.5 m.1 General Design Consideration Portal frames are the most commonly used structural forms for single-storey industrial structures. This allows the use of smaller rafter member compared to column member. The slopes of rafters in the gable portal frames (Fig. The haunch must be capable of resisting the bending moment. Normally. Provided the haunch regions remain elastic. Due to this. Generally. i. plastic methods of analysis are mainly used. 7 .1). As a result. to obtain economical designs. With the advent of new cladding systems. from the point of economy. the centre-to-centre distance between frames is of the order 6 to 7. 10. are forced away from the actual column. This in addition increases the section strength. haunch is usually extended along the rafter and column adequately to reduce the maximum moments in the uniform portion of the rafter and columns and hence reduce the size of these members. But in such cases. 10. which were assumed to be at nodes. at the interface of the column and rafter members (at the eaves) and also between the rafter members at the apex (ridge) (See Fig. The most common form of portal frame used in the construction industry is the pinned-base frame with different rafter and column member size and with haunches at both the eaves and apex connections (Fig. because the total length of the rafter is usually greater than the total length of the column members. it is possible to achieve roof slopes as low as 1°.rafter junction to the ends of the haunches. there will be a corresponding increase in the moment in the column and at the column-haunch-rafter interface. Due to transportation requirements. Although a short length of the haunch is enough to produce an adequate lever arm for the bolt group. field joints are introduced at suitable positions.SECTION 10: PORTAL FRAMES 10. The effect of introducing the haunches is to ensure that the hinges. The resulting solution usually proves to be economical. so that the haunch could be fabricated from the same basic section. The stanchion bases behave as either pinned or fixed.

of the column and rafter. 10. e) Select the section. whether to treat the distributed loads as such or to consider them as 67 .2 General Design Procedure Detailed steps in the plastic design of portals are prescribed in SP 6(6): 1972 "Handbook for Structural Engineers . in which decisions such as.1 Typical gable frame 10. These are summarized below: a) Determine possible loading conditions.Application of Plastic Theory in the Design of Steel Structures". d) Analyse the frame for each loading condition and calculate the maximum required plastic moment resistance.(a) Haunched portal frame Fig. c) Estimate the plastic moment ratios of frame members. and f) Check the design for other secondary modes of failure The design commences with determination of possible loading conditions. b) Compute the factored design load combination(s).

(Assume that all joints are fixed against rotation. The step (c) is to make an assumption regarding the ratio of the plastic moment capacities of the column and rafter. The step (f) is to check the design according to secondary design considerations discussed in the following sections. lateral buckling and column buckling. In addition. b) Instability due to local buckling.3 Secondary Design Considerations The 'simple plastic theory' neglects the effects of axial force. are to be made. select the appropriate sections in step (e). the loads determined in (a) are multiplied by the appropriate load factors to assure the needed margin of safety. • • • At joints establish equilibrium. 10. The moments thus obtained are the absolute minimum plastic moment values.3. the frame members. (ii) Now select plastic moment ratios using the following guidelines. For beams. a) Reductions in the plastic moment resistance due to the effect of axial force and shear force. the design procedure may be modified to account for its 68 . d) Deflection at service loads.equivalent concentrated loads. In step (b). solve the panel (sway) mechanism equation. The actual section moment will be greater than or at least equal to these values. The following simple procedure may be adopted for arriving at the ratio. c) Brittle fracture.1 Influence of axial force on plastic moment Even though the presence of axial force tends to reduce the magnitude of the plastic moment resistance of the section. but the frame is free to sway). These are done for all loading combinations. solve the beam mechanism equation and for columns. (i) Determine the absolute plastic moment value for separate loading conditions. For beams use the ratio determined in step (i) For columns use the corner connection moments In the step (d) each loading condition is analysed by a plastic analysis method for arriving at the minimum required Based on this moment. shear and buckling on the member resistance. connections must be designed carefully to ensure that the plastic moments can be developed at the hinge locations. So checks must be carried out for the following factors as recommended by "The Hand book for Structural Engineers" referred above. It is often convenient to deal with equivalent concentrated loads in computer aided and plastic analysis methods. 10.

= effective cross sectional area resisting shear after deducting the area that has yielded under flexure. is the plastic moment resistance of the section when the axial force is absent. Usually it is found that the reduction in moment resistance due to shear is more than compensated by the strain hardening of extreme fibre under flexure and consequently effect of shear on plastic moment resistance may be neglected in most cases. is the actual axial force. 69 . Due to the presence of shear. (c) The maximum shear resistance of a beam under combined shear and moment should be calculated as Where.2 The influence of shear force The effect of shear force is also to reduce the plastic moment resistance. The required design value of plastic section modulus of the member (Z) under combined compression and bending. • If P is greater than 15 percent of is given by the modified plastic moment resistance. the intensity of shear stress at the centre line may reach the yield condition. two types of 'premature failure' can occur. retaining the 'plastic hinge' characteristic. is given by: 10. is the axial force corresponding to yielding. The following recommendations account for effect of axial compression on • Neglect the effect of axial force on the plastic moment resistance unless where P is the actual axial force and is the axial force that could cause yielding of the full cross section. where. (b) After the beam has become partially plastic at a critical section due to flexural yielding.influence. (a) General shear yield of the web may occur in the presence of high shear-to-moment ratios.3.

10.3.3 Local buckling of flanges and webs

If the plates, of which the cross section is made, are not stocky enough, they may be subject to local buckling either before or soon after the first plastic moment is reached. Due to this, the moment resistance of the section would drop off and the rotation resistance would be inadequate to ensure formation of complete failure mechanism. Therefore, in order to ensure adequate rotation at values and to avoid premature plastic buckling, the compression elements should have restriction on the width-thickness ratios as given in section 5, corresponding to plastic sections. 10.3.4 Lateral buckling of flexural members To avoid lateral buckling and torsional displacements, bracings should be provided to compression flanges at points as given below (Fig. 10.2). (a) Lateral support to the compression flange should be provided at the location of plastic hinges. (b) The ratio of laterally unsupported length of the compression flange to the radius of gyration of the member about weak axis, should not exceed where v is defined below in Eqn. 10.4.

(c) The slenderness ratio of compression flange, unsupported length where the moment exceeds than

of the length, adjacent to the should not be greater

(d) The slenderness ratio, of the rest of the elastic portion of the member should be such that the lateral buckling strength of that portion is greater than actual maximum elastic moment in the region. where, = yield stress of the material in Mpa and may be taken conservatively as 1.0 or may be calculated using the following equation.

where is the ratio of the plastic rotation at the hinge point just as the mechanism is formed to the relative elastic rotation of the far ends of the beam segment containing the plastic hinge.

70

10.3.5 Column buckling In the plane of bending of columns which would develop a plastic hinge at ultimate loading, the slenderness ratio should not exceed 120, where is the centre-to-centre distance of bracing members connecting and providing restraint against weak axis buckling of the column or the distance from such a member to the base of the column. Further, columns in moment resisting frames, where side sway is not prevented, should be so proportioned such that

The slenderness ratio, of the frame in the plane normal to the plane of frame action under consideration should be such that the following condition is satisfied.

the ratio of applied end moment to the plastic moment resistance of columns and other axially loaded members, should not exceed unity or the value given by the following formula.

Case I - For columns bent in double curvature by applied moments producing plastic hinges at both ends of the columns:

Case II - For slender struts, where

in addition to exceeding 0.75 also exceeds

should not contain plastic hinges. However, it is permissible to design the

71

member as an elastic part of a plastically designed structure. Such a member should be designed according to the maximum permissible stress requirements satisfying:

where,

= axial force, compressive or tensile in a member; = maximum plastic moment resistance in the beam - column; = plastic moment resistance of the section when no axial force is acting. = lateral buckling resistance in the absence of axial load = if the beam column is adequately braced against lateral buckling = buckling resistance in the plane of bending if only axially loaded (without any bending moment) and if the beam - column is laterally braced. If the column is not adequately laterally braced, is the weak axis buckling strength under only axial compression. = Euler load = in the plane of bending;

= yield strength of axially loaded section = effective cross-section area of the member; = a coefficient whose value should be taken as follows: a) For member in frames where side sway is not prevented, b) For members in frames where side sway is prevented and not subject to transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending:

c) For members in frames where side sway is prevented in the plane of loading and subjected to transverse loading between their supports; the value of is given by, For members whose ends are restrained against rotation, For members whose ends are unrestrained against rotation, = radius of gyration about the same axis as the applied moment; = non -dimensional slenderness ratio = the ratio of end moment; 10.4 Connections = actual strut length.

In a portal frame, points of maximum moments usually occur at connections. Further, at corners the connections must accomplish the direction of forces change. Therefore, the design of connections must assure that they are capable of developing and maintaining the required moment until the frame fails by forming a mechanism. 72

SECTION 11: MULTI - STOREY BUILDINGS 11.1 Introduction

Recent innovations in lateral load resisting systems (e.g. frame-wall, framed tube, belt truss with outrigger, tube in tube and bundled tube systems) have enabled construction of very tall buildings elsewhere in the world using steel frames. When we build such tall structures it becomes necessary to consider some of the effects such as the effect of lateral deflection, on gravity loading, P which are normally ignored in the design of building frames of three or four storeys. A building frame deflects under lateral load. The columns of tall buildings carry large axial loads. A building frame, which deflects under lateral load, is further forced to undergo additional deflection because of the eccentricity of gravity load from the centre of gravity of the column due to the deflected shape. These two effects of large axial loads P in the columns combined with significant lateral deflection need careful consideration in the design of tall multi-storey buildings. The combined effect of the large axial loads P and lateral deflection give rise to the destabilising effect.However, in frames that are only a few storeys high, this effect is negligible and hence ignored in the analysis. It is therefore necessary to classify frames based on the relative importance of effects for the purpose of evaluating design forces. 11.2 Classification of Frames

A frame in which sway is prevented is called a "non-sway" frame. However, there are some frames, which may sway only by a small amount since the magnitude of sway in such frame is small it will have only a negligible effect. Such frames are also classified as "non-sway" frames. Therefore, to define the non-sway frame precisely, its lateral stiffness is used as the criteria irrespective of whether it is braced or not. For such frames lateral stiffness is provided by one of the following: (i) (ii) (iii) rigidity of the joints. provision of bracing system. connecting the frame to a braced frame, shear core, shear wall or a lift well.

The inter storey deflection (i.e. the difference in deflection of top and bottom end of a column in that storey) is used to quantify the lateral stiffness of the frame. The meaning of inter storey deflection is shown in Fig. 11.1(c). Fig. 11.1 ( a ) shows a typical multi storey frame subjected to factored (dead + live) load. To ascertain the stiffness of the frame, it is analysed when subjected to assumed forces of magnitude 0.5% of factored (dead + live) load applied laterally on the frame at each floor level as shown in Fig. 11.1 ( b ) for getting the inter storey deflection for the storey. Note that the lateral loads are applied without the presence of dead and live loads. The maximum for any storey is taken as a measure of the frame stiffness.

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Fig. 11.1 Approximate calculation offrame stiffness for classification of frames (according to Home's method)

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For a frame to be of the non-sway" type the maximum inter storey deflection permitted in any storey is generally taken as follows:

where hi is the height of the i'h storey (<5/ and hi are in the same units). 11.3 Idealisation of Material Behaviour for Analysis of Frames [Fig. 11.2]

The strength and stability of a rigid jointed frame is examined based on material stress -strain idealisation of its true behaviour.

• • •

Elastic Behaviour Elastic - Plastic Behaviour Rigid Plastic Behaviour

Strain (c) Rigid-Plastic behaviour Fig 11.2: Idealisation of Material Behaviour curve 75

11. partially fixed. are the sum of values for beams framing into the column under examination at the top and bottom respectively. can be idealised to be a part of a limited sub-frame shown in Fig.4 Effective Length of Columns 11. the actual length between floor beams.. 11. These columns become a part of either non-sway or sway frame. members frame into them at floor levels connected rigidly. The effective length factor for the column is defined as Fig. represents the joint stiffness of the column 1-2 at the end 1 and 2 76 . columns are continuous and beam. fixed. which is a part of the multi-storey non-sway frame. A number of idealised end conditions such as pinned. The joint restraint coefficient for the column at the top and bottom is obtained from In Fig. The column.3 Limited Substitute Frame In the figure are relative stiffness values for upper and lower column respectively. 11. are used in textbooks to describe the restraint at the two ends of a column. etc. In multi-storey buildings.4. free and supported on rollers. Let be the effective length of the column.11.3.3. respectively.1 Limited frame method The behaviour of a column under compression is largely controlled by its effective length.

jointed frame braced against sidesway for 77 .4 (b) Effective Length ratioljlfor a column in a rigid. stability criteria considered are rotations that take place at top and bottom end of the column for the elastic critical load using stability functions.5(a) respectively.4(a) and for sway frame shown in Fig.4(a) Non sway frame Fig. 11. In the case of non-sway frame.11. 11. Fig. 11.2 Effective length for non-sway (k3 = ) and sway k3=0 frames Based on the work of Wood. 11.4(b) and Fig. 11.5(b) for the non-sway frame shown in Fig.4. the value of relative end restraints can be obtained from a contour Plot reproduced in Fig. 11.

11. 11.0".5 (b) Effective Length ratio IJ1 for a column in a rigid. The effective length factor for the column for non-sway frames lie in the range of "0.5(a)Swayframe Fig.5(a)] in addition to rotations.5 to 1. it was shown by Wood that the plots in Fig.11. [Fig. For sway frames the range increases to indicating clearly the contribution of lateral sway to instability. 11.However. in the case of sway frames. 11. Subsequently.4(6) and Fig.5(6) can also be used when the columns at the top and (or) bottom are continuous over stories provided that the joint stiffness at top and bottom are correctly accounted for. Fig. the effect of lateral deflection has been considered.jointed frame with unrestricted sidesway for k3=0 78 .

4(b) and Fig. (ii) If a framing member carries nearly full moment (90% of its moment resistance) it will not provide resistance for preventing the column from buckling when plastic hinges have formed. 11.4(a) with full problems. stiffness should be taken as zero.4 Effective length consideration when the frame is partially braced The above cases highlight the importance of rotational continuity being distributed by Neither plasticity or partial releasein Fig. practical foundation restraint nor the are likely either the column considered due to 11.5 if rigidly connected with transverse beams). if pinned. These panel walls partially inhibit sway.5(6). a rational value of k at the bottom should be chosen (i.e. = Modulus of Elasticity of Column = Sum of the stiffness of all columns in that storey represented by their values.5(a)the ends of the column. 11.3 Effective length of insufficiently restrained columns in the frames While using the charts given in Fig. * The relative stiffness of the bracing system to that of the frame is designated as £3 and is given by where = Storey height = Sum of the spring stiffness calculated as horizontal force required to produce unit horizontal deflection of the panel in the storey in which the column is located. (iii) If the column under question itself carries full moment (90% of its moment resistance) it will develop flexural hinge at top and bottom and as such its effective length should be taken as (iv) When the column is attached to the foundation.4. it should be considered to have zero stiffness. 11.4.1) can be conveniently obtained from the unit load method as given in eqn (11. the effective length will depend on the relative stiffness of bracing system provided. following limitations should be kept in view: (i) When a member is either not present or not firmly connected to the frame. In such cases. applied to a case of a frame partially to reduce in restraint at with no restraint can be restrained by filler walls in between the framing members. For such beams.2) 79 . which column considered theFig.9 if not rigidly connected and 0.11. The spring stiffness in eqn (11. 11. 0.

effective length factor for a column being a part of the frame with as well as can be determined using these charts.where. 11.7 show the charts (currently used in reinforced concrete frames) for computing effective length ratios for sway bracing stiffness of and respectively.7 Effective Length ratio for a column in a rigid-jointed frame with partial sway bracing of relative stiffness 80 . = storey height = width of panel = thickness of panel = Modulus of Elasticity of panel Fig. 11.jointed frame with partial sway bracing of relative stiffness Fig.l 1. Thus. 11.6 and Fig. Fig. These charts are intended to account for the effect of partial sway bracing.6 Effective Length ratio for a column in a rigid.

5(b)].4.6) and (Fig. 11.7). this assumption is not appropriate for base frames which are not integral with concrete floor and hence the value used for such floors should be modified taking into account the critical buckling mode at failure. However. 11. 11.8 Critical Buckling Mode of a Braced Frame Fig. This assumption is realistic (as shown by Wood) and acceptable because about 48 to 60 percent of the width of slabs is available for stiffening beams and for carrying the fixed end moments of loaded beams.9 Critical Buckling Mode for an Unbraced Frame 81 . 11.The actual effective length factor for the partial sway bracing case for a particular case of bracing stiffness determined from equation (1) is determined by interpolating the values obtained for [Fig. Fig.5 Consideration of realistic beam stiffness based on buckling mode It is assumed that the far end of the beam from the column under consideration is fully restrained. 11. 11. (Fig.

the beams are bent into single curvature as shown in Fig. then the amplification factor will be The influence of frame instability on elastic response is shown in Fig. For this case. the effect of instability of the column on bending moments and deflection is considered by appropriately increasing their magnitude by a moment magnification factor where is the current load level and is the load required to cause instability.8. the effective length of the column is kept as actual length of the column itself. If they are. It is assumed that the beam members are not subjected to axial forces. to its elastic buckling load 11. the beam stiffness is In the case of a sway frame. In the simplified sway method. A more exact value can be obtained from the consideration of frame instability discussed later. 11. the limited frame method can still be used. all the moments obtained by elastic analysis due to horizontal forces be increased by this magnification factor. If design.10. This method has been tested for different ratios of moments acting at top and bottom of the column. The beam stiffness in this case is The effective length obtained for the column using this assumption is appropriate.For a non-sway frame.9. 11. Since the effects of instability are incorporated by moment magnifier method. 11. 11. provided the frame is a non-sway one and proper care is taken to use reduced stiffness for beams based on the level of axial load carried by it. 82 . If we designate this moment ratio as (smaller end moment / larger end moment) the magnification factor due to instability for different ratios of is shown (by Wood) as in Fig. the bending mode will have double curvature as shown in Fig.11.5 A Simplified Sway Method In this method.

