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INSDAG GUIDE FOR

THE STRUCTURAL USE OF STEELWORK IN BUILDINGS

Compiled by:

Dr. Rangachari Narayanan Dr. V. Kalyanraman

Published by:

**Institute for Steel Development And Growth
**

Ispat Niketan', First Floor 52/1A Ballygunge Circular Road Kolkata 700 019 Phone: (033) 2461 4045/47/66/76, Fax: (033) 2461 4048 E-mail: insdag@giascl2.vsnl.net.in; insdag@caj2^nLneLui March 2003 Copyright reserved

INSDAG

REVISED PRICE

1 0 0 0 / 52/1 A , Bally gunge CUcuUi Road -Kolkata-700019

7

Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge that all the data and information contained herein are correct to the extent that they relate to either matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication, Institute for Steel Development And Growth (INSDAG) assumes no responsibility for any errors in or mis-interpretations of such data and/or information or any loss or damage arising from or related to their use. __________________________________

US E M O R E S T E EL - T H E P R EF E RR E D M AT ER I A L O F TH E N E W M IL L EN IUM

FOREWARD INSDAG has played a pivotal role over the last few years in propagating the awareness amongst students, faculties of various engineering institutes and experts and professionals from various industries, about the advantages and benefits of usage of steel in the construction sector. It is now being accepted by most engineering professionals both academic and industrial, that the main stumbling block in the development of the steel construction industry in India is the primitiveness of the methods of design adopted by the Indian codes as against the international codes which allow higher flexibility in design approach. The relevant Indian codes of practice (IS: 800-1984 and IS: 801-1975) applicable for hot-rolled and cold-formed steel are based on the "Allowable Stress Design" approach as against the more internationally popular "Limit State Method" approach which has been proved to be technically sound and its use results in optimum economy of the structure.

With the technical contributions from leading academics and professionals, INSDAG has already brought out various publications on the design methodology of steel structures using the Limit State Method of Design (LSM), which have been beneficial to the engineering fraternity in learning the most intricate facets in LSM design.

On request from INSDAG, this publication in the form of a Guide book has been written and compiled by Dr. Rangachari Narayanan and Dr. V. Kalyanraman for the benefit of not only the student community both under-graduate and post graduate level, but also other engineering professionals across the country, since most of the engineering institutions have started including the LSM design in their curriculum and also the engineering professionals need to update themselves with the latest technological advancements. The publication is very timely as it coincides with the revision of IS: 800- 1984, which is at its advanced stage.

The entire book has been reviewed by^Dr. T. K. Bandyopadhyay, Deputy Director General and Mr. Arijit Guha, Manager (Civil & Structural). Comments and suggestions received from a large number of faculty member*, have been incorporated. INSDAG expresses its indebtedness to Dr. R. Narayanan and Dr. V. Kalyanraman, academics and researchers of international experience for agreeing to bring'out this publication. Kolkata: February 2003

this document will be extremely useful to the students of Civil I Structural Engineering to understand the theoretical background associated with advancement in structural steel design based on Limit State Method. However. Since IS: 800 (Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel) is presently being revised to Limit State version. 3 & 5 and Eurocode . ______________________________ .Special Note The entire document has been written considering Limit State Method of design following stipulations laid down in the relevant British code.3 & 4. BS: 5950 Part -1. this guide book may undergo certain modifications in some chapters after the publication of revised IS: 800 (LSM version) to accommodate the possible variation in stipulations that are likely to be considered in the revised code.

16.109 110 .169 170-172 173 . 6. 11.B : Symbols Appendix .18 19 .C: Relevant Indian Standards Appendix . 4. 8. 9. E. 3. General Material General Design Requirements Tension Members Classification of Cross Sections Axially Loaded Columns Design of Members Subjected to Bending Elements Subjected to Axial force and Bending Beams of Hot Rolled Sections Subjectedto 65 . 5.153 154 .58 59 .Storey Buildings Connection Design Cold Formed Steel Sections Basic Concepts of Composite Construction Composite Beams and Slabs Steel .D: An Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis Appendix .139 140 . 13.E: Location of Neutral Axis 168 . 7.180 181 .130 131 . C.CONTENTS Pages 1. 14. B. 12.182 2-3 4-4 5-15 16 .Concrete Composite Columns LIST OF APPENDICES A. 15.A: Terminology Appendix. D.174 175 .64 and 66 .65 Portal Frames Multi .72 73-88 89 .21 22-31 32 . Appendix . 2. 10.167 Torsion .

too numerous to mention who suggested improvements in the drafting stage. The newly started Institute for Steel Development and Growth (INSDAG) was entrusted with the tasks of (a) improving the teaching standards of Structural Steel Design in Indian Universities. The more modern "Limit State Design Approach" developed in the 1970's in the West. This makes the choice of steel in construction an uneconomic proposition. The technical support provided by two young engineers. Dr. In passing. Kalyanaraman 1 . The relevant Indian Codes of Practice (IS: 800 . T. which result in uneconomic designs. Australian and European Codes. (b) organising in-career courses for enhancing the level of competence of practising engineers (c) publishing design guidance documents for disseminating latest Steel Design Technology (d) organising design competitions for encouraging state-of-the art Structural Steel Designs.PREFACE The low usage of structural steel in India is attributable in part to the prevailing out-of-date design practices. IS: 801 . when the Government of India. Rangachari Narayanan V. it may be noted that the Indian Codes of Practice applicable to concrete structures have been revised to conform to Limit State Methodology. We are also grateful to the many engineers . Suggestions and comments aimed at improving this document are welcome.1975) applicable to the structural use of hot-rolled and cold-rolled steel are largely based on "Working Stress Method". It is also noted that the Code of Practice for steel-concrete-composite buildings (IS: 11384 . Compared with competing materials of construction. Ministry of Steel initiated steps to rectify the skills shortage in Steel Construction in 1998. besides being inconsistent with IS: 800 and IS: 801 written in Working Stress format. This is of particular advantage. This Design Guide has been complied.1984. R. an up-to-date Resource Material for disseminating the latest Steel Design Technology has been compiled and published in the web site of INSDAG (www. as steel is reusable and environment friendly. Bandhyopadhyay of INSDAG and Professor A. Usha in compiling this document is gratefully acknowledged. as a complementary document and has been drafted after studying the background research work carried out largely in the Western World. Santhakumar of Anna University had reviewed the document before its publication as a draft. relevant to Construction. American. Many of the design specifications contained herein have been adopted from these Western Codes and will hopefully serve as a Draft document. when the Bureau of Indian Standards eventually decides to revise the Steel Codes. steel framed buildings have significantly better blast and earthquake resistance and take less than half the time to build. Canadian. Mr. This situation posed a challenge. is technologically sound and results in significant economies in completed structures. S.org). Sambasiva Rao and Miss P.1985) is based on the Limit State approach but is very limited in its coverage.K. which led to the latest British. As a part of that initiative.steel-insdag.

transmission line towers. this guide generally follows the provisions contained in British Standard.3 1. IS: 786-1967 (supplement) may be referred. For actual loads to be used reference may be made to IS: 875-1987. studs.5 1. storage structures. form. In the absence of an Indian Standard written in the modern Limit State Format for steel construction. For conversion of system of units to another system. 1.6 2 .principles discussed in this guide could be adopted in the design of such structures appropriately. INSDAG has a Memorandum of Understanding with the British Steel Construction Institute and several supporting documents are available from INSDAG at largely discounted prices for the use of steel designers in India. It will not apply to bridges. Reference to other Standards . wherever available.SECTION 1: GENERAL 1. This guide is in three parts and covers the design of building structures using (i) Hot Rolled Steel section (ii) Cold Rolled Steel sections and (iii) Steel Concrete Composite sections.1 Scope This Guide provides general recommendations for the design of structural steel work in buildings and allied structures. This document is NOT a statutory document and intended as a guide for students and practicing engineers.For the purpose of this Guide. It is not intended to replace Codes of Practice. tolerances of all rivets. form. conform to the appropriate Indian Standards. weight. nuts.All the standards referred to in this Guide are listed in Appendix C and their latest version shall be applicable: Units and Conversion Factors . cranes. The guide provides only general advice regarding the various loads to be considered in design. tanks.2 Terminology . bolts.Symbols used in this Guide are defined in Appendix B. tolerances of all rolled shapes and other members used in any steel structure shall. shall conform to the requirements of appropriate Indian Standards. tubular structures. weight. Form and Weight The dimensions. general .The SI system of units is applicable to this Guide. Standard Dimensions. Symbols .4 1.. BS: 5950 (various parts). chimneys. The dimensions. 1. however. wherever available. etc. the definitions of various terms are given in Appendix A.

and shall be supplemented by such data on the assumed loads. Plans shall indicate the type of construction to be employed. Plans shall be drawn to a scale large enough to convey the information adequately. bolts and welds. shears. and the relative locations of the various members. Authentic guidance on protection methods is available from INSDAG. They shall clearly distinguish between shop and field rivets. and offsets shall be dimensioned. size. Plans . Shop drawings shall be made in conformity with IS: 696-1972 and IS: 962-1967. Symbols for welding used on plans and shop drawings shall be according to IS: 813-1961 3 . type. corrosion is NOT a problem.Shop drawings. A marking diagram allotting distinct identification marks to each separate part of steelwork shall be prepared. sections. For a great majority of steel buildings which are not subject to alternate wetting and drying.The plans (design drawings) shall show the complete design with sizes. column centres. moments and axial forces to be resisted by all members and their connections. giving complete information necessary for the fabrication of the component parts of the structure including the location. shall be prepared in advance of the actual fabrication.7 Plans and Drawings Plans. length and detail of all welds. reference shall be made to appropriate Indian Standards. as may be required for the proper preparation of shop drawings. For additional information to be included on drawings for designs based on the use of welding. Shop drawings . drawings and stress sheet shall be prepared according to IS: 696-1972 and IS: 962-1967. Any special precaution to be taken in the erection of structure from the design consideration shall also be indicated in the drawing. Floor levels.1. It is essential that Steel Designers familiarize themselves with protection methods for structural steelwork. The diagram shall be sufficient to ensure convenient assembly and erection at site. with regard to fire and corrosion.

as appropriate.All other materials including manufactured products. welding consumables.* 4 . steel castings.Ail structural steels used in general construction coming under the purview of this Guide shall.1 may also be used provided that the characteristic yield stresses and other design provisions are suitably modified and the steel is also suitable for the type of fabrication adopted. IS: 8500-1977 and IS: 1977-1975. Any structural steel other than that specified in 2. before fabrication conform to IS: 2062-1984. bolts and nuts and cement concrete shall confirm to the requirements of the appropriate Indian Standards.SECTION 2: MATERIALS Structural Steel . Other Material .

Each part of the structure should be sufficiently robust and insensitive to the effects of minor incidental loads applied during service that the safety of other parts is not prejudiced.. appropriate partial safety factors.SECTION 3: GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 3. There should be no doubt of this responsibility for overall stability when some or all of the design and details are not made by the same designer. 5 . The layout of its constituent parts. such as foundations. connections and other structural components should constitute a robust and stable structure under normal loading to ensure that in the event of misuse or accident. The design should facilitate fabrication. erection and future maintenance.1 Aims of Structural Design The aim of structural design is to provide. damage will not be disproportionate to the cause. Any features of the structure. it should be capable of fulfilling its intended function and sustaining the design loads for its intended life.3 General Principles of Limit State Design Structure should be designed considering the Limit States at which they would become unfit for their intended purpose. 3. which have a critical influence on its overall stability. it is necessary to define clearly the basic structural anatomy by which the loads are transmitted to the foundations. (b) the deviation of loads from their specified values and (c) the reduced probability that the various loads acting together will simultaneously reach the characteristic value. For verifying the adequacy of the structure. i. based on semi-probabilistic methods described below shall be used. one applied to forces due to loading and another to the material strength shall be employed. a structure which is fit for its intended purpose. Two partial safety factors. To achieve this.2 Overall Stability The designer responsible for the overall stability of the structure should ensure the compatibility of design and details of parts and components. (a) the possible deviation of the actual behaviour of the structure from that of the analysis and design model. 3. allows for. steelwork. can then be identified and taken account of in design. The structure should behave as a three-dimensional entity. with due regard to economy.e.

1987) a load factor which is determined on probabilistic basis where = a material factor.25 when considering fracture ultimate stress).3. Characteristic Loads. calculations take the form of verifying that where is the calculated factored load effect on the element (like bending moment. is a function of the combined effects of factored dead.1 the possible deviation of the material in the structure from that assumed in design the possible reduction in the strength of the material from its characteristic value and manufacturing tolerances. shear force etc) and is the calculated factored resistance of the element being checked. Thus. are also considered) In accordance with the above concepts. live and wind loads.if applicable.2 Limit states (1) A limit state is a state beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design requirements. The value suggested is therefore consistent with that. (Other loads . Partial safety factors In general. (From IS: 875 .(e) (f) (g) (h) 3. the design requirements are expressed as follows: where = Design value of internal forces and moments caused by the design Loads.3.1985 (Code of Practice for Composite Construction) has prescribed for Structural Steel when considering yield stress. 3. Mode of failure (ductile/brittle). which is also determined on a 'probabilistic basis' when considering yield stress and 1. 6 . the safety format used in this guide is based on probable maximum load and probable minimum strengths. It should be noted that IS: 11384 . so that a consistent level of safety is achieved. and is a function of the nominal value of the material yield strength.

5 1. Parti) Vertical load Horizontal load Vertical load acting with horizontal load (Crabbing or Surge) Crane load acting with Wind load *If in doubt.35 1. this Code is being revised). including those for: • Deflection • Durability • Ponding • Vibration Thus the following limit states may be identified for design purposes and are provided for in terms of partial factors reflecting the severity of the risks.05 1. which might endanger the safety of people.4 1.0 1.6 1. Unfactored loads are used to check the adequacy of the structure.35 Yf LL WL - 1. (At the present time.2 7 . • Fatigue Limit State is important where distress to the structure by repeated loading is a possibility.2 1.5 1. Table 3.6 1.(2) (3) Ultimate limit states are limit states of collapse or other structural failure. where appropriate.1. The partial load factors are chosen to reflect the probability of extreme conditions.5 1.35 1. • Serviceability Limit State is related to the criteria governing normal use.35 1. • Rupture • Loss of stability • Loss of equilibrium Serviceability limit states are limit states beyond which specified service criteria are no longer met. calculations for both conditions are needed DL 1. (The Committee formed to review BIS standards have adopted these values). • Ultimate Limit State is related to the maximum design load capacity under extreme conditions.05 1. including: • Excessive deformation / formation of mechanism. An illustration of partial safety factors suggested for ultimate load conditions is given in Table 3.5 1. Reference to the Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design should be made.2 1. These values are based on recommendations adopted by Eurocodes.35 1. when loads act alone or in combination.1: Recommended Partial safety factors Loading Dead Load (unfavourable effects) Dead load restraining uplift or overturning Dead Load + Imposed Load Dead Load + Wind Load Dead Load + Imposed Load + wind Load (Major Load)* Dead Load + Imposed Load (Major Load) + wind Load* Crane Load effects (from BS 5950.

Dead load. (c) The co-efficient of expansion for steel shall be taken as 0. 3.000012 per degree centigrade per unit length.5 Robustness Requirements The requirements for all buildings to maintain Structural integrity (as prescribed by BS: 5950. This requirement provides a 8 . the following loads and secondary effects shall be taken into account. including temporary bracings to take care of all stresses due to erection loads. Design guide on Structural Fire Safety C1B-W14) 3. The structure as a whole and all parts of the structure in conjunction with the temporary bracings shall be capable of sustaining these erection loads. creep in steel.1 Types of loads .All loads required to be carried by the structure or any part of it due to storage or positioning of construction material and erection equipment including all loads due to operation of such equipment shall be considered as 'erection loads'. and Secondary effects due to contraction or expansion resulting from temperature changes.4. where applicable: a) b) c) d) Dead Loads. 3.3 Temperature effects (a) Expansion and contraction due to changes in temperature of the materials of a structure shall be considered and adequate provision made for the effects produced. differential settlements of the structure as a whole and its components. shrinkage and creep in contiguous concrete members.4 Loading 3.1987) Earthquake loads (as per IS: 1893 . Imposed loads and Wind loads (as per IS: 875 .4. (b) The temperature range varies for different localities and under different diurnal and seasonal conditions.3.1991) Erection loads. wind load and also such parts of the live load as would be imposed on the structure during the period of erection shall be taken as acting together with the erection loads.For the purpose of computing the maximum stresses in any structure or member of a structure. reference may be made to appropriate specialist publications [For example.4. e) For fire resistant design and fire rating. Published data should be consulted in assessing the maximum variations of temperature for which provision for expansion and contraction has to be allowed in the structure. Part 1 following the Ronan Point Collapse) are given below: Structures should remain as complete integral units even when (due to an accident such as explosion) one of the members fail or become inoperative.2 Erection loads . Proper provision shall be made.

thirds of the factored vertical compressive load on the column below the splice. the member should be designed as a "key element" so that it has a very low probability of failure. it is possible to ensure that there is an alternative load path that would help to avoid progressive collapse.tie spacing . At each storey in turn any single column or beam carrying a column should be capable of being removed without causing collapse beyond a limited portion of the building in the vicinity of the member. This is termed as " Localisation of damage". unit area . Each section between expansion joints should be treated as a separate building. Either the beams or tie members should be designed so that they provide for the anchorage.distance between columns in the direction • • • • • • At the edge of the structure. If the removal of one of these members would cause substantial damage. Columns should be continuous vertically through the floors. as well as the "key elements" themselves should be checked for safety and stability.significant measure of safety for the occupants and is termed "Structural integrity requirement" or "Robustness requirement". These requirements are aimed at ensuring that the collapse of one element of a structure does not trigger the failure of the structure as a whole.total factored load /. no portion of structures should be dependent on only one bracing system. in this event substantial permanent deformation may be accepted. Collapse must not be disproportionate and the role of key elements should be identified. Any member or other structural component. Column splices should be capable of resisting a tensile force of two . Suggested requirements for integrity of buildings of five storeys or more are given below: • • For sway resistance. (using appropriate load factors and including the likely accidental loads) in the appropriate directions. All building frames should be effectively tied together at each principal floor and roof level. • 9 . which provides lateral restraint vital to the "key element". The minimum tie strengths (in respect of the ties referred above) should be internally and externally (but not less than 75 kN for floors and 40 kN at roof level). Precast floors must be anchored at both ends against sliding of supporting members. which are properly anchored to the steel frame work. Ties may be steel members or steel reinforcement. By tying the structure together. in both directions. as far as possible. where . columns should be restrained by horizontal ties resisting 1% of column load.

The necessary flexibility in connections may result in some non-elastic deformation of the materials. As an alternative. (i) The moment and rotation capacity of the joints should be based on experimental evidence. not to develop The distribution of forces may be determined assuming that members intersecting at a joint are pin connected. assuming this to be simply supported.The design of any structure or its parts may be carried out by one of the methods given in (a) to (d).2.6. Where the design is based on failure loads.5 on the loads or load 10 . the details of members and connections should be such as to realise the assumptions made in design without adversely affecting any other parts of the structure. (a) Simple design . In all cases. the design may be based on full scale or model tests subject to the following conditions: (i) A full-scale test of prototype structure may be done. which may permit some limited plasticity. Such analysis may be made using either elastic or plastic methods. (c) (ii) (d) Design based on experiments .1 Methods of design .6. The prototype shall be accurately measured before testing to determine the dimensional tolerance in all relevant parts of the structure. On this basis. other than the fasteners. stability and stiffness requirement of all parts of the structure when partial continuity at the joints is to be taken into account in assessing moments and forces in the members. a load factor of not less than 1. in simple beam and column structures an allowance may be made for the inter-restraint of the connections between a beam and a column by an end restraint moment not exceeding 10% of the free moment applied to the beam.The connections are assumed to be capable to developing the strength and / or stiffness required by an analysis assuming full continuity. the tolerances then specified on the drawing shall be such that all successive structures shall be in practical conformity with the prototype. (b) Rigid design .Some degree of connection stiffness is assumed. Semi-rigid design .Where structure is of non-conventional or complex in nature.2 (c).The connections between members are assumed moments adversely affecting either the members or the structure as a whole. provided that the frame is braced against side sway in both directions.3.6 General Principles and Design Methods 3. but it would be insufficient to develop full continuity. the design should satisfy the strength. It is necessary to maintain stability against sway and this is ensured complying with provisions of 3.

6.1. (c) Sway stability . The designer should consider overall frame stability.All structures. The thrusts. which embraces stability against overturning. Loading devices shall be previously calibrated and care shall be exercised to ensure that no artificial restraints are applied to the prototype by the loading systems. (b) Stability against overturning . should be such that the factored loads would not cause failure. should be adequately stiff against sway. The load capacity of each member and its connections. 3.2 Ultimate Limit States 3. the model shall be constructed with due regard for the principles of dimensional similarity.In considering the overall stability of any structure or part. moments and deformations under working loads shall be determined by physical measurements made when the loadings are applied to simulate the conditions assumed in the deign of the actual structure.The factored loads should not cause the structure or any part of the structure (including the foundations) to overturn or lift off its seating.1 Limit state of strength (a) General .1. 3. 11 .6. and sway stability as given below.6.In checking the strength and stability of the structure the loads should be multiplied by the relevant ^factors given in table 3.2 Stability limit state (a) General . The factored loads should be applied in the most unfavorable realistic combination for the part or effect under consideration. The distribution and duration of forces applied in the test shall be representative of those to which the structure is deemed to be subjected. (ii) In the case where design is based on the testing of a small-scale model structure. in addition to designing for applied horizontal loads. The combination of imposed and dead loads should be such as to have the most severe effect on overall stability. including portions between expansion joints. as determined by the relevant provisions of this Guide. Account should be taken of probable variations in dead load during construction or other temporary conditions. the loads should be increased by the relevant factors given in table 3.2.2.combinations given in Table 3.1 should be used. a separate check should be carried out for notional horizontal forces. To ensure this.

These notional forces may arise from practical imperfections such as lack of vertically and should be taken as the greater of: 1% of factored dead load from that level.5% of factored total gravity load (dead plus vertical imposed) from that level. The cladding. They should be taken as acting simultaneously with vertical loads. The notional force should not be: • • • • applied when considering overturning.6.3 Foundation design . combined with horizontal loads. applied horizontally. the steelwork designer should state clearly the need for such construction and the forces acting upon it.2. Where they result from factored loads the relevant factors for each load in each combination should be stated. Sway stability may be provided for example by braced frames. applied horizontally.5 Earthquake Resistant Design . joint rigidity or by utilising staircase. combined with temperature effects.The design of foundations should accommodate all the forces imposed on them.4 Fatigue .Fatigue need not be considered unless a structure or element is subjected to numerous significant fluctuations of stress. 12 . taken to contribute to net shear on the foundations. reversal of loading should be accommodated. 0. The notional forces should be assumed to act on all structures in any one orthogonal direction at a time and should be applied at each roof and floor level or their equivalent. Where it is necessary to quote the foundation-reactions it should be clearly stated whether the forces and moments result from factored or unfactored loads.The standards appropriate for earthquake resistance of buildings in various parts of the country should be carefully considered and suitable provisions should be made taking into account the Capacity design and requisite ductility.6. Where such sway stability is provided by construction other than the steel framework. Stress changes due to fluctuations in wind loading need not be considered but account should be taken of wind-induced oscillations. Whatever system is used. The stiffness (deformation) of the foundation should reflect the boundary condition assumed in the analysis model of the structural system. 3.2. 3. 3. Attention should be given to the method of connecting the steel superstructure to the foundations and the anchorage of any holding down bolts.2.6. floors and roof should have adequate strength and be so secured to the structural framework as to transmit all horizontal forces to the points of sway resistance. lift cores and shear walls.

6.2 gives recommended limitations for certain structural members. 3.3.3 Serviceability Limit State 3.1984 NOTE 1.2: Deflection limits other than for pitched roof portal frame ( a ) Deflection on beams due to unfactored imposed loads Cantilevers Length / 180 Beams carrying plaster or other brittle Span / 325 finish All other beams Span / 325 ( b ) Horizontal deflection of columns other than portal frames due to unfactored imposed and wind loads Tops of columns in single-storey Height / 325 buildings In each storey of a building with more Height of storey under consideration / 325 than one storey ( c ) Crane gantry girders Refer to IS: 800 . When checking for deflections the most adverse and realistic combination of service loads and their arrangement should be checked by elastic analysis.3 Ponding a) All roofs with a slope of less than 5% must be checked to ensure that rainwater cannot collect in pools.2 Durability . (Where the deflection due to Dead + Live load combination is likely to be excessive. the shape of the members and the structural detailing the protective measure if any.The deflection under serviceability loads of a building or building component should not impair the strength of the structure/components or cause damage to the finishing.3. whether maintenance is possible.3. settlements of foundations. 3. are listed below: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the environment. On low-pitched and flat roofs the possibility of ponding needs consideration for Composite Construction using metal decking. Allowance must be made for possible construction inaccuracies. Detailed advice on protection of steel for various environmental/exposure conditions is contained in an INSDAG publication titled "Corrosion Protection for Structural Steel". deflections of roofing 13 .6.Several factors affecting the durability of the buildings under conditions relevant to their intended life.6. consideration should be given to pre-camber the beams) Table 3.3.1 Deflection .6. Circumstances may arise where greater or lesser values would be more appropriate. Table 3. the degree of exposure.

d) Table 3. c) Where the roof slope is less than 3%. pre-camber (hogging) of the beam in the unloaded state. Fig 3. and provided for. vibration. (state 2) 14 . which might be formed due to the deflection of structural members or roofing material. (state 0) variation of the deflection of the beam due to permanent loads immediately afterloading. b) Vibration caused by machines and oscillation caused by harmonic resonance must be considered. (state 1) variation of the deflection of the beam due to the variable loading plus any time dependant deformations due to the permanent load.if applicable) collected in pools. which can induce impact. provided that rainwater outlets are appropriately located.materials and structural members and the effects of pre-camber.6. b) Pre-cambering of beams can be used to reduce the likelihood of rainwater collecting in pools. 3. c) To avoid resonance. etc. it must be checked that collapse cannot occur due to the weight of water (or snow.3.4 Dynamic effects a) The design must make suitable provision for the effects of imposed loads.3 gives limiting values for the natural frequency or the alternative total deflection to avoid resonance.1 Vertical deflections to be considered sagging in the final state relative to the straight line joining the supports. the natural frequencies of structures or parts of structures must be sufficiently different from those of the excitation source. This also applies to floors of car parks and other open-sided structures.

