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INSDAG GUIDE FOR

THE STRUCTURAL USE OF STEELWORK IN BUILDINGS

Compiled by:

Dr. Rangachari Narayanan Dr. V. Kalyanraman

Published by:

**Institute for Steel Development And Growth
**

Ispat Niketan', First Floor 52/1A Ballygunge Circular Road Kolkata 700 019 Phone: (033) 2461 4045/47/66/76, Fax: (033) 2461 4048 E-mail: insdag@giascl2.vsnl.net.in; insdag@caj2^nLneLui March 2003 Copyright reserved

INSDAG

REVISED PRICE

1 0 0 0 / 52/1 A , Bally gunge CUcuUi Road -Kolkata-700019

7

Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge that all the data and information contained herein are correct to the extent that they relate to either matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication, Institute for Steel Development And Growth (INSDAG) assumes no responsibility for any errors in or mis-interpretations of such data and/or information or any loss or damage arising from or related to their use. __________________________________

US E M O R E S T E EL - T H E P R EF E RR E D M AT ER I A L O F TH E N E W M IL L EN IUM

FOREWARD INSDAG has played a pivotal role over the last few years in propagating the awareness amongst students, faculties of various engineering institutes and experts and professionals from various industries, about the advantages and benefits of usage of steel in the construction sector. It is now being accepted by most engineering professionals both academic and industrial, that the main stumbling block in the development of the steel construction industry in India is the primitiveness of the methods of design adopted by the Indian codes as against the international codes which allow higher flexibility in design approach. The relevant Indian codes of practice (IS: 800-1984 and IS: 801-1975) applicable for hot-rolled and cold-formed steel are based on the "Allowable Stress Design" approach as against the more internationally popular "Limit State Method" approach which has been proved to be technically sound and its use results in optimum economy of the structure.

With the technical contributions from leading academics and professionals, INSDAG has already brought out various publications on the design methodology of steel structures using the Limit State Method of Design (LSM), which have been beneficial to the engineering fraternity in learning the most intricate facets in LSM design.

On request from INSDAG, this publication in the form of a Guide book has been written and compiled by Dr. Rangachari Narayanan and Dr. V. Kalyanraman for the benefit of not only the student community both under-graduate and post graduate level, but also other engineering professionals across the country, since most of the engineering institutions have started including the LSM design in their curriculum and also the engineering professionals need to update themselves with the latest technological advancements. The publication is very timely as it coincides with the revision of IS: 800- 1984, which is at its advanced stage.

The entire book has been reviewed by^Dr. T. K. Bandyopadhyay, Deputy Director General and Mr. Arijit Guha, Manager (Civil & Structural). Comments and suggestions received from a large number of faculty member*, have been incorporated. INSDAG expresses its indebtedness to Dr. R. Narayanan and Dr. V. Kalyanraman, academics and researchers of international experience for agreeing to bring'out this publication. Kolkata: February 2003

Special Note The entire document has been written considering Limit State Method of design following stipulations laid down in the relevant British code.3 & 4. this document will be extremely useful to the students of Civil I Structural Engineering to understand the theoretical background associated with advancement in structural steel design based on Limit State Method. BS: 5950 Part -1. However. this guide book may undergo certain modifications in some chapters after the publication of revised IS: 800 (LSM version) to accommodate the possible variation in stipulations that are likely to be considered in the revised code. 3 & 5 and Eurocode . Since IS: 800 (Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel) is presently being revised to Limit State version. ______________________________ .

General Material General Design Requirements Tension Members Classification of Cross Sections Axially Loaded Columns Design of Members Subjected to Bending Elements Subjected to Axial force and Bending Beams of Hot Rolled Sections Subjectedto 65 .72 73-88 89 . 15. 5. 13. 16.169 170-172 173 . Appendix .18 19 . 7.E: Location of Neutral Axis 168 . 11.139 140 .167 Torsion . 2. 12. 9.182 2-3 4-4 5-15 16 .Concrete Composite Columns LIST OF APPENDICES A. 10.153 154 . 8. C. 3.CONTENTS Pages 1.64 and 66 .A: Terminology Appendix.174 175 .D: An Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis Appendix . B. D.21 22-31 32 .109 110 . E.65 Portal Frames Multi .58 59 . 6.Storey Buildings Connection Design Cold Formed Steel Sections Basic Concepts of Composite Construction Composite Beams and Slabs Steel . 14.180 181 . 4.130 131 .C: Relevant Indian Standards Appendix .B : Symbols Appendix .

S. Kalyanaraman 1 . it may be noted that the Indian Codes of Practice applicable to concrete structures have been revised to conform to Limit State Methodology.1975) applicable to the structural use of hot-rolled and cold-rolled steel are largely based on "Working Stress Method". This is of particular advantage. IS: 801 . It is also noted that the Code of Practice for steel-concrete-composite buildings (IS: 11384 .org). This Design Guide has been complied. Canadian. steel framed buildings have significantly better blast and earthquake resistance and take less than half the time to build. Australian and European Codes. Mr. Dr.K. The more modern "Limit State Design Approach" developed in the 1970's in the West. Compared with competing materials of construction. which led to the latest British.PREFACE The low usage of structural steel in India is attributable in part to the prevailing out-of-date design practices. which result in uneconomic designs. We are also grateful to the many engineers . when the Government of India. is technologically sound and results in significant economies in completed structures. R. Usha in compiling this document is gratefully acknowledged. as steel is reusable and environment friendly. Sambasiva Rao and Miss P. The relevant Indian Codes of Practice (IS: 800 . when the Bureau of Indian Standards eventually decides to revise the Steel Codes. American.1985) is based on the Limit State approach but is very limited in its coverage. T. This makes the choice of steel in construction an uneconomic proposition. Many of the design specifications contained herein have been adopted from these Western Codes and will hopefully serve as a Draft document. besides being inconsistent with IS: 800 and IS: 801 written in Working Stress format. an up-to-date Resource Material for disseminating the latest Steel Design Technology has been compiled and published in the web site of INSDAG (www. Rangachari Narayanan V.1984.too numerous to mention who suggested improvements in the drafting stage. as a complementary document and has been drafted after studying the background research work carried out largely in the Western World.steel-insdag. Ministry of Steel initiated steps to rectify the skills shortage in Steel Construction in 1998. This situation posed a challenge. As a part of that initiative. Suggestions and comments aimed at improving this document are welcome. In passing. Bandhyopadhyay of INSDAG and Professor A. The technical support provided by two young engineers. (b) organising in-career courses for enhancing the level of competence of practising engineers (c) publishing design guidance documents for disseminating latest Steel Design Technology (d) organising design competitions for encouraging state-of-the art Structural Steel Designs. Santhakumar of Anna University had reviewed the document before its publication as a draft. The newly started Institute for Steel Development and Growth (INSDAG) was entrusted with the tasks of (a) improving the teaching standards of Structural Steel Design in Indian Universities. relevant to Construction.

This document is NOT a statutory document and intended as a guide for students and practicing engineers. form. tolerances of all rivets. The dimensions.SECTION 1: GENERAL 1. For conversion of system of units to another system. studs. The guide provides only general advice regarding the various loads to be considered in design. Reference to other Standards .4 1.The SI system of units is applicable to this Guide. 1. 1. storage structures. the definitions of various terms are given in Appendix A. Symbols . IS: 786-1967 (supplement) may be referred.5 1. nuts. tolerances of all rolled shapes and other members used in any steel structure shall.2 Terminology . shall conform to the requirements of appropriate Indian Standards. wherever available. BS: 5950 (various parts). For actual loads to be used reference may be made to IS: 875-1987. weight. Standard Dimensions.Symbols used in this Guide are defined in Appendix B. tanks.3 1. In the absence of an Indian Standard written in the modern Limit State Format for steel construction. this guide generally follows the provisions contained in British Standard. conform to the appropriate Indian Standards. transmission line towers. weight. general . form. wherever available.For the purpose of this Guide. bolts.. however. This guide is in three parts and covers the design of building structures using (i) Hot Rolled Steel section (ii) Cold Rolled Steel sections and (iii) Steel Concrete Composite sections.principles discussed in this guide could be adopted in the design of such structures appropriately.All the standards referred to in this Guide are listed in Appendix C and their latest version shall be applicable: Units and Conversion Factors . It will not apply to bridges.6 2 . INSDAG has a Memorandum of Understanding with the British Steel Construction Institute and several supporting documents are available from INSDAG at largely discounted prices for the use of steel designers in India. chimneys.1 Scope This Guide provides general recommendations for the design of structural steel work in buildings and allied structures. It is not intended to replace Codes of Practice. etc. Form and Weight The dimensions. cranes. tubular structures.

with regard to fire and corrosion. type. and offsets shall be dimensioned. Plans shall be drawn to a scale large enough to convey the information adequately.Shop drawings. For additional information to be included on drawings for designs based on the use of welding. and the relative locations of the various members. Any special precaution to be taken in the erection of structure from the design consideration shall also be indicated in the drawing. Plans . For a great majority of steel buildings which are not subject to alternate wetting and drying. giving complete information necessary for the fabrication of the component parts of the structure including the location.The plans (design drawings) shall show the complete design with sizes. Authentic guidance on protection methods is available from INSDAG.1. Shop drawings shall be made in conformity with IS: 696-1972 and IS: 962-1967. The diagram shall be sufficient to ensure convenient assembly and erection at site. as may be required for the proper preparation of shop drawings. and shall be supplemented by such data on the assumed loads.7 Plans and Drawings Plans. bolts and welds. drawings and stress sheet shall be prepared according to IS: 696-1972 and IS: 962-1967. It is essential that Steel Designers familiarize themselves with protection methods for structural steelwork. length and detail of all welds. size. reference shall be made to appropriate Indian Standards. Plans shall indicate the type of construction to be employed. shall be prepared in advance of the actual fabrication. Floor levels. They shall clearly distinguish between shop and field rivets. column centres. Shop drawings . Symbols for welding used on plans and shop drawings shall be according to IS: 813-1961 3 . shears. corrosion is NOT a problem. A marking diagram allotting distinct identification marks to each separate part of steelwork shall be prepared. sections. moments and axial forces to be resisted by all members and their connections.

before fabrication conform to IS: 2062-1984. as appropriate. steel castings. bolts and nuts and cement concrete shall confirm to the requirements of the appropriate Indian Standards. IS: 8500-1977 and IS: 1977-1975.* 4 .Ail structural steels used in general construction coming under the purview of this Guide shall.1 may also be used provided that the characteristic yield stresses and other design provisions are suitably modified and the steel is also suitable for the type of fabrication adopted.SECTION 2: MATERIALS Structural Steel . welding consumables.All other materials including manufactured products. Other Material . Any structural steel other than that specified in 2.

Any features of the structure.3 General Principles of Limit State Design Structure should be designed considering the Limit States at which they would become unfit for their intended purpose. such as foundations. erection and future maintenance. damage will not be disproportionate to the cause.2 Overall Stability The designer responsible for the overall stability of the structure should ensure the compatibility of design and details of parts and components. To achieve this. appropriate partial safety factors.e. allows for. it should be capable of fulfilling its intended function and sustaining the design loads for its intended life. it is necessary to define clearly the basic structural anatomy by which the loads are transmitted to the foundations. a structure which is fit for its intended purpose. Each part of the structure should be sufficiently robust and insensitive to the effects of minor incidental loads applied during service that the safety of other parts is not prejudiced. 5 . can then be identified and taken account of in design. connections and other structural components should constitute a robust and stable structure under normal loading to ensure that in the event of misuse or accident. i. Two partial safety factors. which have a critical influence on its overall stability. The structure should behave as a three-dimensional entity. with due regard to economy. For verifying the adequacy of the structure. (b) the deviation of loads from their specified values and (c) the reduced probability that the various loads acting together will simultaneously reach the characteristic value. There should be no doubt of this responsibility for overall stability when some or all of the design and details are not made by the same designer. The design should facilitate fabrication. one applied to forces due to loading and another to the material strength shall be employed. steelwork. 3.. 3. (a) the possible deviation of the actual behaviour of the structure from that of the analysis and design model.1 Aims of Structural Design The aim of structural design is to provide.SECTION 3: GENERAL DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 3. The layout of its constituent parts. based on semi-probabilistic methods described below shall be used.

Partial safety factors In general.3.25 when considering fracture ultimate stress). the safety format used in this guide is based on probable maximum load and probable minimum strengths. Mode of failure (ductile/brittle). shear force etc) and is the calculated factored resistance of the element being checked. 6 . The value suggested is therefore consistent with that. 3.2 Limit states (1) A limit state is a state beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design requirements.1987) a load factor which is determined on probabilistic basis where = a material factor. Thus. are also considered) In accordance with the above concepts. (From IS: 875 . (Other loads . live and wind loads.if applicable. which is also determined on a 'probabilistic basis' when considering yield stress and 1. It should be noted that IS: 11384 . calculations take the form of verifying that where is the calculated factored load effect on the element (like bending moment. and is a function of the nominal value of the material yield strength.1 the possible deviation of the material in the structure from that assumed in design the possible reduction in the strength of the material from its characteristic value and manufacturing tolerances. is a function of the combined effects of factored dead. so that a consistent level of safety is achieved. Characteristic Loads.3.(e) (f) (g) (h) 3.1985 (Code of Practice for Composite Construction) has prescribed for Structural Steel when considering yield stress. the design requirements are expressed as follows: where = Design value of internal forces and moments caused by the design Loads.

2 1. • Rupture • Loss of stability • Loss of equilibrium Serviceability limit states are limit states beyond which specified service criteria are no longer met. calculations for both conditions are needed DL 1.1. An illustration of partial safety factors suggested for ultimate load conditions is given in Table 3.05 1.35 1. Unfactored loads are used to check the adequacy of the structure.6 1.6 1.5 1. where appropriate. Parti) Vertical load Horizontal load Vertical load acting with horizontal load (Crabbing or Surge) Crane load acting with Wind load *If in doubt. (At the present time.35 1. (The Committee formed to review BIS standards have adopted these values).(2) (3) Ultimate limit states are limit states of collapse or other structural failure. • Serviceability Limit State is related to the criteria governing normal use. Reference to the Code of Practice for Earthquake Resistant Design should be made. Table 3.35 Yf LL WL - 1.35 1.0 1. this Code is being revised).5 1. which might endanger the safety of people. including those for: • Deflection • Durability • Ponding • Vibration Thus the following limit states may be identified for design purposes and are provided for in terms of partial factors reflecting the severity of the risks.5 1.05 1. • Fatigue Limit State is important where distress to the structure by repeated loading is a possibility.5 1.1: Recommended Partial safety factors Loading Dead Load (unfavourable effects) Dead load restraining uplift or overturning Dead Load + Imposed Load Dead Load + Wind Load Dead Load + Imposed Load + wind Load (Major Load)* Dead Load + Imposed Load (Major Load) + wind Load* Crane Load effects (from BS 5950.4 1.2 7 . These values are based on recommendations adopted by Eurocodes. when loads act alone or in combination.35 1. The partial load factors are chosen to reflect the probability of extreme conditions. • Ultimate Limit State is related to the maximum design load capacity under extreme conditions.2 1. including: • Excessive deformation / formation of mechanism.

For the purpose of computing the maximum stresses in any structure or member of a structure.000012 per degree centigrade per unit length. shrinkage and creep in contiguous concrete members. including temporary bracings to take care of all stresses due to erection loads. Published data should be consulted in assessing the maximum variations of temperature for which provision for expansion and contraction has to be allowed in the structure. (b) The temperature range varies for different localities and under different diurnal and seasonal conditions. and Secondary effects due to contraction or expansion resulting from temperature changes. Part 1 following the Ronan Point Collapse) are given below: Structures should remain as complete integral units even when (due to an accident such as explosion) one of the members fail or become inoperative. where applicable: a) b) c) d) Dead Loads.3 Temperature effects (a) Expansion and contraction due to changes in temperature of the materials of a structure shall be considered and adequate provision made for the effects produced. the following loads and secondary effects shall be taken into account. The structure as a whole and all parts of the structure in conjunction with the temporary bracings shall be capable of sustaining these erection loads. creep in steel. differential settlements of the structure as a whole and its components. Proper provision shall be made. e) For fire resistant design and fire rating.1987) Earthquake loads (as per IS: 1893 . Dead load. (c) The co-efficient of expansion for steel shall be taken as 0. wind load and also such parts of the live load as would be imposed on the structure during the period of erection shall be taken as acting together with the erection loads.5 Robustness Requirements The requirements for all buildings to maintain Structural integrity (as prescribed by BS: 5950. Imposed loads and Wind loads (as per IS: 875 .All loads required to be carried by the structure or any part of it due to storage or positioning of construction material and erection equipment including all loads due to operation of such equipment shall be considered as 'erection loads'.4 Loading 3.1991) Erection loads.4.1 Types of loads .4.2 Erection loads . Design guide on Structural Fire Safety C1B-W14) 3. 3. reference may be made to appropriate specialist publications [For example.4. 3. This requirement provides a 8 .3.

• 9 . as far as possible. (using appropriate load factors and including the likely accidental loads) in the appropriate directions. which are properly anchored to the steel frame work. Columns should be continuous vertically through the floors. Collapse must not be disproportionate and the role of key elements should be identified. Ties may be steel members or steel reinforcement. in both directions. Any member or other structural component. At each storey in turn any single column or beam carrying a column should be capable of being removed without causing collapse beyond a limited portion of the building in the vicinity of the member. Precast floors must be anchored at both ends against sliding of supporting members. Suggested requirements for integrity of buildings of five storeys or more are given below: • • For sway resistance. Column splices should be capable of resisting a tensile force of two .total factored load /. no portion of structures should be dependent on only one bracing system. Either the beams or tie members should be designed so that they provide for the anchorage. which provides lateral restraint vital to the "key element". where . This is termed as " Localisation of damage". the member should be designed as a "key element" so that it has a very low probability of failure. columns should be restrained by horizontal ties resisting 1% of column load. in this event substantial permanent deformation may be accepted.significant measure of safety for the occupants and is termed "Structural integrity requirement" or "Robustness requirement". Each section between expansion joints should be treated as a separate building. unit area .distance between columns in the direction • • • • • • At the edge of the structure. These requirements are aimed at ensuring that the collapse of one element of a structure does not trigger the failure of the structure as a whole. If the removal of one of these members would cause substantial damage. By tying the structure together. All building frames should be effectively tied together at each principal floor and roof level. as well as the "key elements" themselves should be checked for safety and stability. The minimum tie strengths (in respect of the ties referred above) should be internally and externally (but not less than 75 kN for floors and 40 kN at roof level).tie spacing . it is possible to ensure that there is an alternative load path that would help to avoid progressive collapse.thirds of the factored vertical compressive load on the column below the splice.

in simple beam and column structures an allowance may be made for the inter-restraint of the connections between a beam and a column by an end restraint moment not exceeding 10% of the free moment applied to the beam. (c) (ii) (d) Design based on experiments . It is necessary to maintain stability against sway and this is ensured complying with provisions of 3.3. The necessary flexibility in connections may result in some non-elastic deformation of the materials. Such analysis may be made using either elastic or plastic methods. (a) Simple design . the details of members and connections should be such as to realise the assumptions made in design without adversely affecting any other parts of the structure. provided that the frame is braced against side sway in both directions. the design may be based on full scale or model tests subject to the following conditions: (i) A full-scale test of prototype structure may be done.The connections are assumed to be capable to developing the strength and / or stiffness required by an analysis assuming full continuity. On this basis.2.6. other than the fasteners. As an alternative.6 General Principles and Design Methods 3. In all cases. Where the design is based on failure loads. (b) Rigid design . (i) The moment and rotation capacity of the joints should be based on experimental evidence. the tolerances then specified on the drawing shall be such that all successive structures shall be in practical conformity with the prototype. a load factor of not less than 1.Where structure is of non-conventional or complex in nature. the design should satisfy the strength.Some degree of connection stiffness is assumed. but it would be insufficient to develop full continuity.1 Methods of design .The design of any structure or its parts may be carried out by one of the methods given in (a) to (d).5 on the loads or load 10 . Semi-rigid design .The connections between members are assumed moments adversely affecting either the members or the structure as a whole. assuming this to be simply supported.6. stability and stiffness requirement of all parts of the structure when partial continuity at the joints is to be taken into account in assessing moments and forces in the members. which may permit some limited plasticity.2 (c). The prototype shall be accurately measured before testing to determine the dimensional tolerance in all relevant parts of the structure. not to develop The distribution of forces may be determined assuming that members intersecting at a joint are pin connected.

(b) Stability against overturning . The load capacity of each member and its connections.1 Limit state of strength (a) General . The distribution and duration of forces applied in the test shall be representative of those to which the structure is deemed to be subjected.In checking the strength and stability of the structure the loads should be multiplied by the relevant ^factors given in table 3. The factored loads should be applied in the most unfavorable realistic combination for the part or effect under consideration. 3. a separate check should be carried out for notional horizontal forces.2 Stability limit state (a) General . as determined by the relevant provisions of this Guide.combinations given in Table 3.6. should be adequately stiff against sway. 3.In considering the overall stability of any structure or part. including portions between expansion joints. the loads should be increased by the relevant factors given in table 3. The combination of imposed and dead loads should be such as to have the most severe effect on overall stability.6. which embraces stability against overturning. and sway stability as given below.2.1. Account should be taken of probable variations in dead load during construction or other temporary conditions. in addition to designing for applied horizontal loads.2 Ultimate Limit States 3.6.2. Loading devices shall be previously calibrated and care shall be exercised to ensure that no artificial restraints are applied to the prototype by the loading systems. (ii) In the case where design is based on the testing of a small-scale model structure. the model shall be constructed with due regard for the principles of dimensional similarity.The factored loads should not cause the structure or any part of the structure (including the foundations) to overturn or lift off its seating.All structures. should be such that the factored loads would not cause failure. The designer should consider overall frame stability. (c) Sway stability .1. To ensure this.1 should be used. moments and deformations under working loads shall be determined by physical measurements made when the loadings are applied to simulate the conditions assumed in the deign of the actual structure. 11 . The thrusts.