4 .

4 Elastic design 11. wind loading.3 Sway frames The frames.6. As a first step. The effective length of columns is obtained as described earlier in section 11. vertical loading is not considered and the entire frame is analysed. The effective length as explained in section 11.2. considering vertical loading effects on sway. Even when elastic design is used. One of the approximate methods described earlier can be used. For load cases involving horizontal load pattern e. Next.sway frames For gravity loading. 11.11.6. For horizontal loading it is necessary to consider entire frame. (ii) Amplified Sway Method The bending moments due to lateral loads are magnified by moment magnification factor as explained in section 11. which exceed the non-sway limit as specified in Section 11. the notional lateral load as described in section 11. the effects of sway is considered under all combination of loading.5 and the final design forces are obtained.2 is applied at each storey level and one of the following two design methods is adopted to get the final design forces.4 taking them as braced.2 Non .4 using limited frame method is used and the design forces are obtained. The design of beams and columns are made using substitute frames for gravity loading described earlier. The deflections should generally be limited to span/200. (i) Simplified Design Method The side sway is allowed. Since the moments have been magnified the effective length of the column is assumed as actual length of column 84 . are designed considering sway. non-sway frames are analysed either using full frame or using substitute frame. the frame is analysed for vertical gravity loading considering also pattern loading as a non-sway frame using effective length of columns applicable to those braced against sidesway.g. 11.6. moment redistribution to the extent of 70% can be made provided compact or plastic sections are used and minor axis column moments are not reduced while maintaining equilibrium.1 General The elastic design is made for factored loads when the deflections are small.

7. This load factor is also required to be used in the approximate method for evaluating elastic-plastic failure loads. When it is equal to zero the system is neutral i.2 under lateral loads whose magnitude is 0.1 Elastic critical conditions It is necessary to find the lowest critical load because it shows the onset of elastic critical condition.11. 11. An approximate method based on the work of Home to arrive at a reasonable estimate of elastic buckling load is described below: Consider the rigid frame shown in Fig. If is the maximum of all values. The effect of load due to lateral deflection in these structures is not significant.12 (b). The condition of stability of the frame can be assessed based on whether the first partial derivative with respect to deflection is greater than zero. The sway index of the typical storey is Note that storey inter storey displacement. Y and Z represent three different states of stability of the frame shown in Fig.e.12 (a). The elastic critical load factor of the frame is the ratio by which each of the factored loads will have to be increased to cause elastic instability. When it is less than zero the 85 . less than zero or equal to zero. When it is greater than zero the system is stable. The points X .1(b). 11. The potential energy U is the sum of the potential energy of loads and the elastic strain energy stored Thus. then the elastic critical load factor is Horne has shown that the above expression gives an approximate lower bound to the elastic critical load.Plastic Failure Loads 11. 11. Thus the values of for all storeys are computed. 11. more displacement will not change the system.5% of the factored dead and live loads as shown in Fig.2 Deteriorated critical load The stability of a structure depends on the equilibrium state with reference to the potential energy U. A structure with small deformation will have a typical load-deflection curve as indicated by curve XYZ in Fig. 11.7.7 Stability Considerations of Sway Frame under Elastic .1(a) and the analysis performed as indicated in section 11.

Consider the load deflection curve OXFD in Fig. The curve OXC represents the behaviour of ideally elastic frame. a small change will cause collapse. 11.12 Load-deflection curve for an elastic-plastic The failure criteria for elastic-plastic structure is similar to elastic structure with plastically deforming parts eliminated. Now the total energy is Fig. The elastic portion between plastic hinges will still be contributing to the energy. The structure with the eliminated parts is termed "deteriorated or depleted". 11.12(6) for a typical elastic-plastic nonlinear structure system. 86 . The critical load obtained under this depleted or deteriorated structure is known as deteriorated critical load. This should include the energy absorbed in plastic deformation. This is valid for an elastic system undergoing instability problem. = deteriorated critical load factor without the energy component of these parts which are plastically deforming = load factor at on set of yield. The following are identified with respect to "deteriorated" critical load condition: = elastic critical load factor = rigid plastic critical load factor = rigid plastic critical load considering members between hinges formed.e.system is unstable i.

8 Simplified Empirical Approach using Merchant . Such an empirical approach proposed by Merchant Rankine Wood Equation is discussed in the next section.12 reveals that the elastic critical value is too high and cannot be reached.Rankine . a simplified method is required for considering the deteriorated critical load for use by designers.e.Rankine load then Wood suggested a modification of Merchant Rankine load considering strain.Wood Equation An examination of Fig.hardening and restraint provided by cladding when then Consider stocky structures i.Such a complete analysis as discussed above is required for a realistic estimate of deteriorated critical load. If we call the failure load as Merchant . Merchant suggested that realistic failure load can be expressed as a function of and According to original Merchant Rankine Equation. If rigid plastic behaviour is assumed the critical load is represented by the drooping curve GH descending from the rigid plastic load factor. 11. For slender structures. In the absence of sophisticated Computer Programme to carry out such an analysis. 11. with ensures that structures have adequate strength. and 87 .

and This is applicable to clad frames in which no account has been taken of cladding. These equations are modified for unclad frames or frames where stiffness of cladding is considered as indicated below:

Thus the method involves finding the elastic critical load and the rigid plastic critical load and then appropriate equation satisfied based on whether the frame is a clad one or otherwise. 11.9 Plastic Design Plastic design of frames can be used for the frames, which are effectively braced against out of plane sway. 11.9.1 Non-sway frames The frame should be braced against lateral sway such that it can be classified as a non-sway frame as per the condition explained in section 11.2. However, while considering the sway, against lateral loads, the bending stiffness of the frame should be ignored, as its buckling resistance will not be available to prevent sidesway when the frame reaches its plastic capacity. 11.9.2 Sway frames Either of the following two methods is used: a) Rigorous Analysis: A full elastic-plastic sway analysis is performed where proper allowance is made for frame instability effects. b) Simplified Empirical Approach: A simplified frame stability check is made using Merchant-Rankine-Wood Equation provided the following conditions are satisfied. (i) The beam side-sway mechanism with hinges in all beam ends and at base of columns should be applicable. There should not be other hinges in the column, which may lead to premature failure. (ii) The column in the ground floor should be designed to remain within elastic limit. Under the combination of unfactored load and notional horizontal load to simulate sway (wind force not included), forces and moments in the frame should be within elastic limit.

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SECTION 12: CONNECTION DESIGN 12.1 General

Connections are critical components of steel structures as they have the potential for greater variability in behaviour and strength. They are more complex to design than the members and are usually the most vulnerable components in a structural system consequent on the effects of geometric imperfections, complexity of connection geometry and residual stresses and strains. 12.2 Design Philosophy

The design philosophy for connections, based on simple analysis, is summarised below. 12.2.1 Transfer of member forces to joints For most of the connections, force distribution is based on the concept of 'force paths' taking account of overall connection behaviour. The loads acting on the connection are replaced by an equivalent system of forces and assigned to specific paths through the connection. While finding the forces, the effect of the size of the joint (in reducing the design forces), has to be considered. The force resultants thus obtained should be replaced by an equivalent system of forces on the elements of the joint (e.g., the major proportion of the bending moment is carried by the flanges of a beam and the major proportion of shear force is carried by the web). The flexibility of the components of the connection is another important aspect. It is the most flexible components that will govern the distribution of forces eg. in an end plate connection, if the bolts are of small diameter and the end plate is thick, it is the bolt flexibility that will govern the distribution of forces. However, if the bolts are stiff compared to the end plates it is the flexural action of the latter that will primarily govern the distribution of forces, including the distribution of forces in the bolts. Equivalent system of forces should be in equilibrium with the external force resultants and also in equilibrium with the joint as a whole. 12.2.2 Determination of force flow in the joint Each element in the force flow path should be checked to ensure that they have (a) adequate strength to withstand the force and (b) adequate ductility to redistribute the forces to parallel elements in case of overload. The strength and ductility evaluation has to be done for all components in the force path including bolts and welds. Above discussions are related to static ultimate capacity. In addition to this the connection should achieve satisfactory serviceability, fatigue resistance etc.

89

12.3 Classification of Connections There are three types of connections (i) Flexible or hinged connections - This type of connection is also known as shear connection. It will permit large angle of rotation and transmit little or no moment. These connections are also referred as "simple". (ii) Semi-rigid connections - This type of connection allows small end rotation for transmitting appreciable moment (moment less than the full moment capacity of connected members). (iii) Rigid connections - This type of connections are intended not allow any end rotation and retain a constant relative angle between the connected members under any joint rotation and transmit moment equal to full moment capacity of the members connected. The original angles between the connected members remain unchanged.

(a) Rigid Joint

(b) Hinged Joint

(c ) Semi-rigid Joint

Fig. 12.1(a) Types of Beam to Column joints

Fig. 12.1 (b) Moment versus Joint Rotation

90

1 Any joint developing more than 90% of the ideal rigid joint moment may be realistically classified as rigid and similarly any joint exhibiting less than 10% of the ideal rigid joint moment classified as hinged joint. the frictional resistance to slip between the plates prevents their relative slip. 12.1 Types of bolted connections There are two types of bolted connection (i) Bearing type (ii) Friction type 12.4 Bolted Connections Connections are normally made either by bolting or by welding. Fig.4.2 Shear Transfer Mechanism in Bearing type Bolts Friction type: In High strength Friction Grip (HSFG) bolted joints.Another factor to be kept in mind in connection design is that the joints are neither ideally hinged nor ideally rigid and all joints exhibit some relative rotation between members being joined.2. often referred to as ordinary bolts / black bolts. 12.2 Bolts under shear Bearing type: The most common type is bearing bolts in clearance holes. The force transfer mechanism under shear is shown in Fig. the joint developing moments and rotations in between are referred as semi-rigid. The behaviour of bolted connection in tension and shear is discussed below. so that contact pressure is developed between the plates being joined. This is due to the deformation of elements in the joint. 12. The failure may be either by shearing of the bolts or bearing of the plate and the bolt. The force is transferred by bearing between the plate and bolts at the bolt holes. the plates slip & the bolts bear against the bolt holes. high strength bolts are pretensioned against the plates to be bolted together. Only when the externally applied force exceeds the frictional resistance between the plates. 12. These bolted joints achieve higher stiffness in shear because of frictional resistance between the contact surfaces. When external shear force is applied. The moment versus relative joint rotation of different types of connections is shown in Fig.4. The HSFG 2 91 . 12.

4 (b). since the bolts are only snug tight.4 (a). sometimes the opening of the joint may be accompanied by prying action (described in section 12. It is seen that before any external tension is applied. 12. 3 92 .4.Connections are designed such that under service load the force does not exceed the Frictional resistance so that the relative slip is avoided during service.3) 12.4.5). Depending on the relative flexibility of the plate and the bolt. Failure is reached due to large elongation when the root of the bolt starts yielding. the force in the bolt is almost zero. The variation of bolt tension due to externally applied tension is shown in Fig.(See Fig.3 Bolts under tension Bearing Type: The free body diagram of the tension transfer in a bearing type of bolted connection is shown in Fig 12. As the external tension is increased it is equilibrated by the increase in bolt tension.12.

12. in which. The balance of the force is equilibrated by the reduction in contact between the plates. the behaviour of the bolt under tension is essentially the same as that in a bearing type of joint. This process continues and the contact between the plates is maintained until the contact force due to pre tensioning is reduced to zero by the externally applied load. Nominally. part of the load (nearly 10%) of the load is equilibrated by the increase in bolt force. even before any external load is applied. 12.4. and is the limiting shearing stress if there is no externally applied tension.5 HSFG bolts under tension Normally.4 Bolts subjected to shear and tension Bearing Type: The bolts used in many structural steel connections are subjected to a combination of shear and tension. the shank cross section may be more critical in the presence of significant shear and coincident bending. The three dashed lines very closely represent the test result interaction curve. 12.6 Bolts in a bearing type connection subject to combined shear and tension 93 . Fig. After the external force exceeds this level. 12.6. Correspondingly there is a clamping force between the plates in contact. When external load is applied. the force in the bolt is equal to proof load.Friction type: In the case of HSFG bolts. the design is done such that the externally applied tension doesn't exceed this level. is the limiting tensile stress if there is no shear. Fig. Tests on bearing type bolts subject to combined shear and tension show that their ultimate strengths can be represented with an elliptical interaction curve as shown in Fig.

12. Once the applied load exceeds the sum of bolt preloads. 12. Flexure of the connected parts may lead to a significant increase in bolt load due to prying action. For applied loads that are less than the sum of the bolt preloads there is no significant separation of the connection components and only modest change in the bolt preload. Fig.7 (a) shows the variations in behaviour that can occur in simple. If the end plate is relatively rigid and does not deflect significantly.7 Bolts under tension and prying However. Each portion of the end plate bends into double curvature the restraining moments at the bolt centreline develop from forces at or near the tips of the end plate. Fig. lower the shear required to cause the connection to slip. the behaviour is more complex. If the external tension arises because of an applied moment there will be no net change in clamping force. two bolt connections.4. Overall equilibrium is now 94 .5 Prying action In practice it is not possible to separate the discussion of bolts in tension from that of surrounding elements. the tension will reduce the contact force and thus. it is possible to ignore its flexural action. From this point onwards to rupture the sum of the bolt loads equals the applied load.The compressive design is governed by Friction Type: In a slip critical connection. 12. Any external tension will produce a corresponding reduction in clamping force between the contact surfaces. If any variation in coefficient of friction with bearing pressure is discounted there will be a linear reduction in friction capacity of the connection. the end plate separates entirely from the base. if a flexible end plate is used.

can be obtained by equating the moment in the plate at the bolt centreline (point A) and at the distance from it (point B). the plate can fail by developing a mechanism with yield lines at the centreline of the bolt and at the distance from it. the minimum thickness of the end plate to avoid yielding of the plate. is the distance from the bolt centreline to the toe of the fillet weld or to half the root radius for a rolled section.(12. 1.6 Failure of bolted connection Connections in shear: The failure of connections with bearing bolts in shear involves either bolt failure or the failure of the connected plates. In the case of HSFG bolts.1) where. or the value given by Eqn. and the ultimate capacity is reduced.given by 2B = 2F+2Q. (12. 95 . Therefore. the proof stress in consistent units and t is the thickness of the end plate.5 for limit state design. = distance between prying force and bolt centreline and is the minimum of. 1989) (12. the effective width of flange per pair of bolts. however.2) Even if the bolts are strong enough to carry the additional prying forces. to the plastic moment capacity of the plate From this the minimum thickness for the end plate can be obtained as (12. either the end distance.2). 2 for non pre-loaded bolt. The design formula for minimum prying force is given by (Owens and Cheal.4. The effect of the amplification of the bolt forces is twofold: there is an earlier separation of the connection elements with a reduction in connection stiffness once separation has occurred. then the thickness of the end plate will have to be increased.3) The corresponding prying force will be If the total force in the bolt exceeds the tensile capacity of the bolt. it may simply be a slip between the connected plates. 12.

Therefore if slip is critical (i. the failure may be due to • • • shearing takes place at the bolt shear plane failure of bolt takes place in bearing. HSFG bolts. 12. Black bolts and turned and fitted bolts have sufficient ductility to take care of prying forces simply by an increase in the bolt strain under constant yield stress. If the attached plate is allowed to deform. 7 96 . the plate may also tear or burst at the edge due to inadequate edge distance. The prying forces can be kept small by using a thick plate or by limiting the distance between the bolt and the plate edge. Even in the Limit State method. and limit state method is used then bearing failure can occur at the Limit State of collapse and needs to be checked. which are pretensioned and thus have less ductility.9 times their proof load.(1) Bearing bolts In connections made with bearing type of bolts. Tension Failure: In a tension or hanger connection. are susceptible to failure. which will govern the design. Therefore. since HSFG bolts are designed to withstand working loads without slipping. the applied load produces tension in the bolts. if slip cannot be allowed) then one has to calculate the slip resistance. However. and failure of plate takes place in bearing In addition to the above. if slip is not critical. to develop the full bearing stress. However.7. These are therefore normally designed to take only 0.e. the bolt has to have adequate distance from the edge of the plate. additional tensile forces called prying forces are developed in the bolts as shown in Fig. QZD (2) HSFG bolts HSFG bolts will come into bearing only after slip takes place. the slip resistance needs to be checked anyway as a Serviceability Limit State.