15 .

is the root area of the threaded section. Fig.1 and 4. The corresponding design strength for the member under axial tension is given by where. will govern the tensile design strength of a plate with holes. is the gross area of cross section in the partial safety factor for failure in tension by yielding. is the ultimate stress of the material. as calculated by Eqn. is the yield stress of the material (in MP a). the load-causing yield across the section is taken as one of the limiting loads. is the net area of the cross section after deductions for the hole and is the partial safety factor against ultimate tension failure by rupture (The suggested value of . (The suggested value of The design strength in tension as governed by net cross-section at the hole. Similarly threaded rods subjected to tension could fail by rupture at the root of the threaded region and hence net area.2. 4.1 Limiting Load on Plates in Tension In the design of tension members.1 Plates with Bolt Holes under Tension 16 . 4. The lower value of the design tension capacities.SECTION 4: TENSION MEMBERS 4. is given by and Ym is where.

accounts for the end fastener restraint effect. and are the yield and ultimate stress of the material.2 4. (ii) Strength as governed by tearing at net section: where. will be the minimum value obtained from (4.4). when the number of fasteners when the number of fasteners is 3 the number of fasteners is 1 or 2 and if the connection is adequately welded if 17 . the net area corresponding to the staggered section will be given by (4. and are the net area of the connected leg and the gross area of the outstanding leg. and (4. 4. In addition. respectively. the stress in the outstanding leg at the ultimate stage will be closer to the yield stress (due to shear lag) while the net section of the connected leg will often reach the ultimate stress The tensile strength of angles connected by one leg. The design strength in tension will be obtained by substituting the value of in Eqn.5). is the gross area of the angle section.1). 2. the potential for "block shear failure" should also be assessed.When multiple holes are arranged in a staggered fashion in a plate (Fig 4.2 Limiting Load on Angles under Tension When a connection is made through one leg of an angle. limiting the stress in the outstanding leg to (the yield stress) and the connected leg having holes to (the ultimate stress). is evaluated accounting for this phenomenon by 1. respectively. n is the number of bolt holes in the staggered section and the summation over is carried over all inclined legs of the section. The design tensile strength.6) below: (i) Strenfith as governed by the yielding of gross section: where.3) where. (4.

18 . and = minimum gross and net area in tension from the hole to the toe of the angle. the connection shall be checked for block shear strength. It will also provide a margin for avoiding excessive self-weight deflection). and = minimum gross and net area in shear along a line of transmitted force. 4. If the centroid of bolt pattern is not located between the heel of the angle and the centerline of the connected leg. The corresponding design strength in tension shall be evaluated as the lower of the value obtained from the following equations. respectively. respectively.2 Block Shear Failure where.3 Maximum Slenderness Ratio The maximum slenderness ratio (length/least radius of gyration of the cross section) of a tension member is limited to 400 (This will provide a margin of safety for members normally acting as ties but subject to reversal of stresses due to wind and earthquake. perpendicular to the line of force.(iii) Strength as governed by block shear failure: A tension member may fail along end connection due to block shear as shown in Fig. 4.2. Fig. 4.

with a triangular stress distribution. Such a stocky section is termed as a 'plastic' section. i. A beam capable of developing full plasticity would exhibit an idealised elastic/plastic moment-rotation curve as shown in Fig. This section is termed as 'semi-compact'. If the section were to be further more slender still (i.SECTION 5: CLASSIFICATION OF CROSS SECTIONS 5.1. On the other hand. a cross section may develop fully plastic stress distribution across the entire cross section but may not have adequate ductility The horizontal part of the moment-rotation diagram will be limited. yet higher values of local buckling would occur before the attainment of yield stress in the extreme fibres. the stress distribution across the section will consist of two rectangles and a significant rotation will take place. Assuming that the flange plate or the web does not buckle locally. At failure. Such a cross-section is termed 'compact' section. is the lower limit of rotation for treatment as a plastic section) Fig.1 Elastic/plastic moment-rotation curve.1 Basis The proposed classification of cross sections is illustrated by considering the idealised moment-rotation characteristics of a symmetrical beam subjected to incremental flexural loading continued till its collapse. these four different modes of behaviour can be expressed graphically on a plot of stress against strain at the 19 .e.e. 5. If the section were to be even more slender (higher ratios of it may only be able to sustain an elastic moment up to the attainment of yield strength in the extreme fibres. and it exhibits considerable "ductility" is the rotation at the onset of plasticity. 5. Such a section is termed as 'slender'. before attaining the theoretical elastic moment capacity.

). Moment resistance. 5. i. flange plates and web plate. These different modes of behaviour can also be shown by the stress patterns.3 Bending stress distribution for different classes of sections The class of a section is determined by the lowest class of all its constituent elements.2). Fig. as in Fig. 5. shear resistance etc.extreme fibres (Fig. The class of section determines its resistance (e. 5.2 Stress/strain relation of extreme fibres for different classes of sections Fig. Compact sections can generally be used in simply supported beams failing soon after reaching at one section. 20 . 5. In elastic design. Only plastic sections can be used in forming plastic collapse mechanisms.e.g. semi-compact sections are to be used with the understanding that they will fail at The slender section design is discussed in the section on Cold-Form Steel member design.3.

21 . Limits on Width to Thickness Ratio of Plate Elements* Type of Element Type of Section Outstand element of Welded compression flange Rolled Internal element of Welded compression flange Rolled Web with neutral axis at mid depth Web under uniform compression Single/double angle T-stems Circular tube with outer diameter D where are the limits for b/t width of the flange overhang depth of the web outer diameter of the circular tubular section thickness of the plate All Welded Rolled Rolled * This table is derived from BS 5950: Part 1.1.Table 5.

SECTION 6: AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS 6. Axially loaded columns having a slenderness ratio values below are "stocky" and will fail by yielding across the entire cross section. 22 . The design axial load resistance for a member subjected to axial compression is given (Note that no calculations for is needed when as the column would fail by squashing at The compressive strength curves obtained for the various types of sections are shown in Fig 6. The choice of axis of buckling to obtain the design strength is not always clear. so calculations have to be canned out in respect of both principal axes and the lower value of load resistance chosen.1 Axial Compression Resistance of Columns The axial load resistance of steel columns is governed by the type of cross section and the axis of buckling.1. For columns having values in excess of the following computations are necessary.

2 gives the ultimate compressive stress values in compression members corresponding to various values of and for Graphs (similar to Fig.6.2 may be constructed for different values of using equations 6.1 to 6.Fig.1) and Table 6.1 Compressive strength curves for struts for different values'of 250 Mpa.1: Choice of appropriate values of [For = Welded Sections: for cross sections fabricated by welding of plates 20 N/mm2 should reduce the value of Table 6. Based on BS 5950: Part 1J Table 6. 6. 6. 23 .

Table 6. The recommended effective lengths for design purposes are given below 24 .2: Ultimate Compressive stress i 6. which would be expected to have the same strength and stiffness as the column being designed.2 Effective Length of Columns Designs of columns have to be checked using the appropriate effective length for buckling about both the strong and weak axes. Effective length. may be regarded as the equivalent length of a pin-ended column having the same cross section.

up or fabricated Compression Members 25 . 6. 6.4 for various built-up sections may be employed.2: Cross Section Shapes for Rolled Steel Compression Members ( d ) Plated I Section (e) Built .2 and Fig.6.3: Cross Section Shapes for Built .Up Columns When compression members are required for large structures like bridges. 6.3 Cross Sectional Shapes for Compression Members and Built .up I Section Fig 6. Cross section shapes of rolled steel compression members and built-up or fabricated compression members are shown in Fig. Fig 6. built-up sections will be used. For preliminary calculations. approximate values of radii of gyration given in Fig.3.

Fig 6.4: Approximate radii of gyration (Continued in next page) 26 .

Fig 6.4 General Guidance for Connection Requirements When compression members consist of different components. the weld length must be not less than the maximum width of the member. which are in contact with each other and are bearing on base plates or milled surfaces. they should be connected at their ends with welds or bolts. 27 . it may be designed for 1. When single angle discontinuous struts connected by a single bolt are employed.25 times the factored axial load and the effective length taken as the centre-to-centre distance of the intersection at each end. When welds are used. assuming the effective length to be 0. If bolts are used they should be spaced longitudinally at less than 4 times the bolt diameter and the connection should extend to at least times the width of the member.4: Approximate radii of gyration 6.85 times the centre to centre distance of the intersection at each end. Single angle discontinuous struts connected by two or more bolts in line along the member at each end may be designed for the factored axial load.

shown in Fig.with an effective length conservatively chosen. All double angle struts must be tack bolted or welded. the slenderness ratio of individual components should be less than 50 or 70% of the slenderness ratio of the built up column (whichever is less). Thickness of lacing bars should be at least l/40th of the length between bolts for single lacing and 1/60 of this length for double lacing (both for welded and bolted connections). To prevent local buckling of unsupported lengths between the two constituent lattice points (or between two battens). Spacing of tack bolts or welds should be less than 600 mm. The effective length of lacing bars is the length between bolts for single lacing and 0.7) 28 . A minimum of two bolts at each end and a minimum of two additional connectors spaced equidistant in between will be required.5 Single angle size: 1/30 of the length of the strut Double angle size: 1/35 of the length of strut Circular hollow sections diameter = 1/40 length Design Considerations for Laced and Battened Columns The two channel constituents of a laced column. Solid washers or packing plates should be used in-between. The slenderness ratio of the lacing bars should not exceed 145. (A value between is chosen depending upon the degree of restraint provided at the ends). The slenderness ratio formula: of battened columns shall be calculated using the following (6.5 ( b ) have a tendency to buckle independently. The following guide values are suggested for initial choice of members: (i) (ii) (iii) 6. The load that these tying forces cause may be assumed to cause a shearing force equal to 2. 6. The width of the lacing bar should be at least 3 times the diameter of the bolt. The inclination of lacing bars from the axis of the column should not be less than 40° nor more than 70°.For double angle discontinuous struts connected back to back to both sides of a gusset or section by not less than two bolts or by welding. (Additionally if the columns are subjected to moments or lateral loading the lacing should be designed for the additional bending moment and shear). For member thickness up to 10 mm.5(a) and 6. M16 bolts may be used unless otherwise noted.7 of this length for double lacing. The spacing'of connectors must be such that the largest slenderness ratio of each component member is neither greater than 60 nor less than 40. the lacing should be symmetrical in any two opposing faces to avoid torsion. the factored axial load is used in design. Lacings and battens are not combined in the same column.5% of axial load on the column. In laced columns. For members of large thickness M20 bolts may be used.

is lower value of slenderness of the individual vertical members between centre to centre of batten intervals and is slenderness of the overall column. (6.5 Built-up column members 29 . (6.8) = calculated using values given in Eqn.where. using the radius of gyration of the whole built up section. The imperfection factor is calculated from (6.8) The strength of the battened column is evaluated from = effective slenderness with computed as given in Eqn.7) Fig. 6.

Concrete support area should be significantly larger than the base plate area so that the applied load can disperse satisfactorily on to the foundation. If column base plates are insufficient to develop the applied bending moment or if thinner plates are used. some form of stiffening must be provided. . but grout it in place. To spread the column loads uniformly over the base plates. a plain square steel plate or a slab attached to the column is adequate.6 ( a ) . This type of arrangement is shown in Fig. 6. 6. 6.6. 6.6.6 When there is a large moment in relation to the vertically applied load a gusseted base may be used. and to ensure there is good contact between the two. For this second case the columns are connected to the footing with anchor bolts that pass through the lug angles. but for larger columns. These connection methods are illustrated in Fig.6 Column base plates A base plate welded directly to the columns is shown in Fig. it may be necessary to ship the plates separately and set them to the correct elevations. If uplift or overturning forces are present.6 Base Plates for Concentrically Loaded Columns For a purely axial load. These base plates can be welded directly to the columns or they can be fastened by means of bolted or welded lug angles. For small columns these plates will be shop-welded to the columns. Fig. it is customary not to grind or machine the underside of the base plate. a more positive attachment is necessary. which have been shop-welded to the columns.

The chosen number of bolts is to be arranged symmetrically near corners of base plate or next to column web. = pressure in on underside of plate.6. 10. 3. on the holding down bolts. Procedure for empirical design of a slab base plate for axial load only (pinned connection) 1. Check for adequacy of weld. similar to the arrangement sketched in Fig. 6. The design steps for a base plate attached to an axially loaded column with pinned base are explained below. 6. Check the bolts for adequacy.4 4. 6.7] = smaller plate projection from column = design strength of mild steel plate. Check for bolt.Columns supporting predominantly axial loads are designed as being pin-ended at the base. 2. but not greater than divided by Fig. if any. assuming a uniform distribution. Check maximum co-existent factored shear and tension. = larger plate projection from column [See Fig. Decide on the number and type of holding down bolts to resist shear and tension. Calculate the total length of weld to resist axial load. Vector sum of all the stresses carried by the weld must not exceed the design strength. . box or columns but not less than the thickness of the flange of the supported column. 8. Determine the factored axial load and shear at the column base. 9. Determine base plate thickness For channel. of the weld. Check shear stress on weld.7 Base plates subjected to concentric force 5.4 (where = cube strength ofconcrete) Actual bearing pressure to be less than or equal to 0. 6. Select weld size. 7. Maximum allowable bearing strength = 0.

1 Laterally restrained beams "Laterally Restrained Beams" are those. "Long beams" which are not suitably braced in the lateral direction will fail by a combination of lateral deflection and twist. .2. Fabricated plate girders may fail by web shear buckling or local buckling of a flange. This type of failure is unlikely to be encountered in hot rolled sections.1.1. The design adequacy of a laterally restrained beam is verified using the following criteria: • • • • lateral restraint force bending resistance of the cross section shear resistance of the cross section combined bending and shear at locations where there are (a) combinations of maximum factored bending moment and co-existent shear and (b) combinations of maximum factored shear force and the co-existent bending moment. • • • 7. Lateral Instability or Lateral Torsional Buckling of beams can be prevented by providing full restraint to the compression flange of member.1 General The main failure modes of hot rolled beams of compact or plastic cross section are as follows: • If the beam is prevented from buckling laterally.5% of the maximum factored force in the compression flange of the member. then the failure will be triggered by excessive flexure and the collapse will follow the formation of plastic hinges. Such a beam is termed restrained beam". The influence of local buckling of flanges and webs In section 5.SECTION 7: DESIGN OF MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO BENDING 7. These are termed "unrestrained beams". and the component elements are compact or plastic. Adequate restraint may be regarded as being available if there is a positive connection of a floor or other construction fixed to the compression flange capable of resisting a lateral force of not less than 2. which will not fail by lateral instability. These are to be eliminated by provision of web stiffeners for (a) and (b) and the welding of additional flange plates to reduce the plate ratio. Local failure by (a) shear yield of the web. in the case of (c). (b) local crushing of the web or (c) buckling of thin flanges may sometimes be encountered. all rolled steel sections used as beams are classified in four ways in order to reflect the effect of local buckling of the beam elements. 7.

but there is sufficient rotation capacity in the cross section. For the plastic or compact sections. • Plastic .the elastic moment capacity of the cross section can NOT be attained • Semi-compact .4 Length of cantilevers: The length of a cantilever should be taken as the distance from the effective point of the support to the tip of the cantilever. but the cross section has little rotation capacity. but NOT the plastic moment capacity • Compact . .1. 7.• Slender .5 General conditions: All members in bending should meet the following conditions.1. 7.1.The plastic moment capacity can be attained.as for compact. Hot rolled sections used as beams are generally of the "plastic" or "compact" cross sections. so that the frame can be designed by plastic methods.3 Span of beams: The span of a beam should be taken between the effective points of support.The elastic moment capacity of the cross section can be attained. as the maximum fibre stress at failure will be less than The design bending resistance in these sections is given by 7. the design bending resistance of the cross section is given by Slender cross sections will not be able to resist a moment equal to the elastic moment resistance.

2. load parallel to webs (c) Solid bars and plates Where = thickness of the web = Total depth of the section = depth of the web = area of the plate or bar.5 and 7.2. (c) Unless the compression flange has full lateral restraint.2.1. 7.3 section (d) Local buckling should be considered as given in Table 5. 7. the shear stress should be calculated from first principles assuming elastic behaviour. the resistance of the member to lateral torsional buckling should be checked in accordance with specifications detailed in 7. 7.1 Plastic and compact sections The design shear resistance.1) for plastic and compact sections Equation (7.6 times the design shear resistance the design moment resistance.(a) At critical points the combination of maximum moment and coexistent shear.2) should be adhered to.should be taken Equation (7.2.and the combination of maximum shear and co-existent moment should be checked at the ultimate limit state (b) The deflection limits prescribed under "serviceability Limits" (Table 3.3 Moment resistance with low shear load Where the design shear force of the cross section as the value obtained from • • is less than 0.2 Elastic shear stress In sections where webs vary in thickness or have holes significantly larger than those required for fasteners. the conditions of 7. of a plastic or compact cross section is taken as Where = shear area given by the following for the three cases: (a) Rolled and channel sections.2 Shear 7. (e) When loads or reactions are applied through the flange to the web.2) for semi-compact sections and 34 . load parallel to web (b) Built-up sections and boxes.6 for web buckling and web bearing should be met.2.

6 times the design shear resistance.• Equation (7. (defined in equation 7. is given by .2.3) for slender sections When the depth to thickness ratio. should be taken as follows.4) the moment resistance. (a) For plastic or compact sections: and is taken as follows: For sections with equal flanges: the plastic modulus of the shear area.4 Moment resistance with high shear load Where the design shear force exceeds 0.5 Web buckling To prevent the web buckling under point loads or reactions (applied through the compression flange) the following check is required to be carried out on all beams The buckling resistance.4. 7. of a web exceeds where then it should be checked for shear buckling in accordance with the requirements set out under Section 7. For sections with unequal flanges: the plastic modulus of the gross section less the plastic modulus of that part of the section remaining after deduction of the shear area. 7.2.

the web crippling resistance should also be checked at its junction with the flange to the flange-to-web connection at a slope of 1:2.Fig. 7.5 of the plane of the flange.2 Effective width of web bearing If the applied load or the reaction exceeds the crippling resistance of the web.5 to the plane of the flange. Fig.6 Web Bearing suitable stiffness For all beams. 7.2. The buckling resistance in crippling. 7. is given by where = crippling resistance of the webin buckling =design yield stress of the web = length obtained by dispersion through the flange-to-web connection at a slope of 1:2. . suitably designed bearing stiffeners should be provided.1 Effective width for web buckling If the applied load or reaction (as the case may be) exceeds should be provided.

Beams having (a) an isolated hole (b) a series of web openings at regular intervals are included in this guide. the net section properties should be computed and the adequacy of the design should be verified. If web reinforcement is provided.4) The effect of opening on the stiffness of the section and deflections.3. equal to the depth of the girder. or if any of the above conditions are not satisfied.2. the following aspects should be kept in view: • • • • The effect of bending The possible need to provide stiffening around the hole The effect of openings on slender webs (covered in the section 7.7.3 Laterally Unrestrained Beams of Plastic and Compact Sections 7. the spacing between the centres of any two adjacent openings measured parallel to the axis of the member is at least 2. When designing holes in webs. it may be either around the hole or as a flat reinforcement carried past the opening for such a distance that the local shear stress due to the load being transferred from the reinforcement does not exceed 7.7 Plastic and compact beams with web openings Beams with web openings are frequently required for passing service ducts.1 Lateral torsional buckling of symmetric sections The elastic critical moment resistance of a symmetrical I beam subjected to equal end moments undergoing lateral torsional buckling between points of lateral support is obtained as . the load on the member is substantially uniform and no point loads are situated within a distance from the edges of the hole. the factored maximum shear at the support does not exceed 60% of the shear resistance of the section. • • When the hole diameter exceeds 10% of the depth of the girder. provided that • • the holes are located within the middle third of the depth and middle half of the span of the member. Unreinforced circular openings having a diameter not exceeding 10% of the web depth may be located within the web of compact beams without considering the net section properties.5 times the diameter of the larger opening.

Comparing the two cases covered by Eqns.7. Several factors affect the lateral stability of beams and these are outlined below: (a) Support conditions Lateral buckling involves three kinds of deformations. (7. A load applied above the centroid of the cross section causes an additional overturning moment and becomes more de-stabilising than when the same load is applied at the centroid. if the load is applied below the centroid.6) and (7. As an illustration. it produces astabilising effect. . the effective lengths appropriate for different end restraints according to BS 5950 are given in Tables 7.2.3. twisting and warping. For a beam with simply supported end conditions and no intermediate lateral restraint. Various types of end conditions are consequently possible but the supports should either completely prevent or offer no resistance to each type of deformation (Solutions for partial restraint conditions are complicated). the effective length is equal to the actual length between the supports. This is clear from Fig. The effective length factor would indirectly account for the increased lateral and torsional rigidities provided by the restraints. On the other hand.7) the ratio of the tw constants is often termed "the equivalent uniform moment factor" Its value is a direct measure of the severity of a particular pattern of moments relative to the basic case. namely lateral bending. (b) Level of application of transverse loads (Stabilising and destabilising loads) The lateral stability of a transversely loaded beam is dependent on the arrangement of theloads as well as the position of application of the loads with respect to the centroid of thecross section.1 and 7. The effect of various support conditions is taken into account by way of a parameter called effective length.

Table 7. for cantilever of length .2.1 Effective length of beams of Compact Plastic Cross section between supports Table 7. Effective length.

3 Equivalent uniform moment 40 . The equivalent uniform moment is defined as where m = equivalent uniform moment factor and bending moment. where the end moments are unequal. 7. But. in reality. loading patterns would vary widely from the basic case. are less prone to insiability and this beneficial effect is taken into account by the use of "equivalent uniform moments". In this case. Fig. the basic design procedure is modified by comparing the elastic critical moment for the actual case with the elastic critical moment for the basic case. Cases of moment gradient. only the basic case of beams loaded with equal and opposite end moments has been considered.(c) Influence of the type of loading So far.

a modification to the slenderness. where the maximum moment occurs away from a braced point.4 Slenderness Correction Factor 41 . when the beam is uniformly loaded in the span. Fig 7.(d) Slenderness correction factor ( n ) For situations. e. The allowable critical stress is determined for an effective slenderness. as illustrated in Fig. may be used. where n is the slenderness correction factor.7.g.4 for a few cases of loading.

7.5 compares a typical set of lateral torsional buckling test data using actual hot rolled sections with theoretical elastic critical moments given by Eqn 7.3. can be expressed in a non-dimensional form using The beam slenderness Fig. In any case.5 Comparison of test data (mostly I sections) with theoretical elastic critical moments Fig 7. these are derived on the basis of elastic behaviour and cannot be extrapolated to check the ultimate bending resistance.6 and 7. Significant differences exist between the assumptions forming the basis of the theory and the observed behaviour of beams under ultimate load tests. using the non-dimensional slenderness so that the results from many test series (using different 42 .2 Limitations of the elastic buckling theory for beams Direct use of the theory described in the foregoing pages for design purposes is in appropriate because • • Formulae (such as Eqns.7.7) are too complex for routine use.6.7.

The design method will consequently involve some degree of empiricism. (See Fig 7.2. Region II covers much of the practical range of beams without lateral restraint. which largely fail by elastic instability.3. Region III covers beams. lateral instability does not influence the design as these beams will collapse by developing full plasticity. A simple method of computing the buckling resistance of compact and plastic beams is given below and is analogous to the Perry-Robertson approach for columns.In region I.6) The three categories of beams are listed under section 7.3. The formulae derived so far will provide an upper bound. with suitable modifications to account for residual stresses and geometric imperfections. is obtained as the smaller root of the equation 43 . The designs must be based on inelastic buckling.3 Design method As discussed previously the basic theory of elastic lateral stability cannot be directly used for design purposes because of limitations and its extension to the ultimate range. The buckling resistance moment. 7.

16) = a buckling parameter.9 for rolled steel I. 44 . For more slender beams. (7.where = bending strength allowing for susceptibility to lateral -torsional buckling and are supplied in Tabulated form by steel makers.0 for all other sections.sections and channels and 1. which may be conservatively taken as 0. is a function of given by.

Stiffeners are provided at a spacing of as shown in Fig.4 7.7. In these girders. the web depth is chosen to be large enough to result in low flange forces for the design bending moment.1 Plate Girders General A fabricated plate girder is employed for supporting heavy loads over long spans. the bending moments are assumed to be carried by the flanges by developing compressive and tensile forces and shear is carried by the web. 45 .4.7. 7. To effect economy.

8).7): i.1 Recommended Proportions (Indicative values) Span to Depth Ratios: The recommended span / depth ratios for initial choice of cross-section in a plate girder used in a building are given below as indicative values: i.if at all . The design. iii.7) or a web stiffened by both transverse and longitudinal stiffeners (Fig. 7. ii. 7. For stiffened web In practice. In general we may have an un-stiffened web. For non-composite plate girder the width of flange plate is chosen to be about 0. To avoid flange buckling into web. For un-stiffened web where is the design stress of flange material. d/t exceeding 250 is rarely used. is rarely used . The recommended web thickness are (Fig. For stiffened web Flange proportions: Generally the thickness of flange plates is not varied along the spans for plate girders used in buildings. 7. however.1. It is also necessary to choose the breadth to thickness ratio of the flange such that the section classification is generally limited to plastic or compact sections only This is 46 . a web stiffened by transverse stiffeners (Fig. Constant depth beams used in simply-supported composite and non-composite girders with concrete decking Constant depth beams in continuous composite and noncomposite girders Simply-supported crane girders Web proportions: When the web plate will not buckle.7. is similar to rolled steel beams. Similarly. in such cases.in plate girders used in buildings and bridges. For un-stiffened web ii. i. ii. In the design of thin webs with shear buckling should be considered. By choosing a minimum web thickness the self-weight is reduced.4.3 times the depth of the section as a thumb rule. but the webs vulnerable to buckling may have to be stiffened if necessary.

the overall flange width-to-thickness ratio may be limited to 24. 7. Vertical stiffeners help to support the tension field action of the web panel between them. = Material safety factor for steel (= 1.2 Design methodology is computed from the plastic moment 7.9) and in such cases the overhangs beyond the supports are limited to 1/8 of the depth of the girder.2 to 1.6.2. Horizontal stiffeners are generally not provided in plate girders used in buildings. bottom flange of a simply supported girder) the width can be increased by 30% if needed.8 End panel strengthened by longitudinal stiffener Stiffener spacing: Vertical stiffeners are provided close to supports to increase the bearing resistance and to improve shear capacity.7) is chosen in the range of 1.1 Moment Resistance . The web is able to sustain shear in excess of shear force corresponding to because of vertical stiffeners. where.to avoid local buckling before reaching the yield stress.7. the panel aspect ratio a/d (see Fig.Moment resistance resistance of the flanges. Fig.4. The design stress of the flange steel = Plastic section modulus of flanges about the transverse axis of the section. Thus.e.15) 47 . For preliminary sizing.4. When vertical stiffeners are provided. 7. Sometimes double stiffeners are adopted near the bearing (see Fig. Where the end panel near support is designed without using the tension field action a smaller spacing of is adopted. Intermediate stiffeners also may not be required in the mid-span region. 7. For the tension flanges (i.

which are not too slender (see Table 7.3: Elastic critical stress related to aspect ratio 48 .15) The elastic critical stress has been simplified and given based on a/d and t/d Table as given in Table 7. given by The values for for webs.7.4) depend on the slenderness parameter defined as where.3 7.2.7. These two cases are described individually below.2 Shear Resistance Thin webs are designed either with or without stiffeners. Webs without intermediate stiffeners: The shear resistance of unstiffened webs is limited to its elastic shear buckling resistance. Design strength of web = = Material safety factor for steel (= 1.3. = Elastic critical shear strength values to be used in design for different values of a/d and d/t are tabulated in Table .4.