The stiffness (deformation) of the foundation should reflect the boundary condition assumed in the analysis model of the structural system.4 Fatigue . The cladding. applied horizontally. Attention should be given to the method of connecting the steel superstructure to the foundations and the anchorage of any holding down bolts. 3. the steelwork designer should state clearly the need for such construction and the forces acting upon it.6. taken to contribute to net shear on the foundations. floors and roof should have adequate strength and be so secured to the structural framework as to transmit all horizontal forces to the points of sway resistance. Sway stability may be provided for example by braced frames. They should be taken as acting simultaneously with vertical loads.5% of factored total gravity load (dead plus vertical imposed) from that level. joint rigidity or by utilising staircase. Stress changes due to fluctuations in wind loading need not be considered but account should be taken of wind-induced oscillations. 0. 3.6. The notional forces should be assumed to act on all structures in any one orthogonal direction at a time and should be applied at each roof and floor level or their equivalent. 12 .5 Earthquake Resistant Design . Where such sway stability is provided by construction other than the steel framework.The design of foundations should accommodate all the forces imposed on them.3 Foundation design . Whatever system is used. combined with horizontal loads. The notional force should not be: • • • • applied when considering overturning.6.The standards appropriate for earthquake resistance of buildings in various parts of the country should be carefully considered and suitable provisions should be made taking into account the Capacity design and requisite ductility.These notional forces may arise from practical imperfections such as lack of vertically and should be taken as the greater of: 1% of factored dead load from that level. lift cores and shear walls.Fatigue need not be considered unless a structure or element is subjected to numerous significant fluctuations of stress. Where they result from factored loads the relevant factors for each load in each combination should be stated. 3.2. Where it is necessary to quote the foundation-reactions it should be clearly stated whether the forces and moments result from factored or unfactored loads. applied horizontally.2. combined with temperature effects.2. reversal of loading should be accommodated.

3. whether maintenance is possible. Detailed advice on protection of steel for various environmental/exposure conditions is contained in an INSDAG publication titled "Corrosion Protection for Structural Steel".2: Deflection limits other than for pitched roof portal frame ( a ) Deflection on beams due to unfactored imposed loads Cantilevers Length / 180 Beams carrying plaster or other brittle Span / 325 finish All other beams Span / 325 ( b ) Horizontal deflection of columns other than portal frames due to unfactored imposed and wind loads Tops of columns in single-storey Height / 325 buildings In each storey of a building with more Height of storey under consideration / 325 than one storey ( c ) Crane gantry girders Refer to IS: 800 .3. On low-pitched and flat roofs the possibility of ponding needs consideration for Composite Construction using metal decking.3.3.2 Durability . (Where the deflection due to Dead + Live load combination is likely to be excessive.6.2 gives recommended limitations for certain structural members. consideration should be given to pre-camber the beams) Table 3. deflections of roofing 13 . When checking for deflections the most adverse and realistic combination of service loads and their arrangement should be checked by elastic analysis. Table 3.6.6. Allowance must be made for possible construction inaccuracies.6.1984 NOTE 1. the shape of the members and the structural detailing the protective measure if any.3 Serviceability Limit State 3.1 Deflection .The deflection under serviceability loads of a building or building component should not impair the strength of the structure/components or cause damage to the finishing.3. are listed below: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the environment.Several factors affecting the durability of the buildings under conditions relevant to their intended life. the degree of exposure. 3. Circumstances may arise where greater or lesser values would be more appropriate.3 Ponding a) All roofs with a slope of less than 5% must be checked to ensure that rainwater cannot collect in pools. settlements of foundations.

if applicable) collected in pools. (state 1) variation of the deflection of the beam due to the variable loading plus any time dependant deformations due to the permanent load. d) Table 3. which might be formed due to the deflection of structural members or roofing material. c) Where the roof slope is less than 3%. b) Pre-cambering of beams can be used to reduce the likelihood of rainwater collecting in pools. This also applies to floors of car parks and other open-sided structures. b) Vibration caused by machines and oscillation caused by harmonic resonance must be considered. (state 0) variation of the deflection of the beam due to permanent loads immediately afterloading. 3. provided that rainwater outlets are appropriately located.3.materials and structural members and the effects of pre-camber. and provided for.6. (state 2) 14 . it must be checked that collapse cannot occur due to the weight of water (or snow.3 gives limiting values for the natural frequency or the alternative total deflection to avoid resonance.1 Vertical deflections to be considered sagging in the final state relative to the straight line joining the supports.4 Dynamic effects a) The design must make suitable provision for the effects of imposed loads. vibration. pre-camber (hogging) of the beam in the unloaded state. Fig 3. c) To avoid resonance. the natural frequencies of structures or parts of structures must be sufficiently different from those of the excitation source. etc. which can induce impact.

15 .

4. is the root area of the threaded section. (The suggested value of The design strength in tension as governed by net cross-section at the hole. is the net area of the cross section after deductions for the hole and is the partial safety factor against ultimate tension failure by rupture (The suggested value of .1 and 4.SECTION 4: TENSION MEMBERS 4.2. is the yield stress of the material (in MP a). will govern the tensile design strength of a plate with holes. 4. as calculated by Eqn. the load-causing yield across the section is taken as one of the limiting loads.1 Limiting Load on Plates in Tension In the design of tension members. Similarly threaded rods subjected to tension could fail by rupture at the root of the threaded region and hence net area. The corresponding design strength for the member under axial tension is given by where. is the ultimate stress of the material. is the gross area of cross section in the partial safety factor for failure in tension by yielding.1 Plates with Bolt Holes under Tension 16 . Fig. The lower value of the design tension capacities. is given by and Ym is where.

The design strength in tension will be obtained by substituting the value of in Eqn. 2. accounts for the end fastener restraint effect. In addition. and (4. respectively. 4. respectively. (ii) Strength as governed by tearing at net section: where.6) below: (i) Strenfith as governed by the yielding of gross section: where. will be the minimum value obtained from (4.3) where. n is the number of bolt holes in the staggered section and the summation over is carried over all inclined legs of the section. and are the net area of the connected leg and the gross area of the outstanding leg.1).2 4. when the number of fasteners when the number of fasteners is 3 the number of fasteners is 1 or 2 and if the connection is adequately welded if 17 . the stress in the outstanding leg at the ultimate stage will be closer to the yield stress (due to shear lag) while the net section of the connected leg will often reach the ultimate stress The tensile strength of angles connected by one leg. limiting the stress in the outstanding leg to (the yield stress) and the connected leg having holes to (the ultimate stress).4).When multiple holes are arranged in a staggered fashion in a plate (Fig 4. the potential for "block shear failure" should also be assessed. is evaluated accounting for this phenomenon by 1.5). is the gross area of the angle section. and are the yield and ultimate stress of the material. the net area corresponding to the staggered section will be given by (4. (4.2 Limiting Load on Angles under Tension When a connection is made through one leg of an angle. The design tensile strength.

respectively. If the centroid of bolt pattern is not located between the heel of the angle and the centerline of the connected leg. The corresponding design strength in tension shall be evaluated as the lower of the value obtained from the following equations. the connection shall be checked for block shear strength. perpendicular to the line of force. Fig. 4.(iii) Strength as governed by block shear failure: A tension member may fail along end connection due to block shear as shown in Fig.2. and = minimum gross and net area in shear along a line of transmitted force.2 Block Shear Failure where. It will also provide a margin for avoiding excessive self-weight deflection).3 Maximum Slenderness Ratio The maximum slenderness ratio (length/least radius of gyration of the cross section) of a tension member is limited to 400 (This will provide a margin of safety for members normally acting as ties but subject to reversal of stresses due to wind and earthquake. 18 . and = minimum gross and net area in tension from the hole to the toe of the angle. 4. 4. respectively.

these four different modes of behaviour can be expressed graphically on a plot of stress against strain at the 19 . is the lower limit of rotation for treatment as a plastic section) Fig. yet higher values of local buckling would occur before the attainment of yield stress in the extreme fibres.1 Basis The proposed classification of cross sections is illustrated by considering the idealised moment-rotation characteristics of a symmetrical beam subjected to incremental flexural loading continued till its collapse. At failure. Such a stocky section is termed as a 'plastic' section. Assuming that the flange plate or the web does not buckle locally. A beam capable of developing full plasticity would exhibit an idealised elastic/plastic moment-rotation curve as shown in Fig. Such a cross-section is termed 'compact' section. i. On the other hand. Such a section is termed as 'slender'. This section is termed as 'semi-compact'. If the section were to be even more slender (higher ratios of it may only be able to sustain an elastic moment up to the attainment of yield strength in the extreme fibres. 5.1 Elastic/plastic moment-rotation curve.1. with a triangular stress distribution. the stress distribution across the section will consist of two rectangles and a significant rotation will take place. If the section were to be further more slender still (i. 5. before attaining the theoretical elastic moment capacity.e.SECTION 5: CLASSIFICATION OF CROSS SECTIONS 5. a cross section may develop fully plastic stress distribution across the entire cross section but may not have adequate ductility The horizontal part of the moment-rotation diagram will be limited.e. and it exhibits considerable "ductility" is the rotation at the onset of plasticity.

semi-compact sections are to be used with the understanding that they will fail at The slender section design is discussed in the section on Cold-Form Steel member design. flange plates and web plate.2 Stress/strain relation of extreme fibres for different classes of sections Fig. 20 . 5.2). Compact sections can generally be used in simply supported beams failing soon after reaching at one section.extreme fibres (Fig.e. Fig.3. shear resistance etc. 5. as in Fig. i. These different modes of behaviour can also be shown by the stress patterns.3 Bending stress distribution for different classes of sections The class of a section is determined by the lowest class of all its constituent elements. 5.g.). In elastic design. Moment resistance. 5. The class of section determines its resistance (e. Only plastic sections can be used in forming plastic collapse mechanisms.

1. Limits on Width to Thickness Ratio of Plate Elements* Type of Element Type of Section Outstand element of Welded compression flange Rolled Internal element of Welded compression flange Rolled Web with neutral axis at mid depth Web under uniform compression Single/double angle T-stems Circular tube with outer diameter D where are the limits for b/t width of the flange overhang depth of the web outer diameter of the circular tubular section thickness of the plate All Welded Rolled Rolled * This table is derived from BS 5950: Part 1. 21 .Table 5.

Axially loaded columns having a slenderness ratio values below are "stocky" and will fail by yielding across the entire cross section. The design axial load resistance for a member subjected to axial compression is given (Note that no calculations for is needed when as the column would fail by squashing at The compressive strength curves obtained for the various types of sections are shown in Fig 6. so calculations have to be canned out in respect of both principal axes and the lower value of load resistance chosen. 22 .1 Axial Compression Resistance of Columns The axial load resistance of steel columns is governed by the type of cross section and the axis of buckling.SECTION 6: AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS 6. The choice of axis of buckling to obtain the design strength is not always clear.1. For columns having values in excess of the following computations are necessary.

1) and Table 6.2 may be constructed for different values of using equations 6. 6. Based on BS 5950: Part 1J Table 6.6. 6.2 gives the ultimate compressive stress values in compression members corresponding to various values of and for Graphs (similar to Fig. 23 .1 Compressive strength curves for struts for different values'of 250 Mpa.1 to 6.Fig.1: Choice of appropriate values of [For = Welded Sections: for cross sections fabricated by welding of plates 20 N/mm2 should reduce the value of Table 6.

may be regarded as the equivalent length of a pin-ended column having the same cross section. The recommended effective lengths for design purposes are given below 24 .Table 6.2: Ultimate Compressive stress i 6.2 Effective Length of Columns Designs of columns have to be checked using the appropriate effective length for buckling about both the strong and weak axes. which would be expected to have the same strength and stiffness as the column being designed. Effective length.

2: Cross Section Shapes for Rolled Steel Compression Members ( d ) Plated I Section (e) Built . 6. Fig 6. 6.up or fabricated Compression Members 25 . built-up sections will be used.3.3: Cross Section Shapes for Built .6.3 Cross Sectional Shapes for Compression Members and Built . Cross section shapes of rolled steel compression members and built-up or fabricated compression members are shown in Fig.Up Columns When compression members are required for large structures like bridges.up I Section Fig 6. approximate values of radii of gyration given in Fig.4 for various built-up sections may be employed. For preliminary calculations.2 and Fig. 6.

4: Approximate radii of gyration (Continued in next page) 26 .Fig 6.

When single angle discontinuous struts connected by a single bolt are employed. Single angle discontinuous struts connected by two or more bolts in line along the member at each end may be designed for the factored axial load. 27 . When welds are used. the weld length must be not less than the maximum width of the member. it may be designed for 1.85 times the centre to centre distance of the intersection at each end. assuming the effective length to be 0.Fig 6. which are in contact with each other and are bearing on base plates or milled surfaces. If bolts are used they should be spaced longitudinally at less than 4 times the bolt diameter and the connection should extend to at least times the width of the member.4 General Guidance for Connection Requirements When compression members consist of different components. they should be connected at their ends with welds or bolts.4: Approximate radii of gyration 6.25 times the factored axial load and the effective length taken as the centre-to-centre distance of the intersection at each end.

the lacing should be symmetrical in any two opposing faces to avoid torsion.5 ( b ) have a tendency to buckle independently. the slenderness ratio of individual components should be less than 50 or 70% of the slenderness ratio of the built up column (whichever is less).5% of axial load on the column. For member thickness up to 10 mm. (A value between is chosen depending upon the degree of restraint provided at the ends). Lacings and battens are not combined in the same column. The spacing'of connectors must be such that the largest slenderness ratio of each component member is neither greater than 60 nor less than 40.5 Single angle size: 1/30 of the length of the strut Double angle size: 1/35 of the length of strut Circular hollow sections diameter = 1/40 length Design Considerations for Laced and Battened Columns The two channel constituents of a laced column. A minimum of two bolts at each end and a minimum of two additional connectors spaced equidistant in between will be required. For members of large thickness M20 bolts may be used. The load that these tying forces cause may be assumed to cause a shearing force equal to 2. To prevent local buckling of unsupported lengths between the two constituent lattice points (or between two battens). The width of the lacing bar should be at least 3 times the diameter of the bolt.For double angle discontinuous struts connected back to back to both sides of a gusset or section by not less than two bolts or by welding. the factored axial load is used in design. The effective length of lacing bars is the length between bolts for single lacing and 0. M16 bolts may be used unless otherwise noted. The following guide values are suggested for initial choice of members: (i) (ii) (iii) 6. 6. Solid washers or packing plates should be used in-between. Thickness of lacing bars should be at least l/40th of the length between bolts for single lacing and 1/60 of this length for double lacing (both for welded and bolted connections). The slenderness ratio formula: of battened columns shall be calculated using the following (6.7 of this length for double lacing. The slenderness ratio of the lacing bars should not exceed 145. (Additionally if the columns are subjected to moments or lateral loading the lacing should be designed for the additional bending moment and shear). Spacing of tack bolts or welds should be less than 600 mm. The inclination of lacing bars from the axis of the column should not be less than 40° nor more than 70°.with an effective length conservatively chosen.7) 28 .5(a) and 6. All double angle struts must be tack bolted or welded. In laced columns. shown in Fig.

7) Fig. 6.8) = calculated using values given in Eqn. is lower value of slenderness of the individual vertical members between centre to centre of batten intervals and is slenderness of the overall column.5 Built-up column members 29 . The imperfection factor is calculated from (6. (6. (6.8) The strength of the battened column is evaluated from = effective slenderness with computed as given in Eqn. using the radius of gyration of the whole built up section.where.

6 When there is a large moment in relation to the vertically applied load a gusseted base may be used. it is customary not to grind or machine the underside of the base plate. a plain square steel plate or a slab attached to the column is adequate. which have been shop-welded to the columns. 6.6.6 ( a ) . 6. If uplift or overturning forces are present.6. These connection methods are illustrated in Fig. If column base plates are insufficient to develop the applied bending moment or if thinner plates are used. a more positive attachment is necessary. but for larger columns. . 6. some form of stiffening must be provided.6 Base Plates for Concentrically Loaded Columns For a purely axial load. For this second case the columns are connected to the footing with anchor bolts that pass through the lug angles. it may be necessary to ship the plates separately and set them to the correct elevations. but grout it in place. Fig. and to ensure there is good contact between the two. These base plates can be welded directly to the columns or they can be fastened by means of bolted or welded lug angles. To spread the column loads uniformly over the base plates. 6. For small columns these plates will be shop-welded to the columns. This type of arrangement is shown in Fig. Concrete support area should be significantly larger than the base plate area so that the applied load can disperse satisfactorily on to the foundation.6 Column base plates A base plate welded directly to the columns is shown in Fig.

The chosen number of bolts is to be arranged symmetrically near corners of base plate or next to column web. Calculate the total length of weld to resist axial load. 2. Maximum allowable bearing strength = 0. Check for bolt. similar to the arrangement sketched in Fig.4 (where = cube strength ofconcrete) Actual bearing pressure to be less than or equal to 0. Select weld size. 8. Check the bolts for adequacy. Check maximum co-existent factored shear and tension. 10. if any. Determine the factored axial load and shear at the column base. Procedure for empirical design of a slab base plate for axial load only (pinned connection) 1. Determine base plate thickness For channel. The design steps for a base plate attached to an axially loaded column with pinned base are explained below. on the holding down bolts. = pressure in on underside of plate.7] = smaller plate projection from column = design strength of mild steel plate. 7.Columns supporting predominantly axial loads are designed as being pin-ended at the base. box or columns but not less than the thickness of the flange of the supported column. but not greater than divided by Fig. 6. 9. assuming a uniform distribution. Check shear stress on weld. = larger plate projection from column [See Fig.6.7 Base plates subjected to concentric force 5.4 4. 6. 3. 6. . 6. of the weld. Vector sum of all the stresses carried by the weld must not exceed the design strength. Check for adequacy of weld. Decide on the number and type of holding down bolts to resist shear and tension.

and the component elements are compact or plastic. Lateral Instability or Lateral Torsional Buckling of beams can be prevented by providing full restraint to the compression flange of member.1. 7. The design adequacy of a laterally restrained beam is verified using the following criteria: • • • • lateral restraint force bending resistance of the cross section shear resistance of the cross section combined bending and shear at locations where there are (a) combinations of maximum factored bending moment and co-existent shear and (b) combinations of maximum factored shear force and the co-existent bending moment. Fabricated plate girders may fail by web shear buckling or local buckling of a flange.2. which will not fail by lateral instability. This type of failure is unlikely to be encountered in hot rolled sections. Adequate restraint may be regarded as being available if there is a positive connection of a floor or other construction fixed to the compression flange capable of resisting a lateral force of not less than 2. .1 Laterally restrained beams "Laterally Restrained Beams" are those.1. These are termed "unrestrained beams".5% of the maximum factored force in the compression flange of the member. then the failure will be triggered by excessive flexure and the collapse will follow the formation of plastic hinges. These are to be eliminated by provision of web stiffeners for (a) and (b) and the welding of additional flange plates to reduce the plate ratio.SECTION 7: DESIGN OF MEMBERS SUBJECTED TO BENDING 7. Such a beam is termed restrained beam". Local failure by (a) shear yield of the web. The influence of local buckling of flanges and webs In section 5. all rolled steel sections used as beams are classified in four ways in order to reflect the effect of local buckling of the beam elements. (b) local crushing of the web or (c) buckling of thin flanges may sometimes be encountered. • • • 7. in the case of (c). "Long beams" which are not suitably braced in the lateral direction will fail by a combination of lateral deflection and twist.1 General The main failure modes of hot rolled beams of compact or plastic cross section are as follows: • If the beam is prevented from buckling laterally.

For the plastic or compact sections. 7.• Slender . as the maximum fibre stress at failure will be less than The design bending resistance in these sections is given by 7. the design bending resistance of the cross section is given by Slender cross sections will not be able to resist a moment equal to the elastic moment resistance.The plastic moment capacity can be attained. .3 Span of beams: The span of a beam should be taken between the effective points of support.The elastic moment capacity of the cross section can be attained.as for compact. • Plastic .5 General conditions: All members in bending should meet the following conditions.4 Length of cantilevers: The length of a cantilever should be taken as the distance from the effective point of the support to the tip of the cantilever.1. but the cross section has little rotation capacity.1.the elastic moment capacity of the cross section can NOT be attained • Semi-compact . Hot rolled sections used as beams are generally of the "plastic" or "compact" cross sections. but NOT the plastic moment capacity • Compact . but there is sufficient rotation capacity in the cross section. so that the frame can be designed by plastic methods. 7.1.

3 Moment resistance with low shear load Where the design shear force of the cross section as the value obtained from • • is less than 0.(a) At critical points the combination of maximum moment and coexistent shear. load parallel to webs (c) Solid bars and plates Where = thickness of the web = Total depth of the section = depth of the web = area of the plate or bar.2) for semi-compact sections and 34 . load parallel to web (b) Built-up sections and boxes. 7. 7.2 Shear 7.2 Elastic shear stress In sections where webs vary in thickness or have holes significantly larger than those required for fasteners.2.1.2.should be taken Equation (7. the resistance of the member to lateral torsional buckling should be checked in accordance with specifications detailed in 7. the shear stress should be calculated from first principles assuming elastic behaviour. (c) Unless the compression flange has full lateral restraint.2. 7. the conditions of 7. of a plastic or compact cross section is taken as Where = shear area given by the following for the three cases: (a) Rolled and channel sections.2.2) should be adhered to. (e) When loads or reactions are applied through the flange to the web.6 times the design shear resistance the design moment resistance.1) for plastic and compact sections Equation (7.6 for web buckling and web bearing should be met.3 section (d) Local buckling should be considered as given in Table 5.2.1 Plastic and compact sections The design shear resistance.and the combination of maximum shear and co-existent moment should be checked at the ultimate limit state (b) The deflection limits prescribed under "serviceability Limits" (Table 3.5 and 7.

of a web exceeds where then it should be checked for shear buckling in accordance with the requirements set out under Section 7.3) for slender sections When the depth to thickness ratio. (a) For plastic or compact sections: and is taken as follows: For sections with equal flanges: the plastic modulus of the shear area. (defined in equation 7.• Equation (7.4) the moment resistance. is given by . For sections with unequal flanges: the plastic modulus of the gross section less the plastic modulus of that part of the section remaining after deduction of the shear area. 7.4 Moment resistance with high shear load Where the design shear force exceeds 0. should be taken as follows.2.4.2.6 times the design shear resistance.5 Web buckling To prevent the web buckling under point loads or reactions (applied through the compression flange) the following check is required to be carried out on all beams The buckling resistance. 7.