12.1 Summary of code provisions in BS5950.9. For this situation it is possible for a "block" of steel to tear out as shown in Fig. The strength as governed by block shear is the minimum of Check for block shear should be carried out when using high strength bolts with minimum pitch and edge distances and in coped sections. Fig.12. The plane will not fail because the stronger plane restrains it. Thus. then the primary resistance to a block shear failure is shearing and not tensile and vice versa. When a tensile load applied to a particular connection is increased the fracture strength of the weaker plane will be approached. (i) Computing the tensile fracture strength on the net section in one direction and adding to that value the shear yield strength on the gross area on the perpendicular direction. The total strength is obtained from the sum obtained by adding the fracture strength of the stronger plane plus the yield strength of the weaker plane. Part 1 (1985) (1) Fastener Spacing and edge distances: 8 97 . (ii) Failure by block shear occurs when a portion of the member tears out in a combination of tension and shear. Computing the shear fracture strength on the gross area subject to tension and adding it to the tensile yield strength on the area subject to shear on the perpendicular segment. 12. Thus it is not correct to add the fracture strength of stronger plane to the fracture strength of the weaker plane to determine shear resistance of a particular member.9 Block Shear If a member has a large shear area and a small tensile area.5. The load can be increased until the fracture strength of stronger plane is reached.Block Shear: Block shear failure is another mode of failure wherein the failure may occur along a path involving tension on one plane and shear on a perpendicular plane. the block shear strength of a particular member is determined by.5 Code Provisions 12.

machine flame cut.Pitch of bolts: where d0 is the nominal diameter and t is the thickness of the thinner element Edge and End distances: Minimum edge and end distances: Quality of cut Edge and end distance For a rolled. where py is the design strength of steel ( 2 ) Bearing Bolts: (i) Shear Capacity: The shear strength per bolt is given by where is the ultimate shear stress in the bolt. where.40 D and any end D is the diameter of the holes Maximum edge distances: Maximum edge distance is for corrosive environment. the shear area (ii) is Bearing Capacity : The bearing strength per bolt is given by is the permissible bearing stress.25 D sawn or planned edge For a sheared or hand flame cut edge 1. is the nominal diameter of the bolt and is the combined thickness of the thinner plates bearing on the bolt in any direction. 1. The bearing strength of the plate is given by 98 .

(2) Friction type bolts (i) Slip Resistance: Slip Resistance of parallel shank HSFG bolts is given by an expression similar to the frictional force between surfaces in contact. and is the tensile stress area (vi) Bolts subject to Combined Shear and Tension: When bolts are subject to both shear and tension then the following condition should be satisfied. the shear capacity. of a splice or end connection in a compression or tension element containing more than two bolts exceeds the shear capacity. 99 . should be taken as where length of the joint exceeds five times the nominal (iv) Large grip lengths: When the grip length diameter. is the end distance and is the thickness of the plate (hi) Long Joints: When the joint length. Slip resistance per bolt Where is a factor. which takes care of the frictional area in different hole types for clearance holes. is the permissible bearing stress for the plate. for oversized holes and long slots perpendicular to the load and for long slots parallel to the load). of a bolt is given by where is the tension strength of bolt.where. is taken as (v) Bolts subject to Tension: The tension capacity.

the following relation has to be satisfied.1 Weld symbols The symbolic representation of welds includes elementary symbols along with a) Supplementary symbol. = shear capacity and Static strength of a welded joint depends upon factors such as type and size of the weld.45 for untreated (non-galvanised. (12. The generally employed welding methods are gas and arc welding. (iii) Long Joints: When the joint length. = applied shear.15) Where.13) Where e is the end distance and is the bearing stress. manual metal-arc welding (MMA). or c) Some complementary indications. But the most common welding process is arc welding.0. metal-active gas welding (MAG) and stud welding are commonly used arc welding processes. = tension capacity 12. b) A means of showing dimensions.9 times their proof load. submerged-arc welding (SAW). 12.6. (ii) Bearing strength: The bearing strength of plates for parallel shank friction grip fasteners is given by (12. the shear capacity. non-painted) surfaces and is the proof load. should be taken as (12.6 Welded Connection = applied tension. 100 . (v) Combined Shear and tension failure: For HSFG bolts subjected to combined action of shear and tension. manner of welding. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW).is the slip factor . and type of electrode. of a splice or end connection in a compression or tension element containing more than two bolts exceeds 500 mm.14) (iv)Tension Failure: HSFG bolts are designed to take only 0.

but not exceeding 2 mm and the length more than 500 mm can be accepted.2 Weld defect acceptance levels In general the following weld defects detected during inspection are acceptable for structures. • Incomplete weld. The aggregate length of flaw shall not be more than 200 mm per meter length of the joint. "Scheme Of Symbols for Welding" gives all the details of weld representation in drawings. • Total of isolated gas pores and slag inclusion shall not exceed 5 in number per square centimetre of the weld.10 shows different types of butt welds. 12. Butt welds can be either full penetration or partial penetration. • Total of incomplete penetration.5 mm.6. Incomplete penetration and cracks are not allowed at or near the end or beginning of a joint. 12. • For joints welded from both the sides. incomplete penetration with thickness up to 15% of parent metal thickness but not exceeding 3 mm at the root is allowed. and radiography. Fig. undercuts shall not be more than 0. 12. but not greater than 3 mm when welding is done from one side. There are several non-destructive testing methods to check the quality of welds such as visual inspection. 12. For metal thickness more than 10 mm. incomplete penetration with thickness up to 5% of the parent metal thickness.3 Welding inspection It is essential that welded joints are thoroughly examined and defects are detected so that any possible distress could be averted. liquid penetrants. magnetic particles. For metal thickness up to 10 mm. undercuts shall not be greater than 1 mm. 101 103 . molten metal flow. slag inclusion on pores located separately or as a chain shall not exceed 10% of metal thickness but not greater than 2 mm when welding is done from both the sides and 15% of metal thickness. Size of the slag may also be considered. pits and cracks shall not be allowed. Butt welds are used at an edge-to-edge junction or a tee junction and is made by bringing the plates to be joined face to face edgewise and then filling the cavity formed by edge preparation or by just penetrating the unprepared junction.6. • Slag inclusion located along the weld as a chain or unbroken line is allowed if their aggregate length does not exceed 200 mm per meter of weld length. ultrasonic testing.4 Types of welds The commonly used forms of welds are butt welds and fillet welds. • For joints welded from one side with out backing strip.IS: 813-1986.6.

10 Different types of butt joints Fig. Fig. Fig. The throat size is specified by the effective throat thickness. For design purposes. tee joints and corner joints. 12. a provision is made to ensure that it is safe against shear failure. Fillet welding could be applied for lap joints. 12.11 shows the two types of fillet welds: side fillet weld and end fillet weld. Effective length of the butt weld is taken as the length of the continuous full size weld. 102 .11 Fillet (a) side welds and (b) end welds 12. However. 12.A fillet weld is made away from the edges of the abutting plates and is formed by welding the members in an overlapped position or by using a secondary joining material. the effective area of the butt-welded connection is taken as the effective length of the weld times the throat size.5 Design of butt weld The butt weld is normally designed for direct tension or compression. Design stress value is often taken to be the same as the parent metal strength.6.

For a full penetration butt weld. and should be in the central portion. 12. The slope provided at the joint for the thicker part should not be steeper than one in five [Figs. excluding reinforcement. They are not to be used in locations subjected to dynamic or alternating stresses. whichever is greater. For a butt weld reinforced on both sides the effect of reinforcement should be neglected for estimating the throat dimensions. J and bevel types and incomplete penetration butt welds should not be used for highly stressed joints and joints subjected to dynamic and alternating loads. Intermittent butt welds are used to resist shear only and the effective length should not be less than four times the longitudinal space between the effective length of welds nor more than 16 times the thinner part. the dimensions of the wider or thicker part should be reduced at the butt joint to those of the smaller part. 12. welded from both sides. a maximum value of reduced effective throat thickness equal to 5/8 of the thickness of the thinner part joined must be used. Where reduction of the wider part is not possible. For field welds. the ends of the weld shall be returned to ensure full throat thickness. Unsealed butt welds of V. Fig. For stress calculation. shall not be greater than lA thickness of the thinner part joined. or thickness.12 Butt welding of members with (a)&(b) unequal thickness (c) unequal width Design stresses for butt welds are assumed same as for the parent metal with a thickness equal to the throat thickness. say unequal width. This is applicable in cases where the difference in thickness exceeds 25 % of the thickness of the thinner part or 3. U. where this is not practicable. the weld metal is built up at the junction equal to a thickness which is at least 25 % greater than the thinner part or equal to the dimension of the thicker part [Fig. the throat dimension is usually assumed as the thickness of the thinner part of the connection.0 mm. For butt welding parts with unequal cross sections. the design stresses in shear and tension may be reduced to 80% of the above value. In instances.12(c)]. The unwelded portion in partial penetration butt welds.12 (a) & (b)]. For partial penetration weld effective throat thickness is taken as the minimum thickness of the weld metal common to the parts joined. 103 . 12.

12.6.6 Design of fillet weld A simple approach to design is to assume uniform fillet weld strength in all directions and to specify a certain throat stress value. The average throat thickness is obtained by dividing the applied loads summed up in vectorial form per uniFor stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose

Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled section Table 12.2. Value o f K for different angles between fusion faces

Thickness of thicker part Over (mm) Up to and including (mm)

Minimum size (mm)

10 3 10 20 5 For a 20 penetration weld, the depth of penetration should be a minimum of 2.4 mm. deep 32 6 Then 32 size of the weld is minimum leg length plus 2.410(Minimum of a fillet weld the 50 8 (First run) mm. The size should not be less than 3 mm or more than the thickness of the thinner part joined. size of fillet) Mi Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of 3 single run fillet a 10 12.6.6-Design of fillet weld weld A simple approach to design is to assume uniform fillet weld strength Minimum size Thickness of thicker part 10 20 Table 12.1specify a includingfirst run orvalue. The average Minimum size of (mm) of 5 single run fillet a (mm) in all directions and toUp to and certain throat stress Over (mm) weld throat thickness is obtained by dividing the applied loads summed up in 3 vectorial (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled form per unit length by10 throat size. Alternatively, design the Fig.12.14 20 32 6 20 strength can 10 different with direction of the load vector. This5method sectionbe 20 32 6 is limited in usage to cases of pure shear, tension or compression. It 32 50 cannot be used in cases where the load vector direction varies10(Minimum 32 50 8 (First8 (First run) around run) 10(Minimum Table 12.2. Value othe simple method, the stress fusionof sizethe fillet) weld group. For f K for different angles between issize faces of vector taken fillet) as sum of the force components acting in the weld divided by the throat area. Angle between 60° - 90° 91°-100° 101°-106° 107°-113° 114°-120° Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld fusion faces 104 The size of a normal fillet should be taken as the minimum leg size 60° 90° 91°-100° a single run 107°-113° 114°-120° Table 12.6.6-Design ofsize of weld run or of 101°-106° fillet 3 12.1 Minimum -fillet first 10 (Fig. 12.13). weld square A simpleaapproach to design isshould be at least 1.5 mm lessstrength edge edge of part, the weld size to assume uniform fillet weld than the 20 Constant [Fig. 0.70 0.65 0.55 0.50 thickness K 10 12.14 (a)] .to specify roundeda toe of stress value. The average size Table in all Minimum and of first run or of 0.60 12.1 directions size For the a certain single run fillet section, the weld throat a rolled 5 should not exceed 3/4 thickness of the section atthe applied loads summed up in weld throat thickness is obtained by dividing the toe [Fig. 12.14 (b)] . 12.6.6 Design of form per unit length by the throat size. Alternatively, design fillet weld vectorial 32 6 n should be a20 minimum of 2.4 mm. Then the size of the weld is minimum leg length strength can be of a fillet with direction of be less than 3 mm ormethod different weld should not the load vector. This more than the plus 2.4 mm. The sizedesign is to assume uniform fillet weld strength in all directions A simple approach tousage to cases of pure shear, tension or is limited in part joined. thickness of the thinner throat stress Minimum size requirement compression. It given of fillet and to specify a certain in cases where the The average direction varies welds is by cannot be usedEffective throat thicknessvector throat thickness is obtained around 32 50value. load 8 (First run) less than 3 below in the applied loads summed up in vectorialshould not be10(Minimum mm and Table 12.1. dividing form issize uniFor stress weld group. For the1.0 t under specialthe stress per taken fillet) is vector simple method, circumstances, of as the calculations, should not exceed 0.7 t and where't' the thickness the effective of the thickness should be taken in thetimes fillet size,by the throat sum throat force components acting as K weld divided where K is a of thinner part. constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in area. Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose The size of a normal fillet should be taken as the minimum leg size 60° - 90° 91°-100° 101°-106° 107°-113° 114°-120° Table 12.1 Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled (Fig. 12.13). Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld section

For stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose fusion faces form angles between 60° and 120°. The actual length is taken as the length having the effective length plus twice the weld size. Minimum effective length should not be less than four times the weld size. When a fillet weld is provided to square edge of a part, the weld size should be at least 1.5 mm less than the edge thickness [Fig. 12.14 (a)] . For the rounded toe of a rolled section, the weld size should not exceed 3/4 thickness of the section at the toe [Fig. 12.14 (b)] . For stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose fusion faces form angles between 60° and 120°. The actual length is taken as the length having the effective length plus twice the weld size. Minimum effective length should not be less than four times the weld size. When a fillet weld is provided to square edge of a part, the weld size should be at least 1.5 mm less than the edge thickness [Fig. 12.14 (a)] . For the rounded toe of a rolled section, theplate, (b) fillet welds not exceed 3/4 Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of weld size should thickness of the section at the toe [Fig. 12.14 (b)] . on round toe of rolled section

Table 12.2. Value o f K for different angles between fusion faces

Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled section Table 12.2. Value o f K for different angles between fusion faces

Generally speaking, continuous welding is preferred because of its superior performance in dynamic loading. However intermittent fillet welds may sometimes be provided where the strength required is less than that can be developed by a continuous fillet weld of the smallest allowable size for the parts joined. The length of intermediate welds should not be less than 4 times the weld size with a minimum of 40 mm. The clear spacing between the effective lengths of the intermittent welds should be less than or equal to 12 times the thickness of the thinner member in compression and 16 times in tension; in no case the length should exceed 20 cm. Chain intermittent welding is better than staggered intermittent welding. Intermittent fillet welds are not used in main members exposed to weather. For lap joints, the overlap should not be less than five times the thickness of the thinner part. For fillet welds to be used in slots and holes, the dimension of the slot or hole should comply with the following limits:

105 a) The width or diameter should not be less than three times the thickness or 25 mm whichever is greater b) Corners at the enclosed ends or slots should be rounded with a radius not less than 1.5 times the thickness or 12 mm whichever is greater, and

c) The distance between the edge of the part and the edge of the slot or hole, or between adjacent slots or holes, should be not less than twice the thickness and not less than 25 mm for the holes. The effective area of a plug weld is assumed as the nominal area of the whole in the plane of the faying surface. Plug welds are not designed to carry stresses. If two or more of the general types of weld (butt, fillet, plug or slots) are combined in a single joint, the effective capacity of each has to be calculated separately with reference to the axis of the group to determine the capacity of the welds.

Fig. 12.15 End returns The high stress concentration at ends of welds is minimised by providing welds around the ends as shown in Fig. 12.15. These are called end returns. End returns are invariably provided for welded joints that are subject to eccentricity, impact or stress reversals. The end returns are provided for a distance not less than twice the size of the weld. 12.6.7 Slot welds When the lengths available for the normal longitudinal fillet welds are not sufficient to resist the loads, slot and plug welds [Fig. 12.16] are used to develop the required strength. Plug welds when used to fill the holes that are temporarily made for erection bolts for beam and column connections, their strength may not be considered in the overall strength of the joint.

Fig. 12.16 Slot and Plug welds The limitations given in specifications for the maximum sizes of plug and slot welds are necessary to avoid large shrinkage, which might be caused around these welds when they exceed the specified sizes. The strength of a plug or slot weld is calculated by considering the allowable stress and its nominal area in the shearing plane. This area is usually

104 106

and is the polar moment of inertia of the weld. 12. the force can be decomposed into its vertical and horizontal components: 107 .18) Where. The length of the slot weld can be obtained from the following relationship: 12. The bolt group is analysed by resolving the eccentric load into a concentric load acting through the centroid of bolt group and a torsional moment where The moment acts with respect to the centroid of the bolt group as a centre of rotation. and co-ordinates reflect the positive and Welded Connection: When the applied load lies in the plane of the fillet weld connection.referred to as the faying surface and is equal to the area of contact at the base of the slot or plug. Fig. 12. ■ Load lying in the plane of connection [Fig.18). 12. The eccentricity causes either in plane moment and rotation or out of plane moment and shear. the load is said to be eccentric.17] Bolted Connection: If the applied load lies in the plane of the connection. For convenience.17 Bolt group eccentrically loaded in shear The resultant force on each bolt is given by Where n is the number of bolts in the bolt group and the negative values of the bolt location as appropriate. s is the distance from the centre of gravity of the weld to the point under consideration. is the tension. it causes shear and torsion (Fig. The force caused by torsion is determined using the formula = (Moment / Polar moment of inertia) (12. the bolt group is subjected to shear and torsional moment. P can be resolved into components and acting at distances of and respectively from the centroid.7 Eccentric Connection When external load does not pass through the centre of gravity of the bolt or weld group.