Table 7. In other cases the value of is a function of design stress of web steel. The web develops tension field action and thus resists considerably larger stress than the elastic critical strength of web in shear. Fig. i) ii) Increase in buckling resistance due to reduced a/d ratio. is a parameter that relates to the plastic moment capacity of the flange and the web described later.7.4 gives the values of for design purposes. Note that for very slender webs is limited to elastic critical shear stress. The full shear buckling resistance is calculated as.. 49 . The first term co mprises of critical elastic stress an d the tension field strength of the panel i.e. When the flanges reach their ultimate capacity they form hinges.9 shows the diagonal tension fields anchored between top and bottom flanges and against transverse stiffeners on either side of the panel. The term represents the contribution of the flanges to the post buckling strength and depends on plastic moment capacity of the flanges The flanges support the pull exerted by the tension field. Webs with intermediate stiffeners: The shear resistance of the plate girders with intermediate stiffeners may be improved by the following two ways.

when designed for tension field will impose additional loads on end post and hence it will become stout [Fig. The end stiffener should be designed for compressive forces due to bearing and the moment.10 (c)]. the factor nearly becomes zero and hence the contribution of flanges to shear resistance will become negligible.3 End panels For tension field action to develop in the end panels. due to tension field in the penultimate panel. This will result in the a/d value of end panel spacing to be less than that of other panels. When the girder is to resist pure shear. adequate anchorage should be provided all around the end panel. 50 . by the factor When approaches at maximum moment region. is given by 7. the contribution of flange to shear resistance will be reduced by the longitudinal stress induced because of overall bending moment.4.10(a)]. In this case. For a simple design it may be assumed that the capacity of the end panel is restricted to so that no tension field develops in it [Fig. The anchor force required to anchor the tension field force is The end panel. 7. then However in presence of overall bending moment. This approach is conservative. as it does not utilise the post-buckling strength of end panel especially where the shear is maximum. The plastic moment capacity of the web. 7.The flange-dependent shear strength is simplified and given as where. end panel acts as a beam spanning between the flanges to resist shear and moment caused by and produced by tension field of penultimate panel.

7.4. Intermediate stiffeners: The intermediate stiffeners are provided to prevent out of plane buckling of web at the location of stiffeners.4 Stiffeners Stiffeners are provided to transfer transverse concentrated compressive force on the flange into the web and are essential for desired performance of web panels. The longitudinal stiffeners are generally located in the compression zones of the girder. 7. Normally a web width of 20 t on both sides as shown in Fig. The bearing stress in the stiffener is checked using the area of that portion of the stiffener in contact with the flange through which compressive force is transmitted. Instead of one stout stiffener we can use a double stiffener as shown in Fig.7 times its actual length between the top and bottom flanges. Sometimes the stiffeners are provided for more than one of the above purposes. load-bearing stiffeners are provided. In its limit will be equal to of the web without stiffeners. Nowadays. The additional cost of welding the longitudinal stiffeners invariably offsets any economy resulting in their use. but sometimes they are used in highway bridge girders for aesthetic reasons. Longitudinal stiffeners: Longitudinal stiffeners are hardly used in building plate girders. Load bearing stiffeners: Whenever there is a risk of the buckling resistance of the web being exceeded. Such combined loads are common. 51 . The buckling resistance of the stiffeneracting as a strut (with a cruciform section as described earlier) should be not less than where is the maximum shear force in the panel and is the buckling resistance of web without considering tension field action. In order to obtain greater economy and efficiency in the design of plate girders. Intermediate web stiffeners are provided to improve web shear capacity.10(d). Design of these stiffeners is discussed below. They are not as effective as transverse stiffeners. These are referred to as bearing stiffeners. Here the end post is designed for horizontal shear and the moment 7. In such cases stiffeners are considered for their satisfactory resistance under combined load effects. The stiffener will be stout. slender webs are sometimes reinforced both longitudinally and transversely.10 (b) is assumed to act along with the stiffener provided to resist the compression as an equivalent cruciform shaped strut of effective length 0. The main function of the longitudinal stiffeners is to increase the buckling resistance of web by subdividing the web and limiting the web buckling to smaller web panels. In this case the bearing stiffener and end post are designed for a combination of stresses resulting from compression due to bearing and a moment equal to 2/3 caused due to tension in the flanges. especially owing to concentrated loads. the use of longitudinal stiffeners is rare due to higher welding costs.In order to be economical the end panel also may be designed using tension field action.

10 Various treatments for end panel 3 .(a) End panel designed using tension field action and end post designed for both bearing and to resist tension field (d) End panel designed using tension field strengthened by additional stiffener (Double stiffener) Fig. 7.

5 Webs Subjected to Co-existent Bending and Shear When a girder is subjected to predominant bending moments and low shear. the maximum bending moment occurs at one section usually. sometimes it becomes necessary to make flange splices. where the shear capacity is plotted in the axis and the bending capacity in the axis. The vertical ordinates are non-dimensionalised using (Yield shear of the web) and the horizontal ordinates by (the fully plastic moment resistance of the cross section). its ultimate capacity is conditioned by the interaction between the effects of the bending moment and shear force. e.4. The interaction diagram is generally expressed in the form seen in Fig. It gives economy as regards to the material and cost. 53 .g.5 Curtailment of flange plates For a plate girder subjected to external loading.e. Flange joints should preferably be located at the points away from section of maximum bending moment.12 will develop at collapse. maximum bending moment occurs at the centre. The splice plates are provided on each side of the web or direct butt welding. and subjected to the uniformly distributed load.7. The plates are manufactured up to a limited length. Since the values of bending moment decreases towards the end. When the maximum manufactured length of the plate is insufficient for full length of the plate girder. 7. Generally. 7. then.4. the flange plates can be obtained for full length of the plate girder. Splices in the web of the plate girder are designed to resist the shear and moment at the spliced section. In spite of the availability of full length of flange plates. i. shear mechanism of the type represented in Fig.28.7. web splices are mainly used in bridges and not buildings. 7. Flange splices: A joint in the flange element provided to increase the length of flange plate is known as flange splice. the flange area designed to resist the maximum bending moment is not required at other sections. The portion of the curve between points A and C is the region in which the girder will fail by predominant shear.6 Splices Web splices: A joint in the web plate provided to increase its length is known as web splice. web splice becomes essential. Generally. when the plate girder is simply supported at the ends. The vertical ordinate at A presents the shear capacity given by Eqn. Therefore the flange plates may be curtailed at a distance from the centre of span greater than the distance where the plate is no longer required as the bending moment decreases towards the ends. Any point in the interaction diagram shows the co-existent values of shear and bending moment that the girder can sustain.11. At least one flange plate should be run for the entire length of the girder. 7. The flange splices should be avoided as far as possible. It also becomes essential when the length of plate girder is too long to handle conveniently during transportation and erection.

11 Interaction between bending and shear effects 54 .Fig. 7.

7.11(a). 7. This value represents the horizontal co-ordinate of the point C. • • • The reduction in the web buckling stress due to the presence of bending stresses. the reduced capacity is given by 55 . i. Reduction of plastic moment capacity of flanges 7.11 when the applied moment is high. the point F.5. neglecting the contribution from the web. Beyond point in Fig. The influence of bending stresses on the value of membrane stress required causing yield in the web. the presence of additional bending moment requires the following three factors to be considered. From plasticity theory. 7. In zone ABC. their effects in reducing plastic moment capacity of flange plates must be taken into account. Generally the flange failure mode will be triggered. the failure will be triggered by the collapse of flanges by one of the following: (i) by yielding of flange material or (ii) by inward buckling of the compression flange or (iii) by lateral buckling of the flange. Thus there is a distinct change in failure criterion represented by line in Fig.Fig. the left of represents shear failure and the right of flexural failure. when the applied bending moment is approximately equal to the plastic moment resistance provided by the flange plates only.e.1 When high axial forces are developed in the flanges due to bending moments.12 Collapse of the panel This shear capacity will reduce gradually due to the presence of co-existent bending moment. The reduction of plastic moment capacity of flanges due to the presence of axial flange stresses caused by bending moment.

7.11(6)]: (i) Between A and B.2 is the average axial stress for the portion of the flange between hinges.29). The interaction diagram is constructed in stages as follows [See Fig. The horizontal ordinate B is given by maximum bending moment in the end panel given by but limited to a value of Between B and C. 7. the curve may be straight (for simplicity). (ii) (iii) Webs subjected to pure bending: The region beyond C of the interaction diagram represents a high bending moment. so the failure is by bending moment. The compression flange will therefore carry practically all the compressive stresses. This moment is .g. This is discussed in the next section.11(a)]. as the web is unable to be fully effective. The moment corresponding to C is given by The point D represents nearly the ultimate capacity of the flanges and the shear values when high bending is present.reduced because of the effects of web buckling.of course . the curve is horizontal. The horizontal ordinate as stated previously is given by the value of (See Eqn 7. by provision of adequate lateral supports). 7. Consequently the girder is unable to develop full plastic moment of resistance of the cross section. Design procedure The simplified design procedure due to Rockey et.5. In a thin walled girder.where. This equation gives the vertical ordinate of the point C in the interaction diagram [Fig. If no lateral buckling occurs (e. the girder will fail by inward collapse of compression flange at an applied moment which is approximately equal to the moment required to produce first yield in the extreme fibres of compression flange. the resulting calculations are complex. Though the concept is simple. The 56 . al (1978) and validated by them by experiments is summarised below: The shear load capacity at point C of the interaction diagram may be obtained approximately from an empirical relationship given below. the web subjected to compressive bending stress will buckle. thereby losing its capacity to carry further compressive stresses.

The diameter of circular openings is generally restricted to 0. 7. Corners of rectangular openings should be rounded Point loads should not be applied at less than D from side of the adjacent opening. (Point D in the interaction diagrams).e. Clear Spacing between the openings should not be less than beam depth. • • • 57 . The ordinate of D can be calculated approximately from The complete interaction diagram can now be drawn. The corresponding stresses in the web will be below yield. The above rule regarding spacing applies. • • • • • • • • The hole should be centrally placed in the web and eccentricity of the opening is avoided as far as possible. The clear spacing between such opening should be at least equal the longer dimension of the opening.5D.5D and the length not greater than 1. Unstiffened openings are not always appropriate. The best location for opening is where the shear force is the lowest. The depth of the rectangular openings should not be greater than 0.5D for un-stiffened openings.ultimate moment capacity to be determined by a simple formula due to Cooper (1971) is given below: = Bending moment required to produce yield in the extreme fibre of flange assuming fully effective web (i. neglecting web buckling) This value of is the moment required to produce yield in the extreme fibres of the flange. D or 10% of the span whichever is greater The best location for the opening is within the middle third of the span. Web opening should be away from the support by at least twice the beam depth.6D and the length not greater than 2D for stiffened openings.6 Plate Girders with Web Openings The following general guidance is given for plate girders with web openings. Depth of rectangular openings should not be greater than 0. D. unless they are located in low shear and low bending moment regions.

• If stiffeners are provided at the openings. the shear resistance is reduced by If a rectangular opening of is provided. 58 . the length of the welds should be sufficient to develop the full strength of the stiffener. where necessary. When a circular web opening of depth is provided. the reduction in shear resistance may be approximately evaluated as Suitable reinforcement to recover this loss of shear resistance may be designed.

the realistic assessment of the vertical load of the column is necessary. • In braced rigid portal frames.SECTION 8: ELEMENTS SUBJECTED TO AXIAL FORCE AND BENDING 8. it will transfer the bending moments to the column in addition to axial loads When a multi-storey multi-bay un-braced frame is subjected to gravity loads as well as lateral loads due to wind or earthquake. the failure is triggered by the material reaching its ultimate capacity. The presence of bending moments in the beam-columns reduces the axial force at which they fail. due to one or more of the following reasons. An overestimate of the vertical loading may inadvertently make the design unsafe by reducing the moment resistance capacity of the column. Hence. In practice. all columns experience bending about one or both axis in addition to axial compression. thereby subjecting the columns to axial compression as well as bending moments Beams from orthogonal directions in corner columns in buildings may be subjected to bending about both principal axes in addition to axial compression • • A beam-column may be subjected to single curvature bending over its length or reverse curvature bending as shown in causing variation of the nature (positive or negative) of the bending moment and curvature over the length of the column. • The compressive force may be eccentrically transferred to the column [Fig. the failure is normajly due to overall instability of the column. In "short" columns. 59 . and in some cases due to the material strength having been reached at the ends of the column. when the beam is subjected to gravity loads. the columns are subjected to sway deflection and bending. In "long" columns.1 Basic Behaviour of Beam Columns Columns subjected to a combined axial force and bending moments are referred to as Beam-Columns.

1 Beam-Columns in Frames 8. by give 60 .Columns made of Plastic and Compact Cross sections A short member (stub column).8.2 Short Beam . fails by yielding. at the squas load. made of non-slender (plastic / compact) section under axial compression.Fig.

8.2(6)] where.3 Long Beam-Columns Typically steel columns in practice are long and slender: Such slender columns when axially compressed tend to fail by buckling rather than yielding.Where.2 Stresses in Short Beam-Columns 8. the plate elements of the cross section undergo local buckling before reaching the yield stress. 61 . 8. If the stub column is made of slender cross section. given by [Fig. • • in a column within a floor between the ends of the columns (sway) at adjacent floors The consequent magnified deflection and bending moments are approximately allowed for in the design method described in section 8. S = plastic section modulus of the cross section. Similarly a short member made of plastic or compact section and subjected to only bending moment fails at the plastic moment capacity. This causes reduction in the effective area of the cross section to a value below the gross area.1.5. is the yield strength of the material. and is the gross area of the cross section.8. Fig. The additional deflection and bending moment are due to the axial load acting on the deformed column as given below. and the member fails at a load below given by Eqn. in the case of plastic and compact sections.

8. case of short.4 Modes of Failure The following are the possible modes of failure of beamcolumns 8. stocky beam and beam-columns bent in 62 . simplified equations are available. These are discussed below. 8.3. conservatively.1 Effects of slenderness ratio and axial force on modes of failure Beam-columns may fail by flexural yielding or torsional flexural buckling.4.1 Local section failure This is usually encountered in the columns with relatively small axial compression ratio reverse curvature. The actual mode of failure will depend upon the magnitude of the axial load and eccentricity as well as the slenderness ratio. using which it is possible to obtain the resistance of members.{a) Single curvature ( b ) Double curvature ( c ) Swav Deformation Fig. For design purposes.3 Deflection and Moment Magnification 8.

In the case of weak axis bending of slender members the failure may be by weak axis buckling. • • The section failure may be due to elastic or plastic buckling of plate elements depending on the slenderness ratio (b/t) of the plate. 8.1 Local section failure The interaction equation is given by: 63 .5 Design Equations The design rules are given below in the form of linear interaction equations to verify resistance of the section against local section failure as well as member failure by flexural yielding and torsional flexural buckling. 8.3 Overall instability by torsional flexural buckling This is common in slender members subjected to large ompression and uniaxial bending about the major axis or biaxial bending. • The member fails by reaching the ultimate resistance of the member at a section over the length of the member. • At the ultimate stage the member undergoes biaxial bending and torsional instability mode of failure. under the combined axial compression and magnified bending moment.5. 8.4.4.2 Overall instability failure under flexural yielding This type of failure is encountered in the case of all members subjected to larger compression and single curvature bending about the minor axis as well as not very slender members subjected to axial compression and single curvature bending about the major axis. or failure of the maximum moment section under the combined effect of axial force and magnified moment.• • The resistance of the end section (reached under combined axial force and bending moment) governs the failure. The resistance of the section may be governed by plastic buckling of plate elements in the case of plastic. compact sections and semi-compact or by elastic local buckling in the case of slender sections. These are conservative implifications of the complex non-linear failure envelopes. 8.

when only the corresponding axial force/bending moment is acting. respectively.3 (For inplane lateral UDL over the member) = 1. are the design compressive strength. are the actual axial compression. These design strengths have to be calculated considering the type of section (plastic / compact). respectively. These are calculated considering minor buckling in the case of compression and lateral torsional buckling in the case of bending about major axis. and are the plastic section moduli of the cross section about the major and minor axis. he is free to do so. and the bending strength about the and axis. respectively. In very tall buildings with a large axial compression and large lateral sway.5. respectively. The is the design yield strength given by Normally. instead of uniform moment over the entire length. not withstanding the approximate analysis procedure detailed in this chapter. 64 . More accurate evaluation of beam-column strength is possible by resorting to non-linear analysis. respectively and should be substituted for the corresponding x or y-axis. are the moment amplification factors which account for the effect of moment gradient over the member length. and magnification of moments due to the axial force acting on the deformed column The values of corresponding to the appropriate axis are evaluated from: = 1.where and are the actual compressive force and bending moments about the major axis and minor axis of the cross section. the moments obtained from the linear-elastic analysis would suffice for normal buildings with only a few storeys and low axial compression. and actual bending moments about the major and minor axes. is the gross area of cross section in the case of plastic / compact cross sections.2 Overall member failure The interaction equation to check the member capacity as governed by overall member buckling is given by where. 8. When a designer feels that a detailed and rigorous analysis is warranted.4 (For inplane lateral concentrated load over the member) = Axial compressive strength about the respective axis = Plastic and elastic section moduli. the end moments after accounting for the effects have to be considered. The effect is accounted for by taking effective length to be greater than one in sway frames.

When significant torsion is unavoidable. the framing should be arranged so as to minimise any torsion. It is well to remember that torsion will not occur if the section is loaded such that the resultant force passes through the shear centre of the cross section. When torsion is unavoidable due to detailing difficulties. When possible. Beams circular in plan and supported on a few columns.Torque interaction diagrams. the designer should consider using box girders or hollow rolled or plated sections.1 Introduction Torsional moments are invariably introduced in beams when the line of action of the resultant transverse force does not pass through the shear centre of the cross section. and the way loads are transferred to members of the frame will generally help to minimise or eliminate many potential difficulties associated with torsional effects. Stresses and deflections due to combined effects should be within the specified limits. The connections and bracing of such members should be carefully designed to ensure that the reactions are transferred to the supports. • • • • 6 . the designer should ensure the following conditions: • Beams subjected to torsion should have sufficient stiffness and strength to resist the torsional moment and forces in addition to other moments and forces. Careful detailing.2000. reference may be made to IS: 456 .2 Practical Advice Designing for torsion is complex and it is wise not to transfer loads by Torsional mode. beams carrying loads predominantly on one side are all examples of structures where torsional moments are important. For fuller description of "equilibrium torsion" and compatibility torsion. the designer may incorporate more accurate methods of combined torsion and bending from the relevant literature. interconnected bridge girders. Factored resistance of I .SECTION 9: BEAMS OF HOT ROLLED SECTIONS. 9. SUBJECTED TO TORSION AND BENDING 9.beams subjected to combined flexure and torsion should be determined from Moment . particularly when considering the load path. Members subjected to compatibility torsion deformations need not be designed to resist the associated torsional moments provided that structure satisfies equilibrium. When necessary.

i. 10. Due to transportation requirements. larger spacing of frames is used in the case of taller buildings. 10.5 m.1) vary in the range of 1 in 10 to 7 in 3 depending upon the type of sheeting and its seam impermeability. to obtain economical designs. As a result. This in addition increases the section strength. depending upon rotational restraint provided by the foundation and the connection detail between the stanchion and foundations. which were assumed to be at nodes. at the interface of the column and rafter members (at the eaves) and also between the rafter members at the apex (ridge) (See Fig. field joints are introduced at suitable positions. because the total length of the rafter is usually greater than the total length of the column members. with eaves height ranging from 6 -15 m .1).rafter junction to the ends of the haunches. But in such cases.e. haunch is usually extended along the rafter and column adequately to reduce the maximum moments in the uniform portion of the rafter and columns and hence reduce the size of these members. Generally. This allows the use of smaller rafter member compared to column member. the centre-to-centre distance between frames is of the order 6 to 7. The most common form of portal frame used in the construction industry is the pinned-base frame with different rafter and column member size and with haunches at both the eaves and apex connections (Fig. from the point of economy. Normally. Provided the haunch regions remain elastic. plastic methods of analysis are mainly used. For the design of portal frames. The effect of introducing the haunches is to ensure that the hinges. so that the haunch could be fabricated from the same basic section. The slopes of rafters in the gable portal frames (Fig. The stanchion bases behave as either pinned or fixed. frame deflections must be carefully controlled and the large horizontal thrusts that occur at the base should be accounted for. Moment-resisting connections should be provided at the eaves and crown to resist moments under lateral and gravity loadings. connections are usually located at positions of high moment. it is possible to achieve roof slopes as low as 1°. there will be a corresponding increase in the moment in the column and at the column-haunch-rafter interface.1 General Design Consideration Portal frames are the most commonly used structural forms for single-storey industrial structures. are forced away from the actual column. axial thrust and shear force transferred by the joining members. 10. 7 . Due to this. The saving in weight is usually sufficient to offset the additional cost of haunch. Although a short length of the haunch is enough to produce an adequate lever arm for the bolt group.1).SECTION 10: PORTAL FRAMES 10. The resulting solution usually proves to be economical. With the advent of new cladding systems. Therefore the lever arm of the bolt group is usually increased by haunching the rafter members at the joints. The haunch must be capable of resisting the bending moment. It is very difficult to develop sufficient moment resistance at these connections by providing 'tension' bolts located solely within the small depth of the rafter section. The common practice is to make the haunch at the connection interface approximately twice the depth of the basic rafter section. hinges can develop at their ends.

d) Analyse the frame for each loading condition and calculate the maximum required plastic moment resistance. c) Estimate the plastic moment ratios of frame members.Application of Plastic Theory in the Design of Steel Structures".(a) Haunched portal frame Fig. and f) Check the design for other secondary modes of failure The design commences with determination of possible loading conditions. e) Select the section. in which decisions such as.1 Typical gable frame 10. 10. b) Compute the factored design load combination(s). These are summarized below: a) Determine possible loading conditions. of the column and rafter. whether to treat the distributed loads as such or to consider them as 67 .2 General Design Procedure Detailed steps in the plastic design of portals are prescribed in SP 6(6): 1972 "Handbook for Structural Engineers .

So checks must be carried out for the following factors as recommended by "The Hand book for Structural Engineers" referred above. The following simple procedure may be adopted for arriving at the ratio. The step (f) is to check the design according to secondary design considerations discussed in the following sections. a) Reductions in the plastic moment resistance due to the effect of axial force and shear force. • • • At joints establish equilibrium. solve the beam mechanism equation and for columns. the design procedure may be modified to account for its 68 . (ii) Now select plastic moment ratios using the following guidelines. In step (b). b) Instability due to local buckling. 10. (i) Determine the absolute plastic moment value for separate loading conditions. 10.equivalent concentrated loads. The moments thus obtained are the absolute minimum plastic moment values. d) Deflection at service loads. connections must be designed carefully to ensure that the plastic moments can be developed at the hinge locations. It is often convenient to deal with equivalent concentrated loads in computer aided and plastic analysis methods. The step (c) is to make an assumption regarding the ratio of the plastic moment capacities of the column and rafter. c) Brittle fracture. are to be made. For beams.3 Secondary Design Considerations The 'simple plastic theory' neglects the effects of axial force.1 Influence of axial force on plastic moment Even though the presence of axial force tends to reduce the magnitude of the plastic moment resistance of the section. but the frame is free to sway).3. shear and buckling on the member resistance. The actual section moment will be greater than or at least equal to these values. These are done for all loading combinations. In addition. select the appropriate sections in step (e). the loads determined in (a) are multiplied by the appropriate load factors to assure the needed margin of safety. (Assume that all joints are fixed against rotation. For beams use the ratio determined in step (i) For columns use the corner connection moments In the step (d) each loading condition is analysed by a plastic analysis method for arriving at the minimum required Based on this moment. lateral buckling and column buckling. the frame members. solve the panel (sway) mechanism equation.

two types of 'premature failure' can occur. = effective cross sectional area resisting shear after deducting the area that has yielded under flexure. Due to the presence of shear. The required design value of plastic section modulus of the member (Z) under combined compression and bending. Usually it is found that the reduction in moment resistance due to shear is more than compensated by the strain hardening of extreme fibre under flexure and consequently effect of shear on plastic moment resistance may be neglected in most cases. 69 .2 The influence of shear force The effect of shear force is also to reduce the plastic moment resistance. retaining the 'plastic hinge' characteristic. (a) General shear yield of the web may occur in the presence of high shear-to-moment ratios. is the plastic moment resistance of the section when the axial force is absent.influence. • If P is greater than 15 percent of is given by the modified plastic moment resistance. is the actual axial force. where.3. (b) After the beam has become partially plastic at a critical section due to flexural yielding. the intensity of shear stress at the centre line may reach the yield condition. is the axial force corresponding to yielding. The following recommendations account for effect of axial compression on • Neglect the effect of axial force on the plastic moment resistance unless where P is the actual axial force and is the axial force that could cause yielding of the full cross section. is given by: 10. (c) The maximum shear resistance of a beam under combined shear and moment should be calculated as Where.

10.3.3 Local buckling of flanges and webs

If the plates, of which the cross section is made, are not stocky enough, they may be subject to local buckling either before or soon after the first plastic moment is reached. Due to this, the moment resistance of the section would drop off and the rotation resistance would be inadequate to ensure formation of complete failure mechanism. Therefore, in order to ensure adequate rotation at values and to avoid premature plastic buckling, the compression elements should have restriction on the width-thickness ratios as given in section 5, corresponding to plastic sections. 10.3.4 Lateral buckling of flexural members To avoid lateral buckling and torsional displacements, bracings should be provided to compression flanges at points as given below (Fig. 10.2). (a) Lateral support to the compression flange should be provided at the location of plastic hinges. (b) The ratio of laterally unsupported length of the compression flange to the radius of gyration of the member about weak axis, should not exceed where v is defined below in Eqn. 10.4.