Fig.5 to the plane of the flange.1 Effective width for web buckling If the applied load or reaction (as the case may be) exceeds should be provided. 7.6 Web Bearing suitable stiffness For all beams.2.5 of the plane of the flange.2 Effective width of web bearing If the applied load or the reaction exceeds the crippling resistance of the web. . suitably designed bearing stiffeners should be provided. the web crippling resistance should also be checked at its junction with the flange to the flange-to-web connection at a slope of 1:2. The buckling resistance in crippling.Fig. is given by where = crippling resistance of the webin buckling =design yield stress of the web = length obtained by dispersion through the flange-to-web connection at a slope of 1:2. 7. 7.

equal to the depth of the girder.7 Plastic and compact beams with web openings Beams with web openings are frequently required for passing service ducts. the spacing between the centres of any two adjacent openings measured parallel to the axis of the member is at least 2. the following aspects should be kept in view: • • • • The effect of bending The possible need to provide stiffening around the hole The effect of openings on slender webs (covered in the section 7. provided that • • the holes are located within the middle third of the depth and middle half of the span of the member. the factored maximum shear at the support does not exceed 60% of the shear resistance of the section.4) The effect of opening on the stiffness of the section and deflections. the net section properties should be computed and the adequacy of the design should be verified. Beams having (a) an isolated hole (b) a series of web openings at regular intervals are included in this guide.2.3.7.5 times the diameter of the larger opening. If web reinforcement is provided. • • When the hole diameter exceeds 10% of the depth of the girder. it may be either around the hole or as a flat reinforcement carried past the opening for such a distance that the local shear stress due to the load being transferred from the reinforcement does not exceed 7. the load on the member is substantially uniform and no point loads are situated within a distance from the edges of the hole. or if any of the above conditions are not satisfied. Unreinforced circular openings having a diameter not exceeding 10% of the web depth may be located within the web of compact beams without considering the net section properties. When designing holes in webs.3 Laterally Unrestrained Beams of Plastic and Compact Sections 7.1 Lateral torsional buckling of symmetric sections The elastic critical moment resistance of a symmetrical I beam subjected to equal end moments undergoing lateral torsional buckling between points of lateral support is obtained as .

(b) Level of application of transverse loads (Stabilising and destabilising loads) The lateral stability of a transversely loaded beam is dependent on the arrangement of theloads as well as the position of application of the loads with respect to the centroid of thecross section. The effect of various support conditions is taken into account by way of a parameter called effective length.6) and (7. As an illustration. the effective lengths appropriate for different end restraints according to BS 5950 are given in Tables 7. For a beam with simply supported end conditions and no intermediate lateral restraint. (7. . On the other hand. The effective length factor would indirectly account for the increased lateral and torsional rigidities provided by the restraints.Comparing the two cases covered by Eqns.7. twisting and warping.2.1 and 7.7) the ratio of the tw constants is often termed "the equivalent uniform moment factor" Its value is a direct measure of the severity of a particular pattern of moments relative to the basic case. if the load is applied below the centroid. Various types of end conditions are consequently possible but the supports should either completely prevent or offer no resistance to each type of deformation (Solutions for partial restraint conditions are complicated). it produces astabilising effect.3. Several factors affect the lateral stability of beams and these are outlined below: (a) Support conditions Lateral buckling involves three kinds of deformations. A load applied above the centroid of the cross section causes an additional overturning moment and becomes more de-stabilising than when the same load is applied at the centroid. This is clear from Fig. the effective length is equal to the actual length between the supports. namely lateral bending.

2.Table 7.1 Effective length of beams of Compact Plastic Cross section between supports Table 7. for cantilever of length . Effective length.

In this case. in reality. Fig. where the end moments are unequal. loading patterns would vary widely from the basic case. 7. Cases of moment gradient. The equivalent uniform moment is defined as where m = equivalent uniform moment factor and bending moment. But. only the basic case of beams loaded with equal and opposite end moments has been considered. are less prone to insiability and this beneficial effect is taken into account by the use of "equivalent uniform moments". the basic design procedure is modified by comparing the elastic critical moment for the actual case with the elastic critical moment for the basic case.(c) Influence of the type of loading So far.3 Equivalent uniform moment 40 .

as illustrated in Fig. Fig 7. a modification to the slenderness. e.7. may be used.4 Slenderness Correction Factor 41 . when the beam is uniformly loaded in the span.4 for a few cases of loading. where n is the slenderness correction factor. The allowable critical stress is determined for an effective slenderness.g. where the maximum moment occurs away from a braced point.(d) Slenderness correction factor ( n ) For situations.

can be expressed in a non-dimensional form using The beam slenderness Fig. 7. Significant differences exist between the assumptions forming the basis of the theory and the observed behaviour of beams under ultimate load tests.5 Comparison of test data (mostly I sections) with theoretical elastic critical moments Fig 7. these are derived on the basis of elastic behaviour and cannot be extrapolated to check the ultimate bending resistance. using the non-dimensional slenderness so that the results from many test series (using different 42 . In any case.7.7.3.2 Limitations of the elastic buckling theory for beams Direct use of the theory described in the foregoing pages for design purposes is in appropriate because • • Formulae (such as Eqns.7) are too complex for routine use.5 compares a typical set of lateral torsional buckling test data using actual hot rolled sections with theoretical elastic critical moments given by Eqn 7.6.6 and 7.

6) The three categories of beams are listed under section 7. with suitable modifications to account for residual stresses and geometric imperfections.3. 7. Region II covers much of the practical range of beams without lateral restraint. (See Fig 7. The buckling resistance moment. The formulae derived so far will provide an upper bound.In region I. The designs must be based on inelastic buckling.2. A simple method of computing the buckling resistance of compact and plastic beams is given below and is analogous to the Perry-Robertson approach for columns. The design method will consequently involve some degree of empiricism. which largely fail by elastic instability. Region III covers beams.3 Design method As discussed previously the basic theory of elastic lateral stability cannot be directly used for design purposes because of limitations and its extension to the ultimate range.3. lateral instability does not influence the design as these beams will collapse by developing full plasticity. is obtained as the smaller root of the equation 43 .

where = bending strength allowing for susceptibility to lateral -torsional buckling and are supplied in Tabulated form by steel makers.sections and channels and 1.9 for rolled steel I. 44 . For more slender beams. which may be conservatively taken as 0. is a function of given by.16) = a buckling parameter.0 for all other sections. (7.

7. To effect economy. 7. In these girders. 45 . the bending moments are assumed to be carried by the flanges by developing compressive and tensile forces and shear is carried by the web. the web depth is chosen to be large enough to result in low flange forces for the design bending moment.7.4.1 Plate Girders General A fabricated plate girder is employed for supporting heavy loads over long spans. Stiffeners are provided at a spacing of as shown in Fig.4 7.

in such cases. 7. The design.7) or a web stiffened by both transverse and longitudinal stiffeners (Fig. ii. In the design of thin webs with shear buckling should be considered. The recommended web thickness are (Fig. 7. For un-stiffened web where is the design stress of flange material.8). Constant depth beams used in simply-supported composite and non-composite girders with concrete decking Constant depth beams in continuous composite and noncomposite girders Simply-supported crane girders Web proportions: When the web plate will not buckle. To avoid flange buckling into web.7. i.3 times the depth of the section as a thumb rule. but the webs vulnerable to buckling may have to be stiffened if necessary. iii. In general we may have an un-stiffened web. By choosing a minimum web thickness the self-weight is reduced. For stiffened web In practice. Similarly. For un-stiffened web ii.7): i. For stiffened web Flange proportions: Generally the thickness of flange plates is not varied along the spans for plate girders used in buildings.1 Recommended Proportions (Indicative values) Span to Depth Ratios: The recommended span / depth ratios for initial choice of cross-section in a plate girder used in a building are given below as indicative values: i.4. For non-composite plate girder the width of flange plate is chosen to be about 0. d/t exceeding 250 is rarely used. It is also necessary to choose the breadth to thickness ratio of the flange such that the section classification is generally limited to plastic or compact sections only This is 46 . a web stiffened by transverse stiffeners (Fig. ii. is rarely used .1. however. is similar to rolled steel beams.if at all . 7.in plate girders used in buildings and bridges.

The design stress of the flange steel = Plastic section modulus of flanges about the transverse axis of the section.8 End panel strengthened by longitudinal stiffener Stiffener spacing: Vertical stiffeners are provided close to supports to increase the bearing resistance and to improve shear capacity. = Material safety factor for steel (= 1.2 to 1. Where the end panel near support is designed without using the tension field action a smaller spacing of is adopted. the overall flange width-to-thickness ratio may be limited to 24. For preliminary sizing. 7. 7. When vertical stiffeners are provided.15) 47 . where.2 Design methodology is computed from the plastic moment 7. Vertical stiffeners help to support the tension field action of the web panel between them. 7.4.e. Intermediate stiffeners also may not be required in the mid-span region. For the tension flanges (i.to avoid local buckling before reaching the yield stress. The web is able to sustain shear in excess of shear force corresponding to because of vertical stiffeners. Sometimes double stiffeners are adopted near the bearing (see Fig.2.6.7) is chosen in the range of 1.Moment resistance resistance of the flanges.1 Moment Resistance .7.9) and in such cases the overhangs beyond the supports are limited to 1/8 of the depth of the girder.4. Horizontal stiffeners are generally not provided in plate girders used in buildings. bottom flange of a simply supported girder) the width can be increased by 30% if needed. Thus. Fig. the panel aspect ratio a/d (see Fig.

15) The elastic critical stress has been simplified and given based on a/d and t/d Table as given in Table 7.3: Elastic critical stress related to aspect ratio 48 .7. which are not too slender (see Table 7.2 Shear Resistance Thin webs are designed either with or without stiffeners. Webs without intermediate stiffeners: The shear resistance of unstiffened webs is limited to its elastic shear buckling resistance. = Elastic critical shear strength values to be used in design for different values of a/d and d/t are tabulated in Table .3. These two cases are described individually below.3 7. Design strength of web = = Material safety factor for steel (= 1.7.2.4.4) depend on the slenderness parameter defined as where. given by The values for for webs.

9 shows the diagonal tension fields anchored between top and bottom flanges and against transverse stiffeners on either side of the panel.. The first term co mprises of critical elastic stress an d the tension field strength of the panel i.4 gives the values of for design purposes. Fig.e.Table 7. Note that for very slender webs is limited to elastic critical shear stress. When the flanges reach their ultimate capacity they form hinges. In other cases the value of is a function of design stress of web steel. i) ii) Increase in buckling resistance due to reduced a/d ratio. The web develops tension field action and thus resists considerably larger stress than the elastic critical strength of web in shear. 49 .7. Webs with intermediate stiffeners: The shear resistance of the plate girders with intermediate stiffeners may be improved by the following two ways. The full shear buckling resistance is calculated as. The term represents the contribution of the flanges to the post buckling strength and depends on plastic moment capacity of the flanges The flanges support the pull exerted by the tension field. is a parameter that relates to the plastic moment capacity of the flange and the web described later.

then However in presence of overall bending moment. The plastic moment capacity of the web. is given by 7. due to tension field in the penultimate panel. This approach is conservative. when designed for tension field will impose additional loads on end post and hence it will become stout [Fig. The end stiffener should be designed for compressive forces due to bearing and the moment. For a simple design it may be assumed that the capacity of the end panel is restricted to so that no tension field develops in it [Fig. 50 . adequate anchorage should be provided all around the end panel.10(a)]. as it does not utilise the post-buckling strength of end panel especially where the shear is maximum. This will result in the a/d value of end panel spacing to be less than that of other panels. the factor nearly becomes zero and hence the contribution of flanges to shear resistance will become negligible. When the girder is to resist pure shear. 7.4.The flange-dependent shear strength is simplified and given as where. by the factor When approaches at maximum moment region. In this case. The anchor force required to anchor the tension field force is The end panel.10 (c)]. the contribution of flange to shear resistance will be reduced by the longitudinal stress induced because of overall bending moment. end panel acts as a beam spanning between the flanges to resist shear and moment caused by and produced by tension field of penultimate panel.3 End panels For tension field action to develop in the end panels. 7.

7. In such cases stiffeners are considered for their satisfactory resistance under combined load effects.4 Stiffeners Stiffeners are provided to transfer transverse concentrated compressive force on the flange into the web and are essential for desired performance of web panels. Nowadays. In this case the bearing stiffener and end post are designed for a combination of stresses resulting from compression due to bearing and a moment equal to 2/3 caused due to tension in the flanges. Longitudinal stiffeners: Longitudinal stiffeners are hardly used in building plate girders. Here the end post is designed for horizontal shear and the moment 7.7 times its actual length between the top and bottom flanges. the use of longitudinal stiffeners is rare due to higher welding costs. Sometimes the stiffeners are provided for more than one of the above purposes. They are not as effective as transverse stiffeners. These are referred to as bearing stiffeners. Load bearing stiffeners: Whenever there is a risk of the buckling resistance of the web being exceeded. Design of these stiffeners is discussed below.10 (b) is assumed to act along with the stiffener provided to resist the compression as an equivalent cruciform shaped strut of effective length 0.In order to be economical the end panel also may be designed using tension field action. Normally a web width of 20 t on both sides as shown in Fig. The additional cost of welding the longitudinal stiffeners invariably offsets any economy resulting in their use.10(d). The buckling resistance of the stiffeneracting as a strut (with a cruciform section as described earlier) should be not less than where is the maximum shear force in the panel and is the buckling resistance of web without considering tension field action. Intermediate stiffeners: The intermediate stiffeners are provided to prevent out of plane buckling of web at the location of stiffeners. Intermediate web stiffeners are provided to improve web shear capacity. The bearing stress in the stiffener is checked using the area of that portion of the stiffener in contact with the flange through which compressive force is transmitted. The longitudinal stiffeners are generally located in the compression zones of the girder. Such combined loads are common.4. but sometimes they are used in highway bridge girders for aesthetic reasons. 7. especially owing to concentrated loads. The stiffener will be stout. load-bearing stiffeners are provided. slender webs are sometimes reinforced both longitudinally and transversely. In its limit will be equal to of the web without stiffeners. 51 . The main function of the longitudinal stiffeners is to increase the buckling resistance of web by subdividing the web and limiting the web buckling to smaller web panels. Instead of one stout stiffener we can use a double stiffener as shown in Fig. In order to obtain greater economy and efficiency in the design of plate girders.

10 Various treatments for end panel 3 .(a) End panel designed using tension field action and end post designed for both bearing and to resist tension field (d) End panel designed using tension field strengthened by additional stiffener (Double stiffener) Fig. 7.

The flange splices should be avoided as far as possible. In spite of the availability of full length of flange plates. 7. 53 . its ultimate capacity is conditioned by the interaction between the effects of the bending moment and shear force. The vertical ordinates are non-dimensionalised using (Yield shear of the web) and the horizontal ordinates by (the fully plastic moment resistance of the cross section).5 Webs Subjected to Co-existent Bending and Shear When a girder is subjected to predominant bending moments and low shear. the flange plates can be obtained for full length of the plate girder.5 Curtailment of flange plates For a plate girder subjected to external loading. Splices in the web of the plate girder are designed to resist the shear and moment at the spliced section. web splices are mainly used in bridges and not buildings. The vertical ordinate at A presents the shear capacity given by Eqn. It gives economy as regards to the material and cost. When the maximum manufactured length of the plate is insufficient for full length of the plate girder. 7. Flange splices: A joint in the flange element provided to increase the length of flange plate is known as flange splice. e. Generally. shear mechanism of the type represented in Fig.g. Any point in the interaction diagram shows the co-existent values of shear and bending moment that the girder can sustain. The splice plates are provided on each side of the web or direct butt welding.4. where the shear capacity is plotted in the axis and the bending capacity in the axis. the flange area designed to resist the maximum bending moment is not required at other sections. maximum bending moment occurs at the centre.12 will develop at collapse. It also becomes essential when the length of plate girder is too long to handle conveniently during transportation and erection. 7. At least one flange plate should be run for the entire length of the girder. The portion of the curve between points A and C is the region in which the girder will fail by predominant shear. Generally.7. and subjected to the uniformly distributed load. Therefore the flange plates may be curtailed at a distance from the centre of span greater than the distance where the plate is no longer required as the bending moment decreases towards the ends.4. Since the values of bending moment decreases towards the end. 7. the maximum bending moment occurs at one section usually.6 Splices Web splices: A joint in the web plate provided to increase its length is known as web splice. sometimes it becomes necessary to make flange splices. i. when the plate girder is simply supported at the ends. The plates are manufactured up to a limited length. web splice becomes essential.e.28.11. then.7. Flange joints should preferably be located at the points away from section of maximum bending moment. The interaction diagram is generally expressed in the form seen in Fig.

7.Fig.11 Interaction between bending and shear effects 54 .

7. The influence of bending stresses on the value of membrane stress required causing yield in the web.5. Thus there is a distinct change in failure criterion represented by line in Fig. the point F. • • • The reduction in the web buckling stress due to the presence of bending stresses.1 When high axial forces are developed in the flanges due to bending moments. the presence of additional bending moment requires the following three factors to be considered. From plasticity theory. 7. Beyond point in Fig. the reduced capacity is given by 55 .12 Collapse of the panel This shear capacity will reduce gradually due to the presence of co-existent bending moment. the failure will be triggered by the collapse of flanges by one of the following: (i) by yielding of flange material or (ii) by inward buckling of the compression flange or (iii) by lateral buckling of the flange. This value represents the horizontal co-ordinate of the point C. when the applied bending moment is approximately equal to the plastic moment resistance provided by the flange plates only.Fig. Reduction of plastic moment capacity of flanges 7. In zone ABC. their effects in reducing plastic moment capacity of flange plates must be taken into account. The reduction of plastic moment capacity of flanges due to the presence of axial flange stresses caused by bending moment.e. the left of represents shear failure and the right of flexural failure.11(a). neglecting the contribution from the web.11 when the applied moment is high. Generally the flange failure mode will be triggered. 7. i.

If no lateral buckling occurs (e.5.11(6)]: (i) Between A and B. The 56 . Though the concept is simple. The compression flange will therefore carry practically all the compressive stresses.where. 7. al (1978) and validated by them by experiments is summarised below: The shear load capacity at point C of the interaction diagram may be obtained approximately from an empirical relationship given below. thereby losing its capacity to carry further compressive stresses. This equation gives the vertical ordinate of the point C in the interaction diagram [Fig. the girder will fail by inward collapse of compression flange at an applied moment which is approximately equal to the moment required to produce first yield in the extreme fibres of compression flange. The horizontal ordinate as stated previously is given by the value of (See Eqn 7.2 is the average axial stress for the portion of the flange between hinges. Consequently the girder is unable to develop full plastic moment of resistance of the cross section. 7. The interaction diagram is constructed in stages as follows [See Fig. The horizontal ordinate B is given by maximum bending moment in the end panel given by but limited to a value of Between B and C. by provision of adequate lateral supports). (ii) (iii) Webs subjected to pure bending: The region beyond C of the interaction diagram represents a high bending moment. as the web is unable to be fully effective. the resulting calculations are complex. so the failure is by bending moment.11(a)].g.of course . 7. In a thin walled girder. This moment is . the curve is horizontal.29). The moment corresponding to C is given by The point D represents nearly the ultimate capacity of the flanges and the shear values when high bending is present. the curve may be straight (for simplicity).reduced because of the effects of web buckling. the web subjected to compressive bending stress will buckle. This is discussed in the next section. Design procedure The simplified design procedure due to Rockey et.

The diameter of circular openings is generally restricted to 0. The clear spacing between such opening should be at least equal the longer dimension of the opening.6D and the length not greater than 2D for stiffened openings.6 Plate Girders with Web Openings The following general guidance is given for plate girders with web openings. The depth of the rectangular openings should not be greater than 0.5D for un-stiffened openings. Unstiffened openings are not always appropriate. Depth of rectangular openings should not be greater than 0. • • • 57 .e. • • • • • • • • The hole should be centrally placed in the web and eccentricity of the opening is avoided as far as possible.5D and the length not greater than 1. The corresponding stresses in the web will be below yield. (Point D in the interaction diagrams). unless they are located in low shear and low bending moment regions. The ordinate of D can be calculated approximately from The complete interaction diagram can now be drawn.ultimate moment capacity to be determined by a simple formula due to Cooper (1971) is given below: = Bending moment required to produce yield in the extreme fibre of flange assuming fully effective web (i. Clear Spacing between the openings should not be less than beam depth.5D. Corners of rectangular openings should be rounded Point loads should not be applied at less than D from side of the adjacent opening. neglecting web buckling) This value of is the moment required to produce yield in the extreme fibres of the flange. The best location for opening is where the shear force is the lowest. D. Web opening should be away from the support by at least twice the beam depth. D or 10% of the span whichever is greater The best location for the opening is within the middle third of the span. 7. The above rule regarding spacing applies.

the shear resistance is reduced by If a rectangular opening of is provided.• If stiffeners are provided at the openings. the length of the welds should be sufficient to develop the full strength of the stiffener. 58 . the reduction in shear resistance may be approximately evaluated as Suitable reinforcement to recover this loss of shear resistance may be designed. where necessary. When a circular web opening of depth is provided.