19] Load Bolted Connection: In the connection shown in Fig. 12.19 (b). For bolts with initial tension the number of bolts required is taken as 80% of Eqn. 12.18 Welds subjected to shear and torsion ■ lying out of plane of connection [Fig. 12. the bolts are subjected to combined shear and tension. 108 . The neutral axis may be assumed to be at a distance of one-sixth of the total depth d. If there is initial tension in bolts.21. From the maximum weld force per unit length the required size of the fillet weld can be calculated. 12. 12.19. then the neutral axis will pass through the centre of gravity of the bolt group. The nominal tensile force in the bolts can be calculated assuming it to be proportional to the distance of the bolt from the neutral axis in Fig.Where. and denote the vertical and horizontal components of the distance The stress due to shear force is calculated by the following expression Where. Fig. While designing a weld subjected to combined shear and torsion. When there is no initial tension in bolts the number of bolts required may be calculated using the equation given below Where m is the number of bolt lines. it is a usual practice to assume a unit size weld and compute the stresses on a weld of unit length. is the pitch of bolts and is the design strength of the bolt. is the shearing stress and is the reaction and is the total length of the weld.

it is a common practice to treat the variation of shear stress as uniform if the welds are short.20 Variation of bending and shear stress Fig.21. It is generally satisfactory if the weld is designed to withstand the maximum bending stress and the maximum shear stress separately.Welded Connection: In the case of welds. Hence. These bending and shear stress variations are shown in Fig. Fig. for design purposes the stresses need not be combined at a point. But. if the bending stress is calculated by the flexure formula. the shear stress variation for vertical welds is parabolic with a maximum value equal to 1. 12. 12. 12. 12.21 Weld provision for carrying shear and moment 109 . It may be observed here that the locations of maximum bending and shearing stresses are not the same.5 times the average value.20. it can be safely assumed that the web welds would carry all the of the shear and the flange welds all of the moment. If the welds used are as shown in Fig.

An element.2 Cross sectional shapes are formed to any desired shape and to close tolerances and these can be consistently repeated for as long as required. In order that a flat compression element be considered as a stiffened element. without application of heat) from steel sheets of uniform thickness. the increase being the consequence of cold working well into the strain-hardening range. when the element buckles on loading. Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements Cold-formed steel elements are either stiffened or unstiffened. The strength/weight ratio of cold-formed sections is significantly high compared with hot rolled sections. it should be supported along one longitudinal edge by the web and along the other by a web or lip or other edge stiffener. so that high resistance to corrosion. which is supported by webs along both its longitudinal edges.SECTION: 13 COLD FORMED STEEL SECTIONS 13. These increases are predominant in zones where the metal is bent by folding. Much thicker material up to 8 mm can be formed if pre-galvanised material is not required for the particular application. 13. Some of the main advantages of cold rolled sections are as follows: • • 13. the yield strength of steel sheets used in cold-formed sections is at least although there is a trend to use steels of higher strengths.e. Normally. Sometimes they are also called Light Gauge Steel Sections or Cold Rolled Steel Sections. For purposes of design. (e. Stiffened and unstiffened elements are shown in Fig. The effect of cold working is thus to enhance the mean yield stress by 15% . A rule of thumb is that 110 .1 General Thin sheet steel products are extensively used in building industry. which has been divided into two or more narrow sub elements by the introduction of intermediate stiffeners.1 An intermittently stiffened element is made of a very wide thin element. their manufacturing process involves forming steel sections in a cold state (i. the yield stress may be regarded as having been enhanced by a minimum of 15%. These thin steel sections are cold-formed. These are given the generic title Cold Formed Steel Sections. and also sometimes as low as Cold forming has the effect of increasing the yield strength of steel.g. besides an attractive surface finish. i.e. The thickness of steel sheet used in cold-formed construction is usually 1 to 3 mm. Generally these are available for use as basic building elements for assembly at site or as prefabricated frames or panels. formed during rolling. Pre-galvanised or pre-coated metals can be formed.30%. is called a stiffened element. a bend) which has sufficient flexural rigidity to maintain straightness of the edge. and range from purlins to roof sheeting and floor decking. can be achieved. The method of manufacturing differentiates these products from hot rolled steel sections. which is supported along one longitudinal edge only with the other parallel edge being free to displace. An unstiffened element is one.

The section behaviour is modelled on the basis of the effective width 111 .2. If the edge stiffener is inadequate (or only partially adequate) its effectiveness is disregarded and the element will be regarded as unstiffened.the depth of simple "lips" or right-angled bends should be at least one-fifth of the adjacent plate width. then the edge-stiffened element may be treated as having a local buckling coefficient ( K ) value of 4.0. Lightly stressed regions at centre are ignored. More exact formulae to assess the adequacy of the stiffeners are sometimes employed. Fig.1 Effective width concept The effects of local buckling can be evaluated by using the concept of effective width. 13. as these are least effective in resisting the applied stresses.1 Stiffened and Unstiffened elements 13. Regions near the supports are far more effective and are taken to be fully effective. If the stiffener is adequate. for purposes of design calculations.

in Modifications are necessary for an unstiffened element under uniform compression and for elements under combined bending and axial load.2 Local buckling of compressed plates The effective width concept is usually modified to take into account the effects of yielding and imperfection. For example. 13.2. section geometry etc. The buckling coefficient for the member having a width of the type shown above is given by in a lipped channel of 112 . in width of the element. BS5950: Part 5 provides a semi-empirical formula for basic effective width. multiplied by the edge stress is the same as the mean stress •across the section multiplied by the total width of the compression member.The effective width. to conform to extensive experimental data. The effective width of an element under compression is dependent on the magnitude of the applied stress the width/thickness ratio of the element and the edge support conditions. Part 5 for computing K values for a channel element is given below for illustration (See BS 5950. When then Where compressive stress on the effective element. thickness of the element. Part 5 for a complete list of buckling coefficients). Typical formula given in BS 5950. local buckling stress given by load buckling coefficient which depends on the element type.

60. respectively. elements having and provided with simple lip having one fifth of the element width may be regarded as a stiffened element. when b/t values exceed half the values tabulated above.2. Maximum width to thickness ratios: The maximum permitted ratios of (b/t) for compression elements are as follows: • • • Stiffened elements with one longitudinal edge connected to a flange or web element and the other stiffened by a simple lip = 60 Stiffened elements with both longitudinal edges connected to other stiffened elements = 500 Unstiffened compression elements = 60 The designer should guard against the elements developing very large deformations.425 as the case may be.0 or The buckling coefficient for the element of width is given by is computed from Eqn. (Note: should not be less than 4.3 Treatment of elements with stiffeners Edge Stiffeners: As stated previously. 13. The computed values of 0.For the member having the width of in the above sketch. Where are the thicknesses of element width normally and will be equal). then the width required for the lip may become too large and the lip itself may have 113 . 2(b) given above.

the effective section properties are determined by summing up the effective widths of individual elements. the total effective area of the element may be obtained by adding effective areas of the sub-elements to the full areas of stiffeners. the portions located close to the supported edges are effective.2. all elements may be subject to reductions in width.4 Effective section properties In the analysis of member behaviour.2. In the case of compression members. Similarly very wide elements can be divided into two or more narrower sub elements by introducing intermediate stiffeners formed during the rolling 114 . Intermediate stiffeners: A wide and ineffective element may be transformed into a highly effective element by providing suitable intermediate stiffeners (having a minimum moment of inertia about an axis through the element mid surface). only the compression elements are considered to have reduced effective widths. The required minimum moment of inertia of the stiffener about the axis 0-0 in Fig. 13. When is larger than 60.3) between stiffeners = thickness of the element = yield stress If the sub-element width/thickness ratio does not exceed 60.5 Proportioning of stiffeners The performance of unstiffened elements could be substantially improved by introducing stiffeners (such as a lip). As a general rule. If an element has a number of stiffeners spaced closely and then generally all the stiffeners and sub elements can be considered to be effective. of course. 13. Special types of lips (called "compound" lips) are designed in such cases and are usually validated by tests.3 is given by: Where = larger flat width of the sub element (see Fig. the effectiveness of the intermediately stiffened elements is somewhat reduced due to shear lag effects. 13.stability problems. In the case of flexural members. not subject to any reduction of width. Elements in tension are. generally. 13. as they are not subjected to bending.

The minimum moment of inertia about an axis through the element middle surface required for this purpose (according to BS 5950. when the lip or the edge stiffener has a moment of inertia about an axis through the plate middle surface equal to or greater than Where t and b are the thickness and breadth of the full width of the element to be stiffened. Part 5) is given in Eqn (4) above. 115 . For lips with b > 60 t.process.l (b) by replacing the sub element width in place of the element width b. the required overall depth is given by Note that both the above equations given by the Indian Standards are dependent on the units employed. The effective widths of each sub element may be determined according to Eqn 1 (a) and Eqn. = Yield stress in For a simple lip bent at right angles to the stiffened element.thickness ratio of the stiffened element. it would be appropriate to design a lip to ensure that the lip itself does not develop instability. Intermediate Stiffeners: Intermediate stiffeners are used to split a wide element into a series of narrower and therefore more effective elements. According to BS 5950.e. The Indian standard IS: 801-1975 prescribes a minimum moment of inertia for the lip given by Where = minimum allowable moment of inertia of stiffener about its own centroidal axis parallel to the stiffened element in = flat width . For elements having a full width b less than or equal to 60 t. the sum of the "effective widths" of individual sub elements will enhance the efficiency of the section. b/5) can be used safely. a simple lip of one fifth of the element width (i. Part 5 an unstiffened element (when provided with a lip) can be regarded as a stiffened element. A maximum b/t ratio of 90 is regarded as the upper limit for load bearing edge stiffeners. When then the total effective area of the element is obtained as the sum of the effective areas of each sub element to the full areas of stiffeners.

the stiffeners and sub elements may be considered to be fully effective. the effective stiffener area varies between given below: and as It must be noted that when small increases in the areas of intermediate stiffeners are provided. the complete element is replaced for purposes of analysis by an element of width b and having fictitious Where = Moment of inertia of the complete element including stiffeners. When the flanges of a flexural member is unusually wide. so long as the complete element width does not exceed 500 t. The effective stiffener areas are also reduced when by employing the equation: For values between 60 and 90. However there is a tendency for the complete element (along with the stiffeners) to buckle locally. When stiffeners are closely spaced.e. the sub element effective width must be reduced to given by.1975. the width of flange projecting beyond the web is limited to Where = flange thickness = depth of beam = the amount of curling = average stress in as specified in IS: 801 .1975 also suggests some simple rules for the design of intermediate stiffeners. i. IS: 801. about its own neutral axis. 116 . To model this reduced performance. In these circumstances.When the sub elements having a larger values are employed the performance of intermittently stiffened elements will be less efficient. it is possible to obtain large increases in effectiveness and therefore it is advantageous to use a few intermediate stiffeners.

Designs may be carried out using simple beam theory. Laterally stable beams are beams. This is done by imposing a maximum compressive stress. Equivalent thickness of intermediate stiffener is given by 13. making suitable modifications to take account of local buckling of the webs. which do not buckle laterally. 117 117 .The amount of curling should be decided by the designer but will not generally exceed 5 % of the depth of the section. which may be considered to act on the bending element. the effect of local buckling should invariably be taken into account in thin walled members.3 Beams As stated previously.

13.4c). the average shear stress must be less than the value calculated as follows: 118 .3.5).4b). 13. The ultimate moment capacity is given by Where = effective compression section modulus (see This is subject to the condition that the maximum tensile stress in the section does not exceed Fig. If the neutral axis is such that the tensile stresses reach yield first. local web buckling has a detrimental effect. 13. A widely used method of overcoming web crushing problems is to use web cleats at support points (See Fig. compressive stress at collapse can equal yield stress (sec Fig. The phenomenon of shear buckling of thin webs has been discussed in detail in the section on "Plate Girders".7 times yield stress in shear.6. then the moment capacity is to be evaluated on the basis of elasto-plastic stress distribution (see Fig. the maximum (width/thickness) ratio of stiffened elements is and for unstiffened 13.4a). Thin webs subjected to predominant shear will buckle as shown in Fig. In elements having low (width/thickness) ratios.1 Other beam failure criteria Web Crushing: This may occur under concentrated loads or at support point when deep slender webs are employed. 13. The maximum shear in a beam web is invariably limited to 0. In addition in deep webs. = design strength in N/mm For steel with For greater web slenderness values. where shear buckling can occur. The moment capacity of the cross section is determined by limiting the maximum stress on the web to The effective width of the compression element is evaluated using this stress and the effective section properties are evaluated. Shear Buckling. 13. In order to ensure yielding before local buckling.The maximum value of the stress is given by Where = the limiting value of compressive stress in N/mm 2 = web depth/thickness ratio = material yield stress in N/mm2.

The effective length of beams 119 . This is achieved by connecting them to adjacent elements. capable of resisting a lateral force of 3% of the maximum force in the compression flange. there are circumstances where this is not the case and the possibility of lateral buckling has to be considered.Fig. the beam may be regarded. However. as restrained and no lateral buckling will occur. roof sheeting or to bracing members. 13.3.6 Web buckling 13. which is dependent on support and loading conditions.2 Lateral Buckling The great majority of cold-formed beams are (by design) restrained against lateral deflections. The design approach is based on the "effective length" of the beam for lateral buckling. If the beam is provided with lateral restraints.

is taken positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature (see Fig. the value of ME obtained from Eqn.e. the effective length is increased by 20%. For an / section or symmetrical channel section bent in the plane of the web and loaded through shear centre.9 times the length. 120 . This is considered to be a "destabilising load". the bending capacity in the plane of loading and other effects. a load that encourages lateral instability. i. in mm t = web thickness. 13. in mm = radius of gyration for the lateral bending of section Where = ratio of the smaller end moment to the larger end moment M in an unbraced length of beam. If a load is applied to the top flange which is unrestrained laterally. The elastic lateral buckling moment capacity is determined next. this is A = cross sectional area. in D = web depth. provided the load is applied at bottom flange level.with both ends supported and having restraints against twisting is taken âs 0. (13) will need to be modified.8) To provide for the effects of imperfections.

Fig. and the Elastic Modulus = Elastic lateral buckling resistance moment given by Eqn (13) = Perry coefficient. 13. given by When 121 .8 Single and double curvature bending A Perry-Robertson type equation is employed for evaluating the Moment Resistance of the beam = First yield moment given by the product of yield stress of the gross section.

= effective length = radius of gyration of the section about the . is Fig. then limited to This will happen when the beams are "short". the failure load is evaluated from 122 .axis. 13.4 Axially Compressed Columns In analysing column behaviour.dimensional) for different Q factors The ultimate load (or squash load) of a short strut is obtained from Where = ultimate load of a short strut = sum of the effective areas of all the individual plate elements = the ratio of the effective area to the total area of cross section at yield stress Following the Perry-Robertson approach. 13.a).9 Column Strength (Hon. When the calculated value of exceeds calculated by using Eqn (1 l. the first step is to determine the effective area of the cross section by summing up the total values of effective areas for all the individual elements.

10) and has a large reduction of effective widths of elements. 13. 13. then the effective section may have changed position of centroid. as shown in Fig. The ultimate load is evaluated by allowing for the interaction of bending and compression using the following equation: 123 . (The y-axis is nondimensionalised using the yield stress.10 To allow for this behaviour.9 shows the mean stress at failure cross sectional area) obtained for columns with variation of for a number of "Q" factors. This would induce bending on an initially concentrically loaded section. 13. 13. ( a ) Channel section loaded through its centroid ( b ) The move of the neutral axis (due to plate buckling) causes an eccentricity and a consequent moment This would cause an additional compression on flange AR Fig. and "Q" factor is the ratio of effective cross sectional area to full cross sectional area).10 Effective shift in the loading axis in an axially compressed column 13. 13. the movement of effective neutral axis from the geometric neutral axis of the cross section must be first determined by comparing the gross and effective section properties.4. Plots such as Fig.and = radius of gyration corresponding to Fig.9 can be employed directly for doubly symmetric sections.1 Effective shift of loading axis If a section is not doubly symmetric (see Fig.

the following design procedure. Purely torsional and purely flexural failure does not occur in a general case. 13.Where Pc is obtained from Eqn (16) and Mc is the bending resistance of the section for moments acting in the direction corresponding to the movement of neutral axis.1 above) or (b) by a combination of bending about the axis of symmetry and a twist as shown in Fig. suggested in BS5950. Codes deal with this problem by simplified design methods or by empirical methods based on experimental data. 13.Torsional buckling Analysis of torsional-flexural behaviour of cold-formed sections is tedious and time consuming for practical design. This latter type of behaviour is known as Torsional-flexural behaviour. As an illustration.11Column displacements during Flexural . 124 . Part 5 is detailed below as being suitable for sections with at least one axis of symmetry (say and subjected to flexural torsional buckling.11. 13.4. es is the distance between the effective centroid and actual centroid of the cross section.4.2 Torsional . Fig.flexural buckling Singly symmetric columns may fail either (a) by Euler buckling about an axis perpendicular to the line of symmetry (as detailed in 13.

i.1 above can be used to obtain torsional buckling resistance of a column.Effective length multiplication factors (known as factors) are tabulated for a number of section geometries.e. which together with the design analysis prescribed in 13.4. These factors are employed to obtain increased effective lengths. is the elastic flexural buckling load (in Newtons) for a column about the = effective length (in mm) corresponding to the minimum radius of gyration = torsional flexural buckling load (in Newtons) of a column given by Where given by = Elastic flexural buckling load of the column (in Newtons) about the = Torsional buckling load of a column (In Newtons) given by In these equations. values can be computed as follows: Where y-axis. = polar radius of gyration about the shear centre (in mm) given by 125 .