(c) The slenderness ratio of compression flange, unsupported length where the moment exceeds than

of the length, adjacent to the should not be greater

(d) The slenderness ratio, of the rest of the elastic portion of the member should be such that the lateral buckling strength of that portion is greater than actual maximum elastic moment in the region. where, = yield stress of the material in Mpa and may be taken conservatively as 1.0 or may be calculated using the following equation.

where is the ratio of the plastic rotation at the hinge point just as the mechanism is formed to the relative elastic rotation of the far ends of the beam segment containing the plastic hinge.

70

10.3.5 Column buckling In the plane of bending of columns which would develop a plastic hinge at ultimate loading, the slenderness ratio should not exceed 120, where is the centre-to-centre distance of bracing members connecting and providing restraint against weak axis buckling of the column or the distance from such a member to the base of the column. Further, columns in moment resisting frames, where side sway is not prevented, should be so proportioned such that

The slenderness ratio, of the frame in the plane normal to the plane of frame action under consideration should be such that the following condition is satisfied.

the ratio of applied end moment to the plastic moment resistance of columns and other axially loaded members, should not exceed unity or the value given by the following formula.

Case I - For columns bent in double curvature by applied moments producing plastic hinges at both ends of the columns:

Case II - For slender struts, where

in addition to exceeding 0.75 also exceeds

should not contain plastic hinges. However, it is permissible to design the

71

member as an elastic part of a plastically designed structure. Such a member should be designed according to the maximum permissible stress requirements satisfying:

where,

= axial force, compressive or tensile in a member; = maximum plastic moment resistance in the beam - column; = plastic moment resistance of the section when no axial force is acting. = lateral buckling resistance in the absence of axial load = if the beam column is adequately braced against lateral buckling = buckling resistance in the plane of bending if only axially loaded (without any bending moment) and if the beam - column is laterally braced. If the column is not adequately laterally braced, is the weak axis buckling strength under only axial compression. = Euler load = in the plane of bending;

= yield strength of axially loaded section = effective cross-section area of the member; = a coefficient whose value should be taken as follows: a) For member in frames where side sway is not prevented, b) For members in frames where side sway is prevented and not subject to transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending:

c) For members in frames where side sway is prevented in the plane of loading and subjected to transverse loading between their supports; the value of is given by, For members whose ends are restrained against rotation, For members whose ends are unrestrained against rotation, = radius of gyration about the same axis as the applied moment; = non -dimensional slenderness ratio = the ratio of end moment; 10.4 Connections = actual strut length.

In a portal frame, points of maximum moments usually occur at connections. Further, at corners the connections must accomplish the direction of forces change. Therefore, the design of connections must assure that they are capable of developing and maintaining the required moment until the frame fails by forming a mechanism. 72

SECTION 11: MULTI - STOREY BUILDINGS 11.1 Introduction

Recent innovations in lateral load resisting systems (e.g. frame-wall, framed tube, belt truss with outrigger, tube in tube and bundled tube systems) have enabled construction of very tall buildings elsewhere in the world using steel frames. When we build such tall structures it becomes necessary to consider some of the effects such as the effect of lateral deflection, on gravity loading, P which are normally ignored in the design of building frames of three or four storeys. A building frame deflects under lateral load. The columns of tall buildings carry large axial loads. A building frame, which deflects under lateral load, is further forced to undergo additional deflection because of the eccentricity of gravity load from the centre of gravity of the column due to the deflected shape. These two effects of large axial loads P in the columns combined with significant lateral deflection need careful consideration in the design of tall multi-storey buildings. The combined effect of the large axial loads P and lateral deflection give rise to the destabilising effect.However, in frames that are only a few storeys high, this effect is negligible and hence ignored in the analysis. It is therefore necessary to classify frames based on the relative importance of effects for the purpose of evaluating design forces. 11.2 Classification of Frames

A frame in which sway is prevented is called a "non-sway" frame. However, there are some frames, which may sway only by a small amount since the magnitude of sway in such frame is small it will have only a negligible effect. Such frames are also classified as "non-sway" frames. Therefore, to define the non-sway frame precisely, its lateral stiffness is used as the criteria irrespective of whether it is braced or not. For such frames lateral stiffness is provided by one of the following: (i) (ii) (iii) rigidity of the joints. provision of bracing system. connecting the frame to a braced frame, shear core, shear wall or a lift well.

The inter storey deflection (i.e. the difference in deflection of top and bottom end of a column in that storey) is used to quantify the lateral stiffness of the frame. The meaning of inter storey deflection is shown in Fig. 11.1(c). Fig. 11.1 ( a ) shows a typical multi storey frame subjected to factored (dead + live) load. To ascertain the stiffness of the frame, it is analysed when subjected to assumed forces of magnitude 0.5% of factored (dead + live) load applied laterally on the frame at each floor level as shown in Fig. 11.1 ( b ) for getting the inter storey deflection for the storey. Note that the lateral loads are applied without the presence of dead and live loads. The maximum for any storey is taken as a measure of the frame stiffness.

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Fig. 11.1 Approximate calculation offrame stiffness for classification of frames (according to Home's method)

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For a frame to be of the non-sway" type the maximum inter storey deflection permitted in any storey is generally taken as follows:

where hi is the height of the i'h storey (<5/ and hi are in the same units). 11.3 Idealisation of Material Behaviour for Analysis of Frames [Fig. 11.2]

The strength and stability of a rigid jointed frame is examined based on material stress -strain idealisation of its true behaviour.

• • •

Elastic Behaviour Elastic - Plastic Behaviour Rigid Plastic Behaviour

Strain (c) Rigid-Plastic behaviour Fig 11.2: Idealisation of Material Behaviour curve 75

4. the actual length between floor beams. columns are continuous and beam. fixed. which is a part of the multi-storey non-sway frame. Let be the effective length of the column.1 Limited frame method The behaviour of a column under compression is largely controlled by its effective length. These columns become a part of either non-sway or sway frame. partially fixed. The joint restraint coefficient for the column at the top and bottom is obtained from In Fig. etc. The effective length factor for the column is defined as Fig..3. The column. 11. members frame into them at floor levels connected rigidly. respectively. 11. In multi-storey buildings.4 Effective Length of Columns 11. free and supported on rollers.3 Limited Substitute Frame In the figure are relative stiffness values for upper and lower column respectively.11.3. 11. represents the joint stiffness of the column 1-2 at the end 1 and 2 76 . A number of idealised end conditions such as pinned. are the sum of values for beams framing into the column under examination at the top and bottom respectively. can be idealised to be a part of a limited sub-frame shown in Fig. are used in textbooks to describe the restraint at the two ends of a column.

In the case of non-sway frame.4(a) Non sway frame Fig.2 Effective length for non-sway (k3 = ) and sway k3=0 frames Based on the work of Wood. 11. 11.5(a) respectively.4(b) and Fig.4 (b) Effective Length ratioljlfor a column in a rigid. the value of relative end restraints can be obtained from a contour Plot reproduced in Fig. 11.5(b) for the non-sway frame shown in Fig.jointed frame braced against sidesway for 77 .11. 11. 11. 11.4. stability criteria considered are rotations that take place at top and bottom end of the column for the elastic critical load using stability functions. Fig.4(a) and for sway frame shown in Fig.

However. Fig.11. 11. [Fig. 11.4(6) and Fig.5(a)] in addition to rotations.5 (b) Effective Length ratio IJ1 for a column in a rigid. the effect of lateral deflection has been considered. Subsequently. in the case of sway frames. 11. 11. The effective length factor for the column for non-sway frames lie in the range of "0.0".5 to 1.5(6) can also be used when the columns at the top and (or) bottom are continuous over stories provided that the joint stiffness at top and bottom are correctly accounted for. For sway frames the range increases to indicating clearly the contribution of lateral sway to instability.jointed frame with unrestricted sidesway for k3=0 78 . it was shown by Wood that the plots in Fig.5(a)Swayframe Fig.

0. (ii) If a framing member carries nearly full moment (90% of its moment resistance) it will not provide resistance for preventing the column from buckling when plastic hinges have formed. These panel walls partially inhibit sway. 11.4(b) and Fig. which column considered theFig. the effective length will depend on the relative stiffness of bracing system provided. In such cases. practical foundation restraint nor the are likely either the column considered due to 11.e. it should be considered to have zero stiffness. a rational value of k at the bottom should be chosen (i.1) can be conveniently obtained from the unit load method as given in eqn (11. if pinned.2) 79 .4 Effective length consideration when the frame is partially braced The above cases highlight the importance of rotational continuity being distributed by Neither plasticity or partial releasein Fig.4(a) with full problems. stiffness should be taken as zero. = Modulus of Elasticity of Column = Sum of the stiffness of all columns in that storey represented by their values. following limitations should be kept in view: (i) When a member is either not present or not firmly connected to the frame. applied to a case of a frame partially to reduce in restraint at with no restraint can be restrained by filler walls in between the framing members.5 if rigidly connected with transverse beams).5(6). The spring stiffness in eqn (11. 11. For such beams. * The relative stiffness of the bracing system to that of the frame is designated as £3 and is given by where = Storey height = Sum of the spring stiffness calculated as horizontal force required to produce unit horizontal deflection of the panel in the storey in which the column is located. 11. 11.11.5(a)the ends of the column.3 Effective length of insufficiently restrained columns in the frames While using the charts given in Fig.4.4. (iii) If the column under question itself carries full moment (90% of its moment resistance) it will develop flexural hinge at top and bottom and as such its effective length should be taken as (iv) When the column is attached to the foundation.9 if not rigidly connected and 0.

7 show the charts (currently used in reinforced concrete frames) for computing effective length ratios for sway bracing stiffness of and respectively. = storey height = width of panel = thickness of panel = Modulus of Elasticity of panel Fig.jointed frame with partial sway bracing of relative stiffness Fig. 11. 11. effective length factor for a column being a part of the frame with as well as can be determined using these charts.l 1. Fig. These charts are intended to account for the effect of partial sway bracing. 11. Thus.6 Effective Length ratio for a column in a rigid.6 and Fig.7 Effective Length ratio for a column in a rigid-jointed frame with partial sway bracing of relative stiffness 80 .where.

5(b)]. However. 11. (Fig. Fig.The actual effective length factor for the partial sway bracing case for a particular case of bracing stiffness determined from equation (1) is determined by interpolating the values obtained for [Fig.9 Critical Buckling Mode for an Unbraced Frame 81 . 11.6) and (Fig.8 Critical Buckling Mode of a Braced Frame Fig. This assumption is realistic (as shown by Wood) and acceptable because about 48 to 60 percent of the width of slabs is available for stiffening beams and for carrying the fixed end moments of loaded beams.5 Consideration of realistic beam stiffness based on buckling mode It is assumed that the far end of the beam from the column under consideration is fully restrained. 11.7). 11. 11. this assumption is not appropriate for base frames which are not integral with concrete floor and hence the value used for such floors should be modified taking into account the critical buckling mode at failure. 11.4.

the limited frame method can still be used. 11. If we designate this moment ratio as (smaller end moment / larger end moment) the magnification factor due to instability for different ratios of is shown (by Wood) as in Fig. 11. the effective length of the column is kept as actual length of the column itself. 82 . This method has been tested for different ratios of moments acting at top and bottom of the column. A more exact value can be obtained from the consideration of frame instability discussed later.10.11.8.For a non-sway frame. In the simplified sway method.9. For this case. 11. to its elastic buckling load 11. It is assumed that the beam members are not subjected to axial forces.5 A Simplified Sway Method In this method. If design. 11. the beam stiffness is In the case of a sway frame. the effect of instability of the column on bending moments and deflection is considered by appropriately increasing their magnitude by a moment magnification factor where is the current load level and is the load required to cause instability. the beams are bent into single curvature as shown in Fig. all the moments obtained by elastic analysis due to horizontal forces be increased by this magnification factor. the bending mode will have double curvature as shown in Fig. then the amplification factor will be The influence of frame instability on elastic response is shown in Fig. Since the effects of instability are incorporated by moment magnifier method. The beam stiffness in this case is The effective length obtained for the column using this assumption is appropriate. If they are. provided the frame is a non-sway one and proper care is taken to use reduced stiffness for beams based on the level of axial load carried by it.

4 .

The effective length as explained in section 11.2 Non . vertical loading is not considered and the entire frame is analysed.5 and the final design forces are obtained.sway frames For gravity loading. wind loading. the effects of sway is considered under all combination of loading.g.4 using limited frame method is used and the design forces are obtained. The deflections should generally be limited to span/200. the frame is analysed for vertical gravity loading considering also pattern loading as a non-sway frame using effective length of columns applicable to those braced against sidesway.2 is applied at each storey level and one of the following two design methods is adopted to get the final design forces. 11. As a first step. Even when elastic design is used.6.6. One of the approximate methods described earlier can be used. For load cases involving horizontal load pattern e.3 Sway frames The frames. are designed considering sway. the notional lateral load as described in section 11.4 Elastic design 11.11. The effective length of columns is obtained as described earlier in section 11. Next. moment redistribution to the extent of 70% can be made provided compact or plastic sections are used and minor axis column moments are not reduced while maintaining equilibrium. Since the moments have been magnified the effective length of the column is assumed as actual length of column 84 .6.4 taking them as braced. 11. (i) Simplified Design Method The side sway is allowed. (ii) Amplified Sway Method The bending moments due to lateral loads are magnified by moment magnification factor as explained in section 11.1 General The elastic design is made for factored loads when the deflections are small. which exceed the non-sway limit as specified in Section 11. non-sway frames are analysed either using full frame or using substitute frame. For horizontal loading it is necessary to consider entire frame. considering vertical loading effects on sway.2. The design of beams and columns are made using substitute frames for gravity loading described earlier.

The condition of stability of the frame can be assessed based on whether the first partial derivative with respect to deflection is greater than zero. The effect of load due to lateral deflection in these structures is not significant.1(a) and the analysis performed as indicated in section 11.1 Elastic critical conditions It is necessary to find the lowest critical load because it shows the onset of elastic critical condition.e. 11. A structure with small deformation will have a typical load-deflection curve as indicated by curve XYZ in Fig. then the elastic critical load factor is Horne has shown that the above expression gives an approximate lower bound to the elastic critical load. When it is less than zero the 85 .5% of the factored dead and live loads as shown in Fig.1(b). less than zero or equal to zero.12 (b). 11. Thus the values of for all storeys are computed.2 under lateral loads whose magnitude is 0. When it is greater than zero the system is stable.Plastic Failure Loads 11.11. The points X . Y and Z represent three different states of stability of the frame shown in Fig. more displacement will not change the system.7 Stability Considerations of Sway Frame under Elastic . 11. This load factor is also required to be used in the approximate method for evaluating elastic-plastic failure loads.7. When it is equal to zero the system is neutral i. The potential energy U is the sum of the potential energy of loads and the elastic strain energy stored Thus. 11.7. The elastic critical load factor of the frame is the ratio by which each of the factored loads will have to be increased to cause elastic instability. The sway index of the typical storey is Note that storey inter storey displacement. An approximate method based on the work of Home to arrive at a reasonable estimate of elastic buckling load is described below: Consider the rigid frame shown in Fig. 11.12 (a).2 Deteriorated critical load The stability of a structure depends on the equilibrium state with reference to the potential energy U. If is the maximum of all values.

12(6) for a typical elastic-plastic nonlinear structure system. 86 . The curve OXC represents the behaviour of ideally elastic frame. 11. The elastic portion between plastic hinges will still be contributing to the energy.e. 11. = deteriorated critical load factor without the energy component of these parts which are plastically deforming = load factor at on set of yield. Now the total energy is Fig.12 Load-deflection curve for an elastic-plastic The failure criteria for elastic-plastic structure is similar to elastic structure with plastically deforming parts eliminated. The structure with the eliminated parts is termed "deteriorated or depleted". Consider the load deflection curve OXFD in Fig. This should include the energy absorbed in plastic deformation. The critical load obtained under this depleted or deteriorated structure is known as deteriorated critical load. a small change will cause collapse.system is unstable i. The following are identified with respect to "deteriorated" critical load condition: = elastic critical load factor = rigid plastic critical load factor = rigid plastic critical load considering members between hinges formed. This is valid for an elastic system undergoing instability problem.

with ensures that structures have adequate strength. and 87 .Wood Equation An examination of Fig. Such an empirical approach proposed by Merchant Rankine Wood Equation is discussed in the next section.8 Simplified Empirical Approach using Merchant . a simplified method is required for considering the deteriorated critical load for use by designers. If rigid plastic behaviour is assumed the critical load is represented by the drooping curve GH descending from the rigid plastic load factor.12 reveals that the elastic critical value is too high and cannot be reached.Rankine load then Wood suggested a modification of Merchant Rankine load considering strain.e. Merchant suggested that realistic failure load can be expressed as a function of and According to original Merchant Rankine Equation. 11. If we call the failure load as Merchant .Rankine .hardening and restraint provided by cladding when then Consider stocky structures i. 11.Such a complete analysis as discussed above is required for a realistic estimate of deteriorated critical load. In the absence of sophisticated Computer Programme to carry out such an analysis. For slender structures.

and This is applicable to clad frames in which no account has been taken of cladding. These equations are modified for unclad frames or frames where stiffness of cladding is considered as indicated below:

Thus the method involves finding the elastic critical load and the rigid plastic critical load and then appropriate equation satisfied based on whether the frame is a clad one or otherwise. 11.9 Plastic Design Plastic design of frames can be used for the frames, which are effectively braced against out of plane sway. 11.9.1 Non-sway frames The frame should be braced against lateral sway such that it can be classified as a non-sway frame as per the condition explained in section 11.2. However, while considering the sway, against lateral loads, the bending stiffness of the frame should be ignored, as its buckling resistance will not be available to prevent sidesway when the frame reaches its plastic capacity. 11.9.2 Sway frames Either of the following two methods is used: a) Rigorous Analysis: A full elastic-plastic sway analysis is performed where proper allowance is made for frame instability effects. b) Simplified Empirical Approach: A simplified frame stability check is made using Merchant-Rankine-Wood Equation provided the following conditions are satisfied. (i) The beam side-sway mechanism with hinges in all beam ends and at base of columns should be applicable. There should not be other hinges in the column, which may lead to premature failure. (ii) The column in the ground floor should be designed to remain within elastic limit. Under the combination of unfactored load and notional horizontal load to simulate sway (wind force not included), forces and moments in the frame should be within elastic limit.

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SECTION 12: CONNECTION DESIGN 12.1 General

Connections are critical components of steel structures as they have the potential for greater variability in behaviour and strength. They are more complex to design than the members and are usually the most vulnerable components in a structural system consequent on the effects of geometric imperfections, complexity of connection geometry and residual stresses and strains. 12.2 Design Philosophy

The design philosophy for connections, based on simple analysis, is summarised below. 12.2.1 Transfer of member forces to joints For most of the connections, force distribution is based on the concept of 'force paths' taking account of overall connection behaviour. The loads acting on the connection are replaced by an equivalent system of forces and assigned to specific paths through the connection. While finding the forces, the effect of the size of the joint (in reducing the design forces), has to be considered. The force resultants thus obtained should be replaced by an equivalent system of forces on the elements of the joint (e.g., the major proportion of the bending moment is carried by the flanges of a beam and the major proportion of shear force is carried by the web). The flexibility of the components of the connection is another important aspect. It is the most flexible components that will govern the distribution of forces eg. in an end plate connection, if the bolts are of small diameter and the end plate is thick, it is the bolt flexibility that will govern the distribution of forces. However, if the bolts are stiff compared to the end plates it is the flexural action of the latter that will primarily govern the distribution of forces, including the distribution of forces in the bolts. Equivalent system of forces should be in equilibrium with the external force resultants and also in equilibrium with the joint as a whole. 12.2.2 Determination of force flow in the joint Each element in the force flow path should be checked to ensure that they have (a) adequate strength to withstand the force and (b) adequate ductility to redistribute the forces to parallel elements in case of overload. The strength and ductility evaluation has to be done for all components in the force path including bolts and welds. Above discussions are related to static ultimate capacity. In addition to this the connection should achieve satisfactory serviceability, fatigue resistance etc.

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12.3 Classification of Connections There are three types of connections (i) Flexible or hinged connections - This type of connection is also known as shear connection. It will permit large angle of rotation and transmit little or no moment. These connections are also referred as "simple". (ii) Semi-rigid connections - This type of connection allows small end rotation for transmitting appreciable moment (moment less than the full moment capacity of connected members). (iii) Rigid connections - This type of connections are intended not allow any end rotation and retain a constant relative angle between the connected members under any joint rotation and transmit moment equal to full moment capacity of the members connected. The original angles between the connected members remain unchanged.

(a) Rigid Joint

(b) Hinged Joint

(c ) Semi-rigid Joint

Fig. 12.1(a) Types of Beam to Column joints

Fig. 12.1 (b) Moment versus Joint Rotation

90

high strength bolts are pretensioned against the plates to be bolted together. This is due to the deformation of elements in the joint.2 Bolts under shear Bearing type: The most common type is bearing bolts in clearance holes.2. 12. 12. 12. The behaviour of bolted connection in tension and shear is discussed below.1 Any joint developing more than 90% of the ideal rigid joint moment may be realistically classified as rigid and similarly any joint exhibiting less than 10% of the ideal rigid joint moment classified as hinged joint. so that contact pressure is developed between the plates being joined. Fig. the joint developing moments and rotations in between are referred as semi-rigid. The moment versus relative joint rotation of different types of connections is shown in Fig.2 Shear Transfer Mechanism in Bearing type Bolts Friction type: In High strength Friction Grip (HSFG) bolted joints.1 Types of bolted connections There are two types of bolted connection (i) Bearing type (ii) Friction type 12.4.Another factor to be kept in mind in connection design is that the joints are neither ideally hinged nor ideally rigid and all joints exhibit some relative rotation between members being joined.4 Bolted Connections Connections are normally made either by bolting or by welding. the frictional resistance to slip between the plates prevents their relative slip. The HSFG 2 91 . Only when the externally applied force exceeds the frictional resistance between the plates. The force transfer mechanism under shear is shown in Fig. The force is transferred by bearing between the plate and bolts at the bolt holes. The failure may be either by shearing of the bolts or bearing of the plate and the bolt.4. 12. the plates slip & the bolts bear against the bolt holes. often referred to as ordinary bolts / black bolts. These bolted joints achieve higher stiffness in shear because of frictional resistance between the contact surfaces. 12. When external shear force is applied.

As the external tension is increased it is equilibrated by the increase in bolt tension.4 (a). Failure is reached due to large elongation when the root of the bolt starts yielding.5). The variation of bolt tension due to externally applied tension is shown in Fig. sometimes the opening of the joint may be accompanied by prying action (described in section 12.3) 12. since the bolts are only snug tight.3 Bolts under tension Bearing Type: The free body diagram of the tension transfer in a bearing type of bolted connection is shown in Fig 12. It is seen that before any external tension is applied.4. 3 92 .4.Connections are designed such that under service load the force does not exceed the Frictional resistance so that the relative slip is avoided during service. 12. the force in the bolt is almost zero.4 (b).12. Depending on the relative flexibility of the plate and the bolt.(See Fig.

4 Bolts subjected to shear and tension Bearing Type: The bolts used in many structural steel connections are subjected to a combination of shear and tension. the force in the bolt is equal to proof load. the design is done such that the externally applied tension doesn't exceed this level. When external load is applied.5 HSFG bolts under tension Normally. This process continues and the contact between the plates is maintained until the contact force due to pre tensioning is reduced to zero by the externally applied load. and is the limiting shearing stress if there is no externally applied tension. Nominally. The three dashed lines very closely represent the test result interaction curve. 12. Tests on bearing type bolts subject to combined shear and tension show that their ultimate strengths can be represented with an elliptical interaction curve as shown in Fig. in which.4.6 Bolts in a bearing type connection subject to combined shear and tension 93 . the shank cross section may be more critical in the presence of significant shear and coincident bending. the behaviour of the bolt under tension is essentially the same as that in a bearing type of joint. Correspondingly there is a clamping force between the plates in contact. 12. 12.Friction type: In the case of HSFG bolts. Fig. is the limiting tensile stress if there is no shear. even before any external load is applied. The balance of the force is equilibrated by the reduction in contact between the plates. Fig. part of the load (nearly 10%) of the load is equilibrated by the increase in bolt force.6. 12. After the external force exceeds this level.

lower the shear required to cause the connection to slip. Overall equilibrium is now 94 . If any variation in coefficient of friction with bearing pressure is discounted there will be a linear reduction in friction capacity of the connection. Fig. If the end plate is relatively rigid and does not deflect significantly. two bolt connections.7 Bolts under tension and prying However. the behaviour is more complex. Once the applied load exceeds the sum of bolt preloads. Any external tension will produce a corresponding reduction in clamping force between the contact surfaces. the end plate separates entirely from the base. 12.7 (a) shows the variations in behaviour that can occur in simple. if a flexible end plate is used. it is possible to ignore its flexural action.4. For applied loads that are less than the sum of the bolt preloads there is no significant separation of the connection components and only modest change in the bolt preload. the tension will reduce the contact force and thus. Fig. If the external tension arises because of an applied moment there will be no net change in clamping force. From this point onwards to rupture the sum of the bolt loads equals the applied load.5 Prying action In practice it is not possible to separate the discussion of bolts in tension from that of surrounding elements. 12. Flexure of the connected parts may lead to a significant increase in bolt load due to prying action. 12. Each portion of the end plate bends into double curvature the restraining moments at the bolt centreline develop from forces at or near the tips of the end plate.The compressive design is governed by Friction Type: In a slip critical connection.

and the ultimate capacity is reduced.1) where. to the plastic moment capacity of the plate From this the minimum thickness for the end plate can be obtained as (12. 1989) (12. In the case of HSFG bolts. 12. the effective width of flange per pair of bolts. = distance between prying force and bolt centreline and is the minimum of.2). the minimum thickness of the end plate to avoid yielding of the plate. then the thickness of the end plate will have to be increased.given by 2B = 2F+2Q. either the end distance. The effect of the amplification of the bolt forces is twofold: there is an earlier separation of the connection elements with a reduction in connection stiffness once separation has occurred. Therefore. is the distance from the bolt centreline to the toe of the fillet weld or to half the root radius for a rolled section. or the value given by Eqn. however. it may simply be a slip between the connected plates.3) The corresponding prying force will be If the total force in the bolt exceeds the tensile capacity of the bolt. can be obtained by equating the moment in the plate at the bolt centreline (point A) and at the distance from it (point B).6 Failure of bolted connection Connections in shear: The failure of connections with bearing bolts in shear involves either bolt failure or the failure of the connected plates.5 for limit state design. The design formula for minimum prying force is given by (Owens and Cheal.2) Even if the bolts are strong enough to carry the additional prying forces. (12. the plate can fail by developing a mechanism with yield lines at the centreline of the bolt and at the distance from it.(12. 2 for non pre-loaded bolt. 95 .4. the proof stress in consistent units and t is the thickness of the end plate. 1.

additional tensile forces called prying forces are developed in the bolts as shown in Fig. to develop the full bearing stress. which are pretensioned and thus have less ductility. and limit state method is used then bearing failure can occur at the Limit State of collapse and needs to be checked. if slip cannot be allowed) then one has to calculate the slip resistance. The prying forces can be kept small by using a thick plate or by limiting the distance between the bolt and the plate edge. If the attached plate is allowed to deform. are susceptible to failure.7. Therefore. the bolt has to have adequate distance from the edge of the plate. However. the applied load produces tension in the bolts.9 times their proof load. the slip resistance needs to be checked anyway as a Serviceability Limit State. Tension Failure: In a tension or hanger connection. 7 96 .(1) Bearing bolts In connections made with bearing type of bolts. and failure of plate takes place in bearing In addition to the above. which will govern the design. QZD (2) HSFG bolts HSFG bolts will come into bearing only after slip takes place. since HSFG bolts are designed to withstand working loads without slipping. if slip is not critical. However. These are therefore normally designed to take only 0. the plate may also tear or burst at the edge due to inadequate edge distance. HSFG bolts. Even in the Limit State method. Therefore if slip is critical (i. the failure may be due to • • • shearing takes place at the bolt shear plane failure of bolt takes place in bearing.e. Black bolts and turned and fitted bolts have sufficient ductility to take care of prying forces simply by an increase in the bolt strain under constant yield stress. 12.