The presence of bending moments in the beam-columns reduces the axial force at which they fail. In practice.1 Basic Behaviour of Beam Columns Columns subjected to a combined axial force and bending moments are referred to as Beam-Columns. all columns experience bending about one or both axis in addition to axial compression. the realistic assessment of the vertical load of the column is necessary. and in some cases due to the material strength having been reached at the ends of the column. • The compressive force may be eccentrically transferred to the column [Fig. Hence. An overestimate of the vertical loading may inadvertently make the design unsafe by reducing the moment resistance capacity of the column. 59 . In "long" columns. • In braced rigid portal frames. it will transfer the bending moments to the column in addition to axial loads When a multi-storey multi-bay un-braced frame is subjected to gravity loads as well as lateral loads due to wind or earthquake. due to one or more of the following reasons.SECTION 8: ELEMENTS SUBJECTED TO AXIAL FORCE AND BENDING 8. the columns are subjected to sway deflection and bending. when the beam is subjected to gravity loads. In "short" columns. the failure is triggered by the material reaching its ultimate capacity. the failure is normajly due to overall instability of the column. thereby subjecting the columns to axial compression as well as bending moments Beams from orthogonal directions in corner columns in buildings may be subjected to bending about both principal axes in addition to axial compression • • A beam-column may be subjected to single curvature bending over its length or reverse curvature bending as shown in causing variation of the nature (positive or negative) of the bending moment and curvature over the length of the column.

at the squas load. fails by yielding. by give 60 .Fig.2 Short Beam . made of non-slender (plastic / compact) section under axial compression.1 Beam-Columns in Frames 8.Columns made of Plastic and Compact Cross sections A short member (stub column).8.

61 .5. 8. 8. is the yield strength of the material. Similarly a short member made of plastic or compact section and subjected to only bending moment fails at the plastic moment capacity. If the stub column is made of slender cross section.1. Fig.Where. S = plastic section modulus of the cross section. the plate elements of the cross section undergo local buckling before reaching the yield stress. • • in a column within a floor between the ends of the columns (sway) at adjacent floors The consequent magnified deflection and bending moments are approximately allowed for in the design method described in section 8.3 Long Beam-Columns Typically steel columns in practice are long and slender: Such slender columns when axially compressed tend to fail by buckling rather than yielding. in the case of plastic and compact sections.2 Stresses in Short Beam-Columns 8.2(6)] where. This causes reduction in the effective area of the cross section to a value below the gross area.8. and the member fails at a load below given by Eqn. and is the gross area of the cross section. The additional deflection and bending moment are due to the axial load acting on the deformed column as given below. given by [Fig.

For design purposes. case of short.4 Modes of Failure The following are the possible modes of failure of beamcolumns 8. conservatively.1 Effects of slenderness ratio and axial force on modes of failure Beam-columns may fail by flexural yielding or torsional flexural buckling. simplified equations are available. using which it is possible to obtain the resistance of members. 8. These are discussed below.1 Local section failure This is usually encountered in the columns with relatively small axial compression ratio reverse curvature.4. 8. stocky beam and beam-columns bent in 62 . The actual mode of failure will depend upon the magnitude of the axial load and eccentricity as well as the slenderness ratio.{a) Single curvature ( b ) Double curvature ( c ) Swav Deformation Fig.3 Deflection and Moment Magnification 8.3.

4. 8.4. compact sections and semi-compact or by elastic local buckling in the case of slender sections. 8.• • The resistance of the end section (reached under combined axial force and bending moment) governs the failure.3 Overall instability by torsional flexural buckling This is common in slender members subjected to large ompression and uniaxial bending about the major axis or biaxial bending. • The member fails by reaching the ultimate resistance of the member at a section over the length of the member. • At the ultimate stage the member undergoes biaxial bending and torsional instability mode of failure. The resistance of the section may be governed by plastic buckling of plate elements in the case of plastic. 8.2 Overall instability failure under flexural yielding This type of failure is encountered in the case of all members subjected to larger compression and single curvature bending about the minor axis as well as not very slender members subjected to axial compression and single curvature bending about the major axis. These are conservative implifications of the complex non-linear failure envelopes. under the combined axial compression and magnified bending moment.5 Design Equations The design rules are given below in the form of linear interaction equations to verify resistance of the section against local section failure as well as member failure by flexural yielding and torsional flexural buckling. 8. • • The section failure may be due to elastic or plastic buckling of plate elements depending on the slenderness ratio (b/t) of the plate.5.1 Local section failure The interaction equation is given by: 63 . or failure of the maximum moment section under the combined effect of axial force and magnified moment. In the case of weak axis bending of slender members the failure may be by weak axis buckling.

not withstanding the approximate analysis procedure detailed in this chapter. and the bending strength about the and axis. These are calculated considering minor buckling in the case of compression and lateral torsional buckling in the case of bending about major axis. he is free to do so. More accurate evaluation of beam-column strength is possible by resorting to non-linear analysis. are the design compressive strength. are the actual axial compression. the moments obtained from the linear-elastic analysis would suffice for normal buildings with only a few storeys and low axial compression. respectively. respectively and should be substituted for the corresponding x or y-axis. are the moment amplification factors which account for the effect of moment gradient over the member length.4 (For inplane lateral concentrated load over the member) = Axial compressive strength about the respective axis = Plastic and elastic section moduli. These design strengths have to be calculated considering the type of section (plastic / compact). instead of uniform moment over the entire length. The is the design yield strength given by Normally. respectively. and actual bending moments about the major and minor axes.3 (For inplane lateral UDL over the member) = 1. 8. When a designer feels that a detailed and rigorous analysis is warranted. and are the plastic section moduli of the cross section about the major and minor axis. the end moments after accounting for the effects have to be considered. when only the corresponding axial force/bending moment is acting. respectively. 64 . respectively.5. In very tall buildings with a large axial compression and large lateral sway. is the gross area of cross section in the case of plastic / compact cross sections.where and are the actual compressive force and bending moments about the major axis and minor axis of the cross section. and magnification of moments due to the axial force acting on the deformed column The values of corresponding to the appropriate axis are evaluated from: = 1.2 Overall member failure The interaction equation to check the member capacity as governed by overall member buckling is given by where. The effect is accounted for by taking effective length to be greater than one in sway frames.

It is well to remember that torsion will not occur if the section is loaded such that the resultant force passes through the shear centre of the cross section.beams subjected to combined flexure and torsion should be determined from Moment . particularly when considering the load path. When necessary.2000. Careful detailing. When significant torsion is unavoidable. Factored resistance of I . When torsion is unavoidable due to detailing difficulties. For fuller description of "equilibrium torsion" and compatibility torsion. the designer should consider using box girders or hollow rolled or plated sections. Beams circular in plan and supported on a few columns. interconnected bridge girders. the designer may incorporate more accurate methods of combined torsion and bending from the relevant literature.1 Introduction Torsional moments are invariably introduced in beams when the line of action of the resultant transverse force does not pass through the shear centre of the cross section. • • • • 6 . SUBJECTED TO TORSION AND BENDING 9. the framing should be arranged so as to minimise any torsion.SECTION 9: BEAMS OF HOT ROLLED SECTIONS. reference may be made to IS: 456 . When possible. 9.2 Practical Advice Designing for torsion is complex and it is wise not to transfer loads by Torsional mode. and the way loads are transferred to members of the frame will generally help to minimise or eliminate many potential difficulties associated with torsional effects.Torque interaction diagrams. Members subjected to compatibility torsion deformations need not be designed to resist the associated torsional moments provided that structure satisfies equilibrium. Stresses and deflections due to combined effects should be within the specified limits. the designer should ensure the following conditions: • Beams subjected to torsion should have sufficient stiffness and strength to resist the torsional moment and forces in addition to other moments and forces. The connections and bracing of such members should be carefully designed to ensure that the reactions are transferred to the supports. beams carrying loads predominantly on one side are all examples of structures where torsional moments are important.

7 .1) vary in the range of 1 in 10 to 7 in 3 depending upon the type of sheeting and its seam impermeability. The resulting solution usually proves to be economical. connections are usually located at positions of high moment. But in such cases. As a result. With the advent of new cladding systems.1). 10. which were assumed to be at nodes. Provided the haunch regions remain elastic. 10. the centre-to-centre distance between frames is of the order 6 to 7. Normally. The haunch must be capable of resisting the bending moment.5 m. The saving in weight is usually sufficient to offset the additional cost of haunch. Moment-resisting connections should be provided at the eaves and crown to resist moments under lateral and gravity loadings. at the interface of the column and rafter members (at the eaves) and also between the rafter members at the apex (ridge) (See Fig. i. This in addition increases the section strength. Due to transportation requirements. The stanchion bases behave as either pinned or fixed. there will be a corresponding increase in the moment in the column and at the column-haunch-rafter interface. frame deflections must be carefully controlled and the large horizontal thrusts that occur at the base should be accounted for.1 General Design Consideration Portal frames are the most commonly used structural forms for single-storey industrial structures. 10. with eaves height ranging from 6 -15 m . axial thrust and shear force transferred by the joining members. Generally. The effect of introducing the haunches is to ensure that the hinges. Due to this. field joints are introduced at suitable positions. it is possible to achieve roof slopes as low as 1°.SECTION 10: PORTAL FRAMES 10.e. Although a short length of the haunch is enough to produce an adequate lever arm for the bolt group. For the design of portal frames. so that the haunch could be fabricated from the same basic section. depending upon rotational restraint provided by the foundation and the connection detail between the stanchion and foundations.1). plastic methods of analysis are mainly used. larger spacing of frames is used in the case of taller buildings. are forced away from the actual column. The slopes of rafters in the gable portal frames (Fig. hinges can develop at their ends. because the total length of the rafter is usually greater than the total length of the column members. from the point of economy. to obtain economical designs.rafter junction to the ends of the haunches. Therefore the lever arm of the bolt group is usually increased by haunching the rafter members at the joints. The common practice is to make the haunch at the connection interface approximately twice the depth of the basic rafter section. It is very difficult to develop sufficient moment resistance at these connections by providing 'tension' bolts located solely within the small depth of the rafter section. This allows the use of smaller rafter member compared to column member. The most common form of portal frame used in the construction industry is the pinned-base frame with different rafter and column member size and with haunches at both the eaves and apex connections (Fig. haunch is usually extended along the rafter and column adequately to reduce the maximum moments in the uniform portion of the rafter and columns and hence reduce the size of these members.

of the column and rafter.2 General Design Procedure Detailed steps in the plastic design of portals are prescribed in SP 6(6): 1972 "Handbook for Structural Engineers . in which decisions such as.(a) Haunched portal frame Fig. 10.1 Typical gable frame 10. d) Analyse the frame for each loading condition and calculate the maximum required plastic moment resistance. c) Estimate the plastic moment ratios of frame members. e) Select the section.Application of Plastic Theory in the Design of Steel Structures". whether to treat the distributed loads as such or to consider them as 67 . b) Compute the factored design load combination(s). These are summarized below: a) Determine possible loading conditions. and f) Check the design for other secondary modes of failure The design commences with determination of possible loading conditions.

10. In step (b). the frame members. For beams. (Assume that all joints are fixed against rotation. shear and buckling on the member resistance. 10. select the appropriate sections in step (e). lateral buckling and column buckling.3 Secondary Design Considerations The 'simple plastic theory' neglects the effects of axial force. c) Brittle fracture. the design procedure may be modified to account for its 68 . It is often convenient to deal with equivalent concentrated loads in computer aided and plastic analysis methods. In addition. solve the panel (sway) mechanism equation. the loads determined in (a) are multiplied by the appropriate load factors to assure the needed margin of safety. but the frame is free to sway). a) Reductions in the plastic moment resistance due to the effect of axial force and shear force. • • • At joints establish equilibrium.equivalent concentrated loads. The following simple procedure may be adopted for arriving at the ratio. The step (c) is to make an assumption regarding the ratio of the plastic moment capacities of the column and rafter. are to be made. (i) Determine the absolute plastic moment value for separate loading conditions. The actual section moment will be greater than or at least equal to these values. d) Deflection at service loads. (ii) Now select plastic moment ratios using the following guidelines.3. connections must be designed carefully to ensure that the plastic moments can be developed at the hinge locations. solve the beam mechanism equation and for columns. The step (f) is to check the design according to secondary design considerations discussed in the following sections. For beams use the ratio determined in step (i) For columns use the corner connection moments In the step (d) each loading condition is analysed by a plastic analysis method for arriving at the minimum required Based on this moment.1 Influence of axial force on plastic moment Even though the presence of axial force tends to reduce the magnitude of the plastic moment resistance of the section. b) Instability due to local buckling. The moments thus obtained are the absolute minimum plastic moment values. So checks must be carried out for the following factors as recommended by "The Hand book for Structural Engineers" referred above. These are done for all loading combinations.

retaining the 'plastic hinge' characteristic. is the actual axial force.influence. the intensity of shear stress at the centre line may reach the yield condition. is given by: 10. two types of 'premature failure' can occur. (c) The maximum shear resistance of a beam under combined shear and moment should be calculated as Where. (b) After the beam has become partially plastic at a critical section due to flexural yielding. The required design value of plastic section modulus of the member (Z) under combined compression and bending. Usually it is found that the reduction in moment resistance due to shear is more than compensated by the strain hardening of extreme fibre under flexure and consequently effect of shear on plastic moment resistance may be neglected in most cases. Due to the presence of shear. 69 . = effective cross sectional area resisting shear after deducting the area that has yielded under flexure.2 The influence of shear force The effect of shear force is also to reduce the plastic moment resistance. where. The following recommendations account for effect of axial compression on • Neglect the effect of axial force on the plastic moment resistance unless where P is the actual axial force and is the axial force that could cause yielding of the full cross section. is the axial force corresponding to yielding. • If P is greater than 15 percent of is given by the modified plastic moment resistance.3. (a) General shear yield of the web may occur in the presence of high shear-to-moment ratios. is the plastic moment resistance of the section when the axial force is absent.

10.3.3 Local buckling of flanges and webs

If the plates, of which the cross section is made, are not stocky enough, they may be subject to local buckling either before or soon after the first plastic moment is reached. Due to this, the moment resistance of the section would drop off and the rotation resistance would be inadequate to ensure formation of complete failure mechanism. Therefore, in order to ensure adequate rotation at values and to avoid premature plastic buckling, the compression elements should have restriction on the width-thickness ratios as given in section 5, corresponding to plastic sections. 10.3.4 Lateral buckling of flexural members To avoid lateral buckling and torsional displacements, bracings should be provided to compression flanges at points as given below (Fig. 10.2). (a) Lateral support to the compression flange should be provided at the location of plastic hinges. (b) The ratio of laterally unsupported length of the compression flange to the radius of gyration of the member about weak axis, should not exceed where v is defined below in Eqn. 10.4.

(c) The slenderness ratio of compression flange, unsupported length where the moment exceeds than

of the length, adjacent to the should not be greater

(d) The slenderness ratio, of the rest of the elastic portion of the member should be such that the lateral buckling strength of that portion is greater than actual maximum elastic moment in the region. where, = yield stress of the material in Mpa and may be taken conservatively as 1.0 or may be calculated using the following equation.

where is the ratio of the plastic rotation at the hinge point just as the mechanism is formed to the relative elastic rotation of the far ends of the beam segment containing the plastic hinge.

70

10.3.5 Column buckling In the plane of bending of columns which would develop a plastic hinge at ultimate loading, the slenderness ratio should not exceed 120, where is the centre-to-centre distance of bracing members connecting and providing restraint against weak axis buckling of the column or the distance from such a member to the base of the column. Further, columns in moment resisting frames, where side sway is not prevented, should be so proportioned such that

The slenderness ratio, of the frame in the plane normal to the plane of frame action under consideration should be such that the following condition is satisfied.

the ratio of applied end moment to the plastic moment resistance of columns and other axially loaded members, should not exceed unity or the value given by the following formula.

Case I - For columns bent in double curvature by applied moments producing plastic hinges at both ends of the columns:

Case II - For slender struts, where

in addition to exceeding 0.75 also exceeds

should not contain plastic hinges. However, it is permissible to design the

71

member as an elastic part of a plastically designed structure. Such a member should be designed according to the maximum permissible stress requirements satisfying:

where,

= axial force, compressive or tensile in a member; = maximum plastic moment resistance in the beam - column; = plastic moment resistance of the section when no axial force is acting. = lateral buckling resistance in the absence of axial load = if the beam column is adequately braced against lateral buckling = buckling resistance in the plane of bending if only axially loaded (without any bending moment) and if the beam - column is laterally braced. If the column is not adequately laterally braced, is the weak axis buckling strength under only axial compression. = Euler load = in the plane of bending;

= yield strength of axially loaded section = effective cross-section area of the member; = a coefficient whose value should be taken as follows: a) For member in frames where side sway is not prevented, b) For members in frames where side sway is prevented and not subject to transverse loading between their supports in the plane of bending:

c) For members in frames where side sway is prevented in the plane of loading and subjected to transverse loading between their supports; the value of is given by, For members whose ends are restrained against rotation, For members whose ends are unrestrained against rotation, = radius of gyration about the same axis as the applied moment; = non -dimensional slenderness ratio = the ratio of end moment; 10.4 Connections = actual strut length.

In a portal frame, points of maximum moments usually occur at connections. Further, at corners the connections must accomplish the direction of forces change. Therefore, the design of connections must assure that they are capable of developing and maintaining the required moment until the frame fails by forming a mechanism. 72

SECTION 11: MULTI - STOREY BUILDINGS 11.1 Introduction

Recent innovations in lateral load resisting systems (e.g. frame-wall, framed tube, belt truss with outrigger, tube in tube and bundled tube systems) have enabled construction of very tall buildings elsewhere in the world using steel frames. When we build such tall structures it becomes necessary to consider some of the effects such as the effect of lateral deflection, on gravity loading, P which are normally ignored in the design of building frames of three or four storeys. A building frame deflects under lateral load. The columns of tall buildings carry large axial loads. A building frame, which deflects under lateral load, is further forced to undergo additional deflection because of the eccentricity of gravity load from the centre of gravity of the column due to the deflected shape. These two effects of large axial loads P in the columns combined with significant lateral deflection need careful consideration in the design of tall multi-storey buildings. The combined effect of the large axial loads P and lateral deflection give rise to the destabilising effect.However, in frames that are only a few storeys high, this effect is negligible and hence ignored in the analysis. It is therefore necessary to classify frames based on the relative importance of effects for the purpose of evaluating design forces. 11.2 Classification of Frames

A frame in which sway is prevented is called a "non-sway" frame. However, there are some frames, which may sway only by a small amount since the magnitude of sway in such frame is small it will have only a negligible effect. Such frames are also classified as "non-sway" frames. Therefore, to define the non-sway frame precisely, its lateral stiffness is used as the criteria irrespective of whether it is braced or not. For such frames lateral stiffness is provided by one of the following: (i) (ii) (iii) rigidity of the joints. provision of bracing system. connecting the frame to a braced frame, shear core, shear wall or a lift well.

The inter storey deflection (i.e. the difference in deflection of top and bottom end of a column in that storey) is used to quantify the lateral stiffness of the frame. The meaning of inter storey deflection is shown in Fig. 11.1(c). Fig. 11.1 ( a ) shows a typical multi storey frame subjected to factored (dead + live) load. To ascertain the stiffness of the frame, it is analysed when subjected to assumed forces of magnitude 0.5% of factored (dead + live) load applied laterally on the frame at each floor level as shown in Fig. 11.1 ( b ) for getting the inter storey deflection for the storey. Note that the lateral loads are applied without the presence of dead and live loads. The maximum for any storey is taken as a measure of the frame stiffness.

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Fig. 11.1 Approximate calculation offrame stiffness for classification of frames (according to Home's method)

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For a frame to be of the non-sway" type the maximum inter storey deflection permitted in any storey is generally taken as follows:

where hi is the height of the i'h storey (<5/ and hi are in the same units). 11.3 Idealisation of Material Behaviour for Analysis of Frames [Fig. 11.2]

The strength and stability of a rigid jointed frame is examined based on material stress -strain idealisation of its true behaviour.

• • •

Elastic Behaviour Elastic - Plastic Behaviour Rigid Plastic Behaviour

Strain (c) Rigid-Plastic behaviour Fig 11.2: Idealisation of Material Behaviour curve 75

11. respectively. The effective length factor for the column is defined as Fig. which is a part of the multi-storey non-sway frame. the actual length between floor beams. partially fixed. 11. represents the joint stiffness of the column 1-2 at the end 1 and 2 76 . etc. The column.3.4. These columns become a part of either non-sway or sway frame. are the sum of values for beams framing into the column under examination at the top and bottom respectively. The joint restraint coefficient for the column at the top and bottom is obtained from In Fig. Let be the effective length of the column. 11. columns are continuous and beam.4 Effective Length of Columns 11. members frame into them at floor levels connected rigidly.3. 11. are used in textbooks to describe the restraint at the two ends of a column. In multi-storey buildings.1 Limited frame method The behaviour of a column under compression is largely controlled by its effective length. free and supported on rollers..3 Limited Substitute Frame In the figure are relative stiffness values for upper and lower column respectively. fixed. can be idealised to be a part of a limited sub-frame shown in Fig. A number of idealised end conditions such as pinned.

11. 11.5(a) respectively.4 (b) Effective Length ratioljlfor a column in a rigid. stability criteria considered are rotations that take place at top and bottom end of the column for the elastic critical load using stability functions. 11.jointed frame braced against sidesway for 77 .4(a) Non sway frame Fig. 11.2 Effective length for non-sway (k3 = ) and sway k3=0 frames Based on the work of Wood. In the case of non-sway frame.4(b) and Fig. 11.11.5(b) for the non-sway frame shown in Fig.4. Fig.4(a) and for sway frame shown in Fig. the value of relative end restraints can be obtained from a contour Plot reproduced in Fig. 11.

The effective length factor for the column for non-sway frames lie in the range of "0. Subsequently. 11.5(6) can also be used when the columns at the top and (or) bottom are continuous over stories provided that the joint stiffness at top and bottom are correctly accounted for.jointed frame with unrestricted sidesway for k3=0 78 . Fig.5(a)] in addition to rotations. For sway frames the range increases to indicating clearly the contribution of lateral sway to instability. [Fig.4(6) and Fig.5(a)Swayframe Fig. 11. 11.However. it was shown by Wood that the plots in Fig.0". the effect of lateral deflection has been considered.11. 11. in the case of sway frames.5 to 1.5 (b) Effective Length ratio IJ1 for a column in a rigid.