13.where are the radii of gyration (in mm) about the is the shear modulus is the distance from shear centre to the centroid measured along the axis (mm) St Venants' Torsion constant all elements.5 Combined Bending and Compression Compression members. Hence the application of load that would cause torsion should be avoided where possible.1 Local capacity check The local capacity check is ascertained by satisfying the following at the points of greatest bending moment and axial load: = applied axial load = short strut capacity defined by (Eqn. by adjusting the method of load application. Generally speaking. will have to be designed to take into account the effects of interaction. 13. where measure in mm) Ix F which may be taken as summed up for flat width of the element and thickness (both of them the moment of inertia about the x axis (mm4) Warping constant for all section. which are also subject to bending. 13.5. 15) = applied bending moments about x and y axis = Moment resistance of the beam about x-axis in the absence of = Moment resistance of the beam about y-axis in the absence of 126 . it is possible to restrain twisting so that torsion does not occur to any significant extent.3 Torsion behaviour Cold formed sections are mainly formed with "open" sections and do not have high resistance to torsion. The following checks are suggested for members that have at least one axis of symmetry: (i) the local capacity at points of greatest bending moment and axial load and (ii) an overall buckling check.4.

then the resulting moment has to be allowed for.13. Where a member is connected eccentrically to its axis. the member may be designed as a simple tension member.5.axis and for bending about the y-axis respectively. connected through one leg only or through the flange or web of a T. 16) = flexural buckling load in compression for bending about the x. the following relationship should be satisfied: For beams subject to lateral buckling. = lateral buckling resistance moment about the x axis 13.6 Tension Members If a member is connected in such a way as to eliminate any moments due to connection eccentricity.g. The tensile capacity of a member may be evaluated from Where is the effective area of the section making due allowance for the type of member (angle.section).2 Overall buckling check For members not subject to lateral buckling. = factors (defined in the previous chapter) with regard to moment variation about x and y axis respectively. plain channel. Tee section etc) and the type of connection (e. is design strength 127 . the following relationship should be satisfied: Where = axial buckling resistance in the absence of moments (see Eqn.

The behaviour of a component or system can often be ascertained economically by a test and suitable modifications incorporated. 128 . When a member is subjected to both combined bending and axial tension. There is a possibility of these tests giving misleading information or even no information regarding neutral axis movement. the capacity of the member should be ascertained from the following: Where Ft = applied load = tensile capacity (see Eqn. Particular care should be taken while testing components. 13. that the tests model the actual loading conditions as closely as possible. while these tests may be used successfully to assess the material work hardening much caution will be needed when examining the effects of local buckling. (The area to be deducted from the gross sectional area of a member should be the maximum sum of the sectional areas of the holes in any cross section at right angles to the direction of applied stress). The Indian code IS: 801-1975 is in the process of revision and it is probable that a similar enhancement will be allowed for cold rolled steel sections also. the very large variety of shapes that can be formed and the complex interactions that occur make it frequently uneconomical to design members and systems completely on theoretical basis.The area of the tension member should invariably be calculated as its gross area less deductions for holes or openings. Reference is also made to the section on "Tension Members" where provision for enhancement of strength due to strain hardening has been incorporated for hot rolled steel sections.7 Design on the Basis of Testing While it is possible to design many cold-formed steel members on the basis of analysis. where necessary. For example. The specimen lengths may be too short to pick up certain types of buckling behaviour. 26) are as defined previously.

Testing is probably the only realistic method of assessing the strength and characteristics of connections. the restraints from adjacent structures and the flexibility of connections are all factors to be considered carefully and modelled accurately.11. 13. An advantage to the manufacturers in designing on the basis of proof testing is that the load/span tables obtained are generally more advantageous than those obtained by analytical methods. As an illustration the empirical rules permitted by BS 5950. 13. which can be employed by structural designers and architects who do not have detailed knowledge of design procedures. The manufacturers also provide load/span tables for their products. Evaluating connection behaviour is important as connections play a crucial role in the strength and stiffness of a structure.8 Empirical Methods Some commonly used members such as Z purlins are sometimes designed by time-tested empirical rules. it is vital to ensure that the test set up reflects the in-service conditions as accurately as possible. In testing complete structures or assemblies. 13. In designing Z purlins with lips using the simplified empirical rules the following recommendations are to be complied with: Unfactored loads should be used for designing purlins Imposed loads should be taken to be at least • 129 . Fig. (Members designed by proven theoretical methods or by prototype testing need not comply with the empirical rules).8.12 Z Purlins 13. Testing by an independent agency (such as Universities) is widely used by manufacturers of mass produced components to ensure consistency of quality. the type of supports. Part 5 is explained below.1 Z Purlins A Z purlin used for supporting the roofing sheet is sketched in Fig. they also reassure the customers about the validity of their load/span tables. such rules are employed when theoretical analysis may be impractical or not justified and when prototype test data are not available. The method of load application.

Lip width should be greater than Section Modulus for simply supported purlins and for continuous or semi rigidly jointed purlins. 130 . 13.• • • • • Claddings and fixings should be checked for adequacy to provide lateral restraint to the purlin and should be capable of carrying the component of load in the plane of the roof slope.8 m.8.12 • • • • The overall depth should not be greater than and not less than Overall width of compression flange / thickness ratio should not be greater than 35. Purlin cleats should provide adequate torsional restraint. The net allowable wind uplift in a direction normal to roof when purlins are restrained is taken as 50% of the (dead + imposed) load. The purlin should be considered to carry the load normal to roof slope (and a nominal axial load due to wind or restraint forces) These rules apply to purlins up to 8 m span in roof slopes up to 22.2 Design rules The following design rules apply with reference to Fig.5°. In the above. Antisag bars should be provided to ensure that laterally unsupported length of the purlin does not exceed 3. These should be anchored to rigid apex support or their forces should be transferred diagonally to main frames. L =span of the purlin (in mm) W = Normal component of unfactored (distributed dead load+imposed load) in B T • = Width of the compression flange in mm = thickness of the purlin in mm. 13.

2 Concrete Concrete strengths are specified in terms of the characteristic cube strengths. instead of cast-in place or precast reinforced concrete slab. 14. Some of the structural steel grade commonly used in construction are given in IS: 961-1975 and IS: 1977-1975. Table Where. 14.1 by /2400.2. 14. given by 0.2 Materials 14. "Fast Track" construction developed in the West invariably utilises Composite Construction.SECTION 14: BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION 14.where is the unit mass 14. It should be noted that although the ductility of reinforcing bars has a significant effect on the behaviour of continuous beams.2. this is not covered by IS 11384:1985. over which a reinforced concrete slab is cast with shear connectors is covered by IS: 11384-1985. The composite beam can also be constructed with profiled sheeting with concrete topping. For lightweight concrete.1 General A steel concrete composite beam made up of a steel beam.2. and IS: 8500-1977 as appropriate. characteristic compressive (cube) strength of concrete characteristic compressive (cylinder) strength of concrete.1 gives the properties of different grades of concrete. the obtained by multiplying the values from Table 14.3 Reinforcing steel used in composite columns Reinforcing Steel grades used in construction should conform to IS 432 (1982) and IS: 1786 (1985). IS: 2062-1992. By employing profiled steel decking in composite construction.1 Structural steel All structural steels used shall. before fabrication conform to IS: 1977-1975. the most effective utilisation of steel and concrete is achieved.8 times 28 days cube strength of concrete mean tensile strength of concrete values are Note is proposed to be evaluated in accordance with Eurocodes. this property has little effect on 131 . However. measured at 28 days.

They derive their resistance from bearing pressure on the concrete. Typical shear connectors are shown in Fig 14. Concrete filled tubular sections may be used without any reinforcement except for reasons of fire resistance.1 14. channels come under this category. 132 . Bond or anchorage type: These connectors derive their resistance through bond and anchorage action.3 Shear Connectors Mechanical shear connectors are required at the steel-concrete interface. To. Three types of shear connectors have been developed: Rigid type: These connectors are very stiff and they sustain only a small deformation while resisting the shear force. These connectors are designed to (a) transmit longitudinal shear along the interface. and (b) prevent separation of steel beam and concrete slab at the interface. Based on the load-slip characteristics observed in the push-out tests. Flexible type: Headed studs. 14.2 (a) and 14. the characteristic strength of concrete used should not exceed the characteristic strength of concrete in the beams for which the test is designed. 14. They derive their stress resistance through bending and undergo large deformation before failure. • • At the time of testing. To obtain the load-slip curve "pushout" tests are performed as per codal specifications. These connectors are welded to the flange of the steel beam. perform the test.3 (a)] the connector stiffness is usually determined while ultimate strength design is based on plastic behaviour of the shear connectors. A minimum of three tests should be made and the design values should be taken as 67% of the lowest ultimate capacity. where appropriate. IS: 11384-1985 suggests that.1 Characteristics of shear connectors The load-slip characteristic of shear connectors affects their design considerably.3.the design of composite columns. [see 14. Arrangements for these tests as per and IS: 11384-1985 are shown in Fig. and fail due to crushing of concrete. the value is needed for serviceability considerations.2 ( b ) respectively.

133 133 .

134 .

133 .

When there is partial interaction the load slip relationship is assumed to be bilinear.3 (b).Fig. 14. Note that full interaction would occur and when very stiff connectors are used.2 Strength of connectors The design resistance of shear studs with may be determined using the following two empirical formulae.3. (14. The lower of the two values governs the design.1) 136 .3 (b) shows an idealised load-slip characteristic of three different types of interaction that arise depending on the type of connectors used. Idealized load-slip characteristics 14. Fig. 14.

1 Design method The ultimate strength of a composite section is determined from its plastic moment resistance. This design is often preferred due to economy achieved through the reduced number of shear connectors. partial safety factor for stud connector The design strengths of headed shear connectors as per IS: 11384-1985 are reproduced in Table (14. Full shear connection ensures that full moment resistance of the section develops. provided the elements of the steel cross section do not fall (in the semi-compact or slender category). as the structure will remain elastic under service loading. 137 .2). Similar data about other shear connectors is available in that code.2: Design Strength of Headed Stud Shear Connectors for Different Concrete Strengths 14. although full moment resistance of the beam cannot be achieved. The serviceability is checked using elastic analysis. In partial shear connection. the design will have to be adequate to resist the applied bending moment. It is to be noted that as per this code the design value of a shear connector is taken as 67% of the ultimate capacity arrived at by testing.2) Ecm = ultimate tensile strength of steel cylinder strength of concrete mean secant (elastic) modulus of concrete.4 Basic Design Considerations 14.(14. Table 14.4.

For design purpose a portion of the beam span (20% . 14.4.5 Value of for continuous beam 138 . EC4 has prescribed that the following span to depth (total beam and slab depth) ratios for which the serviceability criteria will be deemed to be satisfied. Fig.4). 14. 14. Table 14. Use of effective width to allow for shear Fig.33%) is taken as the effective breadth of the slab (see Fig.Adequacy in Serviceability Limit State is verified by resorting to prescribed span/depth ratios.3: Span to Depth ratio Support Condition Simply supported Continuous Span to Depth 15-18 (Primary Beams) 18-20 (Secondary Beams) 18-22 (Primary Beams) 22-25 (end bays) Effective breadth of flange: A composite beam acts as a T-beam with the concrete slab as its flange.

4 lists the Partial safety factors to be used in design. Table 14.4: Suggested Partial safety factors • These are in conforming with IS: 11384 .The effective breadth of simply supported beam is taken as on each side of the steel web. For simply supported beam Therefore.2 Section classifications and partial safety factor Section Classifications has been dealt with in section 5 of this Design Guide. the effective span taken as the distance between points of zero moments. but not greater than half the distance to the next adjacent web. 14. Table 14.1. IS: 11384 -1985 has suggested a modular ratio of 15 for live load and 30 for dead load. 139 . This takes into account the long-term effects of creep under sustained loading. for elastic analysis of section.1985.5 beams Modular ratio: Modular ratio is the ratio of elastic modulus of steel to the time dependent secant modulus of concrete While evaluating stress due to long termloading (dead load etc. actual span centre-to-centre distance of transverse spans for slab.) the time dependent secant modulus of concrete should be used.4. For continuous is obtained from Fig 14. The values of elastic modulus of concrete under short term loading for different grades of concrete are given in Table 14. Where.

Fig. Table 15.1 gives the moment capacity of the composite section with full shear connection.1 Notations as per IS: 11384-1985 Table 15. 15.1 Moment Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Slabs.1: Moment capacity of composite Section with full shear interaction (according to IS: 11384 -1985) 140 140 .SECTION 15: COMPOSITE BEAMS AND SLABS 15. supported on Steel beams Reinforced concrete slab connected to rolled steel section through shear connectors is the simplest form of composite beam and has been covered in IS 11384:1985. The ultimate strength of the composite beam is determined from its collapse load capacity.

which are capable of developing their plastic moment of resistance without local buckling problems. Fig 15.3 shows the stress distribution for hogging bending moment.2 presents the equations for moment capacity.15. where profiled deck slabs are connected to steel beams through stud connectors. with Profiled Sheeting supported on Steel Beams A more advanced method of composite beam construction is one. These equations are largely restricted to sections. 141 141 . In this case the steel sheeting itself acts as the bottom reinforcement and influences the capacity of the section. This has not been covered in any IS Code. Fig 15. Table 15.2 Reinforced Concrete Slabs.2 shows the stress distribution diagram for plastic and compact sections for full interactior according to EC4.

142 .

The shear force resisted by the structural steel section should satisfy: Where. EC 4 suggests the following reduction factor k (relative to solid slab). (2) Profiled steel decking with the ribs transverse to the supporting beam.4. This in turn makes the centre of resistance on connector to move up. initiating a local concrete failure as cracking.3 Vertical Shear Although the concrete slab resists some of the vertical shear in a composite T-beam. (1) Profiled steel decking with the ribs parallel to the supporting beam. There should be a 45° projection from the base of the connector to the core of the solid slab for smooth transfer of shear. there is no simple design model for this.15. as if it were not composite. It is therefore assumed that the vertical shear is resisted by steel beam alone. But the profiled deck slab limits the concrete around the connector. In addition to this the shear buckling of steel web should be checked.4 Resistance of Shear Connectors when used with Profile Decking The profile of the deck slab has a marked influence on strength of shear connector. 143 . is the plastic shear resistance given by. This is shown in Fig 15. 15. and d is the depth of the web considered in the shear area. The shear buckling of steel web can be neglected if following condition is satisfied Where.

15. and not For studs welded through the steel decking. should not be greater than 1.8 when Fig.the effective area of longitudinal slab reinforcement 144 . to be resisted by shear connectors between the point of maximum positive bending moment and an intermediate support is given by: Where.5 Longitudinal Shear Force in Single Span Beams For single span beams the total design longitudinal shear. k.0 when greater than 0. .For studs of diameter not exceeding 20 mm. 15. is the average width of trough is the stud height is the height of the profiled decking slab Nr is the number of stud connectors in one rib at a beam intersection (should not greater than 2).4 Behaviour of a shear connection fixed through profile sheeting 15. to be resisted by shear connectors between the point of maximum bending moment and the end support is given by: Whichever is smaller.6 Longitudinal Shear Force in Continuous Beams For continuous beams the total design longitudinal shear. Where.

(15. At is 15. The minimum degree of shear connection is defined by the following equations: where the top flange area. Fig. Along curve AB. 145 . including reinforcement in the slab.The number of required shear connectors in the zone under consideration for full composite action is given by: Where is the design longitudinal shear force as defined in Eqn.3). in the presence of high shear force. At point B the remaining bending resistance is that contributed by the flanges of the composite section. 15. (15. When the design shear force.5). moment capacity of the section reduces non-linearly as shown by the parabolic curve AB. as the opportunity for developing local plasticity are greater in these cases is design resistance of the connector. exceeds (point in the Fig.5 shows the resistance of the composite section in combined bending (hogging or sagging) and shear.1 Minimum degree of shear connection Ideal plastic behaviour of the shear connectors may be assumed if a minimum degree of shear connection is provided.7 is the bottom flange area and beam span in metres Interaction between Shear and Moment Interaction between bending and shear can influence the design of continuous beam.2) and Eqn.8) and The shear connectors are usually equally spaced. 15. (15. 15.6. the reduced bending resistance is given by design bending moment plastic resistance of the flange alone plastic resistance of the entire section design shear force plastic shear resistance as defined in Eqn.

Table 15.Figl5. which is in compression due to hogging moments at supports.5 Resistance to combined bending and vertical shear 15. Like stirrups in the web of a reinforced T beam. 15. the IS: 456 -2000 lists moment coefficients as well as shear coefficients that are close to exact values of the maximum load effects obtainable from rigorous analysis on an infinite number of equal spans on point supports.5 gives the bending moment coefficients and Table 15. These coefficients are applicable to continuous beams with at least three spans. Reinforcement is provided in the direction transverse to the axis of the beam.6 gives the shear coefficients according to IS: 456 . 146 . Structural analysis has to be performed. Where. The formulae suggested by EC4 and IS: 11384 . the reinforcement supplements the shear strength of the concrete. the following design equation has been developed. which could cause splitting in concrete in potential failure planes.9 Effect of Continuity is the The above design formulae are applicable to simply supported beams as well as to continuous beams.1 Moment and shear coefficients for continuous beam In order to determine the distribution of bending moments under the design loads. Besides these.1985 are given in Table 15.9. a continuous beam necessitates the check for the stability of the bottom flange.2000. is cross sectional area of concrete shear surface per unit length of beam and area of transverse reinforcement. These values are also applicable for composite continuous beams.8 Transverse Reinforcement Shear connectors transfer the interfacial shear to concrete slab by thrust. For convenience. which do not differ by more than 75 percent of the longest. Based on Truss Analogy.4. 15.