9. then the primary resistance to a block shear failure is shearing and not tensile and vice versa. When a tensile load applied to a particular connection is increased the fracture strength of the weaker plane will be approached.5. For this situation it is possible for a "block" of steel to tear out as shown in Fig. Part 1 (1985) (1) Fastener Spacing and edge distances: 8 97 . The plane will not fail because the stronger plane restrains it. The strength as governed by block shear is the minimum of Check for block shear should be carried out when using high strength bolts with minimum pitch and edge distances and in coped sections.5 Code Provisions 12. Computing the shear fracture strength on the gross area subject to tension and adding it to the tensile yield strength on the area subject to shear on the perpendicular segment. (i) Computing the tensile fracture strength on the net section in one direction and adding to that value the shear yield strength on the gross area on the perpendicular direction. Fig.12.Block Shear: Block shear failure is another mode of failure wherein the failure may occur along a path involving tension on one plane and shear on a perpendicular plane. 12. Thus it is not correct to add the fracture strength of stronger plane to the fracture strength of the weaker plane to determine shear resistance of a particular member. The total strength is obtained from the sum obtained by adding the fracture strength of the stronger plane plus the yield strength of the weaker plane.1 Summary of code provisions in BS5950. The load can be increased until the fracture strength of stronger plane is reached. 12. the block shear strength of a particular member is determined by. Thus. (ii) Failure by block shear occurs when a portion of the member tears out in a combination of tension and shear.9 Block Shear If a member has a large shear area and a small tensile area.

where py is the design strength of steel ( 2 ) Bearing Bolts: (i) Shear Capacity: The shear strength per bolt is given by where is the ultimate shear stress in the bolt. the shear area (ii) is Bearing Capacity : The bearing strength per bolt is given by is the permissible bearing stress. machine flame cut.40 D and any end D is the diameter of the holes Maximum edge distances: Maximum edge distance is for corrosive environment.Pitch of bolts: where d0 is the nominal diameter and t is the thickness of the thinner element Edge and End distances: Minimum edge and end distances: Quality of cut Edge and end distance For a rolled.25 D sawn or planned edge For a sheared or hand flame cut edge 1. 1. The bearing strength of the plate is given by 98 . where. is the nominal diameter of the bolt and is the combined thickness of the thinner plates bearing on the bolt in any direction.

and is the tensile stress area (vi) Bolts subject to Combined Shear and Tension: When bolts are subject to both shear and tension then the following condition should be satisfied. Slip resistance per bolt Where is a factor. of a splice or end connection in a compression or tension element containing more than two bolts exceeds the shear capacity. is taken as (v) Bolts subject to Tension: The tension capacity. for oversized holes and long slots perpendicular to the load and for long slots parallel to the load). the shear capacity. is the permissible bearing stress for the plate.where. (2) Friction type bolts (i) Slip Resistance: Slip Resistance of parallel shank HSFG bolts is given by an expression similar to the frictional force between surfaces in contact. is the end distance and is the thickness of the plate (hi) Long Joints: When the joint length. should be taken as where length of the joint exceeds five times the nominal (iv) Large grip lengths: When the grip length diameter. of a bolt is given by where is the tension strength of bolt. 99 . which takes care of the frictional area in different hole types for clearance holes.

9 times their proof load. the shear capacity. The generally employed welding methods are gas and arc welding.6 Welded Connection = applied tension. 100 .13) Where e is the end distance and is the bearing stress. 12. manner of welding. = shear capacity and Static strength of a welded joint depends upon factors such as type and size of the weld. and type of electrode.0. metal-active gas welding (MAG) and stud welding are commonly used arc welding processes. (iii) Long Joints: When the joint length. (12.14) (iv)Tension Failure: HSFG bolts are designed to take only 0. = applied shear. b) A means of showing dimensions.1 Weld symbols The symbolic representation of welds includes elementary symbols along with a) Supplementary symbol.6.is the slip factor . submerged-arc welding (SAW). the following relation has to be satisfied.45 for untreated (non-galvanised. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). of a splice or end connection in a compression or tension element containing more than two bolts exceeds 500 mm. (ii) Bearing strength: The bearing strength of plates for parallel shank friction grip fasteners is given by (12.15) Where. But the most common welding process is arc welding. non-painted) surfaces and is the proof load. manual metal-arc welding (MMA). should be taken as (12. = tension capacity 12. (v) Combined Shear and tension failure: For HSFG bolts subjected to combined action of shear and tension. or c) Some complementary indications.

4 Types of welds The commonly used forms of welds are butt welds and fillet welds. liquid penetrants. The aggregate length of flaw shall not be more than 200 mm per meter length of the joint. 12. • For joints welded from one side with out backing strip. • Incomplete weld. • Total of incomplete penetration.2 Weld defect acceptance levels In general the following weld defects detected during inspection are acceptable for structures. Size of the slag may also be considered. There are several non-destructive testing methods to check the quality of welds such as visual inspection.10 shows different types of butt welds. and radiography. Incomplete penetration and cracks are not allowed at or near the end or beginning of a joint.IS: 813-1986. • For joints welded from both the sides. • Slag inclusion located along the weld as a chain or unbroken line is allowed if their aggregate length does not exceed 200 mm per meter of weld length. incomplete penetration with thickness up to 5% of the parent metal thickness. Fig.6.3 Welding inspection It is essential that welded joints are thoroughly examined and defects are detected so that any possible distress could be averted. "Scheme Of Symbols for Welding" gives all the details of weld representation in drawings.6. but not exceeding 2 mm and the length more than 500 mm can be accepted. 101 103 . undercuts shall not be more than 0. but not greater than 3 mm when welding is done from one side. ultrasonic testing. 12. undercuts shall not be greater than 1 mm. Butt welds are used at an edge-to-edge junction or a tee junction and is made by bringing the plates to be joined face to face edgewise and then filling the cavity formed by edge preparation or by just penetrating the unprepared junction. For metal thickness up to 10 mm. 12. incomplete penetration with thickness up to 15% of parent metal thickness but not exceeding 3 mm at the root is allowed. slag inclusion on pores located separately or as a chain shall not exceed 10% of metal thickness but not greater than 2 mm when welding is done from both the sides and 15% of metal thickness.6.5 mm. Butt welds can be either full penetration or partial penetration. molten metal flow. magnetic particles. For metal thickness more than 10 mm. • Total of isolated gas pores and slag inclusion shall not exceed 5 in number per square centimetre of the weld. pits and cracks shall not be allowed. 12.

5 Design of butt weld The butt weld is normally designed for direct tension or compression. 12. tee joints and corner joints. Fig. Fig. a provision is made to ensure that it is safe against shear failure. For design purposes. Design stress value is often taken to be the same as the parent metal strength. 102 .11 Fillet (a) side welds and (b) end welds 12.6.11 shows the two types of fillet welds: side fillet weld and end fillet weld.A fillet weld is made away from the edges of the abutting plates and is formed by welding the members in an overlapped position or by using a secondary joining material. The throat size is specified by the effective throat thickness. 12. However. Fillet welding could be applied for lap joints. 12. Effective length of the butt weld is taken as the length of the continuous full size weld. the effective area of the butt-welded connection is taken as the effective length of the weld times the throat size.10 Different types of butt joints Fig.

the dimensions of the wider or thicker part should be reduced at the butt joint to those of the smaller part. the design stresses in shear and tension may be reduced to 80% of the above value. The unwelded portion in partial penetration butt welds. For stress calculation. 103 . For a butt weld reinforced on both sides the effect of reinforcement should be neglected for estimating the throat dimensions. This is applicable in cases where the difference in thickness exceeds 25 % of the thickness of the thinner part or 3. Fig. or thickness. U. 12. For butt welding parts with unequal cross sections. The slope provided at the joint for the thicker part should not be steeper than one in five [Figs. a maximum value of reduced effective throat thickness equal to 5/8 of the thickness of the thinner part joined must be used. J and bevel types and incomplete penetration butt welds should not be used for highly stressed joints and joints subjected to dynamic and alternating loads. the ends of the weld shall be returned to ensure full throat thickness. whichever is greater. In instances. They are not to be used in locations subjected to dynamic or alternating stresses. For partial penetration weld effective throat thickness is taken as the minimum thickness of the weld metal common to the parts joined. shall not be greater than lA thickness of the thinner part joined. Where reduction of the wider part is not possible. excluding reinforcement. say unequal width. where this is not practicable. Intermittent butt welds are used to resist shear only and the effective length should not be less than four times the longitudinal space between the effective length of welds nor more than 16 times the thinner part. For field welds. welded from both sides.For a full penetration butt weld.12 (a) & (b)].0 mm.12(c)]. the weld metal is built up at the junction equal to a thickness which is at least 25 % greater than the thinner part or equal to the dimension of the thicker part [Fig. and should be in the central portion. 12. 12. Unsealed butt welds of V. the throat dimension is usually assumed as the thickness of the thinner part of the connection.12 Butt welding of members with (a)&(b) unequal thickness (c) unequal width Design stresses for butt welds are assumed same as for the parent metal with a thickness equal to the throat thickness.

12.6.6 Design of fillet weld A simple approach to design is to assume uniform fillet weld strength in all directions and to specify a certain throat stress value. The average throat thickness is obtained by dividing the applied loads summed up in vectorial form per uniFor stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose

Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled section Table 12.2. Value o f K for different angles between fusion faces

Thickness of thicker part Over (mm) Up to and including (mm)

Minimum size (mm)

10 3 10 20 5 For a 20 penetration weld, the depth of penetration should be a minimum of 2.4 mm. deep 32 6 Then 32 size of the weld is minimum leg length plus 2.410(Minimum of a fillet weld the 50 8 (First run) mm. The size should not be less than 3 mm or more than the thickness of the thinner part joined. size of fillet) Mi Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of 3 single run fillet a 10 12.6.6-Design of fillet weld weld A simple approach to design is to assume uniform fillet weld strength Minimum size Thickness of thicker part 10 20 Table 12.1specify a includingfirst run orvalue. The average Minimum size of (mm) of 5 single run fillet a (mm) in all directions and toUp to and certain throat stress Over (mm) weld throat thickness is obtained by dividing the applied loads summed up in 3 vectorial (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled form per unit length by10 throat size. Alternatively, design the Fig.12.14 20 32 6 20 strength can 10 different with direction of the load vector. This5method sectionbe 20 32 6 is limited in usage to cases of pure shear, tension or compression. It 32 50 cannot be used in cases where the load vector direction varies10(Minimum 32 50 8 (First8 (First run) around run) 10(Minimum Table 12.2. Value othe simple method, the stress fusionof sizethe fillet) weld group. For f K for different angles between issize faces of vector taken fillet) as sum of the force components acting in the weld divided by the throat area. Angle between 60° - 90° 91°-100° 101°-106° 107°-113° 114°-120° Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld fusion faces 104 The size of a normal fillet should be taken as the minimum leg size 60° 90° 91°-100° a single run 107°-113° 114°-120° Table 12.6.6-Design ofsize of weld run or of 101°-106° fillet 3 12.1 Minimum -fillet first 10 (Fig. 12.13). weld square A simpleaapproach to design isshould be at least 1.5 mm lessstrength edge edge of part, the weld size to assume uniform fillet weld than the 20 Constant [Fig. 0.70 0.65 0.55 0.50 thickness K 10 12.14 (a)] .to specify roundeda toe of stress value. The average size Table in all Minimum and of first run or of 0.60 12.1 directions size For the a certain single run fillet section, the weld throat a rolled 5 should not exceed 3/4 thickness of the section atthe applied loads summed up in weld throat thickness is obtained by dividing the toe [Fig. 12.14 (b)] . 12.6.6 Design of form per unit length by the throat size. Alternatively, design fillet weld vectorial 32 6 n should be a20 minimum of 2.4 mm. Then the size of the weld is minimum leg length strength can be of a fillet with direction of be less than 3 mm ormethod different weld should not the load vector. This more than the plus 2.4 mm. The sizedesign is to assume uniform fillet weld strength in all directions A simple approach tousage to cases of pure shear, tension or is limited in part joined. thickness of the thinner throat stress Minimum size requirement compression. It given of fillet and to specify a certain in cases where the The average direction varies welds is by cannot be usedEffective throat thicknessvector throat thickness is obtained around 32 50value. load 8 (First run) less than 3 below in the applied loads summed up in vectorialshould not be10(Minimum mm and Table 12.1. dividing form issize uniFor stress weld group. For the1.0 t under specialthe stress per taken fillet) is vector simple method, circumstances, of as the calculations, should not exceed 0.7 t and where't' the thickness the effective of the thickness should be taken in thetimes fillet size,by the throat sum throat force components acting as K weld divided where K is a of thinner part. constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in area. Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose The size of a normal fillet should be taken as the minimum leg size 60° - 90° 91°-100° 101°-106° 107°-113° 114°-120° Table 12.1 Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled (Fig. 12.13). Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld section

For stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose fusion faces form angles between 60° and 120°. The actual length is taken as the length having the effective length plus twice the weld size. Minimum effective length should not be less than four times the weld size. When a fillet weld is provided to square edge of a part, the weld size should be at least 1.5 mm less than the edge thickness [Fig. 12.14 (a)] . For the rounded toe of a rolled section, the weld size should not exceed 3/4 thickness of the section at the toe [Fig. 12.14 (b)] . For stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose fusion faces form angles between 60° and 120°. The actual length is taken as the length having the effective length plus twice the weld size. Minimum effective length should not be less than four times the weld size. When a fillet weld is provided to square edge of a part, the weld size should be at least 1.5 mm less than the edge thickness [Fig. 12.14 (a)] . For the rounded toe of a rolled section, theplate, (b) fillet welds not exceed 3/4 Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of weld size should thickness of the section at the toe [Fig. 12.14 (b)] . on round toe of rolled section

Table 12.2. Value o f K for different angles between fusion faces

Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled section Table 12.2. Value o f K for different angles between fusion faces

Generally speaking, continuous welding is preferred because of its superior performance in dynamic loading. However intermittent fillet welds may sometimes be provided where the strength required is less than that can be developed by a continuous fillet weld of the smallest allowable size for the parts joined. The length of intermediate welds should not be less than 4 times the weld size with a minimum of 40 mm. The clear spacing between the effective lengths of the intermittent welds should be less than or equal to 12 times the thickness of the thinner member in compression and 16 times in tension; in no case the length should exceed 20 cm. Chain intermittent welding is better than staggered intermittent welding. Intermittent fillet welds are not used in main members exposed to weather. For lap joints, the overlap should not be less than five times the thickness of the thinner part. For fillet welds to be used in slots and holes, the dimension of the slot or hole should comply with the following limits:

105 a) The width or diameter should not be less than three times the thickness or 25 mm whichever is greater b) Corners at the enclosed ends or slots should be rounded with a radius not less than 1.5 times the thickness or 12 mm whichever is greater, and

c) The distance between the edge of the part and the edge of the slot or hole, or between adjacent slots or holes, should be not less than twice the thickness and not less than 25 mm for the holes. The effective area of a plug weld is assumed as the nominal area of the whole in the plane of the faying surface. Plug welds are not designed to carry stresses. If two or more of the general types of weld (butt, fillet, plug or slots) are combined in a single joint, the effective capacity of each has to be calculated separately with reference to the axis of the group to determine the capacity of the welds.

Fig. 12.15 End returns The high stress concentration at ends of welds is minimised by providing welds around the ends as shown in Fig. 12.15. These are called end returns. End returns are invariably provided for welded joints that are subject to eccentricity, impact or stress reversals. The end returns are provided for a distance not less than twice the size of the weld. 12.6.7 Slot welds When the lengths available for the normal longitudinal fillet welds are not sufficient to resist the loads, slot and plug welds [Fig. 12.16] are used to develop the required strength. Plug welds when used to fill the holes that are temporarily made for erection bolts for beam and column connections, their strength may not be considered in the overall strength of the joint.

Fig. 12.16 Slot and Plug welds The limitations given in specifications for the maximum sizes of plug and slot welds are necessary to avoid large shrinkage, which might be caused around these welds when they exceed the specified sizes. The strength of a plug or slot weld is calculated by considering the allowable stress and its nominal area in the shearing plane. This area is usually

104 106

The force caused by torsion is determined using the formula = (Moment / Polar moment of inertia) (12.18) Where.18). 12. and co-ordinates reflect the positive and Welded Connection: When the applied load lies in the plane of the fillet weld connection. P can be resolved into components and acting at distances of and respectively from the centroid. the force can be decomposed into its vertical and horizontal components: 107 .7 Eccentric Connection When external load does not pass through the centre of gravity of the bolt or weld group. is the tension. 12. For convenience. it causes shear and torsion (Fig. Fig.17 Bolt group eccentrically loaded in shear The resultant force on each bolt is given by Where n is the number of bolts in the bolt group and the negative values of the bolt location as appropriate. The eccentricity causes either in plane moment and rotation or out of plane moment and shear.referred to as the faying surface and is equal to the area of contact at the base of the slot or plug. s is the distance from the centre of gravity of the weld to the point under consideration. ■ Load lying in the plane of connection [Fig. and is the polar moment of inertia of the weld. The length of the slot weld can be obtained from the following relationship: 12. the load is said to be eccentric. the bolt group is subjected to shear and torsional moment. 12.17] Bolted Connection: If the applied load lies in the plane of the connection. The bolt group is analysed by resolving the eccentric load into a concentric load acting through the centroid of bolt group and a torsional moment where The moment acts with respect to the centroid of the bolt group as a centre of rotation.

it is a usual practice to assume a unit size weld and compute the stresses on a weld of unit length. then the neutral axis will pass through the centre of gravity of the bolt group.Where. Fig. While designing a weld subjected to combined shear and torsion. 12. For bolts with initial tension the number of bolts required is taken as 80% of Eqn. is the shearing stress and is the reaction and is the total length of the weld. 12. and denote the vertical and horizontal components of the distance The stress due to shear force is calculated by the following expression Where. The neutral axis may be assumed to be at a distance of one-sixth of the total depth d. 12.19 (b). The nominal tensile force in the bolts can be calculated assuming it to be proportional to the distance of the bolt from the neutral axis in Fig. If there is initial tension in bolts.21. 108 . 12. 12. When there is no initial tension in bolts the number of bolts required may be calculated using the equation given below Where m is the number of bolt lines.18 Welds subjected to shear and torsion ■ lying out of plane of connection [Fig.19] Load Bolted Connection: In the connection shown in Fig. the bolts are subjected to combined shear and tension. From the maximum weld force per unit length the required size of the fillet weld can be calculated.19. is the pitch of bolts and is the design strength of the bolt.

for design purposes the stresses need not be combined at a point. it can be safely assumed that the web welds would carry all the of the shear and the flange welds all of the moment.20.21 Weld provision for carrying shear and moment 109 . Fig. 12.5 times the average value. 12. if the bending stress is calculated by the flexure formula.21.Welded Connection: In the case of welds. 12. If the welds used are as shown in Fig. Hence.20 Variation of bending and shear stress Fig. These bending and shear stress variations are shown in Fig. It is generally satisfactory if the weld is designed to withstand the maximum bending stress and the maximum shear stress separately. it is a common practice to treat the variation of shear stress as uniform if the welds are short. But. the shear stress variation for vertical welds is parabolic with a maximum value equal to 1. 12. It may be observed here that the locations of maximum bending and shearing stresses are not the same.

For purposes of design. Stiffened and unstiffened elements are shown in Fig.1 General Thin sheet steel products are extensively used in building industry. the yield strength of steel sheets used in cold-formed sections is at least although there is a trend to use steels of higher strengths.30%. Generally these are available for use as basic building elements for assembly at site or as prefabricated frames or panels. which has been divided into two or more narrow sub elements by the introduction of intermediate stiffeners. These thin steel sections are cold-formed. An element. besides an attractive surface finish. In order that a flat compression element be considered as a stiffened element. which is supported by webs along both its longitudinal edges. Much thicker material up to 8 mm can be formed if pre-galvanised material is not required for the particular application. and range from purlins to roof sheeting and floor decking. 13. a bend) which has sufficient flexural rigidity to maintain straightness of the edge. These increases are predominant in zones where the metal is bent by folding. without application of heat) from steel sheets of uniform thickness. which is supported along one longitudinal edge only with the other parallel edge being free to displace. These are given the generic title Cold Formed Steel Sections. formed during rolling.2 Cross sectional shapes are formed to any desired shape and to close tolerances and these can be consistently repeated for as long as required. their manufacturing process involves forming steel sections in a cold state (i. The effect of cold working is thus to enhance the mean yield stress by 15% . is called a stiffened element. Sometimes they are also called Light Gauge Steel Sections or Cold Rolled Steel Sections. i.e. The thickness of steel sheet used in cold-formed construction is usually 1 to 3 mm. so that high resistance to corrosion. Some of the main advantages of cold rolled sections are as follows: • • 13. can be achieved. the increase being the consequence of cold working well into the strain-hardening range. and also sometimes as low as Cold forming has the effect of increasing the yield strength of steel. The method of manufacturing differentiates these products from hot rolled steel sections. the yield stress may be regarded as having been enhanced by a minimum of 15%. A rule of thumb is that 110 . Pre-galvanised or pre-coated metals can be formed. (e. An unstiffened element is one.1 An intermittently stiffened element is made of a very wide thin element. when the element buckles on loading. Normally.g. Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements Cold-formed steel elements are either stiffened or unstiffened.SECTION: 13 COLD FORMED STEEL SECTIONS 13. The strength/weight ratio of cold-formed sections is significantly high compared with hot rolled sections. it should be supported along one longitudinal edge by the web and along the other by a web or lip or other edge stiffener.e.

0. Regions near the supports are far more effective and are taken to be fully effective. for purposes of design calculations.1 Effective width concept The effects of local buckling can be evaluated by using the concept of effective width. then the edge-stiffened element may be treated as having a local buckling coefficient ( K ) value of 4.2. Lightly stressed regions at centre are ignored. If the stiffener is adequate.1 Stiffened and Unstiffened elements 13. If the edge stiffener is inadequate (or only partially adequate) its effectiveness is disregarded and the element will be regarded as unstiffened. The section behaviour is modelled on the basis of the effective width 111 . as these are least effective in resisting the applied stresses. Fig.the depth of simple "lips" or right-angled bends should be at least one-fifth of the adjacent plate width. More exact formulae to assess the adequacy of the stiffeners are sometimes employed. 13.

thickness of the element. The buckling coefficient for the member having a width of the type shown above is given by in a lipped channel of 112 . 13. The effective width of an element under compression is dependent on the magnitude of the applied stress the width/thickness ratio of the element and the edge support conditions. to conform to extensive experimental data. BS5950: Part 5 provides a semi-empirical formula for basic effective width.The effective width. For example. Part 5 for a complete list of buckling coefficients). in width of the element. Part 5 for computing K values for a channel element is given below for illustration (See BS 5950. multiplied by the edge stress is the same as the mean stress •across the section multiplied by the total width of the compression member. local buckling stress given by load buckling coefficient which depends on the element type.2. section geometry etc. in Modifications are necessary for an unstiffened element under uniform compression and for elements under combined bending and axial load.2 Local buckling of compressed plates The effective width concept is usually modified to take into account the effects of yielding and imperfection. Typical formula given in BS 5950. When then Where compressive stress on the effective element.

For the member having the width of in the above sketch. Maximum width to thickness ratios: The maximum permitted ratios of (b/t) for compression elements are as follows: • • • Stiffened elements with one longitudinal edge connected to a flange or web element and the other stiffened by a simple lip = 60 Stiffened elements with both longitudinal edges connected to other stiffened elements = 500 Unstiffened compression elements = 60 The designer should guard against the elements developing very large deformations. then the width required for the lip may become too large and the lip itself may have 113 . respectively. 13. Where are the thicknesses of element width normally and will be equal).3 Treatment of elements with stiffeners Edge Stiffeners: As stated previously.425 as the case may be.0 or The buckling coefficient for the element of width is given by is computed from Eqn. elements having and provided with simple lip having one fifth of the element width may be regarded as a stiffened element.2. when b/t values exceed half the values tabulated above. The computed values of 0. 60. (Note: should not be less than 4. 2(b) given above.