(ii) If a framing member carries nearly full moment (90% of its moment resistance) it will not provide resistance for preventing the column from buckling when plastic hinges have formed. (iii) If the column under question itself carries full moment (90% of its moment resistance) it will develop flexural hinge at top and bottom and as such its effective length should be taken as (iv) When the column is attached to the foundation. practical foundation restraint nor the are likely either the column considered due to 11. = Modulus of Elasticity of Column = Sum of the stiffness of all columns in that storey represented by their values.2) 79 . These panel walls partially inhibit sway. following limitations should be kept in view: (i) When a member is either not present or not firmly connected to the frame. 11. the effective length will depend on the relative stiffness of bracing system provided.4.11. 0.1) can be conveniently obtained from the unit load method as given in eqn (11. 11.4(b) and Fig. applied to a case of a frame partially to reduce in restraint at with no restraint can be restrained by filler walls in between the framing members.e.4 Effective length consideration when the frame is partially braced The above cases highlight the importance of rotational continuity being distributed by Neither plasticity or partial releasein Fig. For such beams.5 if rigidly connected with transverse beams). if pinned. stiffness should be taken as zero. which column considered theFig. it should be considered to have zero stiffness.5(6). a rational value of k at the bottom should be chosen (i. In such cases. 11.5(a)the ends of the column.3 Effective length of insufficiently restrained columns in the frames While using the charts given in Fig. * The relative stiffness of the bracing system to that of the frame is designated as £3 and is given by where = Storey height = Sum of the spring stiffness calculated as horizontal force required to produce unit horizontal deflection of the panel in the storey in which the column is located.9 if not rigidly connected and 0.4(a) with full problems.4. 11. The spring stiffness in eqn (11.

7 Effective Length ratio for a column in a rigid-jointed frame with partial sway bracing of relative stiffness 80 . These charts are intended to account for the effect of partial sway bracing.7 show the charts (currently used in reinforced concrete frames) for computing effective length ratios for sway bracing stiffness of and respectively. 11.where.6 and Fig.l 1.6 Effective Length ratio for a column in a rigid.jointed frame with partial sway bracing of relative stiffness Fig. 11. = storey height = width of panel = thickness of panel = Modulus of Elasticity of panel Fig. Fig. effective length factor for a column being a part of the frame with as well as can be determined using these charts. Thus. 11.

11. 11. This assumption is realistic (as shown by Wood) and acceptable because about 48 to 60 percent of the width of slabs is available for stiffening beams and for carrying the fixed end moments of loaded beams.4. However.6) and (Fig. 11. (Fig.7).5 Consideration of realistic beam stiffness based on buckling mode It is assumed that the far end of the beam from the column under consideration is fully restrained. 11. Fig.The actual effective length factor for the partial sway bracing case for a particular case of bracing stiffness determined from equation (1) is determined by interpolating the values obtained for [Fig.9 Critical Buckling Mode for an Unbraced Frame 81 . 11.8 Critical Buckling Mode of a Braced Frame Fig. this assumption is not appropriate for base frames which are not integral with concrete floor and hence the value used for such floors should be modified taking into account the critical buckling mode at failure.5(b)]. 11.

11. the beam stiffness is In the case of a sway frame. all the moments obtained by elastic analysis due to horizontal forces be increased by this magnification factor. Since the effects of instability are incorporated by moment magnifier method. 11. It is assumed that the beam members are not subjected to axial forces. For this case. then the amplification factor will be The influence of frame instability on elastic response is shown in Fig. If design. A more exact value can be obtained from the consideration of frame instability discussed later. If they are.10.5 A Simplified Sway Method In this method. the effect of instability of the column on bending moments and deflection is considered by appropriately increasing their magnitude by a moment magnification factor where is the current load level and is the load required to cause instability. If we designate this moment ratio as (smaller end moment / larger end moment) the magnification factor due to instability for different ratios of is shown (by Wood) as in Fig. 11.11. to its elastic buckling load 11.9. the beams are bent into single curvature as shown in Fig. provided the frame is a non-sway one and proper care is taken to use reduced stiffness for beams based on the level of axial load carried by it. This method has been tested for different ratios of moments acting at top and bottom of the column. the bending mode will have double curvature as shown in Fig. 11. the limited frame method can still be used. In the simplified sway method.8. the effective length of the column is kept as actual length of the column itself. 82 .For a non-sway frame. The beam stiffness in this case is The effective length obtained for the column using this assumption is appropriate.

4 .

Next.5 and the final design forces are obtained.6. Even when elastic design is used. moment redistribution to the extent of 70% can be made provided compact or plastic sections are used and minor axis column moments are not reduced while maintaining equilibrium. For horizontal loading it is necessary to consider entire frame.4 Elastic design 11. The effective length as explained in section 11.1 General The elastic design is made for factored loads when the deflections are small. wind loading.4 using limited frame method is used and the design forces are obtained.g. the effects of sway is considered under all combination of loading. The effective length of columns is obtained as described earlier in section 11. considering vertical loading effects on sway.sway frames For gravity loading.6. For load cases involving horizontal load pattern e. non-sway frames are analysed either using full frame or using substitute frame. One of the approximate methods described earlier can be used.2 is applied at each storey level and one of the following two design methods is adopted to get the final design forces. Since the moments have been magnified the effective length of the column is assumed as actual length of column 84 . The deflections should generally be limited to span/200.2.2 Non . As a first step. (i) Simplified Design Method The side sway is allowed. the frame is analysed for vertical gravity loading considering also pattern loading as a non-sway frame using effective length of columns applicable to those braced against sidesway. 11.3 Sway frames The frames.11. vertical loading is not considered and the entire frame is analysed. are designed considering sway.4 taking them as braced. 11.6. The design of beams and columns are made using substitute frames for gravity loading described earlier. (ii) Amplified Sway Method The bending moments due to lateral loads are magnified by moment magnification factor as explained in section 11. the notional lateral load as described in section 11. which exceed the non-sway limit as specified in Section 11.

When it is equal to zero the system is neutral i. 11.1(a) and the analysis performed as indicated in section 11.1(b).12 (a). The sway index of the typical storey is Note that storey inter storey displacement. The effect of load due to lateral deflection in these structures is not significant.Plastic Failure Loads 11. An approximate method based on the work of Home to arrive at a reasonable estimate of elastic buckling load is described below: Consider the rigid frame shown in Fig. then the elastic critical load factor is Horne has shown that the above expression gives an approximate lower bound to the elastic critical load. When it is less than zero the 85 . If is the maximum of all values. The condition of stability of the frame can be assessed based on whether the first partial derivative with respect to deflection is greater than zero.5% of the factored dead and live loads as shown in Fig.12 (b).7. A structure with small deformation will have a typical load-deflection curve as indicated by curve XYZ in Fig. 11.2 Deteriorated critical load The stability of a structure depends on the equilibrium state with reference to the potential energy U.11.2 under lateral loads whose magnitude is 0. 11. 11.7. This load factor is also required to be used in the approximate method for evaluating elastic-plastic failure loads.e. The potential energy U is the sum of the potential energy of loads and the elastic strain energy stored Thus. Y and Z represent three different states of stability of the frame shown in Fig. When it is greater than zero the system is stable. 11.1 Elastic critical conditions It is necessary to find the lowest critical load because it shows the onset of elastic critical condition. The elastic critical load factor of the frame is the ratio by which each of the factored loads will have to be increased to cause elastic instability. The points X .7 Stability Considerations of Sway Frame under Elastic . more displacement will not change the system. Thus the values of for all storeys are computed. less than zero or equal to zero.

This should include the energy absorbed in plastic deformation. The structure with the eliminated parts is termed "deteriorated or depleted". The elastic portion between plastic hinges will still be contributing to the energy. The curve OXC represents the behaviour of ideally elastic frame.e. 86 . a small change will cause collapse. This is valid for an elastic system undergoing instability problem.system is unstable i. = deteriorated critical load factor without the energy component of these parts which are plastically deforming = load factor at on set of yield. The following are identified with respect to "deteriorated" critical load condition: = elastic critical load factor = rigid plastic critical load factor = rigid plastic critical load considering members between hinges formed. 11.12 Load-deflection curve for an elastic-plastic The failure criteria for elastic-plastic structure is similar to elastic structure with plastically deforming parts eliminated. Now the total energy is Fig.12(6) for a typical elastic-plastic nonlinear structure system. The critical load obtained under this depleted or deteriorated structure is known as deteriorated critical load. 11. Consider the load deflection curve OXFD in Fig.

a simplified method is required for considering the deteriorated critical load for use by designers.e. and 87 .Rankine . If rigid plastic behaviour is assumed the critical load is represented by the drooping curve GH descending from the rigid plastic load factor. Such an empirical approach proposed by Merchant Rankine Wood Equation is discussed in the next section.Such a complete analysis as discussed above is required for a realistic estimate of deteriorated critical load.Wood Equation An examination of Fig. Merchant suggested that realistic failure load can be expressed as a function of and According to original Merchant Rankine Equation.8 Simplified Empirical Approach using Merchant . For slender structures. with ensures that structures have adequate strength.hardening and restraint provided by cladding when then Consider stocky structures i.12 reveals that the elastic critical value is too high and cannot be reached.Rankine load then Wood suggested a modification of Merchant Rankine load considering strain. If we call the failure load as Merchant . 11. 11. In the absence of sophisticated Computer Programme to carry out such an analysis.

and This is applicable to clad frames in which no account has been taken of cladding. These equations are modified for unclad frames or frames where stiffness of cladding is considered as indicated below:

Thus the method involves finding the elastic critical load and the rigid plastic critical load and then appropriate equation satisfied based on whether the frame is a clad one or otherwise. 11.9 Plastic Design Plastic design of frames can be used for the frames, which are effectively braced against out of plane sway. 11.9.1 Non-sway frames The frame should be braced against lateral sway such that it can be classified as a non-sway frame as per the condition explained in section 11.2. However, while considering the sway, against lateral loads, the bending stiffness of the frame should be ignored, as its buckling resistance will not be available to prevent sidesway when the frame reaches its plastic capacity. 11.9.2 Sway frames Either of the following two methods is used: a) Rigorous Analysis: A full elastic-plastic sway analysis is performed where proper allowance is made for frame instability effects. b) Simplified Empirical Approach: A simplified frame stability check is made using Merchant-Rankine-Wood Equation provided the following conditions are satisfied. (i) The beam side-sway mechanism with hinges in all beam ends and at base of columns should be applicable. There should not be other hinges in the column, which may lead to premature failure. (ii) The column in the ground floor should be designed to remain within elastic limit. Under the combination of unfactored load and notional horizontal load to simulate sway (wind force not included), forces and moments in the frame should be within elastic limit.

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SECTION 12: CONNECTION DESIGN 12.1 General

Connections are critical components of steel structures as they have the potential for greater variability in behaviour and strength. They are more complex to design than the members and are usually the most vulnerable components in a structural system consequent on the effects of geometric imperfections, complexity of connection geometry and residual stresses and strains. 12.2 Design Philosophy

The design philosophy for connections, based on simple analysis, is summarised below. 12.2.1 Transfer of member forces to joints For most of the connections, force distribution is based on the concept of 'force paths' taking account of overall connection behaviour. The loads acting on the connection are replaced by an equivalent system of forces and assigned to specific paths through the connection. While finding the forces, the effect of the size of the joint (in reducing the design forces), has to be considered. The force resultants thus obtained should be replaced by an equivalent system of forces on the elements of the joint (e.g., the major proportion of the bending moment is carried by the flanges of a beam and the major proportion of shear force is carried by the web). The flexibility of the components of the connection is another important aspect. It is the most flexible components that will govern the distribution of forces eg. in an end plate connection, if the bolts are of small diameter and the end plate is thick, it is the bolt flexibility that will govern the distribution of forces. However, if the bolts are stiff compared to the end plates it is the flexural action of the latter that will primarily govern the distribution of forces, including the distribution of forces in the bolts. Equivalent system of forces should be in equilibrium with the external force resultants and also in equilibrium with the joint as a whole. 12.2.2 Determination of force flow in the joint Each element in the force flow path should be checked to ensure that they have (a) adequate strength to withstand the force and (b) adequate ductility to redistribute the forces to parallel elements in case of overload. The strength and ductility evaluation has to be done for all components in the force path including bolts and welds. Above discussions are related to static ultimate capacity. In addition to this the connection should achieve satisfactory serviceability, fatigue resistance etc.

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12.3 Classification of Connections There are three types of connections (i) Flexible or hinged connections - This type of connection is also known as shear connection. It will permit large angle of rotation and transmit little or no moment. These connections are also referred as "simple". (ii) Semi-rigid connections - This type of connection allows small end rotation for transmitting appreciable moment (moment less than the full moment capacity of connected members). (iii) Rigid connections - This type of connections are intended not allow any end rotation and retain a constant relative angle between the connected members under any joint rotation and transmit moment equal to full moment capacity of the members connected. The original angles between the connected members remain unchanged.

(a) Rigid Joint

(b) Hinged Joint

(c ) Semi-rigid Joint

Fig. 12.1(a) Types of Beam to Column joints

Fig. 12.1 (b) Moment versus Joint Rotation

90

high strength bolts are pretensioned against the plates to be bolted together. The behaviour of bolted connection in tension and shear is discussed below. Fig.1 Any joint developing more than 90% of the ideal rigid joint moment may be realistically classified as rigid and similarly any joint exhibiting less than 10% of the ideal rigid joint moment classified as hinged joint. the joint developing moments and rotations in between are referred as semi-rigid. When external shear force is applied. 12. This is due to the deformation of elements in the joint.Another factor to be kept in mind in connection design is that the joints are neither ideally hinged nor ideally rigid and all joints exhibit some relative rotation between members being joined. the frictional resistance to slip between the plates prevents their relative slip. The force transfer mechanism under shear is shown in Fig. The moment versus relative joint rotation of different types of connections is shown in Fig. The HSFG 2 91 .4. so that contact pressure is developed between the plates being joined.4 Bolted Connections Connections are normally made either by bolting or by welding. 12.4. 12. 12. These bolted joints achieve higher stiffness in shear because of frictional resistance between the contact surfaces.1 Types of bolted connections There are two types of bolted connection (i) Bearing type (ii) Friction type 12. often referred to as ordinary bolts / black bolts. Only when the externally applied force exceeds the frictional resistance between the plates.2 Bolts under shear Bearing type: The most common type is bearing bolts in clearance holes.2 Shear Transfer Mechanism in Bearing type Bolts Friction type: In High strength Friction Grip (HSFG) bolted joints. 12.2. the plates slip & the bolts bear against the bolt holes. The failure may be either by shearing of the bolts or bearing of the plate and the bolt. The force is transferred by bearing between the plate and bolts at the bolt holes.

5). since the bolts are only snug tight. Failure is reached due to large elongation when the root of the bolt starts yielding. As the external tension is increased it is equilibrated by the increase in bolt tension.12. Depending on the relative flexibility of the plate and the bolt. 12. The variation of bolt tension due to externally applied tension is shown in Fig.3) 12. It is seen that before any external tension is applied.Connections are designed such that under service load the force does not exceed the Frictional resistance so that the relative slip is avoided during service.(See Fig.4.4.3 Bolts under tension Bearing Type: The free body diagram of the tension transfer in a bearing type of bolted connection is shown in Fig 12.4 (a). 3 92 . the force in the bolt is almost zero. sometimes the opening of the joint may be accompanied by prying action (described in section 12.4 (b).

and is the limiting shearing stress if there is no externally applied tension. 12.4 Bolts subjected to shear and tension Bearing Type: The bolts used in many structural steel connections are subjected to a combination of shear and tension. This process continues and the contact between the plates is maintained until the contact force due to pre tensioning is reduced to zero by the externally applied load. Tests on bearing type bolts subject to combined shear and tension show that their ultimate strengths can be represented with an elliptical interaction curve as shown in Fig. even before any external load is applied. The three dashed lines very closely represent the test result interaction curve. the design is done such that the externally applied tension doesn't exceed this level. 12. part of the load (nearly 10%) of the load is equilibrated by the increase in bolt force. Nominally.4. in which.6. the shank cross section may be more critical in the presence of significant shear and coincident bending. After the external force exceeds this level.Friction type: In the case of HSFG bolts.6 Bolts in a bearing type connection subject to combined shear and tension 93 . Fig. When external load is applied. 12.5 HSFG bolts under tension Normally. Fig. 12. the force in the bolt is equal to proof load. is the limiting tensile stress if there is no shear. The balance of the force is equilibrated by the reduction in contact between the plates. Correspondingly there is a clamping force between the plates in contact. the behaviour of the bolt under tension is essentially the same as that in a bearing type of joint.

Fig. the behaviour is more complex. two bolt connections.The compressive design is governed by Friction Type: In a slip critical connection. Flexure of the connected parts may lead to a significant increase in bolt load due to prying action. the end plate separates entirely from the base. If the external tension arises because of an applied moment there will be no net change in clamping force. Overall equilibrium is now 94 .4.5 Prying action In practice it is not possible to separate the discussion of bolts in tension from that of surrounding elements. 12. From this point onwards to rupture the sum of the bolt loads equals the applied load. it is possible to ignore its flexural action. lower the shear required to cause the connection to slip. Fig.7 Bolts under tension and prying However.7 (a) shows the variations in behaviour that can occur in simple. If any variation in coefficient of friction with bearing pressure is discounted there will be a linear reduction in friction capacity of the connection. Any external tension will produce a corresponding reduction in clamping force between the contact surfaces. Once the applied load exceeds the sum of bolt preloads. if a flexible end plate is used. the tension will reduce the contact force and thus. For applied loads that are less than the sum of the bolt preloads there is no significant separation of the connection components and only modest change in the bolt preload. Each portion of the end plate bends into double curvature the restraining moments at the bolt centreline develop from forces at or near the tips of the end plate. If the end plate is relatively rigid and does not deflect significantly. 12. 12.

the plate can fail by developing a mechanism with yield lines at the centreline of the bolt and at the distance from it. The design formula for minimum prying force is given by (Owens and Cheal. it may simply be a slip between the connected plates. the proof stress in consistent units and t is the thickness of the end plate. 2 for non pre-loaded bolt.(12.given by 2B = 2F+2Q. 1989) (12. and the ultimate capacity is reduced. In the case of HSFG bolts.6 Failure of bolted connection Connections in shear: The failure of connections with bearing bolts in shear involves either bolt failure or the failure of the connected plates. 95 . 1. 12. or the value given by Eqn.4. to the plastic moment capacity of the plate From this the minimum thickness for the end plate can be obtained as (12.3) The corresponding prying force will be If the total force in the bolt exceeds the tensile capacity of the bolt.1) where. = distance between prying force and bolt centreline and is the minimum of. can be obtained by equating the moment in the plate at the bolt centreline (point A) and at the distance from it (point B). however. Therefore. the minimum thickness of the end plate to avoid yielding of the plate.2) Even if the bolts are strong enough to carry the additional prying forces. the effective width of flange per pair of bolts. either the end distance. then the thickness of the end plate will have to be increased.5 for limit state design. (12. The effect of the amplification of the bolt forces is twofold: there is an earlier separation of the connection elements with a reduction in connection stiffness once separation has occurred. is the distance from the bolt centreline to the toe of the fillet weld or to half the root radius for a rolled section.2).

the failure may be due to • • • shearing takes place at the bolt shear plane failure of bolt takes place in bearing. The prying forces can be kept small by using a thick plate or by limiting the distance between the bolt and the plate edge. and limit state method is used then bearing failure can occur at the Limit State of collapse and needs to be checked. and failure of plate takes place in bearing In addition to the above. the applied load produces tension in the bolts. QZD (2) HSFG bolts HSFG bolts will come into bearing only after slip takes place.e. the plate may also tear or burst at the edge due to inadequate edge distance.9 times their proof load. However. the slip resistance needs to be checked anyway as a Serviceability Limit State. Therefore if slip is critical (i. the bolt has to have adequate distance from the edge of the plate. Tension Failure: In a tension or hanger connection. Black bolts and turned and fitted bolts have sufficient ductility to take care of prying forces simply by an increase in the bolt strain under constant yield stress. If the attached plate is allowed to deform. 12. which are pretensioned and thus have less ductility. Even in the Limit State method. are susceptible to failure.7. since HSFG bolts are designed to withstand working loads without slipping. However. if slip cannot be allowed) then one has to calculate the slip resistance. to develop the full bearing stress. 7 96 . These are therefore normally designed to take only 0. if slip is not critical. additional tensile forces called prying forces are developed in the bolts as shown in Fig. HSFG bolts. which will govern the design. Therefore.(1) Bearing bolts In connections made with bearing type of bolts.

(ii) Failure by block shear occurs when a portion of the member tears out in a combination of tension and shear.9. The strength as governed by block shear is the minimum of Check for block shear should be carried out when using high strength bolts with minimum pitch and edge distances and in coped sections. 12. The load can be increased until the fracture strength of stronger plane is reached. For this situation it is possible for a "block" of steel to tear out as shown in Fig. the block shear strength of a particular member is determined by. Thus it is not correct to add the fracture strength of stronger plane to the fracture strength of the weaker plane to determine shear resistance of a particular member. Fig.9 Block Shear If a member has a large shear area and a small tensile area.5.12. The total strength is obtained from the sum obtained by adding the fracture strength of the stronger plane plus the yield strength of the weaker plane. (i) Computing the tensile fracture strength on the net section in one direction and adding to that value the shear yield strength on the gross area on the perpendicular direction.5 Code Provisions 12. then the primary resistance to a block shear failure is shearing and not tensile and vice versa.Block Shear: Block shear failure is another mode of failure wherein the failure may occur along a path involving tension on one plane and shear on a perpendicular plane.1 Summary of code provisions in BS5950. The plane will not fail because the stronger plane restrains it. 12. Part 1 (1985) (1) Fastener Spacing and edge distances: 8 97 . Computing the shear fracture strength on the gross area subject to tension and adding it to the tensile yield strength on the area subject to shear on the perpendicular segment. When a tensile load applied to a particular connection is increased the fracture strength of the weaker plane will be approached. Thus.

where. The bearing strength of the plate is given by 98 . 1.Pitch of bolts: where d0 is the nominal diameter and t is the thickness of the thinner element Edge and End distances: Minimum edge and end distances: Quality of cut Edge and end distance For a rolled. is the nominal diameter of the bolt and is the combined thickness of the thinner plates bearing on the bolt in any direction.40 D and any end D is the diameter of the holes Maximum edge distances: Maximum edge distance is for corrosive environment. the shear area (ii) is Bearing Capacity : The bearing strength per bolt is given by is the permissible bearing stress. where py is the design strength of steel ( 2 ) Bearing Bolts: (i) Shear Capacity: The shear strength per bolt is given by where is the ultimate shear stress in the bolt.25 D sawn or planned edge For a sheared or hand flame cut edge 1. machine flame cut.