2 > .

5: Bending moment coefficients according to IS: 456-2000 TYPE OF LOAD SPAN IVI [OMENTS SUPPORT] MOMENTS Dead load + Imposed load (fixed) Imposed load (not + 1/10 + 1/12 .9.U frame Action Lateral Torsional Buckling of Continuous Beams can be neglected if following conditions are satisfied.6 Inverted . In negative moment regions of continuous composite beams the lower flange is subjected to compression.6. The tendency of the lower flange to buckle laterally is restrained by the distortional stiffness of the cross section. and twisting at top flange level.60 (not fixed) For obtaining the shear force. Fig 15. The tendency for the bottom flange to displace laterally causes bending of the steel web.Tablel5. the stability of bottom flange should be checked at that region.60 0. 1.2 Lateral torsional buckling of continuous beams The concrete slab prevents the top flange of the steel section (connected to concrete slab) from moving laterally.1/9 fixed) For obtaining the bending moment.6: Shear force coefficients TYPE OF LOAD At end support At support n sup Outer side 0.1/12 Dead load + 0. which is resisted by bending of the slab as shown in Fig.55 At all other interior supports 0. 22.1/10 At other interior supports .1/9 . the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load and effective span.60 0. i 148 3 .60 ext to the end port Inner side 0. Table 15.40 Imposed load (fixed) Imposed load 0. the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load 15. its length does not exceed 15% of the adjacent span.50 Near middle At middle of At support next to the end of end span interior span support + 1/12 + 1/16 . Hence. Adjacent spans do not differ in length by more than 20% of the shorter span or where there is a cantilever.45 0.

2. The shear connection in the steel-concrete interface satisfies the requirements of section 15. and the moment of inertia is calculated as: Where is the ratio of the elastic moduli of steel to concrete taking into account creep. Normally unfactored loads are used for for serviceability checks. To check the composite beams serviceability criteria. elastic section properties are used. The loading on each span is uniformly distributed and the design permanent load exceeds 40% of the total load. 3. considering different stages of construction. Since EC4 gives explicit guidance for checking serviceability Limit State. Under positive moment the concrete is assumed uncracked. No stress limitations are made in EC 4. 15.10. is the moment of inertia of steel section. Applying appropriate modular ratio m the composite section is transformed into an equivalent steel section. The moment of inertia of uncracked section is used for calculating deflection.10 Serviceability Composite beams must also be checked for adequacy in the Serviceability Limit State. IS: 11384-1985 limits the maximum deflection of the composite beam to The total elastic stress in concrete is limited to while for steel. the elastic stress is limited to Unfortunately this is an error made in the Code as the same limits are applied for steel in determining the ultimate resistance of the cross section. therefore the method described below follows EC 4. Simply supported Beams: The mid-span deflection of simply supported composite beam under distributed load w is given by 4 149 . It is not desirable that steel yields under service load.1 Deflection The elastic properties relevant to deflection are section modulus and moment of inertia of the section.

Where are deflection of steel beam and composite beam respectively with proper serviceability load.Where. In practice. To take care of the increase in deflection due to partial shear connection. or when the free shrinkage strain of the concrete exceeds shrinkage. is the modulus of elasticity of steel and is the gross uncracked moment of inertia of composite section. Note: For this additional simplification can usually beignored Shrinkage induced deflections: For simply supported beams. 150 5 . These effects are ignored in composite beams designed for full shear connection. the following expression is used. The shrinkage-induced deflection is calculated using the following formula: is the effective span of the beam and strain. when the span to depth ratio of beam exceeds 20. these deflections will only be significant for spans greater than 12 m in exceptionally warm dry atmospheres. given by is the curvature due to the free shrinkage modular ratio appropriate for shrinkage calculations Note: This formula ignores continuity effects at the supports. Influence of partial shear connection: Deflections increase due to the effects of slip in the shear connectors. deflections should be checked.

As an approximation.2 Vibration Generally.10. electrically heated floors and concrete mixes with high "free shrinkage". 15. the amount of reinforcement should not exceed a minimum value given by. Eurocode 4 recommends that the effect of shrinkage should be considered when the span/depth ratio exceeds 20 and the free shrinkage strain exceeds 0.weight concrete is 0. The present discussion is mainly aimed at design of an office floor against vibration. the limit on free shrinkage for normal. Where is the percentage of steel is a coefficient due to the bending stress distribution in the section is a coefficient accounting for the decrease in the tensile strength of concrete is the effective tensile strength of concrete. In most buildings following two cases are considered- 151 6 . as machines. Other sources such. only the source of vibration near or on the floor need be considered.04%. To design a floor structure. The second moment of area of the section is based on the uncracked value.05%. Crack Control: Cracking of concrete should be controlled in cases where the functioning of the structure or its appearance would be affected. This may be increased to 4/384 for end spans. a deflection coefficient of 3/384 is usually appropriate for determining the deflection of a continuous composite beam subject to uniform loading on equal adjacent spans. lift or cranes should be isolated from the building. human response to vibration is taken as the yardstick to limit the amplitude and frequency of a vibrating floor. a check on shrinkage deflection should be done in case of thick slabs resting on small steel beams. In addition to this there is a possibility of yielding in the negative moment region. This may be taken into account by calculating the second moment of area of the cracked section under negative moment (ignoring concrete). In order to avoid the presence of large cracks in the hogging moment regions. A value of 3 adopted. However. For dry environments.0325% and for lightweight concrete 0. To take account of this the negative moments may be further reduced. is the maximum permissible stress in concrete is the minimum Generally the span/depth ratios specified by codes take care of the shrinkage deflection. the deflection is modified by the influence of cracking in the hogging moment regions (at or near the supports).Continuous Beams: In the case of continuous beam.

= Flexural rigidity (per unit width for slabs) = span = vibrating mass per unit length (beam) or unit area (slab). Where. For free elastic vibration of a beam or one way slab of uniform section the fundamental natural frequency is. An impulse such as the effect of the fall of a heavy object. The recommended values of R for other situations are R = 4 for offices R = 8 for workshops These values correspond to continuous vibration and some relaxation is allowed in case the vibration is intermittent (see BS6472 for further information).7. 15. hospitals. The human response R-l corresponds to a "minimal level of adverse comments from occupants" of sensitive locations such as hospital.5Hz. 152 7 . for simple support.4 Hz and 2. and for both ends fixed. operating theatre and precision laboratories. Natural frequency of beam and slab: The most important parameter associated with vibration is the natural frequency of floor. 15. offices etc.i) ii) People walking across a floor with a pace frequency between 1. Fig. and Fourier component factor The root mean square acceleration of the floor is plotted against its natural frequency for acceptable level R based on human response for different situations such as. Curves of higher response (R) values are also shown in the Fig.7. Curves of constant human response to vibration.

(15.03 for open plan offices with composite floor To check the susceptibility of the floor to vibration after finding from Eqn.7): = magnification factor at resonance =0. Generally these effects are taken into account by increasing the value of by 10% for variable loading. The natural frequency is given by Where is the Fourier component factor. This is given in the form of a function of in Fig. is the spacing of the beams. 15.The effect of damping (being negligible) has been ignored. it is taken as the mass of the characteristic permanent load plus 10% of characteristic variable load.22 and the value of R from Eqn. 153 8 .23 compare the result with the target response curve as in Fig. The frequencies for slab and beam (each considered alone) and are given by Where.7). Un-cracked concrete section and dynamic modulus of elasticity should be used for concrete.15. (15. It takes into account the differences between the frequency of the pedestrians' paces and the natural frequency of the floor. In absence of an accurate estimate of mass (m).

16. 9 154 . 16. the so-called "squash load") is given by Where. comprising either a concrete encased hot-rolled steel section or a concrete filled tubular section of hot-rolled steel.1.2 shows three typical cross-sections of concrete filled tubular sections.2 Members under Axial Compression The design method described below is formulated for prismatic composite columns with doubly symmetrical cross-sections. Typical cross-sections of composite columns with fully and partially concrete encased steel sections are illustrated in Fig. 16. and generally follows the guidelines prescribed in EC4.2. 16.1 General A steel-concrete composite column is a compression member. Supplementary reinforcement in the concrete encasement prevents excessive spalling of concrete both under normal load and fire conditions. Fig.e.1 Resistance of cross-section to compression Encased steel sections and concrete filled rectangular/square tubular sections: The plastic resistance of an encased steel section or concrete filled rectangular or square section (i. 16.

there is an increased resistance of concrete due to the confining effect of the circular tubular section. Fig. (where d is the outer dimension of the circular tubular section) this effect has to be considered. 16.2.3 Stress distribution of the plastic resistance to compression of an encased I section Concrete filled circular tubular sections: The ductility performance of this type of columns is significantly better than rectangular types. and the yield strength of the reinforcing steel respectively.5. the characteristic compressive strength (cylinder) of the concrete. Also. and and two coefficients given by 155 10 .dimensional slenderness of (where is defined in Eqn. where t is the thickness of the circular tubular section. or where the eccentricity.16. in section 16. For composite columns with a non.85 for fully or partially concrete encased steel sections. and 0. this effect is significant only in stocky columns.are the areas of the steel section. which is 1.2J. of the applied load does not exceed the value d/10. is the characteristic compressive strength (cube) of the concrete is strength coefficient for concrete. The plastic compression resistance of concrete filled circular tubular sections is calculated by using two coefficients and as given below. the concrete and the reinforcing steel respectively are the yield strength of the steel section. However.0 for concrete filled tubular sections.

2 Non-dimensional slenderness For convenience. or if the non-dimensional slenderness exceeds the value 0. If the eccentricity e exceeds the value d/10.2. the resistance of a concrete filled circular tubular section to compression may increase by 15% under axial load only when the effect of tri-axial confinement is considered. where is called the reduction factor. as provided in EC 4 applicable for concrete grades 16.In general. 16. For using the European 11 156 . column strength curves are plotted in a non-dimensionalised form as shown in Fig.5 then Table 16. The horizontal axis is non-dimensionalised similarly by Fig. The buckling resistance of a column is expressed as a proportion of the plastic resistance to compression.16. They form the basis of column buckling design for both steel and composite columns in EC 3 and EC4.1.4 Non-dimensionalised column buckling curve The European buckling curves have been drawn after incorporating the effects of both residual stresses and geometric imperfections. Linear interpolation is permitted for various load eccentricities of The basic values and depend on the non-dimensional slenderness which can be read off from Table 16.1: Basic value to allow for the effect of tri-axial confinement in concrete filled circular tubular sections.4.

2) with 1. 16.buckling curves. of the flange for it to be effective in preventing local buckling. Designs using sections. and is the elastic buckling load of the column. (16.2) are valid provided that local buckling in the steel sections does not occur.2. However. the width to thickness ratio of the steel sections in compression must satisfy the following limits: for concrete filled circular tubular sections for concrete filled rectangular tubular sections is the yield strength of the steel section in For fully encased steel sections. no verification for local buckling is necessary as the concrete surrounding it effectively prevents local buckling.3 Local buckling of steel sections Both Eqns. which exceed the local buckling limits for semicompact sections.0. (23. Local buckling may be critical in some concrete filled rectangular tubular sections with large h/t ratios.1) and (16. the non-dimensional slenderness of the column is first evaluated as follows: Where plastic resistance of the cross-section to compression. To prevent premature local buckling. the concrete cover to the flange of a fully encased steel section should not be less than 40 mm.1) or Eqn. should be verified by tests. 157 . nor less than one-sixth of the breadth. according to Eqn (16.

the factor 0.55 for the determination of the effective stiffness of concrete Note: Dividing the Modulus of Elasticity by is unusual and is included here to obtain the effective stiffness. As a simple rule. the concrete(assumed uncracked) and the reinforcement about the axis of bending considered respectively are the moduli of elasticity of the steel section and the reinforcement is the effective stiffness of the concrete. Note is the moment of inertia about the centroid of the uncracked column section. which conforms to test data. the effect of long term loading should be considered if the buckling length to depth ratio of a composite column exceeds 15. the creep and shrinkage of concrete will cause a reduction in the effective elastic flexural stiffness of the composite column. Consequently. no provision is also necessary if 158 . Short term loading: The effective elastic flexural stiffness. If the eccentricity of loading is more than twice the cross-section dimension. the effect on the bending moment distribution caused by increased deflections due to creep and shrinkage of concrete will be very small. is the secant modulus of the concrete is reduced to 7. Two design rules for the evaluation of the effective elastic flexural stiffness of composite columns are given below.8 is an empirical multiplier (determined by a calibration exercise to give good agreement with test results). this effect is significant only for slender columns.16. However. is obtained by adding up the flexural stiffness of the individual components of the cross-section: Where are the second moments of area of the steel section.2. thereby reducing the buckling resistance.4 Effective elastic flexural stiffness The value of the flexural stiffness may decrease with time due to creep and shrinkage of concrete. it may be neglected and no provision for long-term loading is necessary. Long term loading: For slender columns under long-term loading. Moreover.

is defined as follows: Where ( E I ) e is the effective elastic flexural stiffness of the composite column. 16.5 Elastic buckling load Composite columns may fail in buckling.2 and e/d is less than 2. and 0.8.75 for unbraced (and/or sway) columns. which may be conservatively taken as system length L for an isolated non-sway composite column. which is defined as follows: Where P is the applied design load. of the composite column is less than the limiting values given in Table 16. is the effective length of the column. The elastic critical buckling load (Euler Load).2: Limiting values of for long term loading Note: is the steel contribution ratio defined as However.2 Table 16.6 for braced (or non-sway) columns.the non-dimensional slenderness. when exceeds the limits given by Table 16. the part of the applied design load The effect of long-term loading may be ignored for concrete filled tubular sections with provided that is greater than 0. and permanently acting on the column. 159 . 16. the effect of creep and shrinkage of concrete should be allowed for by employing the modulus of elasticity of the concrete instead of in Eqn.2.

2.5 arc proposed to be used for composite columns. 16. the designer should check that Where is the plastic resistance to compression of the cross-section.16. (16. They are selected according to the types of the steel sections and the axis of bending: Curve a Curve b for concrete filled tubular sections for fully or partially concrete encased I-sections buckling about the strong axis of the steel sections for fully and partially concrete encased I-sections buckling about the weak axis of the steel sections (y-y axis) Curve c These curves can also be described mathematically as follows: 1 .2) and is the reduction factor due to column buckling The European buckling curves illustrated in Fig. (16.1) or Eqn. from Eqn.6 Resistance of members to axial compression For each of the principal axes of the column.

3 gives the value of for each buckling curve. Table 16. Fig.3 The non-dimensional slenderness. • Point A marks the plastic resistance of the cross-section to compression (at this point the blending point is is zero).8 shows the stress distributions in the cross-section of a concrete filled rectangular tubular section at each point. • Point B corresponds to the plastic moment resistance of the cross-section (the axial compression is zero). 16. Table 16.3.7 shows an interaction curve drawn using simplified design method suggested in the UK National Application Document for This neglects the increase in moment capacity beyond discussed above. The method of locating neutral axis for rectangular and circular filled tubular sections is given in Appendix E. 16. and c.6 represents the non-dimensional interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending for a composite cross-section. less than where is the elastic Combined Compression and Uni-Axial Bending 16. b.The factor allows for different levels of imperfections and residual stresses in the columns corresponding to curves a. B and C of the interaction curve given in Fig. 16. 2 . Fig.1 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending The resistance of the composite column to combined compression and bending is determined using an interaction curve. 16.3: Imperfection factor a for the buckling curves The isolated non-sway composite columns need not be checked for buckling. has been incorporated in the method by using multiple buckling curves. Fig.7. (under relatively low axial compressive loads). A. Note that the second order moment due to imperfection. no additional considerations are necessary. if anyone of the following conditions is satisfied: (a) The axial force in the column is less than buckling load of the column (b) 16.

16. steel section.7 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending using the simplified method 3 .and concrete about their own centroids respectively and are plastic section moduli of the reinforcement. steel section.Where are plastic section moduli of the reinforcement. and concrete about neutral axis respectively. • At point follows. the compressive and the moment resistances of the column are given as Fig.

Fig.8 Stress distributions for the points of the interaction curve for concrete filled rectangular tubular sections Fig.9 Variation in the neutral axis positions 4 . 16. 16.

3 Resistance of members under combined compression and uni-axial bending The design checks are carried out in the following stages: (1) Check the resistance of the section under axial compression for both (2) Check the resistance of the composite column under combined axial compression and uni-axial bending The design is adequate when the following condition is satisfied: 5 . is the elastic critical load of the composite 16. the 'first order' displacements may be significant and additional or 'second order' bending moments may be induced under the actions of applied loads. and column.3. does not need to be considered separately. (2) Elastic slenderness conforms to: is the elastic critical load of the composite Where is the non-dimensional slenderness of the composite column In case the above two conditions are met. is defined as follows: with a correction factor which Where is the applied design load and column.2 Analysis of bending moments due to second order effects The second order moment. or 'imperfection moment'.16. the second order effects should be considered if the buckling length to depth ratio of a composite column exceeds 15. as its effect on the buckling resistance of the composite column is already accounted for in the European buckling curves. The second order effects on bending moments for isolated non-sway columns should be considered if both of the following conditions are satisfied: Where is the design applied load. As a simple rule.3. For slender columns. the second order effects may be allowed for by modifying the maximum first order bending moment (moment obtained initially).