In the case of flexural members. The required minimum moment of inertia of the stiffener about the axis 0-0 in Fig. Similarly very wide elements can be divided into two or more narrower sub elements by introducing intermediate stiffeners formed during the rolling 114 .2. all elements may be subject to reductions in width. 13. If an element has a number of stiffeners spaced closely and then generally all the stiffeners and sub elements can be considered to be effective. Elements in tension are. the portions located close to the supported edges are effective.3) between stiffeners = thickness of the element = yield stress If the sub-element width/thickness ratio does not exceed 60. the effectiveness of the intermediately stiffened elements is somewhat reduced due to shear lag effects. As a general rule.5 Proportioning of stiffeners The performance of unstiffened elements could be substantially improved by introducing stiffeners (such as a lip). the total effective area of the element may be obtained by adding effective areas of the sub-elements to the full areas of stiffeners. Intermediate stiffeners: A wide and ineffective element may be transformed into a highly effective element by providing suitable intermediate stiffeners (having a minimum moment of inertia about an axis through the element mid surface). In the case of compression members.3 is given by: Where = larger flat width of the sub element (see Fig. only the compression elements are considered to have reduced effective widths. as they are not subjected to bending.4 Effective section properties In the analysis of member behaviour.stability problems. generally. When is larger than 60. the effective section properties are determined by summing up the effective widths of individual elements. of course.2. 13. 13. 13. Special types of lips (called "compound" lips) are designed in such cases and are usually validated by tests. not subject to any reduction of width.

The Indian standard IS: 801-1975 prescribes a minimum moment of inertia for the lip given by Where = minimum allowable moment of inertia of stiffener about its own centroidal axis parallel to the stiffened element in = flat width .process. the sum of the "effective widths" of individual sub elements will enhance the efficiency of the section. it would be appropriate to design a lip to ensure that the lip itself does not develop instability. = Yield stress in For a simple lip bent at right angles to the stiffened element. When then the total effective area of the element is obtained as the sum of the effective areas of each sub element to the full areas of stiffeners. The effective widths of each sub element may be determined according to Eqn 1 (a) and Eqn.l (b) by replacing the sub element width in place of the element width b. when the lip or the edge stiffener has a moment of inertia about an axis through the plate middle surface equal to or greater than Where t and b are the thickness and breadth of the full width of the element to be stiffened. The minimum moment of inertia about an axis through the element middle surface required for this purpose (according to BS 5950.thickness ratio of the stiffened element. For elements having a full width b less than or equal to 60 t. Intermediate Stiffeners: Intermediate stiffeners are used to split a wide element into a series of narrower and therefore more effective elements. For lips with b > 60 t.e. Part 5) is given in Eqn (4) above. a simple lip of one fifth of the element width (i. b/5) can be used safely. 115 . A maximum b/t ratio of 90 is regarded as the upper limit for load bearing edge stiffeners. Part 5 an unstiffened element (when provided with a lip) can be regarded as a stiffened element. According to BS 5950. the required overall depth is given by Note that both the above equations given by the Indian Standards are dependent on the units employed.

it is possible to obtain large increases in effectiveness and therefore it is advantageous to use a few intermediate stiffeners. the sub element effective width must be reduced to given by.1975. In these circumstances. 116 . To model this reduced performance. When stiffeners are closely spaced.When the sub elements having a larger values are employed the performance of intermittently stiffened elements will be less efficient. the complete element is replaced for purposes of analysis by an element of width b and having fictitious Where = Moment of inertia of the complete element including stiffeners. so long as the complete element width does not exceed 500 t.1975 also suggests some simple rules for the design of intermediate stiffeners. the stiffeners and sub elements may be considered to be fully effective. the effective stiffener area varies between given below: and as It must be noted that when small increases in the areas of intermediate stiffeners are provided. However there is a tendency for the complete element (along with the stiffeners) to buckle locally. IS: 801. about its own neutral axis. When the flanges of a flexural member is unusually wide. i. The effective stiffener areas are also reduced when by employing the equation: For values between 60 and 90. the width of flange projecting beyond the web is limited to Where = flange thickness = depth of beam = the amount of curling = average stress in as specified in IS: 801 .e.

The amount of curling should be decided by the designer but will not generally exceed 5 % of the depth of the section. Laterally stable beams are beams. 117 117 . This is done by imposing a maximum compressive stress. Designs may be carried out using simple beam theory. Equivalent thickness of intermediate stiffener is given by 13.3 Beams As stated previously. making suitable modifications to take account of local buckling of the webs. the effect of local buckling should invariably be taken into account in thin walled members. which do not buckle laterally. which may be considered to act on the bending element.

local web buckling has a detrimental effect. The ultimate moment capacity is given by Where = effective compression section modulus (see This is subject to the condition that the maximum tensile stress in the section does not exceed Fig. A widely used method of overcoming web crushing problems is to use web cleats at support points (See Fig. 13. compressive stress at collapse can equal yield stress (sec Fig. The moment capacity of the cross section is determined by limiting the maximum stress on the web to The effective width of the compression element is evaluated using this stress and the effective section properties are evaluated. The phenomenon of shear buckling of thin webs has been discussed in detail in the section on "Plate Girders". the average shear stress must be less than the value calculated as follows: 118 .4b). In elements having low (width/thickness) ratios. 13. 13.4a). 13. where shear buckling can occur. In addition in deep webs. 13. then the moment capacity is to be evaluated on the basis of elasto-plastic stress distribution (see Fig.1 Other beam failure criteria Web Crushing: This may occur under concentrated loads or at support point when deep slender webs are employed.4c). The maximum shear in a beam web is invariably limited to 0.5). Shear Buckling. = design strength in N/mm For steel with For greater web slenderness values.3. In order to ensure yielding before local buckling.7 times yield stress in shear. Thin webs subjected to predominant shear will buckle as shown in Fig. the maximum (width/thickness) ratio of stiffened elements is and for unstiffened 13.The maximum value of the stress is given by Where = the limiting value of compressive stress in N/mm 2 = web depth/thickness ratio = material yield stress in N/mm2.6. If the neutral axis is such that the tensile stresses reach yield first.

capable of resisting a lateral force of 3% of the maximum force in the compression flange. roof sheeting or to bracing members. as restrained and no lateral buckling will occur. The design approach is based on the "effective length" of the beam for lateral buckling.Fig.2 Lateral Buckling The great majority of cold-formed beams are (by design) restrained against lateral deflections. which is dependent on support and loading conditions. 13. there are circumstances where this is not the case and the possibility of lateral buckling has to be considered. the beam may be regarded.6 Web buckling 13.3. If the beam is provided with lateral restraints. This is achieved by connecting them to adjacent elements. However. The effective length of beams 119 .

provided the load is applied at bottom flange level.8) To provide for the effects of imperfections. in mm = radius of gyration for the lateral bending of section Where = ratio of the smaller end moment to the larger end moment M in an unbraced length of beam. This is considered to be a "destabilising load". the bending capacity in the plane of loading and other effects. The elastic lateral buckling moment capacity is determined next. is taken positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature (see Fig. 13.with both ends supported and having restraints against twisting is taken âs 0. the value of ME obtained from Eqn. this is A = cross sectional area. a load that encourages lateral instability. (13) will need to be modified. i. 120 . the effective length is increased by 20%.9 times the length. For an / section or symmetrical channel section bent in the plane of the web and loaded through shear centre. in mm t = web thickness. If a load is applied to the top flange which is unrestrained laterally. in D = web depth.e.

and the Elastic Modulus = Elastic lateral buckling resistance moment given by Eqn (13) = Perry coefficient.8 Single and double curvature bending A Perry-Robertson type equation is employed for evaluating the Moment Resistance of the beam = First yield moment given by the product of yield stress of the gross section. 13.Fig. given by When 121 .

the first step is to determine the effective area of the cross section by summing up the total values of effective areas for all the individual elements.= effective length = radius of gyration of the section about the . the failure load is evaluated from 122 . is Fig. 13.4 Axially Compressed Columns In analysing column behaviour.dimensional) for different Q factors The ultimate load (or squash load) of a short strut is obtained from Where = ultimate load of a short strut = sum of the effective areas of all the individual plate elements = the ratio of the effective area to the total area of cross section at yield stress Following the Perry-Robertson approach. then limited to This will happen when the beams are "short".9 Column Strength (Hon.a). 13. When the calculated value of exceeds calculated by using Eqn (1 l.axis.

Plots such as Fig. This would induce bending on an initially concentrically loaded section.9 shows the mean stress at failure cross sectional area) obtained for columns with variation of for a number of "Q" factors.10) and has a large reduction of effective widths of elements. 13. 13.and = radius of gyration corresponding to Fig. (The y-axis is nondimensionalised using the yield stress. 13.10 Effective shift in the loading axis in an axially compressed column 13. then the effective section may have changed position of centroid. The ultimate load is evaluated by allowing for the interaction of bending and compression using the following equation: 123 . the movement of effective neutral axis from the geometric neutral axis of the cross section must be first determined by comparing the gross and effective section properties.4. 13. ( a ) Channel section loaded through its centroid ( b ) The move of the neutral axis (due to plate buckling) causes an eccentricity and a consequent moment This would cause an additional compression on flange AR Fig.9 can be employed directly for doubly symmetric sections. as shown in Fig.10 To allow for this behaviour. 13. and "Q" factor is the ratio of effective cross sectional area to full cross sectional area).1 Effective shift of loading axis If a section is not doubly symmetric (see Fig.

This latter type of behaviour is known as Torsional-flexural behaviour. Codes deal with this problem by simplified design methods or by empirical methods based on experimental data.flexural buckling Singly symmetric columns may fail either (a) by Euler buckling about an axis perpendicular to the line of symmetry (as detailed in 13.4. As an illustration. suggested in BS5950.Torsional buckling Analysis of torsional-flexural behaviour of cold-formed sections is tedious and time consuming for practical design.2 Torsional . Fig. 13. 13.1 above) or (b) by a combination of bending about the axis of symmetry and a twist as shown in Fig. Purely torsional and purely flexural failure does not occur in a general case. the following design procedure. 124 . 13.4.11.Where Pc is obtained from Eqn (16) and Mc is the bending resistance of the section for moments acting in the direction corresponding to the movement of neutral axis. Part 5 is detailed below as being suitable for sections with at least one axis of symmetry (say and subjected to flexural torsional buckling. es is the distance between the effective centroid and actual centroid of the cross section.11Column displacements during Flexural .

i. These factors are employed to obtain increased effective lengths. is the elastic flexural buckling load (in Newtons) for a column about the = effective length (in mm) corresponding to the minimum radius of gyration = torsional flexural buckling load (in Newtons) of a column given by Where given by = Elastic flexural buckling load of the column (in Newtons) about the = Torsional buckling load of a column (In Newtons) given by In these equations.1 above can be used to obtain torsional buckling resistance of a column. which together with the design analysis prescribed in 13. = polar radius of gyration about the shear centre (in mm) given by 125 . values can be computed as follows: Where y-axis.e.Effective length multiplication factors (known as factors) are tabulated for a number of section geometries.4.

13. 15) = applied bending moments about x and y axis = Moment resistance of the beam about x-axis in the absence of = Moment resistance of the beam about y-axis in the absence of 126 . 13.1 Local capacity check The local capacity check is ascertained by satisfying the following at the points of greatest bending moment and axial load: = applied axial load = short strut capacity defined by (Eqn.3 Torsion behaviour Cold formed sections are mainly formed with "open" sections and do not have high resistance to torsion.5 Combined Bending and Compression Compression members.4. Hence the application of load that would cause torsion should be avoided where possible. The following checks are suggested for members that have at least one axis of symmetry: (i) the local capacity at points of greatest bending moment and axial load and (ii) an overall buckling check. it is possible to restrain twisting so that torsion does not occur to any significant extent.where are the radii of gyration (in mm) about the is the shear modulus is the distance from shear centre to the centroid measured along the axis (mm) St Venants' Torsion constant all elements. Generally speaking. will have to be designed to take into account the effects of interaction. 13.5. where measure in mm) Ix F which may be taken as summed up for flat width of the element and thickness (both of them the moment of inertia about the x axis (mm4) Warping constant for all section. which are also subject to bending. by adjusting the method of load application.

section). The tensile capacity of a member may be evaluated from Where is the effective area of the section making due allowance for the type of member (angle.axis and for bending about the y-axis respectively. = factors (defined in the previous chapter) with regard to moment variation about x and y axis respectively. then the resulting moment has to be allowed for. 16) = flexural buckling load in compression for bending about the x. plain channel. the following relationship should be satisfied: Where = axial buckling resistance in the absence of moments (see Eqn. Tee section etc) and the type of connection (e. the member may be designed as a simple tension member.g. = lateral buckling resistance moment about the x axis 13. connected through one leg only or through the flange or web of a T. the following relationship should be satisfied: For beams subject to lateral buckling.6 Tension Members If a member is connected in such a way as to eliminate any moments due to connection eccentricity. Where a member is connected eccentrically to its axis.13.5.2 Overall buckling check For members not subject to lateral buckling. is design strength 127 .

When a member is subjected to both combined bending and axial tension. For example.The area of the tension member should invariably be calculated as its gross area less deductions for holes or openings. where necessary. 128 .7 Design on the Basis of Testing While it is possible to design many cold-formed steel members on the basis of analysis. The behaviour of a component or system can often be ascertained economically by a test and suitable modifications incorporated. The Indian code IS: 801-1975 is in the process of revision and it is probable that a similar enhancement will be allowed for cold rolled steel sections also. Particular care should be taken while testing components. There is a possibility of these tests giving misleading information or even no information regarding neutral axis movement. (The area to be deducted from the gross sectional area of a member should be the maximum sum of the sectional areas of the holes in any cross section at right angles to the direction of applied stress). Reference is also made to the section on "Tension Members" where provision for enhancement of strength due to strain hardening has been incorporated for hot rolled steel sections. that the tests model the actual loading conditions as closely as possible. 26) are as defined previously. the capacity of the member should be ascertained from the following: Where Ft = applied load = tensile capacity (see Eqn. The specimen lengths may be too short to pick up certain types of buckling behaviour. the very large variety of shapes that can be formed and the complex interactions that occur make it frequently uneconomical to design members and systems completely on theoretical basis. 13. while these tests may be used successfully to assess the material work hardening much caution will be needed when examining the effects of local buckling.

Part 5 is explained below. such rules are employed when theoretical analysis may be impractical or not justified and when prototype test data are not available.1 Z Purlins A Z purlin used for supporting the roofing sheet is sketched in Fig. the type of supports. which can be employed by structural designers and architects who do not have detailed knowledge of design procedures. As an illustration the empirical rules permitted by BS 5950. An advantage to the manufacturers in designing on the basis of proof testing is that the load/span tables obtained are generally more advantageous than those obtained by analytical methods. (Members designed by proven theoretical methods or by prototype testing need not comply with the empirical rules). 13. Testing by an independent agency (such as Universities) is widely used by manufacturers of mass produced components to ensure consistency of quality.8 Empirical Methods Some commonly used members such as Z purlins are sometimes designed by time-tested empirical rules. it is vital to ensure that the test set up reflects the in-service conditions as accurately as possible.Testing is probably the only realistic method of assessing the strength and characteristics of connections. the restraints from adjacent structures and the flexibility of connections are all factors to be considered carefully and modelled accurately. Fig.8. The manufacturers also provide load/span tables for their products. 13. they also reassure the customers about the validity of their load/span tables. In testing complete structures or assemblies. 13.12 Z Purlins 13.11. The method of load application. In designing Z purlins with lips using the simplified empirical rules the following recommendations are to be complied with: Unfactored loads should be used for designing purlins Imposed loads should be taken to be at least • 129 . Evaluating connection behaviour is important as connections play a crucial role in the strength and stiffness of a structure.

8.• • • • • Claddings and fixings should be checked for adequacy to provide lateral restraint to the purlin and should be capable of carrying the component of load in the plane of the roof slope.5°. 130 . 13.12 • • • • The overall depth should not be greater than and not less than Overall width of compression flange / thickness ratio should not be greater than 35. The net allowable wind uplift in a direction normal to roof when purlins are restrained is taken as 50% of the (dead + imposed) load. In the above. 13. The purlin should be considered to carry the load normal to roof slope (and a nominal axial load due to wind or restraint forces) These rules apply to purlins up to 8 m span in roof slopes up to 22.8 m. L =span of the purlin (in mm) W = Normal component of unfactored (distributed dead load+imposed load) in B T • = Width of the compression flange in mm = thickness of the purlin in mm. Antisag bars should be provided to ensure that laterally unsupported length of the purlin does not exceed 3. Lip width should be greater than Section Modulus for simply supported purlins and for continuous or semi rigidly jointed purlins. These should be anchored to rigid apex support or their forces should be transferred diagonally to main frames. Purlin cleats should provide adequate torsional restraint.2 Design rules The following design rules apply with reference to Fig.

the most effective utilisation of steel and concrete is achieved. For lightweight concrete.2 Materials 14.2 Concrete Concrete strengths are specified in terms of the characteristic cube strengths. "Fast Track" construction developed in the West invariably utilises Composite Construction.3 Reinforcing steel used in composite columns Reinforcing Steel grades used in construction should conform to IS 432 (1982) and IS: 1786 (1985). 14. and IS: 8500-1977 as appropriate.1 General A steel concrete composite beam made up of a steel beam. this property has little effect on 131 . measured at 28 days.8 times 28 days cube strength of concrete mean tensile strength of concrete values are Note is proposed to be evaluated in accordance with Eurocodes.2. 14.1 Structural steel All structural steels used shall. However. IS: 2062-1992.where is the unit mass 14. this is not covered by IS 11384:1985.1 by /2400.1 gives the properties of different grades of concrete.SECTION 14: BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION 14. given by 0. the obtained by multiplying the values from Table 14. instead of cast-in place or precast reinforced concrete slab. before fabrication conform to IS: 1977-1975.2. Some of the structural steel grade commonly used in construction are given in IS: 961-1975 and IS: 1977-1975. The composite beam can also be constructed with profiled sheeting with concrete topping.2. characteristic compressive (cube) strength of concrete characteristic compressive (cylinder) strength of concrete. It should be noted that although the ductility of reinforcing bars has a significant effect on the behaviour of continuous beams. Table Where. 14. By employing profiled steel decking in composite construction. over which a reinforced concrete slab is cast with shear connectors is covered by IS: 11384-1985.

14. perform the test.3 (a)] the connector stiffness is usually determined while ultimate strength design is based on plastic behaviour of the shear connectors. They derive their resistance from bearing pressure on the concrete. To obtain the load-slip curve "pushout" tests are performed as per codal specifications. 14. Based on the load-slip characteristics observed in the push-out tests. Three types of shear connectors have been developed: Rigid type: These connectors are very stiff and they sustain only a small deformation while resisting the shear force.3. Arrangements for these tests as per and IS: 11384-1985 are shown in Fig. and fail due to crushing of concrete. [see 14. These connectors are welded to the flange of the steel beam. 132 . Flexible type: Headed studs.the design of composite columns.3 Shear Connectors Mechanical shear connectors are required at the steel-concrete interface. the characteristic strength of concrete used should not exceed the characteristic strength of concrete in the beams for which the test is designed.1 14. Concrete filled tubular sections may be used without any reinforcement except for reasons of fire resistance. where appropriate. A minimum of three tests should be made and the design values should be taken as 67% of the lowest ultimate capacity. • • At the time of testing.2 (a) and 14. They derive their stress resistance through bending and undergo large deformation before failure. IS: 11384-1985 suggests that. and (b) prevent separation of steel beam and concrete slab at the interface.1 Characteristics of shear connectors The load-slip characteristic of shear connectors affects their design considerably. channels come under this category. Bond or anchorage type: These connectors derive their resistance through bond and anchorage action.2 ( b ) respectively. Typical shear connectors are shown in Fig 14. To. the value is needed for serviceability considerations. These connectors are designed to (a) transmit longitudinal shear along the interface.

133 133 .

134 .

133 .

The lower of the two values governs the design.Fig.3 (b) shows an idealised load-slip characteristic of three different types of interaction that arise depending on the type of connectors used. 14.3 (b). Fig. When there is partial interaction the load slip relationship is assumed to be bilinear. (14. Idealized load-slip characteristics 14. 14.1) 136 .2 Strength of connectors The design resistance of shear studs with may be determined using the following two empirical formulae.3. Note that full interaction would occur and when very stiff connectors are used.

Full shear connection ensures that full moment resistance of the section develops.2: Design Strength of Headed Stud Shear Connectors for Different Concrete Strengths 14. Table 14. This design is often preferred due to economy achieved through the reduced number of shear connectors. partial safety factor for stud connector The design strengths of headed shear connectors as per IS: 11384-1985 are reproduced in Table (14.2) Ecm = ultimate tensile strength of steel cylinder strength of concrete mean secant (elastic) modulus of concrete.4. 137 . although full moment resistance of the beam cannot be achieved.1 Design method The ultimate strength of a composite section is determined from its plastic moment resistance. as the structure will remain elastic under service loading. the design will have to be adequate to resist the applied bending moment. provided the elements of the steel cross section do not fall (in the semi-compact or slender category).2). In partial shear connection.4 Basic Design Considerations 14. Similar data about other shear connectors is available in that code. It is to be noted that as per this code the design value of a shear connector is taken as 67% of the ultimate capacity arrived at by testing. The serviceability is checked using elastic analysis.(14.

For design purpose a portion of the beam span (20% .5 Value of for continuous beam 138 . EC4 has prescribed that the following span to depth (total beam and slab depth) ratios for which the serviceability criteria will be deemed to be satisfied. Use of effective width to allow for shear Fig. 14. 14.Adequacy in Serviceability Limit State is verified by resorting to prescribed span/depth ratios. Table 14. Fig.3: Span to Depth ratio Support Condition Simply supported Continuous Span to Depth 15-18 (Primary Beams) 18-20 (Secondary Beams) 18-22 (Primary Beams) 22-25 (end bays) Effective breadth of flange: A composite beam acts as a T-beam with the concrete slab as its flange.4).4. 14.33%) is taken as the effective breadth of the slab (see Fig.

14. This takes into account the long-term effects of creep under sustained loading. The values of elastic modulus of concrete under short term loading for different grades of concrete are given in Table 14. For simply supported beam Therefore.2 Section classifications and partial safety factor Section Classifications has been dealt with in section 5 of this Design Guide. Table 14. actual span centre-to-centre distance of transverse spans for slab. the effective span taken as the distance between points of zero moments.5 beams Modular ratio: Modular ratio is the ratio of elastic modulus of steel to the time dependent secant modulus of concrete While evaluating stress due to long termloading (dead load etc. but not greater than half the distance to the next adjacent web. Table 14.4: Suggested Partial safety factors • These are in conforming with IS: 11384 .4 lists the Partial safety factors to be used in design. IS: 11384 -1985 has suggested a modular ratio of 15 for live load and 30 for dead load. For continuous is obtained from Fig 14.The effective breadth of simply supported beam is taken as on each side of the steel web.1985.4. for elastic analysis of section. Where.1.) the time dependent secant modulus of concrete should be used. 139 .

The ultimate strength of the composite beam is determined from its collapse load capacity.SECTION 15: COMPOSITE BEAMS AND SLABS 15. 15. supported on Steel beams Reinforced concrete slab connected to rolled steel section through shear connectors is the simplest form of composite beam and has been covered in IS 11384:1985. Fig.1: Moment capacity of composite Section with full shear interaction (according to IS: 11384 -1985) 140 140 .1 Notations as per IS: 11384-1985 Table 15.1 gives the moment capacity of the composite section with full shear connection.1 Moment Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Slabs. Table 15.

2 presents the equations for moment capacity. Table 15. with Profiled Sheeting supported on Steel Beams A more advanced method of composite beam construction is one. Fig 15.2 Reinforced Concrete Slabs. which are capable of developing their plastic moment of resistance without local buckling problems. In this case the steel sheeting itself acts as the bottom reinforcement and influences the capacity of the section.3 shows the stress distribution for hogging bending moment.2 shows the stress distribution diagram for plastic and compact sections for full interactior according to EC4. This has not been covered in any IS Code. These equations are largely restricted to sections. Fig 15.15. 141 141 . where profiled deck slabs are connected to steel beams through stud connectors.

142 .

In addition to this the shear buckling of steel web should be checked.3 Vertical Shear Although the concrete slab resists some of the vertical shear in a composite T-beam. The shear force resisted by the structural steel section should satisfy: Where. as if it were not composite.4. It is therefore assumed that the vertical shear is resisted by steel beam alone. 143 .4 Resistance of Shear Connectors when used with Profile Decking The profile of the deck slab has a marked influence on strength of shear connector. But the profiled deck slab limits the concrete around the connector. This in turn makes the centre of resistance on connector to move up. is the plastic shear resistance given by. and d is the depth of the web considered in the shear area.15. 15. (1) Profiled steel decking with the ribs parallel to the supporting beam. (2) Profiled steel decking with the ribs transverse to the supporting beam. EC 4 suggests the following reduction factor k (relative to solid slab). there is no simple design model for this. The shear buckling of steel web can be neglected if following condition is satisfied Where. initiating a local concrete failure as cracking. There should be a 45° projection from the base of the connector to the core of the solid slab for smooth transfer of shear. This is shown in Fig 15.

5 Longitudinal Shear Force in Single Span Beams For single span beams the total design longitudinal shear. should not be greater than 1.8 when Fig.0 when greater than 0. and not For studs welded through the steel decking. Where.6 Longitudinal Shear Force in Continuous Beams For continuous beams the total design longitudinal shear.For studs of diameter not exceeding 20 mm. .the effective area of longitudinal slab reinforcement 144 . k. to be resisted by shear connectors between the point of maximum positive bending moment and an intermediate support is given by: Where. is the average width of trough is the stud height is the height of the profiled decking slab Nr is the number of stud connectors in one rib at a beam intersection (should not greater than 2). 15. 15. to be resisted by shear connectors between the point of maximum bending moment and the end support is given by: Whichever is smaller.4 Behaviour of a shear connection fixed through profile sheeting 15.

(15. Along curve AB. 15. as the opportunity for developing local plasticity are greater in these cases is design resistance of the connector.3). (15. 15.6.1 Minimum degree of shear connection Ideal plastic behaviour of the shear connectors may be assumed if a minimum degree of shear connection is provided.2) and Eqn.5 shows the resistance of the composite section in combined bending (hogging or sagging) and shear. Fig. the reduced bending resistance is given by design bending moment plastic resistance of the flange alone plastic resistance of the entire section design shear force plastic shear resistance as defined in Eqn. (15. At is 15. 145 . 15. exceeds (point in the Fig.5). At point B the remaining bending resistance is that contributed by the flanges of the composite section. in the presence of high shear force.The number of required shear connectors in the zone under consideration for full composite action is given by: Where is the design longitudinal shear force as defined in Eqn. moment capacity of the section reduces non-linearly as shown by the parabolic curve AB. When the design shear force. The minimum degree of shear connection is defined by the following equations: where the top flange area.7 is the bottom flange area and beam span in metres Interaction between Shear and Moment Interaction between bending and shear can influence the design of continuous beam. including reinforcement in the slab.8) and The shear connectors are usually equally spaced.