99 . Slip resistance per bolt Where is a factor.where. should be taken as where length of the joint exceeds five times the nominal (iv) Large grip lengths: When the grip length diameter. for oversized holes and long slots perpendicular to the load and for long slots parallel to the load). is taken as (v) Bolts subject to Tension: The tension capacity. and is the tensile stress area (vi) Bolts subject to Combined Shear and Tension: When bolts are subject to both shear and tension then the following condition should be satisfied. which takes care of the frictional area in different hole types for clearance holes. of a bolt is given by where is the tension strength of bolt. the shear capacity. is the end distance and is the thickness of the plate (hi) Long Joints: When the joint length. of a splice or end connection in a compression or tension element containing more than two bolts exceeds the shear capacity. is the permissible bearing stress for the plate. (2) Friction type bolts (i) Slip Resistance: Slip Resistance of parallel shank HSFG bolts is given by an expression similar to the frictional force between surfaces in contact.

= applied shear. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). 12.14) (iv)Tension Failure: HSFG bolts are designed to take only 0. b) A means of showing dimensions. non-painted) surfaces and is the proof load.13) Where e is the end distance and is the bearing stress. (ii) Bearing strength: The bearing strength of plates for parallel shank friction grip fasteners is given by (12.1 Weld symbols The symbolic representation of welds includes elementary symbols along with a) Supplementary symbol.9 times their proof load. and type of electrode. = shear capacity and Static strength of a welded joint depends upon factors such as type and size of the weld. manual metal-arc welding (MMA).15) Where. submerged-arc welding (SAW).is the slip factor .6 Welded Connection = applied tension. 100 . the following relation has to be satisfied.6.45 for untreated (non-galvanised. (v) Combined Shear and tension failure: For HSFG bolts subjected to combined action of shear and tension. the shear capacity. or c) Some complementary indications.0. metal-active gas welding (MAG) and stud welding are commonly used arc welding processes. of a splice or end connection in a compression or tension element containing more than two bolts exceeds 500 mm. = tension capacity 12. (iii) Long Joints: When the joint length. should be taken as (12. The generally employed welding methods are gas and arc welding. manner of welding. But the most common welding process is arc welding. (12.

but not exceeding 2 mm and the length more than 500 mm can be accepted.6.10 shows different types of butt welds.6. "Scheme Of Symbols for Welding" gives all the details of weld representation in drawings. slag inclusion on pores located separately or as a chain shall not exceed 10% of metal thickness but not greater than 2 mm when welding is done from both the sides and 15% of metal thickness. • Total of isolated gas pores and slag inclusion shall not exceed 5 in number per square centimetre of the weld. undercuts shall not be greater than 1 mm. 101 103 . Incomplete penetration and cracks are not allowed at or near the end or beginning of a joint. • For joints welded from both the sides. The aggregate length of flaw shall not be more than 200 mm per meter length of the joint.2 Weld defect acceptance levels In general the following weld defects detected during inspection are acceptable for structures.5 mm. Butt welds can be either full penetration or partial penetration. molten metal flow. For metal thickness up to 10 mm. • Incomplete weld. ultrasonic testing. 12. • Total of incomplete penetration. There are several non-destructive testing methods to check the quality of welds such as visual inspection. and radiography.3 Welding inspection It is essential that welded joints are thoroughly examined and defects are detected so that any possible distress could be averted. 12.6. pits and cracks shall not be allowed. undercuts shall not be more than 0. Size of the slag may also be considered. Fig. • Slag inclusion located along the weld as a chain or unbroken line is allowed if their aggregate length does not exceed 200 mm per meter of weld length. liquid penetrants. Butt welds are used at an edge-to-edge junction or a tee junction and is made by bringing the plates to be joined face to face edgewise and then filling the cavity formed by edge preparation or by just penetrating the unprepared junction. 12. • For joints welded from one side with out backing strip.IS: 813-1986. magnetic particles.4 Types of welds The commonly used forms of welds are butt welds and fillet welds. but not greater than 3 mm when welding is done from one side. For metal thickness more than 10 mm. incomplete penetration with thickness up to 15% of parent metal thickness but not exceeding 3 mm at the root is allowed. incomplete penetration with thickness up to 5% of the parent metal thickness. 12.

Design stress value is often taken to be the same as the parent metal strength.6. 12.A fillet weld is made away from the edges of the abutting plates and is formed by welding the members in an overlapped position or by using a secondary joining material.10 Different types of butt joints Fig. 12. However.11 Fillet (a) side welds and (b) end welds 12. 102 . Fillet welding could be applied for lap joints. tee joints and corner joints. 12.5 Design of butt weld The butt weld is normally designed for direct tension or compression. the effective area of the butt-welded connection is taken as the effective length of the weld times the throat size. For design purposes. Fig.11 shows the two types of fillet welds: side fillet weld and end fillet weld. Effective length of the butt weld is taken as the length of the continuous full size weld. The throat size is specified by the effective throat thickness. Fig. a provision is made to ensure that it is safe against shear failure.

the design stresses in shear and tension may be reduced to 80% of the above value. For field welds. the ends of the weld shall be returned to ensure full throat thickness. 103 . This is applicable in cases where the difference in thickness exceeds 25 % of the thickness of the thinner part or 3. Unsealed butt welds of V. For butt welding parts with unequal cross sections. U. For stress calculation. the weld metal is built up at the junction equal to a thickness which is at least 25 % greater than the thinner part or equal to the dimension of the thicker part [Fig. The unwelded portion in partial penetration butt welds. welded from both sides. The slope provided at the joint for the thicker part should not be steeper than one in five [Figs. say unequal width. J and bevel types and incomplete penetration butt welds should not be used for highly stressed joints and joints subjected to dynamic and alternating loads. Fig. Intermittent butt welds are used to resist shear only and the effective length should not be less than four times the longitudinal space between the effective length of welds nor more than 16 times the thinner part. excluding reinforcement.12 (a) & (b)]. a maximum value of reduced effective throat thickness equal to 5/8 of the thickness of the thinner part joined must be used. For a butt weld reinforced on both sides the effect of reinforcement should be neglected for estimating the throat dimensions.12(c)]. the throat dimension is usually assumed as the thickness of the thinner part of the connection. whichever is greater. shall not be greater than lA thickness of the thinner part joined.For a full penetration butt weld. 12. 12. Where reduction of the wider part is not possible. the dimensions of the wider or thicker part should be reduced at the butt joint to those of the smaller part. They are not to be used in locations subjected to dynamic or alternating stresses.0 mm. and should be in the central portion.12 Butt welding of members with (a)&(b) unequal thickness (c) unequal width Design stresses for butt welds are assumed same as for the parent metal with a thickness equal to the throat thickness. or thickness. In instances. where this is not practicable. For partial penetration weld effective throat thickness is taken as the minimum thickness of the weld metal common to the parts joined. 12.

12.6.6 Design of fillet weld A simple approach to design is to assume uniform fillet weld strength in all directions and to specify a certain throat stress value. The average throat thickness is obtained by dividing the applied loads summed up in vectorial form per uniFor stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose

Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled section Table 12.2. Value o f K for different angles between fusion faces

Thickness of thicker part Over (mm) Up to and including (mm)

Minimum size (mm)

10 3 10 20 5 For a 20 penetration weld, the depth of penetration should be a minimum of 2.4 mm. deep 32 6 Then 32 size of the weld is minimum leg length plus 2.410(Minimum of a fillet weld the 50 8 (First run) mm. The size should not be less than 3 mm or more than the thickness of the thinner part joined. size of fillet) Mi Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of 3 single run fillet a 10 12.6.6-Design of fillet weld weld A simple approach to design is to assume uniform fillet weld strength Minimum size Thickness of thicker part 10 20 Table 12.1specify a includingfirst run orvalue. The average Minimum size of (mm) of 5 single run fillet a (mm) in all directions and toUp to and certain throat stress Over (mm) weld throat thickness is obtained by dividing the applied loads summed up in 3 vectorial (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled form per unit length by10 throat size. Alternatively, design the Fig.12.14 20 32 6 20 strength can 10 different with direction of the load vector. This5method sectionbe 20 32 6 is limited in usage to cases of pure shear, tension or compression. It 32 50 cannot be used in cases where the load vector direction varies10(Minimum 32 50 8 (First8 (First run) around run) 10(Minimum Table 12.2. Value othe simple method, the stress fusionof sizethe fillet) weld group. For f K for different angles between issize faces of vector taken fillet) as sum of the force components acting in the weld divided by the throat area. Angle between 60° - 90° 91°-100° 101°-106° 107°-113° 114°-120° Table 12.1 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld fusion faces 104 The size of a normal fillet should be taken as the minimum leg size 60° 90° 91°-100° a single run 107°-113° 114°-120° Table 12.6.6-Design ofsize of weld run or of 101°-106° fillet 3 12.1 Minimum -fillet first 10 (Fig. 12.13). weld square A simpleaapproach to design isshould be at least 1.5 mm lessstrength edge edge of part, the weld size to assume uniform fillet weld than the 20 Constant [Fig. 0.70 0.65 0.55 0.50 thickness K 10 12.14 (a)] .to specify roundeda toe of stress value. The average size Table in all Minimum and of first run or of 0.60 12.1 directions size For the a certain single run fillet section, the weld throat a rolled 5 should not exceed 3/4 thickness of the section atthe applied loads summed up in weld throat thickness is obtained by dividing the toe [Fig. 12.14 (b)] . 12.6.6 Design of form per unit length by the throat size. Alternatively, design fillet weld vectorial 32 6 n should be a20 minimum of 2.4 mm. Then the size of the weld is minimum leg length strength can be of a fillet with direction of be less than 3 mm ormethod different weld should not the load vector. This more than the plus 2.4 mm. The sizedesign is to assume uniform fillet weld strength in all directions A simple approach tousage to cases of pure shear, tension or is limited in part joined. thickness of the thinner throat stress Minimum size requirement compression. It given of fillet and to specify a certain in cases where the The average direction varies welds is by cannot be usedEffective throat thicknessvector throat thickness is obtained around 32 50value. load 8 (First run) less than 3 below in the applied loads summed up in vectorialshould not be10(Minimum mm and Table 12.1. dividing form issize uniFor stress weld group. For the1.0 t under specialthe stress per taken fillet) is vector simple method, circumstances, of as the calculations, should not exceed 0.7 t and where't' the thickness the effective of the thickness should be taken in thetimes fillet size,by the throat sum throat force components acting as K weld divided where K is a of thinner part. constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in area. Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose The size of a normal fillet should be taken as the minimum leg size 60° - 90° 91°-100° 101°-106° 107°-113° 114°-120° Table 12.1 Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled (Fig. 12.13). Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld section

For stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose fusion faces form angles between 60° and 120°. The actual length is taken as the length having the effective length plus twice the weld size. Minimum effective length should not be less than four times the weld size. When a fillet weld is provided to square edge of a part, the weld size should be at least 1.5 mm less than the edge thickness [Fig. 12.14 (a)] . For the rounded toe of a rolled section, the weld size should not exceed 3/4 thickness of the section at the toe [Fig. 12.14 (b)] . For stress calculations, the effective throat thickness should be taken as K times fillet size, where K is a constant. Values of K for different angles between tension fusion faces are given in Table 12.2. Fillet welds are normally used for connecting parts whose fusion faces form angles between 60° and 120°. The actual length is taken as the length having the effective length plus twice the weld size. Minimum effective length should not be less than four times the weld size. When a fillet weld is provided to square edge of a part, the weld size should be at least 1.5 mm less than the edge thickness [Fig. 12.14 (a)] . For the rounded toe of a rolled section, theplate, (b) fillet welds not exceed 3/4 Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of weld size should thickness of the section at the toe [Fig. 12.14 (b)] . on round toe of rolled section

Table 12.2. Value o f K for different angles between fusion faces

Fig.12.14 (a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds on round toe of rolled section Table 12.2. Value o f K for different angles between fusion faces

Generally speaking, continuous welding is preferred because of its superior performance in dynamic loading. However intermittent fillet welds may sometimes be provided where the strength required is less than that can be developed by a continuous fillet weld of the smallest allowable size for the parts joined. The length of intermediate welds should not be less than 4 times the weld size with a minimum of 40 mm. The clear spacing between the effective lengths of the intermittent welds should be less than or equal to 12 times the thickness of the thinner member in compression and 16 times in tension; in no case the length should exceed 20 cm. Chain intermittent welding is better than staggered intermittent welding. Intermittent fillet welds are not used in main members exposed to weather. For lap joints, the overlap should not be less than five times the thickness of the thinner part. For fillet welds to be used in slots and holes, the dimension of the slot or hole should comply with the following limits:

105 a) The width or diameter should not be less than three times the thickness or 25 mm whichever is greater b) Corners at the enclosed ends or slots should be rounded with a radius not less than 1.5 times the thickness or 12 mm whichever is greater, and

c) The distance between the edge of the part and the edge of the slot or hole, or between adjacent slots or holes, should be not less than twice the thickness and not less than 25 mm for the holes. The effective area of a plug weld is assumed as the nominal area of the whole in the plane of the faying surface. Plug welds are not designed to carry stresses. If two or more of the general types of weld (butt, fillet, plug or slots) are combined in a single joint, the effective capacity of each has to be calculated separately with reference to the axis of the group to determine the capacity of the welds.

Fig. 12.15 End returns The high stress concentration at ends of welds is minimised by providing welds around the ends as shown in Fig. 12.15. These are called end returns. End returns are invariably provided for welded joints that are subject to eccentricity, impact or stress reversals. The end returns are provided for a distance not less than twice the size of the weld. 12.6.7 Slot welds When the lengths available for the normal longitudinal fillet welds are not sufficient to resist the loads, slot and plug welds [Fig. 12.16] are used to develop the required strength. Plug welds when used to fill the holes that are temporarily made for erection bolts for beam and column connections, their strength may not be considered in the overall strength of the joint.

Fig. 12.16 Slot and Plug welds The limitations given in specifications for the maximum sizes of plug and slot welds are necessary to avoid large shrinkage, which might be caused around these welds when they exceed the specified sizes. The strength of a plug or slot weld is calculated by considering the allowable stress and its nominal area in the shearing plane. This area is usually

104 106

■ Load lying in the plane of connection [Fig. The length of the slot weld can be obtained from the following relationship: 12. and is the polar moment of inertia of the weld. The eccentricity causes either in plane moment and rotation or out of plane moment and shear. Fig. P can be resolved into components and acting at distances of and respectively from the centroid.referred to as the faying surface and is equal to the area of contact at the base of the slot or plug. the bolt group is subjected to shear and torsional moment.17] Bolted Connection: If the applied load lies in the plane of the connection.18) Where. s is the distance from the centre of gravity of the weld to the point under consideration.17 Bolt group eccentrically loaded in shear The resultant force on each bolt is given by Where n is the number of bolts in the bolt group and the negative values of the bolt location as appropriate. the load is said to be eccentric. The bolt group is analysed by resolving the eccentric load into a concentric load acting through the centroid of bolt group and a torsional moment where The moment acts with respect to the centroid of the bolt group as a centre of rotation. 12. it causes shear and torsion (Fig. is the tension. For convenience. 12.18). 12.7 Eccentric Connection When external load does not pass through the centre of gravity of the bolt or weld group. the force can be decomposed into its vertical and horizontal components: 107 . and co-ordinates reflect the positive and Welded Connection: When the applied load lies in the plane of the fillet weld connection. The force caused by torsion is determined using the formula = (Moment / Polar moment of inertia) (12.

12. 12. 12.Where.21.19. When there is no initial tension in bolts the number of bolts required may be calculated using the equation given below Where m is the number of bolt lines. Fig. While designing a weld subjected to combined shear and torsion. 12. 12. 108 . is the shearing stress and is the reaction and is the total length of the weld. is the pitch of bolts and is the design strength of the bolt.18 Welds subjected to shear and torsion ■ lying out of plane of connection [Fig. the bolts are subjected to combined shear and tension. For bolts with initial tension the number of bolts required is taken as 80% of Eqn.19 (b). and denote the vertical and horizontal components of the distance The stress due to shear force is calculated by the following expression Where. If there is initial tension in bolts.19] Load Bolted Connection: In the connection shown in Fig. The nominal tensile force in the bolts can be calculated assuming it to be proportional to the distance of the bolt from the neutral axis in Fig. From the maximum weld force per unit length the required size of the fillet weld can be calculated. then the neutral axis will pass through the centre of gravity of the bolt group. it is a usual practice to assume a unit size weld and compute the stresses on a weld of unit length. The neutral axis may be assumed to be at a distance of one-sixth of the total depth d.

it is a common practice to treat the variation of shear stress as uniform if the welds are short. 12. the shear stress variation for vertical welds is parabolic with a maximum value equal to 1. for design purposes the stresses need not be combined at a point.21.21 Weld provision for carrying shear and moment 109 . 12.5 times the average value. But. It is generally satisfactory if the weld is designed to withstand the maximum bending stress and the maximum shear stress separately. if the bending stress is calculated by the flexure formula. These bending and shear stress variations are shown in Fig. Fig. 12. it can be safely assumed that the web welds would carry all the of the shear and the flange welds all of the moment.Welded Connection: In the case of welds.20. It may be observed here that the locations of maximum bending and shearing stresses are not the same.20 Variation of bending and shear stress Fig. 12. If the welds used are as shown in Fig. Hence.

Some of the main advantages of cold rolled sections are as follows: • • 13.1 An intermittently stiffened element is made of a very wide thin element. a bend) which has sufficient flexural rigidity to maintain straightness of the edge.30%.e. Pre-galvanised or pre-coated metals can be formed. (e. and range from purlins to roof sheeting and floor decking. their manufacturing process involves forming steel sections in a cold state (i. which is supported by webs along both its longitudinal edges. An unstiffened element is one. Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements Cold-formed steel elements are either stiffened or unstiffened. which is supported along one longitudinal edge only with the other parallel edge being free to displace.g. For purposes of design. These are given the generic title Cold Formed Steel Sections. These thin steel sections are cold-formed.2 Cross sectional shapes are formed to any desired shape and to close tolerances and these can be consistently repeated for as long as required. The strength/weight ratio of cold-formed sections is significantly high compared with hot rolled sections. so that high resistance to corrosion. formed during rolling. 13. can be achieved. An element.1 General Thin sheet steel products are extensively used in building industry. when the element buckles on loading. the increase being the consequence of cold working well into the strain-hardening range. The thickness of steel sheet used in cold-formed construction is usually 1 to 3 mm. Stiffened and unstiffened elements are shown in Fig. and also sometimes as low as Cold forming has the effect of increasing the yield strength of steel. A rule of thumb is that 110 . Generally these are available for use as basic building elements for assembly at site or as prefabricated frames or panels. Much thicker material up to 8 mm can be formed if pre-galvanised material is not required for the particular application. besides an attractive surface finish.SECTION: 13 COLD FORMED STEEL SECTIONS 13. the yield strength of steel sheets used in cold-formed sections is at least although there is a trend to use steels of higher strengths. In order that a flat compression element be considered as a stiffened element. These increases are predominant in zones where the metal is bent by folding. is called a stiffened element. Sometimes they are also called Light Gauge Steel Sections or Cold Rolled Steel Sections. it should be supported along one longitudinal edge by the web and along the other by a web or lip or other edge stiffener. without application of heat) from steel sheets of uniform thickness.e. The effect of cold working is thus to enhance the mean yield stress by 15% . the yield stress may be regarded as having been enhanced by a minimum of 15%. which has been divided into two or more narrow sub elements by the introduction of intermediate stiffeners. Normally. The method of manufacturing differentiates these products from hot rolled steel sections. i.

2.the depth of simple "lips" or right-angled bends should be at least one-fifth of the adjacent plate width. for purposes of design calculations.1 Effective width concept The effects of local buckling can be evaluated by using the concept of effective width. If the edge stiffener is inadequate (or only partially adequate) its effectiveness is disregarded and the element will be regarded as unstiffened.0. If the stiffener is adequate. as these are least effective in resisting the applied stresses. then the edge-stiffened element may be treated as having a local buckling coefficient ( K ) value of 4. Fig. Lightly stressed regions at centre are ignored. Regions near the supports are far more effective and are taken to be fully effective.1 Stiffened and Unstiffened elements 13. The section behaviour is modelled on the basis of the effective width 111 . 13. More exact formulae to assess the adequacy of the stiffeners are sometimes employed.

2 Local buckling of compressed plates The effective width concept is usually modified to take into account the effects of yielding and imperfection. When then Where compressive stress on the effective element.The effective width.2. thickness of the element. Typical formula given in BS 5950. BS5950: Part 5 provides a semi-empirical formula for basic effective width. The effective width of an element under compression is dependent on the magnitude of the applied stress the width/thickness ratio of the element and the edge support conditions. Part 5 for computing K values for a channel element is given below for illustration (See BS 5950. multiplied by the edge stress is the same as the mean stress •across the section multiplied by the total width of the compression member. section geometry etc. Part 5 for a complete list of buckling coefficients). to conform to extensive experimental data. For example. in width of the element. in Modifications are necessary for an unstiffened element under uniform compression and for elements under combined bending and axial load. The buckling coefficient for the member having a width of the type shown above is given by in a lipped channel of 112 . local buckling stress given by load buckling coefficient which depends on the element type. 13.

when b/t values exceed half the values tabulated above. then the width required for the lip may become too large and the lip itself may have 113 . 13.0 or The buckling coefficient for the element of width is given by is computed from Eqn. Where are the thicknesses of element width normally and will be equal). respectively.2. 2(b) given above. (Note: should not be less than 4.For the member having the width of in the above sketch.425 as the case may be. The computed values of 0. elements having and provided with simple lip having one fifth of the element width may be regarded as a stiffened element. 60. Maximum width to thickness ratios: The maximum permitted ratios of (b/t) for compression elements are as follows: • • • Stiffened elements with one longitudinal edge connected to a flange or web element and the other stiffened by a simple lip = 60 Stiffened elements with both longitudinal edges connected to other stiffened elements = 500 Unstiffened compression elements = 60 The designer should guard against the elements developing very large deformations.3 Treatment of elements with stiffeners Edge Stiffeners: As stated previously.

only the compression elements are considered to have reduced effective widths. Elements in tension are.5 Proportioning of stiffeners The performance of unstiffened elements could be substantially improved by introducing stiffeners (such as a lip). the portions located close to the supported edges are effective. 13. If an element has a number of stiffeners spaced closely and then generally all the stiffeners and sub elements can be considered to be effective. generally. all elements may be subject to reductions in width. In the case of compression members. When is larger than 60. Special types of lips (called "compound" lips) are designed in such cases and are usually validated by tests.4 Effective section properties In the analysis of member behaviour.2.2. 13. the effective section properties are determined by summing up the effective widths of individual elements. Similarly very wide elements can be divided into two or more narrower sub elements by introducing intermediate stiffeners formed during the rolling 114 . Intermediate stiffeners: A wide and ineffective element may be transformed into a highly effective element by providing suitable intermediate stiffeners (having a minimum moment of inertia about an axis through the element mid surface).3) between stiffeners = thickness of the element = yield stress If the sub-element width/thickness ratio does not exceed 60. of course. As a general rule. In the case of flexural members. 13. the effectiveness of the intermediately stiffened elements is somewhat reduced due to shear lag effects. The required minimum moment of inertia of the stiffener about the axis 0-0 in Fig. 13.stability problems. the total effective area of the element may be obtained by adding effective areas of the sub-elements to the full areas of stiffeners. not subject to any reduction of width.3 is given by: Where = larger flat width of the sub element (see Fig. as they are not subjected to bending.