Where is the design bending moment. ratio. the moment resistance ratio for a composite column under combined compression and uni-axial bending is evaluated as follows: is axial resistance ratio due to the concrete.10) or may be In accordance with the UK NAD.10 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending using the simplified method Moment resistance ratio evaluated can be obtained from the interaction curve (Figl6. . is the design axial resistance 16.4 Combined Compression and Bi-axial Bending The design checks are carried out in the following stages: (1) Check the resistance of the section under axial compression for both and 6 . if necessary is the moment resistance ratio obtained from the interaction curve and is the plastic moment resistance of the composite cross-section. which may be factored to allow for second order effects. 16. Fig.

11 Fig. 16.11 Moment interaction curve for bi-axial bending The moment resistance ratios and for both the axes are evaluated as given below: 7 .(2) Check the resistance of the composite column under combined axial compressionand bi-axial bending The three conditions to be satisfied are: The interaction of the moments must also be checked using moment interaction curve as shown in Fig. 16.

Where and are the reduction factors for buckling in the and directions respectively. When the effect of geometric imperfections is not considered the moment resistance ratio is evaluated as given below: 8 .

Effective Lateral Restraint .The factor by which the yield stress of the material of a member is divided to arrive at the permissible stress in the material. (For example the characteristic yield stress of steel is usually defined as that value of yield stress below. expected to fall). concentrated.The load assumed to be produced by the intended use of occupancy including distributed. In other words. Dead Loads .A cross section capable of developing full plastic distribution across it. Gauge . floors and roofs.The elastic moment which will initiate yielding or cause buckling. wind and earthquake loads. Characteristic load is that value of the load.The numerical factor by which the working load is to be multiplied to obtain an appropriate design ultimate load. impact and vibration and snow loads but excluding. Factor of Safety . without local buckling in any of the component members but not capable of developing ductility. which not more than 5% of the test values may be. Limit States. which has an accepted probability of not being exceeded during the life span of the structure.The transverse spacing between parallel adjacent lines of fasteners. Load Factor . Imposed (Live) Load . beam or girder from buckling to either side at the point of application of the restraint.Restraint.Limit States are states beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance requirements and fulfils the purpose for which it is built. Elastic Critical Moment .The self weights of all permanent constructions and installations including the self weights of all walls. which produces sufficient resistance in a plane perpendicular to the plane of bending to restrain the compression flange of a loaded strut. Characteristic load is therefore that load which will not be exceeded 95% of the time. this strength is expected to be exceeded by 95% of the cases. Compact Section . 9 . partitions. Characteristic resistance of a material (such as Concrete or Steel) is defined as that value of resistance below which not more than a prescribed percentage of test results may be expected to fall.The load at which a member or a structure as whole collapses in service or buckles in a load test.APPENDIX A: Terminology Buckling Load .

Serviceability Limit States .Main Member . with a triangular stress distribution in a beam) but not capable of developing redistribution of stresses.Serviceability Limit States correspond to states beyond which the criteria for service are no longer met and include deformations and deflections. Plastic Section . Welding Terms .Ultimate Limit States are those associated with collapse or other forms of structural failure.A cross section capable of developing full plasticity across it and exhibit considerable ductility. local buckling of one of the components will occur before the attainment of yield stress in extreme fibre. which adversely affect the appearance or its proper functioning and include vibration that causes discomfort to people or damage to the building Slender Section . failure by excessive deformation.The centre-to-centre distance between individual fasteners in a line of fastener. Pitch . This includes the loss of equilibrium of the structure (or any part of it). will fail by formation of plastic hinges) Secondary Member . 10 . which may endanger the safety of people. Ultimate Limit States . Yield Stress . Semi-Compact Section . without buckling of any of the component elements (e.Secondary member is that which is provided for stability and or restraining the main members from buckling or similar modes of failure. (Plastic cross-sections when used as beams.Unless otherwise defined in this standard the welding terms used shall have the meaning given in IS: 812-1957.A cross section capable of developing yield stress at the extreme fibres.The minimum yield stress of the material in tension as specified in relevant Indian Standards.In a slender section.g.A structural member that is primarily responsible for carrying and distributing the applied load. rupture etc.

Twice the clear distance from the neutral axis of a beam to the compression flange. taken as Mpa in this Guide. also known as Euler critical stress.APPENDIX B: Symbols Cross-sectional area ( used with subscripts has been defined at appropriate place) Respectively the greater and lesser projection of the plate beyond column Length of side of cap or base Width of steel flange in encased member Coefficient The distance centre to centre of battens Distance between vertical stiffeners Respectively the lesser and greater distances from the sections neutral axis to the extreme fibres Overall depth of beam Depth of girder . neglecting fillets or the clear distance between the inner toes of the flange angles as appropriate. ii) For the web of a beam with horizontal stiffeners .to be taken as the clear distance between the flange angles or where there are no flange angles the clear distance between flanges ignoring fillets Diameter of the reduced end of the column i) For the web of a beam without horizontal stiffeners . Gauge Outstand of the stiffener Moment of inertia Flexural stiffness Coefficients Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet of member to be stiffened Span/length of the member Effective length of the member Bending moment Maximum moment (plastic) capacity of a section Maximum moment (plastic) capacity of a section subjected to bending and axial loads. neglecting fillets or the inner toes of the flange angles as appropriate. neglecting fillets or the inner toes of the tension flange angles as appropriate. Lateral buckling strength in the absence of axial load Number of parallel planes of battens 11 . Yield stress Elastic critical stress in bending Elastic critical stress in compression.the clear distance between the horizontal stiffener and the tension flange. The modulus of elasticity for steel.the clear distance between the flanges.

Maximum permissible tensile stress due to bending in a member not subjected to axial force Maximum permissible stress in concrete in compression Maximum permissible equivalent stress Maximum permissible bearing stress in a member Maximum permissible bearing stress in a fastener Maximum permissible stress in steel in compression Maximum permissible stress in axial tension in fastener Calculated average axial compressive stress Calculated average stress in a member due to an axial tensile force Calculated compressive stress in a member due to bending about a principal axis 12 . ratio of the effective length to the appropriate radius of gyration Characteristic slenderness ratio = Maximum permissible compressive stress in an axially loaded strut not subjected to bending Maximum permissible tensile stress in an axially loaded tension member not subjected to bending Maximum permissible compressive stress in slab base Maximum permissible compressive stress due to bending in a member not subjected to axial force. assumed as 1. compressive or tensile Calculated maximum load capacity of a strut Calculated maximum load capacity as a tension member Euler load Yield strength of axially loaded section The reaction of the beam at the support Radius of gyration of the section Transverse distance between centroids of rivets groups or welding Staggered pitch Mean thickness of compression flange used with subscripts has been defined at appropriate place) Thickness of web Transverse shear Longitudinal shear Calculated maximum shear capacity of a section Total load Pressure or loading on the underside of the base Plastic modulus of the section Ratio of smaller to larger moment Stiffness ratio Slenderness ratio of the member.Coefficient in the Merchant Rankine formula.4 Axial force.

at the point of maximum bending moment. NOTE . 13 . For symmetrical sections.Calculated compressive stress in a member due to bending about a principal axis Calculated tensile stress in a member due to bending about both principal axes Maximum permissible average shear stress in a member Maximum permissible shear stress in a member Maximum permissible shear stress in fastener Ratio of the rotation at the hinge point to the relative elastic rotation of the far end of the beam segment containing plastic hinge angle of twist (in a beam subjected to torsion) Coefficient Ratio of total area of both the flanges at the point of least bending moment to the corresponding area at the point of greatest bending moment Ratio of moment of inertia of the compression flange alone to that of the sum of the moments of inertia of the flanges each calculated about its own axis parallel to the y-y axis of the girder. y denote the x-x and y-y axes of the section respectively. x-x denotes the major principal axis whilst y-y denotes the minor principal axis.The subscript x.

nuts and lock nuts (diameter range 6 to 39 mm) (first revision) 1367-1967 Technical supply conditions for threaded fasteners (first revision) 1393-1961 Code of practice for training and testing of oxy-acetylene welders 1395-1982 Molybdenum and chromium molybdenum vanadium low alloy steel electrodes for metal arc welding (third revision) 1477 Code of practice for painting of ferrous metals in buildings: (Part 1) .1991 Part 1 for welding products other than sheets (Part 2) .1995 Part 1 Pre-treatment 173 . nuts and lock nuts (diameter 6 to 39mm) and black hexagon screws (diameter 6 to 24 mm) (first revision) 1364-1967 Precision and semi-precision hexagon bolts.1991 Part 2 for welding sheets 816-1969 Code of practice for use of metal arc welding for general construction in mild steel (first revision) 817-1966 Code of practice for training and testing of metal arc welders (revised) 819-1957 Code of practice for resistance spot welding for light assemblies in mild steel 875-1987 Code of practice for structural safety of buildings: Loading standards 919-1963 Recommendations for limits and fits for engineering (revised) 961-1975 Structural steel (high tensile) (Second revision) 962-1967 Code of practice for architectural and building drawings (first revision) 1024-1992 Code of practice for use of welding in bridges and structures subject to dynamic loading 1030-1982 Carbon steel castings for general engineering purposes (second revision) 1148-1973 Hot-rolled steel rivet bars (up to 40mm diameter) for structural purposes (second revision) 1149-1982 High tensile steel rivet bars for structural purposes 1261-1959 Code of practice for seam welding in mild steel 1278-1972 Filler rods and wires for gas welding (second revision) 1323-1962 Code of practice for oxy-acetylene welding for structural work in mild steel (revised) 1363-1967 Black hexagon bolts. screws.APPENDIX C: Relevant Indian Standards IS: 226-1975 Structural steel (standard quality) (fifth revision) 456-2000 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (third revision) 696-1972 Code of practice for general engineering drawings (second revision) 786-1967 (Supplement) SI supplement to Indian Standard conversion factors and conversion tables (first revision) 800-1984 Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel 801-1975 Code of Practice for the use of cold-formed light gauge steel structural members in general building construction 812-1957 Glossary of terms relating to welding and cutting of metals 813-1961 Scheme of symbols for welding 814 Covered electrodes for metal arc welding of structural steels: (Part 1) .

7205-1973 Safety code for erection of structural steel work 7215-1974 Tolerances for fabrication of steel structures 7280-1974 Bare wire electrodes for submerged arc welding of structural steels 7307 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welding procedures: Part I Fusion welding of steel 7310 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welders working to approved welding procedures: Part 1 Fusion welding of steel 7318 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welders when welding procedure is not required: Part 1 Fusion welding of steel 8500-1977 Weldable structural steel (medium and high strength qualities) 9595-1980 Recommendations for metal arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels.1995 Part 2 Painting 1893-1991 Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures (third revision) 1929-1961 Rivets for general purposes (12 to 48 mm diameter) 1977-1975 Structural steel (ordinary quality) (second revision) 2062-1992 Weldable structural steel (third revision) 2155-1982 Rivets for general purposes (below 12 mm diameter) 3613-1974 Acceptance tests for wire-flux combinations for submerged-arc welding of structural steels (first revision) 3640-1967 Hexagon fit bolts 3757-1972 High-tensile friction grip bolts (first revision) 4000-1967 Code of practice for assembly of structural joints using high tensile friction grip fasteners 5369-1975 General requirements for plain washers and lock washers (first revision) 5370-1969 Plain washers with outside diameter 3 times inside diameter 5372-1975 Taper washers for channels (ISMC) (first revision) 5374-1975 Taper washers for I-beams (ISMB) (first revision) 6419-1971 Welding rods and bare electrodes for gas shielded arc welding of structural steel 6560-1972 Molybdenum and chromium-molybdenum low alloy steel welding rods and base electrodes for gas shielded arc welding 6610-1972 Heavy washers for steel structures 6623-1972 High tensile friction grip nuts 6639-1972 Hexagon bolts for steel structures 6649-1972 High tensile friction grip washers.1972 Handbook for Structural Engineers .(Part 2) . SP6 .Application of Plastic theory in the Design of Steel Structures 174 .

therefore. The angle of twist. When a uniform torque is applied to an open section restrained against warping.0 Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis An Due to the complexity of the Torsion analysis. Each of these flanges can be visualised as a separate beam subjected to bending moments produced by the forces This leads to bending stresses in the flanges. These forces act at a distance equal to the depth between the centroids of each flange. The applied torque is resisted by a couple comprising the two forces equal to the shear forces in each flange. These are termed Warping Normal Stresses.APPENDIX D: An Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis 1. The direct and shear stresses caused are shown in Fig. 2. The rotation of the section will be accompanied by bending of flanges in their own plane. 3. The applied torque is replaced by a couple of horizontal forces acting in the plane of the top and bottom flanges as shown in Fig. the member itself will be in non-uniform torsion. varies along the member length. the warping resistance can be interpreted in a simple way. For an section. The magnitude of the warping normal stress at any particular point given by in the cross section is Where = normalized warping function at a particular point in the cross section 16 . a simple approach often adopted by structural designers for rapid design of steel structures is known as the bi-moment method and is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. 1 and Fig.

.

176 .

Both direct and shear stresses are generated in addition to those due to bending and pure torsion.1 The effect of Torsional Rigidity (GJ) and Warping Rigidity (ET) on the Design of Sections The warping deflections due to the displacement of the flanges vary along the length of the member. The magnitude of the warping shear stress at any given point is given by where = Warping statical moment of area at a particular point Values of warping normal stress and in-plane shear stress are tabulated in standard steel tables produced by steel makers. They are constant across the thickness of the element. 1. Their magnitude varies along the length of the element. therefore. This is also called "fixed" end condition. Warping fixed: This means that the twisting along the longitudinal (Z) axis and also the warping of cross section at the end of the member are prevented. then the section will effectively be in "uniform torsion". The in-plane shear stresses are called Warping shear stresses. three ideal situations are described below. =0 at the end). as do most flat plates and all circular sections. rectangular or square hollow sections) angles and Tees behave this way. Warping fixity cannot be provided without also ensuring torsional fixity. Closed sections (e.g. relevant for torsion calculations • Torsion fixed. When the torsional rigidity is very large compared to the warping rigidity.2 End Conditions The end support conditions of the member influence the torsional behaviour significantly. the members will be in a state of non-uniform torsion and the loading will be resisted by a combination of uniform (St. The stiffness of the member associated with the former stresses is directly proportional to the warping rigidity. The following end conditions are. 177 .An approximate method of calculating the normalised warping function for any section is described in by Nethercot etal. Hot rolled sections as well as channel sections exhibit a torsional behaviour in between these two extremes.Venant's) and warping torsion. Most thin walled open sections fall under this category. In other words. (It must be noted that torsional fixity is essential at least in one location to prevent the structural element twisting bodily). 1. Conversely if is very small compared with the member will effectively be subjected to warping torsion.

Combined Bending and Torsion There will be an interaction between the torsional and flexural effects.• Torsion fixed. It is not enough to provide a connection. This is also called "pinned" end condition.0 = Normalised warping function at the chosen point S. It is also necessary to restrain the flanges by additional suitable reinforcements. • Torsion free. The warping shear stress at a point is given by Where = Modulus of elasticity = Warping statical moment at a particular point S chosen. (This is also called "free" end condition). It may be more practical to assume "warping free" condition even when the structural element is treated as "fixed" for bending. The total angle of twist over a length of is given by Where = applied torque = Torsional Rigidity When a member is in non-uniform torsion. The unsupported end of cantilever illustrates this condition. 2. when a load produces both bending and torsion. but is allowed to warp. due to bending moment in-plane of flanges (bi-moment) is The warping normal stress given by where 3.0 Pure Torsion and Warping When a torque is applied only at the ends of a member such that the ends are free to warp. Warping free: This means that the cross section at the end of the member cannot twist. Effective warping fixity is difficult to provide. the rate of change of angle of twist will vary along the length of the member. which provides fixity for bending about both axes. then the member would develop only pure torsion. Warping free: This means that the end is free to twist and warp. The angle of twist caused by torsion would be amplified by bending moment. inducing additional warping moments and torsional 178 .

e. This is analogous to the checks for buckling effects in columns due to effects. part 1 179 .2 Buckling Check Whenever lateral torsional buckling governs the design (i.shears. 3. Salter and Malik. The SCI publication has suggested a simple "buckling check" along lines similar to BS 5950.The following design checks are suggested in the SCI publication "Design of members subject to combined Bending and Torsion' by Nethercot. is dependent on twist which itself is dependent on the major axis moment and the Methods of evaluating for various conditions of loading and boundary conditions are given in the SCI publication referred above. 3. when is less than the values of and will be amplified. the longitudinal direct stresses will be due to three causes.1 Maximum Stress Check or "Capacity check" The maximum stress at the most highly stressed cross section is limited to the design strength Assuming elastic behaviour and assuming that the loads produce bending about the major axis in addition to torsion.

180 .4 Torsional Shear Stress check Torsional shear stresses and warping shear stresses should also be amplified in a similar manner: This shear stress should be added to the shear stresses due to bending in checking the adequacy of the section.3 Applied Loading having both Major axis and Minor Axis Moments When the applied loading produces both major axis and minor axis moments. the "capacity checks" and the "buckling checks" are modified as follows: Capacity check: 3.3.

APPENDIX E: Location of Neutral Axis (1) For concrete encased steel sections: Major axis bendins 181 .