Figl5. Like stirrups in the web of a reinforced T beam. is cross sectional area of concrete shear surface per unit length of beam and area of transverse reinforcement. the IS: 456 -2000 lists moment coefficients as well as shear coefficients that are close to exact values of the maximum load effects obtainable from rigorous analysis on an infinite number of equal spans on point supports. which do not differ by more than 75 percent of the longest. which is in compression due to hogging moments at supports.8 Transverse Reinforcement Shear connectors transfer the interfacial shear to concrete slab by thrust. Structural analysis has to be performed. Reinforcement is provided in the direction transverse to the axis of the beam. a continuous beam necessitates the check for the stability of the bottom flange.9.4. For convenience.2000. the reinforcement supplements the shear strength of the concrete. Besides these.1985 are given in Table 15. These coefficients are applicable to continuous beams with at least three spans.5 Resistance to combined bending and vertical shear 15. the following design equation has been developed. 15.5 gives the bending moment coefficients and Table 15. These values are also applicable for composite continuous beams. Where. which could cause splitting in concrete in potential failure planes.6 gives the shear coefficients according to IS: 456 . 15. Table 15.9 Effect of Continuity is the The above design formulae are applicable to simply supported beams as well as to continuous beams. The formulae suggested by EC4 and IS: 11384 .1 Moment and shear coefficients for continuous beam In order to determine the distribution of bending moments under the design loads. Based on Truss Analogy. 146 .

2 > .

The tendency of the lower flange to buckle laterally is restrained by the distortional stiffness of the cross section.9.2 Lateral torsional buckling of continuous beams The concrete slab prevents the top flange of the steel section (connected to concrete slab) from moving laterally. 1.6: Shear force coefficients TYPE OF LOAD At end support At support n sup Outer side 0.U frame Action Lateral Torsional Buckling of Continuous Beams can be neglected if following conditions are satisfied.55 At all other interior supports 0.Tablel5.1/10 At other interior supports . i 148 3 .60 ext to the end port Inner side 0. Fig 15. Adjacent spans do not differ in length by more than 20% of the shorter span or where there is a cantilever. which is resisted by bending of the slab as shown in Fig.60 0.45 0. the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load and effective span.1/12 Dead load + 0. Table 15. and twisting at top flange level. its length does not exceed 15% of the adjacent span.60 (not fixed) For obtaining the shear force.50 Near middle At middle of At support next to the end of end span interior span support + 1/12 + 1/16 . 22. The tendency for the bottom flange to displace laterally causes bending of the steel web.6 Inverted . the stability of bottom flange should be checked at that region. In negative moment regions of continuous composite beams the lower flange is subjected to compression.40 Imposed load (fixed) Imposed load 0.60 0. Hence. the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load 15.1/9 .6.1/9 fixed) For obtaining the bending moment.5: Bending moment coefficients according to IS: 456-2000 TYPE OF LOAD SPAN IVI [OMENTS SUPPORT] MOMENTS Dead load + Imposed load (fixed) Imposed load (not + 1/10 + 1/12 .

is the moment of inertia of steel section. Since EC4 gives explicit guidance for checking serviceability Limit State. Simply supported Beams: The mid-span deflection of simply supported composite beam under distributed load w is given by 4 149 . Applying appropriate modular ratio m the composite section is transformed into an equivalent steel section. 3. considering different stages of construction. 15. therefore the method described below follows EC 4.2. Normally unfactored loads are used for for serviceability checks.1 Deflection The elastic properties relevant to deflection are section modulus and moment of inertia of the section. It is not desirable that steel yields under service load. The shear connection in the steel-concrete interface satisfies the requirements of section 15. The loading on each span is uniformly distributed and the design permanent load exceeds 40% of the total load. the elastic stress is limited to Unfortunately this is an error made in the Code as the same limits are applied for steel in determining the ultimate resistance of the cross section. The moment of inertia of uncracked section is used for calculating deflection. elastic section properties are used.10. No stress limitations are made in EC 4. IS: 11384-1985 limits the maximum deflection of the composite beam to The total elastic stress in concrete is limited to while for steel. and the moment of inertia is calculated as: Where is the ratio of the elastic moduli of steel to concrete taking into account creep.10 Serviceability Composite beams must also be checked for adequacy in the Serviceability Limit State. To check the composite beams serviceability criteria. Under positive moment the concrete is assumed uncracked.

or when the free shrinkage strain of the concrete exceeds shrinkage. when the span to depth ratio of beam exceeds 20. is the modulus of elasticity of steel and is the gross uncracked moment of inertia of composite section. these deflections will only be significant for spans greater than 12 m in exceptionally warm dry atmospheres. given by is the curvature due to the free shrinkage modular ratio appropriate for shrinkage calculations Note: This formula ignores continuity effects at the supports. Where are deflection of steel beam and composite beam respectively with proper serviceability load. These effects are ignored in composite beams designed for full shear connection. Influence of partial shear connection: Deflections increase due to the effects of slip in the shear connectors. the following expression is used. The shrinkage-induced deflection is calculated using the following formula: is the effective span of the beam and strain. 150 5 . deflections should be checked. To take care of the increase in deflection due to partial shear connection. In practice.Where. Note: For this additional simplification can usually beignored Shrinkage induced deflections: For simply supported beams.

Eurocode 4 recommends that the effect of shrinkage should be considered when the span/depth ratio exceeds 20 and the free shrinkage strain exceeds 0. only the source of vibration near or on the floor need be considered.Continuous Beams: In the case of continuous beam. the deflection is modified by the influence of cracking in the hogging moment regions (at or near the supports). To take account of this the negative moments may be further reduced. Other sources such. The present discussion is mainly aimed at design of an office floor against vibration. a check on shrinkage deflection should be done in case of thick slabs resting on small steel beams. To design a floor structure. A value of 3 adopted. a deflection coefficient of 3/384 is usually appropriate for determining the deflection of a continuous composite beam subject to uniform loading on equal adjacent spans.0325% and for lightweight concrete 0. is the maximum permissible stress in concrete is the minimum Generally the span/depth ratios specified by codes take care of the shrinkage deflection. In order to avoid the presence of large cracks in the hogging moment regions. In most buildings following two cases are considered- 151 6 . This may be increased to 4/384 for end spans.weight concrete is 0. The second moment of area of the section is based on the uncracked value. As an approximation. Where is the percentage of steel is a coefficient due to the bending stress distribution in the section is a coefficient accounting for the decrease in the tensile strength of concrete is the effective tensile strength of concrete. as machines. electrically heated floors and concrete mixes with high "free shrinkage".10. This may be taken into account by calculating the second moment of area of the cracked section under negative moment (ignoring concrete). the limit on free shrinkage for normal.04%. However. Crack Control: Cracking of concrete should be controlled in cases where the functioning of the structure or its appearance would be affected.05%.2 Vibration Generally. lift or cranes should be isolated from the building. For dry environments. 15. the amount of reinforcement should not exceed a minimum value given by. In addition to this there is a possibility of yielding in the negative moment region. human response to vibration is taken as the yardstick to limit the amplitude and frequency of a vibrating floor.

For free elastic vibration of a beam or one way slab of uniform section the fundamental natural frequency is. 152 7 . Fig. offices etc. = Flexural rigidity (per unit width for slabs) = span = vibrating mass per unit length (beam) or unit area (slab). and Fourier component factor The root mean square acceleration of the floor is plotted against its natural frequency for acceptable level R based on human response for different situations such as. Curves of higher response (R) values are also shown in the Fig.5Hz. for simple support. 15. hospitals. 15.7. operating theatre and precision laboratories. and for both ends fixed.7.4 Hz and 2. The human response R-l corresponds to a "minimal level of adverse comments from occupants" of sensitive locations such as hospital. An impulse such as the effect of the fall of a heavy object.i) ii) People walking across a floor with a pace frequency between 1. The recommended values of R for other situations are R = 4 for offices R = 8 for workshops These values correspond to continuous vibration and some relaxation is allowed in case the vibration is intermittent (see BS6472 for further information). Natural frequency of beam and slab: The most important parameter associated with vibration is the natural frequency of floor. Where. Curves of constant human response to vibration.

It takes into account the differences between the frequency of the pedestrians' paces and the natural frequency of the floor. (15. it is taken as the mass of the characteristic permanent load plus 10% of characteristic variable load. In absence of an accurate estimate of mass (m). The frequencies for slab and beam (each considered alone) and are given by Where. The natural frequency is given by Where is the Fourier component factor.23 compare the result with the target response curve as in Fig. is the spacing of the beams. This is given in the form of a function of in Fig. Un-cracked concrete section and dynamic modulus of elasticity should be used for concrete.22 and the value of R from Eqn.03 for open plan offices with composite floor To check the susceptibility of the floor to vibration after finding from Eqn. Generally these effects are taken into account by increasing the value of by 10% for variable loading.15.The effect of damping (being negligible) has been ignored.7). 153 8 . 15. (15.7): = magnification factor at resonance =0.

Supplementary reinforcement in the concrete encasement prevents excessive spalling of concrete both under normal load and fire conditions.16. the so-called "squash load") is given by Where. 16. 16.e. comprising either a concrete encased hot-rolled steel section or a concrete filled tubular section of hot-rolled steel.2 Members under Axial Compression The design method described below is formulated for prismatic composite columns with doubly symmetrical cross-sections. 9 154 . Fig.1 General A steel-concrete composite column is a compression member. Typical cross-sections of composite columns with fully and partially concrete encased steel sections are illustrated in Fig. 16. 16. and generally follows the guidelines prescribed in EC4.1 Resistance of cross-section to compression Encased steel sections and concrete filled rectangular/square tubular sections: The plastic resistance of an encased steel section or concrete filled rectangular or square section (i.2.1.2 shows three typical cross-sections of concrete filled tubular sections.

16. 16. (where d is the outer dimension of the circular tubular section) this effect has to be considered. the concrete and the reinforcing steel respectively are the yield strength of the steel section. the characteristic compressive strength (cylinder) of the concrete. in section 16.5. Also. and and two coefficients given by 155 10 .2. However. and 0. is the characteristic compressive strength (cube) of the concrete is strength coefficient for concrete. Fig.dimensional slenderness of (where is defined in Eqn.85 for fully or partially concrete encased steel sections. and the yield strength of the reinforcing steel respectively.3 Stress distribution of the plastic resistance to compression of an encased I section Concrete filled circular tubular sections: The ductility performance of this type of columns is significantly better than rectangular types. this effect is significant only in stocky columns.are the areas of the steel section.2J. of the applied load does not exceed the value d/10. there is an increased resistance of concrete due to the confining effect of the circular tubular section. or where the eccentricity. which is 1. For composite columns with a non. where t is the thickness of the circular tubular section. The plastic compression resistance of concrete filled circular tubular sections is calculated by using two coefficients and as given below.0 for concrete filled tubular sections.

16. The horizontal axis is non-dimensionalised similarly by Fig. as provided in EC 4 applicable for concrete grades 16. For using the European 11 156 . The buckling resistance of a column is expressed as a proportion of the plastic resistance to compression.1: Basic value to allow for the effect of tri-axial confinement in concrete filled circular tubular sections. Linear interpolation is permitted for various load eccentricities of The basic values and depend on the non-dimensional slenderness which can be read off from Table 16. column strength curves are plotted in a non-dimensionalised form as shown in Fig.4.In general. or if the non-dimensional slenderness exceeds the value 0. the resistance of a concrete filled circular tubular section to compression may increase by 15% under axial load only when the effect of tri-axial confinement is considered.1.2.4 Non-dimensionalised column buckling curve The European buckling curves have been drawn after incorporating the effects of both residual stresses and geometric imperfections. They form the basis of column buckling design for both steel and composite columns in EC 3 and EC4. If the eccentricity e exceeds the value d/10.5 then Table 16.16.2 Non-dimensional slenderness For convenience. where is called the reduction factor.

which exceed the local buckling limits for semicompact sections. should be verified by tests. no verification for local buckling is necessary as the concrete surrounding it effectively prevents local buckling.buckling curves. (16. according to Eqn (16. (23. Local buckling may be critical in some concrete filled rectangular tubular sections with large h/t ratios.3 Local buckling of steel sections Both Eqns.2) are valid provided that local buckling in the steel sections does not occur. 157 . the non-dimensional slenderness of the column is first evaluated as follows: Where plastic resistance of the cross-section to compression. of the flange for it to be effective in preventing local buckling. Designs using sections. However. the concrete cover to the flange of a fully encased steel section should not be less than 40 mm. 16.2. and is the elastic buckling load of the column. To prevent premature local buckling.2) with 1. nor less than one-sixth of the breadth.1) and (16.1) or Eqn.0. the width to thickness ratio of the steel sections in compression must satisfy the following limits: for concrete filled circular tubular sections for concrete filled rectangular tubular sections is the yield strength of the steel section in For fully encased steel sections.

As a simple rule. it may be neglected and no provision for long-term loading is necessary.55 for the determination of the effective stiffness of concrete Note: Dividing the Modulus of Elasticity by is unusual and is included here to obtain the effective stiffness. Short term loading: The effective elastic flexural stiffness. no provision is also necessary if 158 . If the eccentricity of loading is more than twice the cross-section dimension. the effect on the bending moment distribution caused by increased deflections due to creep and shrinkage of concrete will be very small.16. Note is the moment of inertia about the centroid of the uncracked column section. which conforms to test data.2. Two design rules for the evaluation of the effective elastic flexural stiffness of composite columns are given below. thereby reducing the buckling resistance. this effect is significant only for slender columns.8 is an empirical multiplier (determined by a calibration exercise to give good agreement with test results). is the secant modulus of the concrete is reduced to 7. the effect of long term loading should be considered if the buckling length to depth ratio of a composite column exceeds 15. Moreover. However. is obtained by adding up the flexural stiffness of the individual components of the cross-section: Where are the second moments of area of the steel section.4 Effective elastic flexural stiffness The value of the flexural stiffness may decrease with time due to creep and shrinkage of concrete. the creep and shrinkage of concrete will cause a reduction in the effective elastic flexural stiffness of the composite column. Long term loading: For slender columns under long-term loading. the factor 0. the concrete(assumed uncracked) and the reinforcement about the axis of bending considered respectively are the moduli of elasticity of the steel section and the reinforcement is the effective stiffness of the concrete. Consequently.

and 0.6 for braced (or non-sway) columns.5 Elastic buckling load Composite columns may fail in buckling. is defined as follows: Where ( E I ) e is the effective elastic flexural stiffness of the composite column. The elastic critical buckling load (Euler Load).2 and e/d is less than 2. which may be conservatively taken as system length L for an isolated non-sway composite column.the non-dimensional slenderness. the effect of creep and shrinkage of concrete should be allowed for by employing the modulus of elasticity of the concrete instead of in Eqn. and permanently acting on the column.2: Limiting values of for long term loading Note: is the steel contribution ratio defined as However. 159 . is the effective length of the column. 16. the part of the applied design load The effect of long-term loading may be ignored for concrete filled tubular sections with provided that is greater than 0.75 for unbraced (and/or sway) columns.2 Table 16. which is defined as follows: Where P is the applied design load.8. when exceeds the limits given by Table 16.2. 16. of the composite column is less than the limiting values given in Table 16.

16. They are selected according to the types of the steel sections and the axis of bending: Curve a Curve b for concrete filled tubular sections for fully or partially concrete encased I-sections buckling about the strong axis of the steel sections for fully and partially concrete encased I-sections buckling about the weak axis of the steel sections (y-y axis) Curve c These curves can also be described mathematically as follows: 1 . the designer should check that Where is the plastic resistance to compression of the cross-section. 16. (16.5 arc proposed to be used for composite columns.6 Resistance of members to axial compression For each of the principal axes of the column. (16.2.2) and is the reduction factor due to column buckling The European buckling curves illustrated in Fig. from Eqn.1) or Eqn.

3. Fig. Fig.3: Imperfection factor a for the buckling curves The isolated non-sway composite columns need not be checked for buckling. 2 . 16. The method of locating neutral axis for rectangular and circular filled tubular sections is given in Appendix E.3 gives the value of for each buckling curve. A.6 represents the non-dimensional interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending for a composite cross-section. • Point B corresponds to the plastic moment resistance of the cross-section (the axial compression is zero). no additional considerations are necessary. Table 16. Note that the second order moment due to imperfection. Table 16.7. 16. and c. 16.3 The non-dimensional slenderness.8 shows the stress distributions in the cross-section of a concrete filled rectangular tubular section at each point. less than where is the elastic Combined Compression and Uni-Axial Bending 16.The factor allows for different levels of imperfections and residual stresses in the columns corresponding to curves a.1 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending The resistance of the composite column to combined compression and bending is determined using an interaction curve. if anyone of the following conditions is satisfied: (a) The axial force in the column is less than buckling load of the column (b) 16. b. • Point A marks the plastic resistance of the cross-section to compression (at this point the blending point is is zero).7 shows an interaction curve drawn using simplified design method suggested in the UK National Application Document for This neglects the increase in moment capacity beyond discussed above. Fig. 16. B and C of the interaction curve given in Fig. (under relatively low axial compressive loads). has been incorporated in the method by using multiple buckling curves.

and concrete about neutral axis respectively.7 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending using the simplified method 3 . • At point follows. steel section. steel section. the compressive and the moment resistances of the column are given as Fig.Where are plastic section moduli of the reinforcement.and concrete about their own centroids respectively and are plastic section moduli of the reinforcement. 16.

Fig. 16.8 Stress distributions for the points of the interaction curve for concrete filled rectangular tubular sections Fig.9 Variation in the neutral axis positions 4 . 16.

or 'imperfection moment'.3 Resistance of members under combined compression and uni-axial bending The design checks are carried out in the following stages: (1) Check the resistance of the section under axial compression for both (2) Check the resistance of the composite column under combined axial compression and uni-axial bending The design is adequate when the following condition is satisfied: 5 . as its effect on the buckling resistance of the composite column is already accounted for in the European buckling curves. and column.16. (2) Elastic slenderness conforms to: is the elastic critical load of the composite Where is the non-dimensional slenderness of the composite column In case the above two conditions are met.3. As a simple rule.3. is the elastic critical load of the composite 16.2 Analysis of bending moments due to second order effects The second order moment. the 'first order' displacements may be significant and additional or 'second order' bending moments may be induced under the actions of applied loads. the second order effects may be allowed for by modifying the maximum first order bending moment (moment obtained initially). is defined as follows: with a correction factor which Where is the applied design load and column. the second order effects should be considered if the buckling length to depth ratio of a composite column exceeds 15. does not need to be considered separately. The second order effects on bending moments for isolated non-sway columns should be considered if both of the following conditions are satisfied: Where is the design applied load. For slender columns.

if necessary is the moment resistance ratio obtained from the interaction curve and is the plastic moment resistance of the composite cross-section.4 Combined Compression and Bi-axial Bending The design checks are carried out in the following stages: (1) Check the resistance of the section under axial compression for both and 6 . . is the design axial resistance 16. which may be factored to allow for second order effects.10) or may be In accordance with the UK NAD. 16. Fig. the moment resistance ratio for a composite column under combined compression and uni-axial bending is evaluated as follows: is axial resistance ratio due to the concrete. ratio.Where is the design bending moment.10 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending using the simplified method Moment resistance ratio evaluated can be obtained from the interaction curve (Figl6.

16.11 Fig. 16.(2) Check the resistance of the composite column under combined axial compressionand bi-axial bending The three conditions to be satisfied are: The interaction of the moments must also be checked using moment interaction curve as shown in Fig.11 Moment interaction curve for bi-axial bending The moment resistance ratios and for both the axes are evaluated as given below: 7 .

When the effect of geometric imperfections is not considered the moment resistance ratio is evaluated as given below: 8 .Where and are the reduction factors for buckling in the and directions respectively.

Limit States. partitions. expected to fall). Compact Section . Effective Lateral Restraint . floors and roofs. Gauge . In other words.The transverse spacing between parallel adjacent lines of fasteners.The elastic moment which will initiate yielding or cause buckling. Characteristic resistance of a material (such as Concrete or Steel) is defined as that value of resistance below which not more than a prescribed percentage of test results may be expected to fall. Dead Loads . wind and earthquake loads. Factor of Safety .The self weights of all permanent constructions and installations including the self weights of all walls.The load assumed to be produced by the intended use of occupancy including distributed.Restraint.A cross section capable of developing full plastic distribution across it. beam or girder from buckling to either side at the point of application of the restraint. Characteristic load is therefore that load which will not be exceeded 95% of the time. which not more than 5% of the test values may be.The factor by which the yield stress of the material of a member is divided to arrive at the permissible stress in the material. this strength is expected to be exceeded by 95% of the cases. without local buckling in any of the component members but not capable of developing ductility.The load at which a member or a structure as whole collapses in service or buckles in a load test. Load Factor .The numerical factor by which the working load is to be multiplied to obtain an appropriate design ultimate load. (For example the characteristic yield stress of steel is usually defined as that value of yield stress below. which produces sufficient resistance in a plane perpendicular to the plane of bending to restrain the compression flange of a loaded strut. Elastic Critical Moment . which has an accepted probability of not being exceeded during the life span of the structure.Limit States are states beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance requirements and fulfils the purpose for which it is built.APPENDIX A: Terminology Buckling Load . impact and vibration and snow loads but excluding. Characteristic load is that value of the load. 9 . Imposed (Live) Load . concentrated.

failure by excessive deformation.A cross section capable of developing full plasticity across it and exhibit considerable ductility.In a slender section.Secondary member is that which is provided for stability and or restraining the main members from buckling or similar modes of failure. Yield Stress .The centre-to-centre distance between individual fasteners in a line of fastener. Plastic Section .Main Member . which adversely affect the appearance or its proper functioning and include vibration that causes discomfort to people or damage to the building Slender Section .g. (Plastic cross-sections when used as beams. with a triangular stress distribution in a beam) but not capable of developing redistribution of stresses. Welding Terms . Ultimate Limit States . Semi-Compact Section .A structural member that is primarily responsible for carrying and distributing the applied load. local buckling of one of the components will occur before the attainment of yield stress in extreme fibre. without buckling of any of the component elements (e.Ultimate Limit States are those associated with collapse or other forms of structural failure. This includes the loss of equilibrium of the structure (or any part of it).A cross section capable of developing yield stress at the extreme fibres. rupture etc.The minimum yield stress of the material in tension as specified in relevant Indian Standards. Serviceability Limit States . Pitch . will fail by formation of plastic hinges) Secondary Member .Unless otherwise defined in this standard the welding terms used shall have the meaning given in IS: 812-1957. which may endanger the safety of people.Serviceability Limit States correspond to states beyond which the criteria for service are no longer met and include deformations and deflections. 10 .

also known as Euler critical stress. Yield stress Elastic critical stress in bending Elastic critical stress in compression. The modulus of elasticity for steel. Twice the clear distance from the neutral axis of a beam to the compression flange.to be taken as the clear distance between the flange angles or where there are no flange angles the clear distance between flanges ignoring fillets Diameter of the reduced end of the column i) For the web of a beam without horizontal stiffeners . neglecting fillets or the inner toes of the flange angles as appropriate. neglecting fillets or the clear distance between the inner toes of the flange angles as appropriate.the clear distance between the flanges. ii) For the web of a beam with horizontal stiffeners . Gauge Outstand of the stiffener Moment of inertia Flexural stiffness Coefficients Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet of member to be stiffened Span/length of the member Effective length of the member Bending moment Maximum moment (plastic) capacity of a section Maximum moment (plastic) capacity of a section subjected to bending and axial loads.APPENDIX B: Symbols Cross-sectional area ( used with subscripts has been defined at appropriate place) Respectively the greater and lesser projection of the plate beyond column Length of side of cap or base Width of steel flange in encased member Coefficient The distance centre to centre of battens Distance between vertical stiffeners Respectively the lesser and greater distances from the sections neutral axis to the extreme fibres Overall depth of beam Depth of girder . taken as Mpa in this Guide. neglecting fillets or the inner toes of the tension flange angles as appropriate.the clear distance between the horizontal stiffener and the tension flange. Lateral buckling strength in the absence of axial load Number of parallel planes of battens 11 .

assumed as 1. Maximum permissible tensile stress due to bending in a member not subjected to axial force Maximum permissible stress in concrete in compression Maximum permissible equivalent stress Maximum permissible bearing stress in a member Maximum permissible bearing stress in a fastener Maximum permissible stress in steel in compression Maximum permissible stress in axial tension in fastener Calculated average axial compressive stress Calculated average stress in a member due to an axial tensile force Calculated compressive stress in a member due to bending about a principal axis 12 .4 Axial force. compressive or tensile Calculated maximum load capacity of a strut Calculated maximum load capacity as a tension member Euler load Yield strength of axially loaded section The reaction of the beam at the support Radius of gyration of the section Transverse distance between centroids of rivets groups or welding Staggered pitch Mean thickness of compression flange used with subscripts has been defined at appropriate place) Thickness of web Transverse shear Longitudinal shear Calculated maximum shear capacity of a section Total load Pressure or loading on the underside of the base Plastic modulus of the section Ratio of smaller to larger moment Stiffness ratio Slenderness ratio of the member.Coefficient in the Merchant Rankine formula. ratio of the effective length to the appropriate radius of gyration Characteristic slenderness ratio = Maximum permissible compressive stress in an axially loaded strut not subjected to bending Maximum permissible tensile stress in an axially loaded tension member not subjected to bending Maximum permissible compressive stress in slab base Maximum permissible compressive stress due to bending in a member not subjected to axial force.

y denote the x-x and y-y axes of the section respectively. at the point of maximum bending moment. x-x denotes the major principal axis whilst y-y denotes the minor principal axis. 13 .Calculated compressive stress in a member due to bending about a principal axis Calculated tensile stress in a member due to bending about both principal axes Maximum permissible average shear stress in a member Maximum permissible shear stress in a member Maximum permissible shear stress in fastener Ratio of the rotation at the hinge point to the relative elastic rotation of the far end of the beam segment containing plastic hinge angle of twist (in a beam subjected to torsion) Coefficient Ratio of total area of both the flanges at the point of least bending moment to the corresponding area at the point of greatest bending moment Ratio of moment of inertia of the compression flange alone to that of the sum of the moments of inertia of the flanges each calculated about its own axis parallel to the y-y axis of the girder. For symmetrical sections. NOTE .The subscript x.

screws. nuts and lock nuts (diameter range 6 to 39 mm) (first revision) 1367-1967 Technical supply conditions for threaded fasteners (first revision) 1393-1961 Code of practice for training and testing of oxy-acetylene welders 1395-1982 Molybdenum and chromium molybdenum vanadium low alloy steel electrodes for metal arc welding (third revision) 1477 Code of practice for painting of ferrous metals in buildings: (Part 1) .1991 Part 2 for welding sheets 816-1969 Code of practice for use of metal arc welding for general construction in mild steel (first revision) 817-1966 Code of practice for training and testing of metal arc welders (revised) 819-1957 Code of practice for resistance spot welding for light assemblies in mild steel 875-1987 Code of practice for structural safety of buildings: Loading standards 919-1963 Recommendations for limits and fits for engineering (revised) 961-1975 Structural steel (high tensile) (Second revision) 962-1967 Code of practice for architectural and building drawings (first revision) 1024-1992 Code of practice for use of welding in bridges and structures subject to dynamic loading 1030-1982 Carbon steel castings for general engineering purposes (second revision) 1148-1973 Hot-rolled steel rivet bars (up to 40mm diameter) for structural purposes (second revision) 1149-1982 High tensile steel rivet bars for structural purposes 1261-1959 Code of practice for seam welding in mild steel 1278-1972 Filler rods and wires for gas welding (second revision) 1323-1962 Code of practice for oxy-acetylene welding for structural work in mild steel (revised) 1363-1967 Black hexagon bolts.1995 Part 1 Pre-treatment 173 .1991 Part 1 for welding products other than sheets (Part 2) . nuts and lock nuts (diameter 6 to 39mm) and black hexagon screws (diameter 6 to 24 mm) (first revision) 1364-1967 Precision and semi-precision hexagon bolts.APPENDIX C: Relevant Indian Standards IS: 226-1975 Structural steel (standard quality) (fifth revision) 456-2000 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (third revision) 696-1972 Code of practice for general engineering drawings (second revision) 786-1967 (Supplement) SI supplement to Indian Standard conversion factors and conversion tables (first revision) 800-1984 Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel 801-1975 Code of Practice for the use of cold-formed light gauge steel structural members in general building construction 812-1957 Glossary of terms relating to welding and cutting of metals 813-1961 Scheme of symbols for welding 814 Covered electrodes for metal arc welding of structural steels: (Part 1) .