115 . Part 5 an unstiffened element (when provided with a lip) can be regarded as a stiffened element. The minimum moment of inertia about an axis through the element middle surface required for this purpose (according to BS 5950. A maximum b/t ratio of 90 is regarded as the upper limit for load bearing edge stiffeners. For elements having a full width b less than or equal to 60 t.process. a simple lip of one fifth of the element width (i. Intermediate Stiffeners: Intermediate stiffeners are used to split a wide element into a series of narrower and therefore more effective elements. when the lip or the edge stiffener has a moment of inertia about an axis through the plate middle surface equal to or greater than Where t and b are the thickness and breadth of the full width of the element to be stiffened. The effective widths of each sub element may be determined according to Eqn 1 (a) and Eqn. Part 5) is given in Eqn (4) above. = Yield stress in For a simple lip bent at right angles to the stiffened element. According to BS 5950. When then the total effective area of the element is obtained as the sum of the effective areas of each sub element to the full areas of stiffeners.e. it would be appropriate to design a lip to ensure that the lip itself does not develop instability. For lips with b > 60 t. The Indian standard IS: 801-1975 prescribes a minimum moment of inertia for the lip given by Where = minimum allowable moment of inertia of stiffener about its own centroidal axis parallel to the stiffened element in = flat width . the required overall depth is given by Note that both the above equations given by the Indian Standards are dependent on the units employed.l (b) by replacing the sub element width in place of the element width b.thickness ratio of the stiffened element. b/5) can be used safely. the sum of the "effective widths" of individual sub elements will enhance the efficiency of the section.

e. the width of flange projecting beyond the web is limited to Where = flange thickness = depth of beam = the amount of curling = average stress in as specified in IS: 801 . the effective stiffener area varies between given below: and as It must be noted that when small increases in the areas of intermediate stiffeners are provided. the sub element effective width must be reduced to given by. IS: 801. the stiffeners and sub elements may be considered to be fully effective. 116 . it is possible to obtain large increases in effectiveness and therefore it is advantageous to use a few intermediate stiffeners. When the flanges of a flexural member is unusually wide. To model this reduced performance. i.1975 also suggests some simple rules for the design of intermediate stiffeners.When the sub elements having a larger values are employed the performance of intermittently stiffened elements will be less efficient. However there is a tendency for the complete element (along with the stiffeners) to buckle locally. When stiffeners are closely spaced.1975. The effective stiffener areas are also reduced when by employing the equation: For values between 60 and 90. so long as the complete element width does not exceed 500 t. In these circumstances. about its own neutral axis. the complete element is replaced for purposes of analysis by an element of width b and having fictitious Where = Moment of inertia of the complete element including stiffeners.

The amount of curling should be decided by the designer but will not generally exceed 5 % of the depth of the section.3 Beams As stated previously. Equivalent thickness of intermediate stiffener is given by 13. the effect of local buckling should invariably be taken into account in thin walled members. 117 117 . which may be considered to act on the bending element. making suitable modifications to take account of local buckling of the webs. This is done by imposing a maximum compressive stress. which do not buckle laterally. Designs may be carried out using simple beam theory. Laterally stable beams are beams.

the average shear stress must be less than the value calculated as follows: 118 .The maximum value of the stress is given by Where = the limiting value of compressive stress in N/mm 2 = web depth/thickness ratio = material yield stress in N/mm2. The phenomenon of shear buckling of thin webs has been discussed in detail in the section on "Plate Girders". In addition in deep webs. 13.4a). In order to ensure yielding before local buckling. then the moment capacity is to be evaluated on the basis of elasto-plastic stress distribution (see Fig.4b).7 times yield stress in shear. The moment capacity of the cross section is determined by limiting the maximum stress on the web to The effective width of the compression element is evaluated using this stress and the effective section properties are evaluated. 13. compressive stress at collapse can equal yield stress (sec Fig. A widely used method of overcoming web crushing problems is to use web cleats at support points (See Fig.6.1 Other beam failure criteria Web Crushing: This may occur under concentrated loads or at support point when deep slender webs are employed. Shear Buckling. 13. 13. local web buckling has a detrimental effect. If the neutral axis is such that the tensile stresses reach yield first. The ultimate moment capacity is given by Where = effective compression section modulus (see This is subject to the condition that the maximum tensile stress in the section does not exceed Fig. the maximum (width/thickness) ratio of stiffened elements is and for unstiffened 13.3. Thin webs subjected to predominant shear will buckle as shown in Fig.5). 13. In elements having low (width/thickness) ratios.4c). The maximum shear in a beam web is invariably limited to 0. = design strength in N/mm For steel with For greater web slenderness values. where shear buckling can occur.

The effective length of beams 119 . The design approach is based on the "effective length" of the beam for lateral buckling. capable of resisting a lateral force of 3% of the maximum force in the compression flange. However. as restrained and no lateral buckling will occur.3. If the beam is provided with lateral restraints.2 Lateral Buckling The great majority of cold-formed beams are (by design) restrained against lateral deflections.Fig. there are circumstances where this is not the case and the possibility of lateral buckling has to be considered. the beam may be regarded. 13. roof sheeting or to bracing members.6 Web buckling 13. This is achieved by connecting them to adjacent elements. which is dependent on support and loading conditions.

This is considered to be a "destabilising load". (13) will need to be modified. in D = web depth. the bending capacity in the plane of loading and other effects.8) To provide for the effects of imperfections. in mm = radius of gyration for the lateral bending of section Where = ratio of the smaller end moment to the larger end moment M in an unbraced length of beam. If a load is applied to the top flange which is unrestrained laterally.9 times the length. in mm t = web thickness. the value of ME obtained from Eqn. a load that encourages lateral instability. provided the load is applied at bottom flange level. this is A = cross sectional area. For an / section or symmetrical channel section bent in the plane of the web and loaded through shear centre. i. is taken positive for single curvature bending and negative for double curvature (see Fig. 120 . The elastic lateral buckling moment capacity is determined next. the effective length is increased by 20%.with both ends supported and having restraints against twisting is taken âs 0.e. 13.

and the Elastic Modulus = Elastic lateral buckling resistance moment given by Eqn (13) = Perry coefficient. 13. given by When 121 .8 Single and double curvature bending A Perry-Robertson type equation is employed for evaluating the Moment Resistance of the beam = First yield moment given by the product of yield stress of the gross section.Fig.

is Fig. then limited to This will happen when the beams are "short". When the calculated value of exceeds calculated by using Eqn (1 l.9 Column Strength (Hon.axis. 13.= effective length = radius of gyration of the section about the . 13. the first step is to determine the effective area of the cross section by summing up the total values of effective areas for all the individual elements.a). the failure load is evaluated from 122 .4 Axially Compressed Columns In analysing column behaviour.dimensional) for different Q factors The ultimate load (or squash load) of a short strut is obtained from Where = ultimate load of a short strut = sum of the effective areas of all the individual plate elements = the ratio of the effective area to the total area of cross section at yield stress Following the Perry-Robertson approach.

9 shows the mean stress at failure cross sectional area) obtained for columns with variation of for a number of "Q" factors. 13. The ultimate load is evaluated by allowing for the interaction of bending and compression using the following equation: 123 . 13.1 Effective shift of loading axis If a section is not doubly symmetric (see Fig.4.10 Effective shift in the loading axis in an axially compressed column 13.9 can be employed directly for doubly symmetric sections. the movement of effective neutral axis from the geometric neutral axis of the cross section must be first determined by comparing the gross and effective section properties. 13. 13.and = radius of gyration corresponding to Fig. (The y-axis is nondimensionalised using the yield stress. then the effective section may have changed position of centroid. Plots such as Fig.10 To allow for this behaviour. as shown in Fig. ( a ) Channel section loaded through its centroid ( b ) The move of the neutral axis (due to plate buckling) causes an eccentricity and a consequent moment This would cause an additional compression on flange AR Fig.10) and has a large reduction of effective widths of elements. and "Q" factor is the ratio of effective cross sectional area to full cross sectional area). This would induce bending on an initially concentrically loaded section. 13.

es is the distance between the effective centroid and actual centroid of the cross section.4. Purely torsional and purely flexural failure does not occur in a general case. suggested in BS5950. Part 5 is detailed below as being suitable for sections with at least one axis of symmetry (say and subjected to flexural torsional buckling. 124 . the following design procedure. 13.2 Torsional .11. This latter type of behaviour is known as Torsional-flexural behaviour.Where Pc is obtained from Eqn (16) and Mc is the bending resistance of the section for moments acting in the direction corresponding to the movement of neutral axis.flexural buckling Singly symmetric columns may fail either (a) by Euler buckling about an axis perpendicular to the line of symmetry (as detailed in 13. 13. 13. Codes deal with this problem by simplified design methods or by empirical methods based on experimental data. Fig.4.1 above) or (b) by a combination of bending about the axis of symmetry and a twist as shown in Fig.11Column displacements during Flexural .Torsional buckling Analysis of torsional-flexural behaviour of cold-formed sections is tedious and time consuming for practical design. As an illustration.

is the elastic flexural buckling load (in Newtons) for a column about the = effective length (in mm) corresponding to the minimum radius of gyration = torsional flexural buckling load (in Newtons) of a column given by Where given by = Elastic flexural buckling load of the column (in Newtons) about the = Torsional buckling load of a column (In Newtons) given by In these equations.Effective length multiplication factors (known as factors) are tabulated for a number of section geometries. These factors are employed to obtain increased effective lengths.4. i. = polar radius of gyration about the shear centre (in mm) given by 125 . which together with the design analysis prescribed in 13.e.1 above can be used to obtain torsional buckling resistance of a column. values can be computed as follows: Where y-axis.

it is possible to restrain twisting so that torsion does not occur to any significant extent.5. 13.5 Combined Bending and Compression Compression members. will have to be designed to take into account the effects of interaction.3 Torsion behaviour Cold formed sections are mainly formed with "open" sections and do not have high resistance to torsion. by adjusting the method of load application.1 Local capacity check The local capacity check is ascertained by satisfying the following at the points of greatest bending moment and axial load: = applied axial load = short strut capacity defined by (Eqn. 13.4.where are the radii of gyration (in mm) about the is the shear modulus is the distance from shear centre to the centroid measured along the axis (mm) St Venants' Torsion constant all elements. Hence the application of load that would cause torsion should be avoided where possible. 13. 15) = applied bending moments about x and y axis = Moment resistance of the beam about x-axis in the absence of = Moment resistance of the beam about y-axis in the absence of 126 . where measure in mm) Ix F which may be taken as summed up for flat width of the element and thickness (both of them the moment of inertia about the x axis (mm4) Warping constant for all section. The following checks are suggested for members that have at least one axis of symmetry: (i) the local capacity at points of greatest bending moment and axial load and (ii) an overall buckling check. which are also subject to bending. Generally speaking.

The tensile capacity of a member may be evaluated from Where is the effective area of the section making due allowance for the type of member (angle. is design strength 127 . Tee section etc) and the type of connection (e. Where a member is connected eccentrically to its axis. the following relationship should be satisfied: For beams subject to lateral buckling.2 Overall buckling check For members not subject to lateral buckling. = lateral buckling resistance moment about the x axis 13.6 Tension Members If a member is connected in such a way as to eliminate any moments due to connection eccentricity. the member may be designed as a simple tension member.axis and for bending about the y-axis respectively.section). the following relationship should be satisfied: Where = axial buckling resistance in the absence of moments (see Eqn. connected through one leg only or through the flange or web of a T. then the resulting moment has to be allowed for.13. plain channel. 16) = flexural buckling load in compression for bending about the x. = factors (defined in the previous chapter) with regard to moment variation about x and y axis respectively.g.5.

Particular care should be taken while testing components. where necessary. the capacity of the member should be ascertained from the following: Where Ft = applied load = tensile capacity (see Eqn. while these tests may be used successfully to assess the material work hardening much caution will be needed when examining the effects of local buckling. the very large variety of shapes that can be formed and the complex interactions that occur make it frequently uneconomical to design members and systems completely on theoretical basis.7 Design on the Basis of Testing While it is possible to design many cold-formed steel members on the basis of analysis. When a member is subjected to both combined bending and axial tension. The Indian code IS: 801-1975 is in the process of revision and it is probable that a similar enhancement will be allowed for cold rolled steel sections also. There is a possibility of these tests giving misleading information or even no information regarding neutral axis movement. The specimen lengths may be too short to pick up certain types of buckling behaviour. Reference is also made to the section on "Tension Members" where provision for enhancement of strength due to strain hardening has been incorporated for hot rolled steel sections. For example. 26) are as defined previously. that the tests model the actual loading conditions as closely as possible. (The area to be deducted from the gross sectional area of a member should be the maximum sum of the sectional areas of the holes in any cross section at right angles to the direction of applied stress). 128 . The behaviour of a component or system can often be ascertained economically by a test and suitable modifications incorporated. 13.The area of the tension member should invariably be calculated as its gross area less deductions for holes or openings.

The manufacturers also provide load/span tables for their products. (Members designed by proven theoretical methods or by prototype testing need not comply with the empirical rules). the type of supports. 13. Fig. 13. In designing Z purlins with lips using the simplified empirical rules the following recommendations are to be complied with: Unfactored loads should be used for designing purlins Imposed loads should be taken to be at least • 129 .1 Z Purlins A Z purlin used for supporting the roofing sheet is sketched in Fig. Testing by an independent agency (such as Universities) is widely used by manufacturers of mass produced components to ensure consistency of quality. the restraints from adjacent structures and the flexibility of connections are all factors to be considered carefully and modelled accurately.8. In testing complete structures or assemblies. The method of load application. they also reassure the customers about the validity of their load/span tables. such rules are employed when theoretical analysis may be impractical or not justified and when prototype test data are not available.12 Z Purlins 13. Evaluating connection behaviour is important as connections play a crucial role in the strength and stiffness of a structure. 13. it is vital to ensure that the test set up reflects the in-service conditions as accurately as possible. An advantage to the manufacturers in designing on the basis of proof testing is that the load/span tables obtained are generally more advantageous than those obtained by analytical methods.Testing is probably the only realistic method of assessing the strength and characteristics of connections. As an illustration the empirical rules permitted by BS 5950. Part 5 is explained below. which can be employed by structural designers and architects who do not have detailed knowledge of design procedures.11.8 Empirical Methods Some commonly used members such as Z purlins are sometimes designed by time-tested empirical rules.

Purlin cleats should provide adequate torsional restraint.12 • • • • The overall depth should not be greater than and not less than Overall width of compression flange / thickness ratio should not be greater than 35. Lip width should be greater than Section Modulus for simply supported purlins and for continuous or semi rigidly jointed purlins. 130 .8.8 m. 13. The purlin should be considered to carry the load normal to roof slope (and a nominal axial load due to wind or restraint forces) These rules apply to purlins up to 8 m span in roof slopes up to 22. L =span of the purlin (in mm) W = Normal component of unfactored (distributed dead load+imposed load) in B T • = Width of the compression flange in mm = thickness of the purlin in mm.2 Design rules The following design rules apply with reference to Fig. 13.• • • • • Claddings and fixings should be checked for adequacy to provide lateral restraint to the purlin and should be capable of carrying the component of load in the plane of the roof slope. Antisag bars should be provided to ensure that laterally unsupported length of the purlin does not exceed 3. In the above. These should be anchored to rigid apex support or their forces should be transferred diagonally to main frames.5°. The net allowable wind uplift in a direction normal to roof when purlins are restrained is taken as 50% of the (dead + imposed) load.

14. 14.SECTION 14: BASIC CONCEPTS OF COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION 14. given by 0.1 Structural steel All structural steels used shall.1 gives the properties of different grades of concrete. By employing profiled steel decking in composite construction.1 by /2400.1 General A steel concrete composite beam made up of a steel beam.2. this property has little effect on 131 . the most effective utilisation of steel and concrete is achieved. this is not covered by IS 11384:1985. The composite beam can also be constructed with profiled sheeting with concrete topping. It should be noted that although the ductility of reinforcing bars has a significant effect on the behaviour of continuous beams. Table Where. Some of the structural steel grade commonly used in construction are given in IS: 961-1975 and IS: 1977-1975. IS: 2062-1992.3 Reinforcing steel used in composite columns Reinforcing Steel grades used in construction should conform to IS 432 (1982) and IS: 1786 (1985).8 times 28 days cube strength of concrete mean tensile strength of concrete values are Note is proposed to be evaluated in accordance with Eurocodes. "Fast Track" construction developed in the West invariably utilises Composite Construction. For lightweight concrete. and IS: 8500-1977 as appropriate. the obtained by multiplying the values from Table 14. measured at 28 days. over which a reinforced concrete slab is cast with shear connectors is covered by IS: 11384-1985. 14.where is the unit mass 14. However. before fabrication conform to IS: 1977-1975.2 Materials 14.2 Concrete Concrete strengths are specified in terms of the characteristic cube strengths. instead of cast-in place or precast reinforced concrete slab.2. characteristic compressive (cube) strength of concrete characteristic compressive (cylinder) strength of concrete.2.

3 (a)] the connector stiffness is usually determined while ultimate strength design is based on plastic behaviour of the shear connectors. perform the test. Typical shear connectors are shown in Fig 14. Concrete filled tubular sections may be used without any reinforcement except for reasons of fire resistance. where appropriate. [see 14. • • At the time of testing. IS: 11384-1985 suggests that. the characteristic strength of concrete used should not exceed the characteristic strength of concrete in the beams for which the test is designed. They derive their stress resistance through bending and undergo large deformation before failure.2 ( b ) respectively. channels come under this category. 14. They derive their resistance from bearing pressure on the concrete. To.1 Characteristics of shear connectors The load-slip characteristic of shear connectors affects their design considerably. Flexible type: Headed studs. and fail due to crushing of concrete.the design of composite columns.3. 14. To obtain the load-slip curve "pushout" tests are performed as per codal specifications. 132 . Three types of shear connectors have been developed: Rigid type: These connectors are very stiff and they sustain only a small deformation while resisting the shear force.1 14. These connectors are welded to the flange of the steel beam. These connectors are designed to (a) transmit longitudinal shear along the interface. A minimum of three tests should be made and the design values should be taken as 67% of the lowest ultimate capacity. Based on the load-slip characteristics observed in the push-out tests. and (b) prevent separation of steel beam and concrete slab at the interface. Arrangements for these tests as per and IS: 11384-1985 are shown in Fig. the value is needed for serviceability considerations.3 Shear Connectors Mechanical shear connectors are required at the steel-concrete interface.2 (a) and 14. Bond or anchorage type: These connectors derive their resistance through bond and anchorage action.

133 133 .

134 .

133 .

3 (b).Fig. (14. Idealized load-slip characteristics 14.1) 136 . Fig. The lower of the two values governs the design. Note that full interaction would occur and when very stiff connectors are used.2 Strength of connectors The design resistance of shear studs with may be determined using the following two empirical formulae. 14.3.3 (b) shows an idealised load-slip characteristic of three different types of interaction that arise depending on the type of connectors used. 14. When there is partial interaction the load slip relationship is assumed to be bilinear.

Table 14.1 Design method The ultimate strength of a composite section is determined from its plastic moment resistance. although full moment resistance of the beam cannot be achieved. It is to be noted that as per this code the design value of a shear connector is taken as 67% of the ultimate capacity arrived at by testing. In partial shear connection.2: Design Strength of Headed Stud Shear Connectors for Different Concrete Strengths 14. Full shear connection ensures that full moment resistance of the section develops.4. Similar data about other shear connectors is available in that code.4 Basic Design Considerations 14. 137 . provided the elements of the steel cross section do not fall (in the semi-compact or slender category). the design will have to be adequate to resist the applied bending moment.(14. partial safety factor for stud connector The design strengths of headed shear connectors as per IS: 11384-1985 are reproduced in Table (14.2). This design is often preferred due to economy achieved through the reduced number of shear connectors.2) Ecm = ultimate tensile strength of steel cylinder strength of concrete mean secant (elastic) modulus of concrete. The serviceability is checked using elastic analysis. as the structure will remain elastic under service loading.

4). 14. 14. For design purpose a portion of the beam span (20% .5 Value of for continuous beam 138 .Adequacy in Serviceability Limit State is verified by resorting to prescribed span/depth ratios. Use of effective width to allow for shear Fig. 14.33%) is taken as the effective breadth of the slab (see Fig.4.3: Span to Depth ratio Support Condition Simply supported Continuous Span to Depth 15-18 (Primary Beams) 18-20 (Secondary Beams) 18-22 (Primary Beams) 22-25 (end bays) Effective breadth of flange: A composite beam acts as a T-beam with the concrete slab as its flange. Table 14. EC4 has prescribed that the following span to depth (total beam and slab depth) ratios for which the serviceability criteria will be deemed to be satisfied. Fig.