Note: is the sum of the reinforcement area within the region of (2) For concrete filled tubular sections Major axis bending Note: • For circular tubular section substitute can be used by For minor axis bending the same equations interchanging and as well as the subscripts and 182 .

builders. minimum order quantity etc. Their popularity is largely due to the speed with which bridges / flyovers can be constructed in busy metros. and Rs 550/. fabricators. Some of the projects are currently on going and the publications will be available in appropriate times. which has a listing of about 220 steel companies/traders/importers etc. INSDAG has prepared and published up-to-date "Reference Manual for Structural Engineers". designers.for a complete set of hardcopy and CD ROM together. Directory of Steel Supply Chain The Institute compiled and printed 'Directory of Steel Supply Chain' for improving interaction among professionals engaged directly or indirectly in the business of steel. steel producers. Reference Manual for Structural Engineers Since the existing BIS Structural Engineers Handbook (last revised in 1964) does not contain information about sectional properties of all the presently available sections from the producers and import as required by designers. Buyer's Manual (including CD ROM) The professionals in the steel supply chain have also been in need of a source book for obtaining ready reference for their steel product needs. Publication No INS/PUB/001 Price Rs 685/- 2. the Manual also contains brief extract from important codes. consultants. re-rollers.INSDAG'S ACTIVITIES AND PUBLICATIONS During the past three and half years. 3. Publication No INS/PUB/003 Price Rs 450/- 4. Publication No INS/PUB/ 002 Price Rs 350/. It contains contact details of more than 5000 architects. Publications Avalable For Sale 1. details of producers etc. The manual is also available in the form of user-friendly CD version. Handbook on Composite Construction: Bridges and Flyover Steel-concrete Composite Construction is widely used in the advanced countries. In addition to sectional properties. In 8 . The 'Buyer's Manual' brought out by the Institute is a very useful document. importers etc. The directory fulfills long-standing need of professionals in the country.for hardcopy and CD ROM version separately. The manual contains details of products. grades of steel and marketing procedure including lead time. Following are a brief glimpse on some of the activities of INSDAG: A. INSDAG has undertaken some important projects and already published some valuable documents.

an interesting life cycle cost assessment study has been made fore a typical urban flyover for two city locations. In order to provide the engineers proper technical write-up about occurrence of corrosion and ways to overcome it as being done in the developed countries. This handbook is user friendly and contains 4 sample calculations for 16 metre and 24 metre spans along with properties of Composite Sections to help in designing similar problems quickly and accurately. has been prepared. Publication No INS/PUB/ 016 Price Rs 285/- 7. one handbook. The study was made in April 2000. LCC is often used an important tool for decision. Ltd. Life Cycle Cost Assessment of a Typical Urban Flyover Though presently steel intensive construction is not able to compete with concrete construction on the initial cost basis. erection and cost apart from being aesthetically elegant. based on Indian codes. Base paper Price Rs 200/- 8. the life cycle cost of the steel option is economical to the owner by 49 percent as well as the BOOT partner by 28 percent. The work has been done in association with two leading consultants: M/s STUP Consultants Ltd and M/s CES (I) Pvt. life cycle cost (LCC) is generally favourable. Publication No INS/PUB/ 005 Price Rs 85/- 6. Case Studies on Pre-Engineered Buildings and Space Frame Pre-engineered buildings and space frames are widely employed in the advanced countries in view of their multifarious benefits such as: significant saving in time of designing. Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel in Buildings and Bridges Corrosion has been told to be the major problem for application of steel in construction sector. Life Cycle Cost Study on Bangalore Mass Rapid Transit System INSDAG has carried out a techno-economic study on life cycle cost assessment of elevated viaducts for the proposed Bangalore Mass Rapid Transit System Limited with the steel intensive construction route.making. Publication No INS/PUB/017 Price Rs 600/- . Further detailed analysis has also been made. Publication No INS/PUB/ 004 Price Rs 525/- 5. nine case studies of such constructions recently executed in the country have been prepared and published. Keeping this in view. printed and widely circulated. With a view to popularize their use in India. It has been observed that though the initial cost of the concrete intensive option was 10 percent lower than the steel intensive option. In the advanced countries.order to provide guidance to the professionals to use this technology for design of bridges and flyovers. construction. a comprehensive corrosion protection guide publication has been published.

Publication No: INS/PUB/020 Price Rs 350/- 12. design guidebooks are also being prepared on Car Parks (Part 2) and Buildings (Part 3) under the steel intensive composite construction route. Welding defects. Stairs and Hand Railings etc. Trusses. Weld economics and cost calculations. Write-up on design aspects of composite beams. Though different steel companies and welding suppliers have published some information on welding aspects of their specific products using proprietary consumables. about 50 rail bridges were visited for data collection. which could serve a useful reference for the Supervisors/Practicing Engineers engaged in steelwork. Publication No INS/PUB/ 018 Price Rs 250/- 10. channels. The outcome of this study indicates that initial direct cost of 5 level & 7 level steel intensive Carpark is lower than that of RCC option. It has been observed that bridges with steel superstructure constructed even more than 100 years ago are still functioning well. controls and care.: INS/PUB/021 Price Rs 825/- 13. columns & composite 10 . The book is comprised of about 230 pages including 180 figures and 37 tables. Survey of Important Rail Bridges It had been planned to conduct survey of about 100 important rail bridges to ascertain the performance of steel bridges vis-a-vis RCC and pre-stressed concrete bridges. Handbook on Structural Steel Detailing To simplify the fabrication process by bringing about uniformity in detailing as also to reduce the risk of corrosion and to provide technical aid to small fabricators and designers. and relevant data for another about 50 bridges have been collected. a Handbook on Steel Detailing is have been prepared. and other useful information. RDSO and railway officials in different zones. With the help and support from ED (B&S). angles. Splices. this welding guide will provide consolidated information covering structural steel grades. Beam to Beam Connection. Handbooks on Composite Construction : Multilevel Carparks With the same objective of Composite Construction: Bridge and Flyover handbook. Inspection and acceptance criteria. Publication No. It is spread over 12 chapters and 6 Appendices namely: Joining.9. Handbook on Composite Construction: Multi-Storey Buildings INSDAG brought out this publication to promote steel-concrete composite construction in Multi-Storey Building. SHS/RHS and plates of different thicknesses are now available in the domestic market. The guide is broadly divided into seven chapters namely: Structural steel and welding. Electrodes and Equipment. Welding Guide for Structural Steel Various steel products—sections in the form of joists. Publication No INS/PUB/ 019 on Car Park Price Rs 625/- 11. Welding process and joints. and Ladders.

Publication No. total initial cost and life cycle cost assessment of two typical urban commercial buildings has been done in association with leading consultants like M N Dastur & Co Private Ltd. Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Techno-Economic Study for the Use of Reinforced Cement Concrete Roads in National Highways and Expressways Rigid pavement is widely used in the developed countries. Design of Composit Truss for Building Rolled/fabricated beams are commonly being used as the structural members of medium span structures. and Development Consultants Private Ltd. shows that LCC cost of CRCP is lower than jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP). analysis and connection details followed in advanced countries. In order to assess the most cost effective pavement solution for National Highways & Expressways INSDAG carried out a study on CRCP and published a document entitled "Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Techno-Economic Study for the Use of Reinforced Cement Concrete Roads in National Highways and Expressways". office buildings. Accordingly CRCP is the best long-term pavement solution both on cost as well as maintenance point of view for National highways & expressways. Use of steel-concrete composite truss is ideally suited for applications in community halls. conference halls etc. based on the applicable Indian.: INS/PUB/022 14. On life cycle cost basis rigid pavements are very cost effective due much lower vehicle operating cost & maintenance cost. industrial buildings. 475/- . where large column free spans are a necessity. The outcome of the study reveals that the LCC cost of CRCP is much lower than flexible pavement. This design handbook also covers the complete detail design of a typical G+3 & B+G+9 storeyed Residential & Commercial Buildings. Keeping this in view.slabs using profiled deck.: INS/PUB/023 Price Rs 600/Price Rs 625/- 15. Publication No.Moreover for longer spans.: INS/PUB/034 16. Economics of Two Steel Framed Commercial Buildings: Under Initial Cost and Life Cycle Cost Assessment Route Steel intensive construction for buildings is gradually becoming a subject of interest in India. The sustainability of construction is also another important modern concept for buildings. though its cost effectiveness is often questioned. a study on the construction cost. Publication No INS/PUB/ 035 Price: Rs. AASHTO and British Standards as well as based on the published literature. The publication mainly covers framing. 325/Price Rs. use of steel truss as the structural member of composite section is most desired. An analysis. Some beginning has been made in our country also. It also contains a detailed example covering all important aspects of design by limit state method. Publication No.

17. distributors/ retailers. Architects to selects an econoimic and safe Technical option for their projects.: INS/PUB/047 Price Rs 650/- 19. Steel windows. Publication No. The Composite options have been considered with conventional brick cladding and with lighter cladding material like M2 Panel/Aerocon Blocks/Gypcrete etc. manufacturing process. flats. It also includes a study of the cost effectiveness of the steel-Concrete Composite options vis-a-vis RCC option based on the type plan of (G+3) & (G+6) storied residential buildings collected from a live example. Typical Design of Cost-effective Rural Housing Housing is considered as one of the major problems in the world. policy-workers and government officials. This publication includes a Housing scheme with Steel in frame having colums. Publication No. builders and suppliers. The habitation conditions of the Indian villagers particularly need to be improved. doors and related accessories will find it very useful in terms of design. hotels. steel doors and windows are now being preferred for various applications. designers. Standards for Manufacturing. Steel Doors. With the developments taken place in advanced countries. sourcing and application of these products. The Composite options have been considered with conventional brick cladding and with lighter cladding material like M2 Panel/Aerocon Blocks/Gypcrete etc. designers. beams & trusses with SHS sections and Ferro-Cement 12 . (G+3) & (G+6) Storied Residential Buildings with Steel -Concrete Composite Option In the publication the modern trend of Steel-Concrete Composite construction has been considered. factories and hospitals. manufacturers. The design of the Structural elements has been carried out in Limit State Method of Design following Indian/foreign standards both for RCC & Composite options. The beneficiaries of this publication are buyers. offices.. This guidebook is broadly divided into seven chapters namely: Introduction. This publication covers a study on the cost effectiveness of the fast-track Steel -Concrete Composite construction in comparison with the RCC option based on the same type plan of a (B+G+20) storied residential building which has been collected from a live example. Publication No INS/PUB/ 036 Price: Rs. this book helps the builders.(B+G+20) Storied Residential Building with Steel-Concrete Composite Option In India residential buildings are coming up in numbers with a height of 20 storied and above to accommodate the influx of population to Metros which are facing severe space constraint.: INS/PUB/048 Price Rs 650/- 20. Users of windows. The design of the structural elements have been carried out following relevant Indian/foreign standards in Limit State Method of Design both for RCC and Composite construction. specifiers / procurement officers. which has indicated substantial savings over its RCC option. 300/- 18. which has indicated substantial savings over its RCC option. Guidebook on Steel Doors and Windows for Domestic Use Traditionally wooden doors and windows have been used in places like homes. This publication provides general and technical information concerning steel doors & windows. architects.. Cost Index & Practices and Bibliography. Corrosion Protection & Maintenance.

for rural areas. Satish Kumar. DrS. in G+1 and G+3 modules) with the help of a leading consultant and submitted to concerned authorities in Gujarat. 2. BE College(DU)-Howrah. These drawings are available for sale.. Projects Under Progress 1. 3.ft. Jayachandran and others) under the leadership of Dr. 640 sq. Later on. Publication No. The project on Teaching Resource for Structrual Steel Design for the Faculty of Civil/Structural Engineering has been pursued by the Expert Team (Dr V Kalyanraman. In view of the need for speedy rehabilitation and reconstruction of earthquake affected areas in Gujarat and based on interaction made with various agencies. DrS. Seetharaman. The housing scheme has been developed with doubled-layered Ferro-Cement cladding having an air-gap in between and with sufficient openings for ventilation. 4. the Institute had prepared general arrangement drawings of 7 variants (260 sq. ft. Malviya National Institute of Technology-Jaipur and IIT-Roorkee with total involvement of the expert team to train approximately 220 teachers from 173 engineering colleges using the state-of-art teaching material.org. and 840 sq. Six Workshops for the university faculty have been organized at six different places namely IIT-Chennai. Orissa. height: 8 m) of tubular structure displaying steel application in a typical road island. Price Rs 3007- . the Institute has also developed detail-engineering drawings for the single-storeyed building and the G+3 building (640 sqft appartments) and submitted to the concerned authorities in Gujarat. Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Steel is globally used for earthquake resistant structures.one of the major stakeholders. R. and it is designed to take care of the effects of Earthquake & Wind.panels used for roofing and cladding. Mr A.R.: INS/PUB/049 B. which makes habitation comfortable for the villagers.ft. INSDAG had prepared a steel intensive design for a raised two-storey school building (15 m X 15 m X 8 m) with required wind loading to be used as a cyclone/flood relief center in Paradeep. Teaching Resource for Structural Steel Design for Faculty of Civil/Structural Engg. Road Island Project INSDAG has prepared a design of an exquisite inverted pyramid (top: 16 m X 16 m. UK. IIT-Mumbai. ft. Delhi College of Engineering-Delhi. Dr A R Santhakumar. 435 sq. Narayanan. Preparation of all the 45 chapters for one semester course had been completed after expert reviews.steel-insdag. All the 45 chapters are available in the INSDAG website www. Elevated units also take care of water clogging during monsoon. expert from Steel Construction Institute. Design of a Typical cyclone / Flood relief Center at Paradip At the instance of JPC .

Hyderabad. builders at various conferences and other forums: • • • • • Pre-engineered Buildings Steel —The Right Choice for Building Construction Steel — The Trusted Material for Bridges and Flyovers Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel in Buildings and Bridges Steel Car Parks . Student Award Scheme for Best Innovative Use of Steel inArchitecture In the fourth year (2002 . one each at Delhi. Price Rs 2500/.03) for the "Student Award Scheme for the Innovative Use of Steel in Architecture".A Worldwide Choice D. The final selection will be done in June 2003. two at Chennai. The technical volumes are available for sale.Monthly Price Rs 90/Price Rs 20/Free E. architects.a half yearly technical journal INSDAG News . Bhubaneswar. Regular Publications of Insdag 1. These consist of two at Calcutta. 2. Insdag's Steel in Construction . 5. Steel Promotional Brochures The Institute has published five attractive promotional/ awareness brochures for free distribution to target customers such as designers. 14 . Other Activities 1. The last date of recipt of entries is 30th January 2003 The entries will be evaluated by Zonal Committees in the month of April 2003.(for each course) C. Ranchi and IITGuwahati. Considering the importance of ductile design of steel structures.Technical volumes are available for sale. Price Rs 800/.a quarterly news bulletin Insdag E-News Letter . consultants. Only CD ROM is available at Rs 800/. About 250 professionals and 50 faculties have been exposed to composite construction technology. Ahmedabad.with CD). an exciting brief entitled "World Class Shopping Plaza" had been prepared and circulated to more than 100 Schools of Architecture / Engineering Colleges.only. Refresher Courses on Composite Construction Improving knowledge and skill of professionals in design using composite construction has been identified as an important area of activity. concept of earthquake resistant design had also been included in the lecture material of some refresher courses.for full set (Rs 3000/. 3. Twelve refresher courses had been conducted till December 2002.

This necessitated modification of Codes of Practices (BIS/IRC Codes which have not kept pace with the technological improvements in latest design methodologies). F. The last date of receipt of entries is 31 st March 2003. Also. To make the design of steel bridges as well as steel-concrete composite bridges economical and rational based on the state-of-the-art methodologies. A list of such publications is provided below: . an exciting brief on the theme of "Elevated Light Rail Transit System" has been prepared and circulated to more than 240 Engineering Institutions. UK In addition to the above. INSDAG has published 20 important documents under copyright from the steel Construction Institute. Award Scheme for Civil and Structural Engineering Students for Best Innovative Structural Steel Design In the third year (2002 . UK on steel intensive design of structures. and a Committee on IS 800 engaged in modifying the Code of Practice for use of structural steel in general building construction to limit state method. Interfacing with the MOS The Institute has prepared technical documents/Vision Paper for consideration/perusal by concerned authorities: o Use of steel crash barriers on bridges and highways o Input paper on National Steel Policy with particular focus on construction sector safety requirement o Justification for adoption of steel scaffolding in place of bamboo/wood based on life cycle costing and 4. Advances on knowledge of structural behaviour resulting from research need to be adopted in design practice for innovative / efficient design techniques. modular ratio and shear connector capacity in the present design environment (working stress method).2. 3. steel bridges respectively. The entries will be evaluated by Zonal Committees in the month of April-May 2003. modifications have been suggested to clauses pertaining of deflection stipulation. pertaining to construction in steel as well as steel-concrete composite. Copyright Publications From SCI. 24 pertaining to construction of composite. IRC 24 and some IS codes. Review of Relevant Documents for Modification of IRC 22.2003) for the "Award Scheme for Civil and Structural Engineering Students for Best Innovative Structural Steel Design". INSDAG has been involved in IRC B-7 Committee engaged in revision of IRC 22. INSDAG has been included in a sub-committee entrusted to preparation of "Guidelines for design of Composite / Steel Box Girder bridges" considered to be cost effective for relatively higher spans where composite bridges using steel plate girders are not economical compared to other competitive options. The final selection will be done in July 2003. It has been estimated that amended clause on deflection stipulation itself will reduce the weight of bridge girder to the tune of 13 percent.

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