1995 Part 2 Painting 1893-1991 Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures (third revision) 1929-1961 Rivets for general purposes (12 to 48 mm diameter) 1977-1975 Structural steel (ordinary quality) (second revision) 2062-1992 Weldable structural steel (third revision) 2155-1982 Rivets for general purposes (below 12 mm diameter) 3613-1974 Acceptance tests for wire-flux combinations for submerged-arc welding of structural steels (first revision) 3640-1967 Hexagon fit bolts 3757-1972 High-tensile friction grip bolts (first revision) 4000-1967 Code of practice for assembly of structural joints using high tensile friction grip fasteners 5369-1975 General requirements for plain washers and lock washers (first revision) 5370-1969 Plain washers with outside diameter 3 times inside diameter 5372-1975 Taper washers for channels (ISMC) (first revision) 5374-1975 Taper washers for I-beams (ISMB) (first revision) 6419-1971 Welding rods and bare electrodes for gas shielded arc welding of structural steel 6560-1972 Molybdenum and chromium-molybdenum low alloy steel welding rods and base electrodes for gas shielded arc welding 6610-1972 Heavy washers for steel structures 6623-1972 High tensile friction grip nuts 6639-1972 Hexagon bolts for steel structures 6649-1972 High tensile friction grip washers.(Part 2) .Application of Plastic theory in the Design of Steel Structures 174 . 7205-1973 Safety code for erection of structural steel work 7215-1974 Tolerances for fabrication of steel structures 7280-1974 Bare wire electrodes for submerged arc welding of structural steels 7307 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welding procedures: Part I Fusion welding of steel 7310 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welders working to approved welding procedures: Part 1 Fusion welding of steel 7318 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welders when welding procedure is not required: Part 1 Fusion welding of steel 8500-1977 Weldable structural steel (medium and high strength qualities) 9595-1980 Recommendations for metal arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels. SP6 .1972 Handbook for Structural Engineers .

a simple approach often adopted by structural designers for rapid design of steel structures is known as the bi-moment method and is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. varies along the member length.APPENDIX D: An Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis 1. The rotation of the section will be accompanied by bending of flanges in their own plane. 1 and Fig. For an section. These forces act at a distance equal to the depth between the centroids of each flange. The applied torque is replaced by a couple of horizontal forces acting in the plane of the top and bottom flanges as shown in Fig. The applied torque is resisted by a couple comprising the two forces equal to the shear forces in each flange. When a uniform torque is applied to an open section restrained against warping. The angle of twist. 3. therefore.0 Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis An Due to the complexity of the Torsion analysis. 2. the member itself will be in non-uniform torsion. The magnitude of the warping normal stress at any particular point given by in the cross section is Where = normalized warping function at a particular point in the cross section 16 . These are termed Warping Normal Stresses. the warping resistance can be interpreted in a simple way. Each of these flanges can be visualised as a separate beam subjected to bending moments produced by the forces This leads to bending stresses in the flanges. The direct and shear stresses caused are shown in Fig.

.

176 .

Warping fixity cannot be provided without also ensuring torsional fixity.g. They are constant across the thickness of the element. therefore. relevant for torsion calculations • Torsion fixed. The in-plane shear stresses are called Warping shear stresses. as do most flat plates and all circular sections. the members will be in a state of non-uniform torsion and the loading will be resisted by a combination of uniform (St.An approximate method of calculating the normalised warping function for any section is described in by Nethercot etal. The stiffness of the member associated with the former stresses is directly proportional to the warping rigidity. rectangular or square hollow sections) angles and Tees behave this way. =0 at the end). 177 . Hot rolled sections as well as channel sections exhibit a torsional behaviour in between these two extremes. (It must be noted that torsional fixity is essential at least in one location to prevent the structural element twisting bodily). 1. then the section will effectively be in "uniform torsion". When the torsional rigidity is very large compared to the warping rigidity. Their magnitude varies along the length of the element. Most thin walled open sections fall under this category.2 End Conditions The end support conditions of the member influence the torsional behaviour significantly. The following end conditions are. 1. This is also called "fixed" end condition. Warping fixed: This means that the twisting along the longitudinal (Z) axis and also the warping of cross section at the end of the member are prevented. Conversely if is very small compared with the member will effectively be subjected to warping torsion. The magnitude of the warping shear stress at any given point is given by where = Warping statical moment of area at a particular point Values of warping normal stress and in-plane shear stress are tabulated in standard steel tables produced by steel makers. Closed sections (e. Both direct and shear stresses are generated in addition to those due to bending and pure torsion.Venant's) and warping torsion. three ideal situations are described below. In other words.1 The effect of Torsional Rigidity (GJ) and Warping Rigidity (ET) on the Design of Sections The warping deflections due to the displacement of the flanges vary along the length of the member.

The angle of twist caused by torsion would be amplified by bending moment. It is not enough to provide a connection. (This is also called "free" end condition). 2. the rate of change of angle of twist will vary along the length of the member. but is allowed to warp. then the member would develop only pure torsion.• Torsion fixed. The total angle of twist over a length of is given by Where = applied torque = Torsional Rigidity When a member is in non-uniform torsion. due to bending moment in-plane of flanges (bi-moment) is The warping normal stress given by where 3. The unsupported end of cantilever illustrates this condition. Effective warping fixity is difficult to provide. Warping free: This means that the cross section at the end of the member cannot twist. when a load produces both bending and torsion. This is also called "pinned" end condition. The warping shear stress at a point is given by Where = Modulus of elasticity = Warping statical moment at a particular point S chosen. which provides fixity for bending about both axes. • Torsion free. Warping free: This means that the end is free to twist and warp. Combined Bending and Torsion There will be an interaction between the torsional and flexural effects. inducing additional warping moments and torsional 178 .0 Pure Torsion and Warping When a torque is applied only at the ends of a member such that the ends are free to warp. It may be more practical to assume "warping free" condition even when the structural element is treated as "fixed" for bending.0 = Normalised warping function at the chosen point S. It is also necessary to restrain the flanges by additional suitable reinforcements.

3. The SCI publication has suggested a simple "buckling check" along lines similar to BS 5950.shears.1 Maximum Stress Check or "Capacity check" The maximum stress at the most highly stressed cross section is limited to the design strength Assuming elastic behaviour and assuming that the loads produce bending about the major axis in addition to torsion. 3. the longitudinal direct stresses will be due to three causes. Salter and Malik.The following design checks are suggested in the SCI publication "Design of members subject to combined Bending and Torsion' by Nethercot. when is less than the values of and will be amplified.e. part 1 179 . This is analogous to the checks for buckling effects in columns due to effects.2 Buckling Check Whenever lateral torsional buckling governs the design (i. is dependent on twist which itself is dependent on the major axis moment and the Methods of evaluating for various conditions of loading and boundary conditions are given in the SCI publication referred above.

3.4 Torsional Shear Stress check Torsional shear stresses and warping shear stresses should also be amplified in a similar manner: This shear stress should be added to the shear stresses due to bending in checking the adequacy of the section. 180 . the "capacity checks" and the "buckling checks" are modified as follows: Capacity check: 3.3 Applied Loading having both Major axis and Minor Axis Moments When the applied loading produces both major axis and minor axis moments.

APPENDIX E: Location of Neutral Axis (1) For concrete encased steel sections: Major axis bendins 181 .

Note: is the sum of the reinforcement area within the region of (2) For concrete filled tubular sections Major axis bending Note: • For circular tubular section substitute can be used by For minor axis bending the same equations interchanging and as well as the subscripts and 182 .

Handbook on Composite Construction: Bridges and Flyover Steel-concrete Composite Construction is widely used in the advanced countries. minimum order quantity etc.for a complete set of hardcopy and CD ROM together. The directory fulfills long-standing need of professionals in the country. 3. Publication No INS/PUB/001 Price Rs 685/- 2. which has a listing of about 220 steel companies/traders/importers etc. consultants. fabricators. Publication No INS/PUB/ 002 Price Rs 350/. details of producers etc. The 'Buyer's Manual' brought out by the Institute is a very useful document. steel producers. and Rs 550/. designers.INSDAG'S ACTIVITIES AND PUBLICATIONS During the past three and half years. importers etc. the Manual also contains brief extract from important codes. It contains contact details of more than 5000 architects. In 8 . Some of the projects are currently on going and the publications will be available in appropriate times. grades of steel and marketing procedure including lead time. Publication No INS/PUB/003 Price Rs 450/- 4.for hardcopy and CD ROM version separately. re-rollers. Directory of Steel Supply Chain The Institute compiled and printed 'Directory of Steel Supply Chain' for improving interaction among professionals engaged directly or indirectly in the business of steel. Publications Avalable For Sale 1. Buyer's Manual (including CD ROM) The professionals in the steel supply chain have also been in need of a source book for obtaining ready reference for their steel product needs. Their popularity is largely due to the speed with which bridges / flyovers can be constructed in busy metros. INSDAG has undertaken some important projects and already published some valuable documents. builders. The manual is also available in the form of user-friendly CD version. In addition to sectional properties. INSDAG has prepared and published up-to-date "Reference Manual for Structural Engineers". The manual contains details of products. Following are a brief glimpse on some of the activities of INSDAG: A. Reference Manual for Structural Engineers Since the existing BIS Structural Engineers Handbook (last revised in 1964) does not contain information about sectional properties of all the presently available sections from the producers and import as required by designers.

order to provide guidance to the professionals to use this technology for design of bridges and flyovers. one handbook. Further detailed analysis has also been made. the life cycle cost of the steel option is economical to the owner by 49 percent as well as the BOOT partner by 28 percent. With a view to popularize their use in India. printed and widely circulated. Keeping this in view. In order to provide the engineers proper technical write-up about occurrence of corrosion and ways to overcome it as being done in the developed countries. Publication No INS/PUB/017 Price Rs 600/- . It has been observed that though the initial cost of the concrete intensive option was 10 percent lower than the steel intensive option. The study was made in April 2000. an interesting life cycle cost assessment study has been made fore a typical urban flyover for two city locations. Case Studies on Pre-Engineered Buildings and Space Frame Pre-engineered buildings and space frames are widely employed in the advanced countries in view of their multifarious benefits such as: significant saving in time of designing. This handbook is user friendly and contains 4 sample calculations for 16 metre and 24 metre spans along with properties of Composite Sections to help in designing similar problems quickly and accurately. has been prepared. Publication No INS/PUB/ 005 Price Rs 85/- 6. life cycle cost (LCC) is generally favourable. erection and cost apart from being aesthetically elegant. The work has been done in association with two leading consultants: M/s STUP Consultants Ltd and M/s CES (I) Pvt. Publication No INS/PUB/ 016 Price Rs 285/- 7. In the advanced countries. LCC is often used an important tool for decision. based on Indian codes. Publication No INS/PUB/ 004 Price Rs 525/- 5. Life Cycle Cost Assessment of a Typical Urban Flyover Though presently steel intensive construction is not able to compete with concrete construction on the initial cost basis. construction. Life Cycle Cost Study on Bangalore Mass Rapid Transit System INSDAG has carried out a techno-economic study on life cycle cost assessment of elevated viaducts for the proposed Bangalore Mass Rapid Transit System Limited with the steel intensive construction route. Base paper Price Rs 200/- 8.making. nine case studies of such constructions recently executed in the country have been prepared and published. Ltd. Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel in Buildings and Bridges Corrosion has been told to be the major problem for application of steel in construction sector. a comprehensive corrosion protection guide publication has been published.

Stairs and Hand Railings etc. Trusses. Handbook on Composite Construction: Multi-Storey Buildings INSDAG brought out this publication to promote steel-concrete composite construction in Multi-Storey Building. this welding guide will provide consolidated information covering structural steel grades. It is spread over 12 chapters and 6 Appendices namely: Joining. about 50 rail bridges were visited for data collection. Survey of Important Rail Bridges It had been planned to conduct survey of about 100 important rail bridges to ascertain the performance of steel bridges vis-a-vis RCC and pre-stressed concrete bridges. Welding process and joints. The book is comprised of about 230 pages including 180 figures and 37 tables. Handbook on Structural Steel Detailing To simplify the fabrication process by bringing about uniformity in detailing as also to reduce the risk of corrosion and to provide technical aid to small fabricators and designers. Splices. With the help and support from ED (B&S). Electrodes and Equipment. controls and care.9. and relevant data for another about 50 bridges have been collected. and Ladders. The outcome of this study indicates that initial direct cost of 5 level & 7 level steel intensive Carpark is lower than that of RCC option. Publication No. Inspection and acceptance criteria.: INS/PUB/021 Price Rs 825/- 13. Though different steel companies and welding suppliers have published some information on welding aspects of their specific products using proprietary consumables. Beam to Beam Connection. Publication No: INS/PUB/020 Price Rs 350/- 12. The guide is broadly divided into seven chapters namely: Structural steel and welding. Publication No INS/PUB/ 019 on Car Park Price Rs 625/- 11. columns & composite 10 . angles. a Handbook on Steel Detailing is have been prepared. It has been observed that bridges with steel superstructure constructed even more than 100 years ago are still functioning well. which could serve a useful reference for the Supervisors/Practicing Engineers engaged in steelwork. and other useful information. Write-up on design aspects of composite beams. Weld economics and cost calculations. Handbooks on Composite Construction : Multilevel Carparks With the same objective of Composite Construction: Bridge and Flyover handbook. Welding defects. Publication No INS/PUB/ 018 Price Rs 250/- 10. design guidebooks are also being prepared on Car Parks (Part 2) and Buildings (Part 3) under the steel intensive composite construction route. RDSO and railway officials in different zones. SHS/RHS and plates of different thicknesses are now available in the domestic market. channels. Welding Guide for Structural Steel Various steel products—sections in the form of joists.

Economics of Two Steel Framed Commercial Buildings: Under Initial Cost and Life Cycle Cost Assessment Route Steel intensive construction for buildings is gradually becoming a subject of interest in India. Use of steel-concrete composite truss is ideally suited for applications in community halls.slabs using profiled deck. use of steel truss as the structural member of composite section is most desired. Keeping this in view. office buildings. Publication No INS/PUB/ 035 Price: Rs. Publication No. though its cost effectiveness is often questioned. The outcome of the study reveals that the LCC cost of CRCP is much lower than flexible pavement. Publication No. where large column free spans are a necessity.: INS/PUB/022 14. Accordingly CRCP is the best long-term pavement solution both on cost as well as maintenance point of view for National highways & expressways. and Development Consultants Private Ltd. 475/- .Moreover for longer spans.: INS/PUB/034 16. shows that LCC cost of CRCP is lower than jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP). Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Techno-Economic Study for the Use of Reinforced Cement Concrete Roads in National Highways and Expressways Rigid pavement is widely used in the developed countries. analysis and connection details followed in advanced countries. It also contains a detailed example covering all important aspects of design by limit state method.: INS/PUB/023 Price Rs 600/Price Rs 625/- 15. This design handbook also covers the complete detail design of a typical G+3 & B+G+9 storeyed Residential & Commercial Buildings. based on the applicable Indian. conference halls etc. total initial cost and life cycle cost assessment of two typical urban commercial buildings has been done in association with leading consultants like M N Dastur & Co Private Ltd. industrial buildings. Some beginning has been made in our country also. AASHTO and British Standards as well as based on the published literature. Publication No. The publication mainly covers framing. Design of Composit Truss for Building Rolled/fabricated beams are commonly being used as the structural members of medium span structures. The sustainability of construction is also another important modern concept for buildings. 325/Price Rs. a study on the construction cost. On life cycle cost basis rigid pavements are very cost effective due much lower vehicle operating cost & maintenance cost. In order to assess the most cost effective pavement solution for National Highways & Expressways INSDAG carried out a study on CRCP and published a document entitled "Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Techno-Economic Study for the Use of Reinforced Cement Concrete Roads in National Highways and Expressways". An analysis.

: INS/PUB/047 Price Rs 650/- 19. Standards for Manufacturing. This publication includes a Housing scheme with Steel in frame having colums. this book helps the builders. Steel Doors. builders and suppliers. offices. Publication No. flats. Typical Design of Cost-effective Rural Housing Housing is considered as one of the major problems in the world. designers. policy-workers and government officials. beams & trusses with SHS sections and Ferro-Cement 12 .: INS/PUB/048 Price Rs 650/- 20. hotels.(B+G+20) Storied Residential Building with Steel-Concrete Composite Option In India residential buildings are coming up in numbers with a height of 20 storied and above to accommodate the influx of population to Metros which are facing severe space constraint.. This guidebook is broadly divided into seven chapters namely: Introduction. The design of the Structural elements has been carried out in Limit State Method of Design following Indian/foreign standards both for RCC & Composite options. manufacturing process. Cost Index & Practices and Bibliography. architects. This publication covers a study on the cost effectiveness of the fast-track Steel -Concrete Composite construction in comparison with the RCC option based on the same type plan of a (B+G+20) storied residential building which has been collected from a live example. Steel windows. With the developments taken place in advanced countries. 300/- 18.. Publication No INS/PUB/ 036 Price: Rs. distributors/ retailers. Publication No. Guidebook on Steel Doors and Windows for Domestic Use Traditionally wooden doors and windows have been used in places like homes. Users of windows. factories and hospitals.17. sourcing and application of these products. manufacturers. The habitation conditions of the Indian villagers particularly need to be improved. The Composite options have been considered with conventional brick cladding and with lighter cladding material like M2 Panel/Aerocon Blocks/Gypcrete etc. The design of the structural elements have been carried out following relevant Indian/foreign standards in Limit State Method of Design both for RCC and Composite construction. which has indicated substantial savings over its RCC option. steel doors and windows are now being preferred for various applications. specifiers / procurement officers. doors and related accessories will find it very useful in terms of design. The Composite options have been considered with conventional brick cladding and with lighter cladding material like M2 Panel/Aerocon Blocks/Gypcrete etc. The beneficiaries of this publication are buyers. (G+3) & (G+6) Storied Residential Buildings with Steel -Concrete Composite Option In the publication the modern trend of Steel-Concrete Composite construction has been considered. Corrosion Protection & Maintenance. Architects to selects an econoimic and safe Technical option for their projects. This publication provides general and technical information concerning steel doors & windows. which has indicated substantial savings over its RCC option. designers. It also includes a study of the cost effectiveness of the steel-Concrete Composite options vis-a-vis RCC option based on the type plan of (G+3) & (G+6) storied residential buildings collected from a live example.

and 840 sq.ft. expert from Steel Construction Institute. the Institute had prepared general arrangement drawings of 7 variants (260 sq. Dr A R Santhakumar. which makes habitation comfortable for the villagers. ft. INSDAG had prepared a steel intensive design for a raised two-storey school building (15 m X 15 m X 8 m) with required wind loading to be used as a cyclone/flood relief center in Paradeep. height: 8 m) of tubular structure displaying steel application in a typical road island.steel-insdag.org. The project on Teaching Resource for Structrual Steel Design for the Faculty of Civil/Structural Engineering has been pursued by the Expert Team (Dr V Kalyanraman.. in G+1 and G+3 modules) with the help of a leading consultant and submitted to concerned authorities in Gujarat. IIT-Mumbai.one of the major stakeholders. In view of the need for speedy rehabilitation and reconstruction of earthquake affected areas in Gujarat and based on interaction made with various agencies. Narayanan. the Institute has also developed detail-engineering drawings for the single-storeyed building and the G+3 building (640 sqft appartments) and submitted to the concerned authorities in Gujarat. Elevated units also take care of water clogging during monsoon. and it is designed to take care of the effects of Earthquake & Wind. Malviya National Institute of Technology-Jaipur and IIT-Roorkee with total involvement of the expert team to train approximately 220 teachers from 173 engineering colleges using the state-of-art teaching material. Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Steel is globally used for earthquake resistant structures. 3.: INS/PUB/049 B. All the 45 chapters are available in the INSDAG website www. 435 sq. 4.panels used for roofing and cladding. Seetharaman. DrS. Jayachandran and others) under the leadership of Dr. Design of a Typical cyclone / Flood relief Center at Paradip At the instance of JPC . BE College(DU)-Howrah. 2. Publication No. Teaching Resource for Structural Steel Design for Faculty of Civil/Structural Engg. 640 sq. DrS. These drawings are available for sale.R. UK. ft. Preparation of all the 45 chapters for one semester course had been completed after expert reviews. Later on. Projects Under Progress 1. R. Satish Kumar. Price Rs 3007- . Delhi College of Engineering-Delhi. for rural areas. The housing scheme has been developed with doubled-layered Ferro-Cement cladding having an air-gap in between and with sufficient openings for ventilation. Orissa. Six Workshops for the university faculty have been organized at six different places namely IIT-Chennai.ft. Road Island Project INSDAG has prepared a design of an exquisite inverted pyramid (top: 16 m X 16 m. Mr A.

Insdag's Steel in Construction . consultants. Considering the importance of ductile design of steel structures. 3. Twelve refresher courses had been conducted till December 2002. The technical volumes are available for sale. The last date of recipt of entries is 30th January 2003 The entries will be evaluated by Zonal Committees in the month of April 2003. an exciting brief entitled "World Class Shopping Plaza" had been prepared and circulated to more than 100 Schools of Architecture / Engineering Colleges.(for each course) C. 5. one each at Delhi. architects.for full set (Rs 3000/.a half yearly technical journal INSDAG News .a quarterly news bulletin Insdag E-News Letter .with CD).A Worldwide Choice D. Ranchi and IITGuwahati. Steel Promotional Brochures The Institute has published five attractive promotional/ awareness brochures for free distribution to target customers such as designers. 2. Price Rs 800/. About 250 professionals and 50 faculties have been exposed to composite construction technology. Other Activities 1. Price Rs 2500/. Only CD ROM is available at Rs 800/. 14 . builders at various conferences and other forums: • • • • • Pre-engineered Buildings Steel —The Right Choice for Building Construction Steel — The Trusted Material for Bridges and Flyovers Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel in Buildings and Bridges Steel Car Parks . Regular Publications of Insdag 1. Bhubaneswar. two at Chennai. The final selection will be done in June 2003. Ahmedabad. concept of earthquake resistant design had also been included in the lecture material of some refresher courses. These consist of two at Calcutta. Refresher Courses on Composite Construction Improving knowledge and skill of professionals in design using composite construction has been identified as an important area of activity.Technical volumes are available for sale.Monthly Price Rs 90/Price Rs 20/Free E.03) for the "Student Award Scheme for the Innovative Use of Steel in Architecture".only. Hyderabad. Student Award Scheme for Best Innovative Use of Steel inArchitecture In the fourth year (2002 .

A list of such publications is provided below: . INSDAG has been involved in IRC B-7 Committee engaged in revision of IRC 22.2003) for the "Award Scheme for Civil and Structural Engineering Students for Best Innovative Structural Steel Design".2. modifications have been suggested to clauses pertaining of deflection stipulation. The entries will be evaluated by Zonal Committees in the month of April-May 2003. Review of Relevant Documents for Modification of IRC 22. modular ratio and shear connector capacity in the present design environment (working stress method). IRC 24 and some IS codes. UK In addition to the above. pertaining to construction in steel as well as steel-concrete composite. an exciting brief on the theme of "Elevated Light Rail Transit System" has been prepared and circulated to more than 240 Engineering Institutions. 24 pertaining to construction of composite. and a Committee on IS 800 engaged in modifying the Code of Practice for use of structural steel in general building construction to limit state method. INSDAG has been included in a sub-committee entrusted to preparation of "Guidelines for design of Composite / Steel Box Girder bridges" considered to be cost effective for relatively higher spans where composite bridges using steel plate girders are not economical compared to other competitive options. The last date of receipt of entries is 31 st March 2003. This necessitated modification of Codes of Practices (BIS/IRC Codes which have not kept pace with the technological improvements in latest design methodologies). steel bridges respectively. F. Award Scheme for Civil and Structural Engineering Students for Best Innovative Structural Steel Design In the third year (2002 . INSDAG has published 20 important documents under copyright from the steel Construction Institute. Also. 3. Copyright Publications From SCI. Interfacing with the MOS The Institute has prepared technical documents/Vision Paper for consideration/perusal by concerned authorities: o Use of steel crash barriers on bridges and highways o Input paper on National Steel Policy with particular focus on construction sector safety requirement o Justification for adoption of steel scaffolding in place of bamboo/wood based on life cycle costing and 4. The final selection will be done in July 2003. UK on steel intensive design of structures. It has been estimated that amended clause on deflection stipulation itself will reduce the weight of bridge girder to the tune of 13 percent. To make the design of steel bridges as well as steel-concrete composite bridges economical and rational based on the state-of-the-art methodologies. Advances on knowledge of structural behaviour resulting from research need to be adopted in design practice for innovative / efficient design techniques.

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