The effective breadth of simply supported beam is taken as on each side of the steel web. actual span centre-to-centre distance of transverse spans for slab. but not greater than half the distance to the next adjacent web. 14.1. The values of elastic modulus of concrete under short term loading for different grades of concrete are given in Table 14. IS: 11384 -1985 has suggested a modular ratio of 15 for live load and 30 for dead load. For simply supported beam Therefore. for elastic analysis of section.5 beams Modular ratio: Modular ratio is the ratio of elastic modulus of steel to the time dependent secant modulus of concrete While evaluating stress due to long termloading (dead load etc. For continuous is obtained from Fig 14.4.4: Suggested Partial safety factors • These are in conforming with IS: 11384 . Table 14. Where. 139 . the effective span taken as the distance between points of zero moments.4 lists the Partial safety factors to be used in design. Table 14.) the time dependent secant modulus of concrete should be used.2 Section classifications and partial safety factor Section Classifications has been dealt with in section 5 of this Design Guide.1985. This takes into account the long-term effects of creep under sustained loading.

1 gives the moment capacity of the composite section with full shear connection. Table 15. 15.1 Moment Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Slabs.SECTION 15: COMPOSITE BEAMS AND SLABS 15. The ultimate strength of the composite beam is determined from its collapse load capacity.1: Moment capacity of composite Section with full shear interaction (according to IS: 11384 -1985) 140 140 . Fig.1 Notations as per IS: 11384-1985 Table 15. supported on Steel beams Reinforced concrete slab connected to rolled steel section through shear connectors is the simplest form of composite beam and has been covered in IS 11384:1985.

141 141 . with Profiled Sheeting supported on Steel Beams A more advanced method of composite beam construction is one. In this case the steel sheeting itself acts as the bottom reinforcement and influences the capacity of the section. which are capable of developing their plastic moment of resistance without local buckling problems.3 shows the stress distribution for hogging bending moment.15. Table 15.2 shows the stress distribution diagram for plastic and compact sections for full interactior according to EC4. Fig 15. where profiled deck slabs are connected to steel beams through stud connectors. These equations are largely restricted to sections. Fig 15.2 Reinforced Concrete Slabs. This has not been covered in any IS Code.2 presents the equations for moment capacity.

142 .

15. initiating a local concrete failure as cracking. (2) Profiled steel decking with the ribs transverse to the supporting beam.4 Resistance of Shear Connectors when used with Profile Decking The profile of the deck slab has a marked influence on strength of shear connector. The shear force resisted by the structural steel section should satisfy: Where. (1) Profiled steel decking with the ribs parallel to the supporting beam. In addition to this the shear buckling of steel web should be checked. It is therefore assumed that the vertical shear is resisted by steel beam alone. But the profiled deck slab limits the concrete around the connector. is the plastic shear resistance given by. 143 .4. and d is the depth of the web considered in the shear area. EC 4 suggests the following reduction factor k (relative to solid slab). The shear buckling of steel web can be neglected if following condition is satisfied Where. This in turn makes the centre of resistance on connector to move up.3 Vertical Shear Although the concrete slab resists some of the vertical shear in a composite T-beam. there is no simple design model for this. 15. This is shown in Fig 15. There should be a 45° projection from the base of the connector to the core of the solid slab for smooth transfer of shear. as if it were not composite.

k. 15. is the average width of trough is the stud height is the height of the profiled decking slab Nr is the number of stud connectors in one rib at a beam intersection (should not greater than 2). 15. . to be resisted by shear connectors between the point of maximum bending moment and the end support is given by: Whichever is smaller. and not For studs welded through the steel decking. should not be greater than 1.8 when Fig.6 Longitudinal Shear Force in Continuous Beams For continuous beams the total design longitudinal shear.4 Behaviour of a shear connection fixed through profile sheeting 15. to be resisted by shear connectors between the point of maximum positive bending moment and an intermediate support is given by: Where. Where.5 Longitudinal Shear Force in Single Span Beams For single span beams the total design longitudinal shear.the effective area of longitudinal slab reinforcement 144 .For studs of diameter not exceeding 20 mm.0 when greater than 0.

the reduced bending resistance is given by design bending moment plastic resistance of the flange alone plastic resistance of the entire section design shear force plastic shear resistance as defined in Eqn. At is 15. (15. (15. 15. 145 . (15. in the presence of high shear force. exceeds (point in the Fig. 15.The number of required shear connectors in the zone under consideration for full composite action is given by: Where is the design longitudinal shear force as defined in Eqn.6. Along curve AB. including reinforcement in the slab. At point B the remaining bending resistance is that contributed by the flanges of the composite section. When the design shear force.5).5 shows the resistance of the composite section in combined bending (hogging or sagging) and shear.3). Fig.8) and The shear connectors are usually equally spaced.7 is the bottom flange area and beam span in metres Interaction between Shear and Moment Interaction between bending and shear can influence the design of continuous beam. moment capacity of the section reduces non-linearly as shown by the parabolic curve AB. 15.1 Minimum degree of shear connection Ideal plastic behaviour of the shear connectors may be assumed if a minimum degree of shear connection is provided. as the opportunity for developing local plasticity are greater in these cases is design resistance of the connector. The minimum degree of shear connection is defined by the following equations: where the top flange area.2) and Eqn.

the following design equation has been developed. Where.4. the IS: 456 -2000 lists moment coefficients as well as shear coefficients that are close to exact values of the maximum load effects obtainable from rigorous analysis on an infinite number of equal spans on point supports.5 gives the bending moment coefficients and Table 15.9. Table 15.Figl5.5 Resistance to combined bending and vertical shear 15.8 Transverse Reinforcement Shear connectors transfer the interfacial shear to concrete slab by thrust. which is in compression due to hogging moments at supports. Besides these.6 gives the shear coefficients according to IS: 456 . These values are also applicable for composite continuous beams. which do not differ by more than 75 percent of the longest. Based on Truss Analogy. which could cause splitting in concrete in potential failure planes. is cross sectional area of concrete shear surface per unit length of beam and area of transverse reinforcement. 146 . The formulae suggested by EC4 and IS: 11384 . Reinforcement is provided in the direction transverse to the axis of the beam.2000.1985 are given in Table 15. These coefficients are applicable to continuous beams with at least three spans. Structural analysis has to be performed.9 Effect of Continuity is the The above design formulae are applicable to simply supported beams as well as to continuous beams. a continuous beam necessitates the check for the stability of the bottom flange.1 Moment and shear coefficients for continuous beam In order to determine the distribution of bending moments under the design loads. 15. For convenience. the reinforcement supplements the shear strength of the concrete. 15. Like stirrups in the web of a reinforced T beam.

2 > .

60 ext to the end port Inner side 0. which is resisted by bending of the slab as shown in Fig. Fig 15.55 At all other interior supports 0.40 Imposed load (fixed) Imposed load 0.U frame Action Lateral Torsional Buckling of Continuous Beams can be neglected if following conditions are satisfied.60 (not fixed) For obtaining the shear force. the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load and effective span.50 Near middle At middle of At support next to the end of end span interior span support + 1/12 + 1/16 . its length does not exceed 15% of the adjacent span. The tendency for the bottom flange to displace laterally causes bending of the steel web.5: Bending moment coefficients according to IS: 456-2000 TYPE OF LOAD SPAN IVI [OMENTS SUPPORT] MOMENTS Dead load + Imposed load (fixed) Imposed load (not + 1/10 + 1/12 .60 0.Tablel5.1/9 . Adjacent spans do not differ in length by more than 20% of the shorter span or where there is a cantilever.6. 22.6: Shear force coefficients TYPE OF LOAD At end support At support n sup Outer side 0.60 0. Hence.2 Lateral torsional buckling of continuous beams The concrete slab prevents the top flange of the steel section (connected to concrete slab) from moving laterally.9. and twisting at top flange level. i 148 3 .1/9 fixed) For obtaining the bending moment. the coefficient shall be multiplied by the total design load 15. Table 15.45 0.1/10 At other interior supports . The tendency of the lower flange to buckle laterally is restrained by the distortional stiffness of the cross section. In negative moment regions of continuous composite beams the lower flange is subjected to compression.6 Inverted .1/12 Dead load + 0. 1. the stability of bottom flange should be checked at that region.

10 Serviceability Composite beams must also be checked for adequacy in the Serviceability Limit State.10.1 Deflection The elastic properties relevant to deflection are section modulus and moment of inertia of the section. the elastic stress is limited to Unfortunately this is an error made in the Code as the same limits are applied for steel in determining the ultimate resistance of the cross section. No stress limitations are made in EC 4. It is not desirable that steel yields under service load.2. is the moment of inertia of steel section. To check the composite beams serviceability criteria. 15. Normally unfactored loads are used for for serviceability checks. The shear connection in the steel-concrete interface satisfies the requirements of section 15. 3. The moment of inertia of uncracked section is used for calculating deflection. Applying appropriate modular ratio m the composite section is transformed into an equivalent steel section. Under positive moment the concrete is assumed uncracked. The loading on each span is uniformly distributed and the design permanent load exceeds 40% of the total load. elastic section properties are used. and the moment of inertia is calculated as: Where is the ratio of the elastic moduli of steel to concrete taking into account creep. Simply supported Beams: The mid-span deflection of simply supported composite beam under distributed load w is given by 4 149 . IS: 11384-1985 limits the maximum deflection of the composite beam to The total elastic stress in concrete is limited to while for steel. therefore the method described below follows EC 4. considering different stages of construction. Since EC4 gives explicit guidance for checking serviceability Limit State.

Influence of partial shear connection: Deflections increase due to the effects of slip in the shear connectors. or when the free shrinkage strain of the concrete exceeds shrinkage. To take care of the increase in deflection due to partial shear connection. Note: For this additional simplification can usually beignored Shrinkage induced deflections: For simply supported beams.Where. These effects are ignored in composite beams designed for full shear connection. The shrinkage-induced deflection is calculated using the following formula: is the effective span of the beam and strain. given by is the curvature due to the free shrinkage modular ratio appropriate for shrinkage calculations Note: This formula ignores continuity effects at the supports. when the span to depth ratio of beam exceeds 20. Where are deflection of steel beam and composite beam respectively with proper serviceability load. these deflections will only be significant for spans greater than 12 m in exceptionally warm dry atmospheres. In practice. 150 5 . the following expression is used. is the modulus of elasticity of steel and is the gross uncracked moment of inertia of composite section. deflections should be checked.

only the source of vibration near or on the floor need be considered. the limit on free shrinkage for normal.2 Vibration Generally. lift or cranes should be isolated from the building.04%. Where is the percentage of steel is a coefficient due to the bending stress distribution in the section is a coefficient accounting for the decrease in the tensile strength of concrete is the effective tensile strength of concrete. The second moment of area of the section is based on the uncracked value.0325% and for lightweight concrete 0. is the maximum permissible stress in concrete is the minimum Generally the span/depth ratios specified by codes take care of the shrinkage deflection. This may be taken into account by calculating the second moment of area of the cracked section under negative moment (ignoring concrete). 15. The present discussion is mainly aimed at design of an office floor against vibration. a deflection coefficient of 3/384 is usually appropriate for determining the deflection of a continuous composite beam subject to uniform loading on equal adjacent spans. the deflection is modified by the influence of cracking in the hogging moment regions (at or near the supports). A value of 3 adopted.10.weight concrete is 0. For dry environments. As an approximation. To design a floor structure. To take account of this the negative moments may be further reduced. Other sources such.Continuous Beams: In the case of continuous beam. Eurocode 4 recommends that the effect of shrinkage should be considered when the span/depth ratio exceeds 20 and the free shrinkage strain exceeds 0.05%. In most buildings following two cases are considered- 151 6 . electrically heated floors and concrete mixes with high "free shrinkage". However. human response to vibration is taken as the yardstick to limit the amplitude and frequency of a vibrating floor. as machines. the amount of reinforcement should not exceed a minimum value given by. Crack Control: Cracking of concrete should be controlled in cases where the functioning of the structure or its appearance would be affected. In order to avoid the presence of large cracks in the hogging moment regions. In addition to this there is a possibility of yielding in the negative moment region. a check on shrinkage deflection should be done in case of thick slabs resting on small steel beams. This may be increased to 4/384 for end spans.

and for both ends fixed. 15. operating theatre and precision laboratories. For free elastic vibration of a beam or one way slab of uniform section the fundamental natural frequency is. Fig. 15.7. offices etc. Curves of higher response (R) values are also shown in the Fig.4 Hz and 2. for simple support. Curves of constant human response to vibration. 152 7 .i) ii) People walking across a floor with a pace frequency between 1. The recommended values of R for other situations are R = 4 for offices R = 8 for workshops These values correspond to continuous vibration and some relaxation is allowed in case the vibration is intermittent (see BS6472 for further information). = Flexural rigidity (per unit width for slabs) = span = vibrating mass per unit length (beam) or unit area (slab). and Fourier component factor The root mean square acceleration of the floor is plotted against its natural frequency for acceptable level R based on human response for different situations such as.7. hospitals. Natural frequency of beam and slab: The most important parameter associated with vibration is the natural frequency of floor.5Hz. An impulse such as the effect of the fall of a heavy object. Where. The human response R-l corresponds to a "minimal level of adverse comments from occupants" of sensitive locations such as hospital.

23 compare the result with the target response curve as in Fig.03 for open plan offices with composite floor To check the susceptibility of the floor to vibration after finding from Eqn. In absence of an accurate estimate of mass (m). 15. is the spacing of the beams. The natural frequency is given by Where is the Fourier component factor.7): = magnification factor at resonance =0.The effect of damping (being negligible) has been ignored. This is given in the form of a function of in Fig. 153 8 . it is taken as the mass of the characteristic permanent load plus 10% of characteristic variable load.7). The frequencies for slab and beam (each considered alone) and are given by Where. (15.15. Generally these effects are taken into account by increasing the value of by 10% for variable loading. Un-cracked concrete section and dynamic modulus of elasticity should be used for concrete.22 and the value of R from Eqn. It takes into account the differences between the frequency of the pedestrians' paces and the natural frequency of the floor. (15.

9 154 .2.1. 16. 16.1 General A steel-concrete composite column is a compression member. the so-called "squash load") is given by Where.16.1 Resistance of cross-section to compression Encased steel sections and concrete filled rectangular/square tubular sections: The plastic resistance of an encased steel section or concrete filled rectangular or square section (i. comprising either a concrete encased hot-rolled steel section or a concrete filled tubular section of hot-rolled steel. 16. and generally follows the guidelines prescribed in EC4. Fig.e. 16.2 Members under Axial Compression The design method described below is formulated for prismatic composite columns with doubly symmetrical cross-sections.2 shows three typical cross-sections of concrete filled tubular sections. Typical cross-sections of composite columns with fully and partially concrete encased steel sections are illustrated in Fig. Supplementary reinforcement in the concrete encasement prevents excessive spalling of concrete both under normal load and fire conditions.

are the areas of the steel section. is the characteristic compressive strength (cube) of the concrete is strength coefficient for concrete.0 for concrete filled tubular sections.dimensional slenderness of (where is defined in Eqn.3 Stress distribution of the plastic resistance to compression of an encased I section Concrete filled circular tubular sections: The ductility performance of this type of columns is significantly better than rectangular types. this effect is significant only in stocky columns. Fig. which is 1. the concrete and the reinforcing steel respectively are the yield strength of the steel section.85 for fully or partially concrete encased steel sections. the characteristic compressive strength (cylinder) of the concrete. However.16. (where d is the outer dimension of the circular tubular section) this effect has to be considered. For composite columns with a non. The plastic compression resistance of concrete filled circular tubular sections is calculated by using two coefficients and as given below. 16. Also. and 0. of the applied load does not exceed the value d/10. where t is the thickness of the circular tubular section. and and two coefficients given by 155 10 . and the yield strength of the reinforcing steel respectively.2.5.2J. or where the eccentricity. there is an increased resistance of concrete due to the confining effect of the circular tubular section. in section 16.

The buckling resistance of a column is expressed as a proportion of the plastic resistance to compression.4 Non-dimensionalised column buckling curve The European buckling curves have been drawn after incorporating the effects of both residual stresses and geometric imperfections.In general. Linear interpolation is permitted for various load eccentricities of The basic values and depend on the non-dimensional slenderness which can be read off from Table 16.2. as provided in EC 4 applicable for concrete grades 16.4. For using the European 11 156 .1: Basic value to allow for the effect of tri-axial confinement in concrete filled circular tubular sections.5 then Table 16.16. The horizontal axis is non-dimensionalised similarly by Fig. 16. the resistance of a concrete filled circular tubular section to compression may increase by 15% under axial load only when the effect of tri-axial confinement is considered. column strength curves are plotted in a non-dimensionalised form as shown in Fig.1. or if the non-dimensional slenderness exceeds the value 0.2 Non-dimensional slenderness For convenience. where is called the reduction factor. If the eccentricity e exceeds the value d/10. They form the basis of column buckling design for both steel and composite columns in EC 3 and EC4.

according to Eqn (16. and is the elastic buckling load of the column.2) are valid provided that local buckling in the steel sections does not occur. 16.2) with 1.1) and (16.3 Local buckling of steel sections Both Eqns.buckling curves. which exceed the local buckling limits for semicompact sections. the non-dimensional slenderness of the column is first evaluated as follows: Where plastic resistance of the cross-section to compression. no verification for local buckling is necessary as the concrete surrounding it effectively prevents local buckling.1) or Eqn. the width to thickness ratio of the steel sections in compression must satisfy the following limits: for concrete filled circular tubular sections for concrete filled rectangular tubular sections is the yield strength of the steel section in For fully encased steel sections. of the flange for it to be effective in preventing local buckling. should be verified by tests.2. (23.0. the concrete cover to the flange of a fully encased steel section should not be less than 40 mm. nor less than one-sixth of the breadth. 157 . Designs using sections. Local buckling may be critical in some concrete filled rectangular tubular sections with large h/t ratios. To prevent premature local buckling. However. (16.

Long term loading: For slender columns under long-term loading. Moreover. this effect is significant only for slender columns.8 is an empirical multiplier (determined by a calibration exercise to give good agreement with test results). is obtained by adding up the flexural stiffness of the individual components of the cross-section: Where are the second moments of area of the steel section.16.55 for the determination of the effective stiffness of concrete Note: Dividing the Modulus of Elasticity by is unusual and is included here to obtain the effective stiffness. Two design rules for the evaluation of the effective elastic flexural stiffness of composite columns are given below. Note is the moment of inertia about the centroid of the uncracked column section. the effect of long term loading should be considered if the buckling length to depth ratio of a composite column exceeds 15.4 Effective elastic flexural stiffness The value of the flexural stiffness may decrease with time due to creep and shrinkage of concrete. which conforms to test data. thereby reducing the buckling resistance. Short term loading: The effective elastic flexural stiffness. If the eccentricity of loading is more than twice the cross-section dimension. the factor 0. Consequently.2. the effect on the bending moment distribution caused by increased deflections due to creep and shrinkage of concrete will be very small. As a simple rule. no provision is also necessary if 158 . it may be neglected and no provision for long-term loading is necessary. is the secant modulus of the concrete is reduced to 7. However. the concrete(assumed uncracked) and the reinforcement about the axis of bending considered respectively are the moduli of elasticity of the steel section and the reinforcement is the effective stiffness of the concrete. the creep and shrinkage of concrete will cause a reduction in the effective elastic flexural stiffness of the composite column.

2 Table 16.75 for unbraced (and/or sway) columns. The elastic critical buckling load (Euler Load). the part of the applied design load The effect of long-term loading may be ignored for concrete filled tubular sections with provided that is greater than 0. which may be conservatively taken as system length L for an isolated non-sway composite column.the non-dimensional slenderness. which is defined as follows: Where P is the applied design load.2 and e/d is less than 2.2: Limiting values of for long term loading Note: is the steel contribution ratio defined as However. 16. of the composite column is less than the limiting values given in Table 16.2.5 Elastic buckling load Composite columns may fail in buckling. when exceeds the limits given by Table 16.8. and permanently acting on the column. is the effective length of the column. is defined as follows: Where ( E I ) e is the effective elastic flexural stiffness of the composite column.6 for braced (or non-sway) columns. 159 . 16. and 0. the effect of creep and shrinkage of concrete should be allowed for by employing the modulus of elasticity of the concrete instead of in Eqn.

16. the designer should check that Where is the plastic resistance to compression of the cross-section.2. They are selected according to the types of the steel sections and the axis of bending: Curve a Curve b for concrete filled tubular sections for fully or partially concrete encased I-sections buckling about the strong axis of the steel sections for fully and partially concrete encased I-sections buckling about the weak axis of the steel sections (y-y axis) Curve c These curves can also be described mathematically as follows: 1 .6 Resistance of members to axial compression For each of the principal axes of the column.2) and is the reduction factor due to column buckling The European buckling curves illustrated in Fig.1) or Eqn. from Eqn. 16. (16. (16.5 arc proposed to be used for composite columns.

Fig. Fig.3 The non-dimensional slenderness. (under relatively low axial compressive loads). A. Note that the second order moment due to imperfection. 16. 16.3. The method of locating neutral axis for rectangular and circular filled tubular sections is given in Appendix E. 16.7 shows an interaction curve drawn using simplified design method suggested in the UK National Application Document for This neglects the increase in moment capacity beyond discussed above. 2 .1 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending The resistance of the composite column to combined compression and bending is determined using an interaction curve. • Point A marks the plastic resistance of the cross-section to compression (at this point the blending point is is zero).3 gives the value of for each buckling curve.8 shows the stress distributions in the cross-section of a concrete filled rectangular tubular section at each point. less than where is the elastic Combined Compression and Uni-Axial Bending 16. if anyone of the following conditions is satisfied: (a) The axial force in the column is less than buckling load of the column (b) 16. Fig. b. Table 16. • Point B corresponds to the plastic moment resistance of the cross-section (the axial compression is zero).7.6 represents the non-dimensional interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending for a composite cross-section. B and C of the interaction curve given in Fig. has been incorporated in the method by using multiple buckling curves. no additional considerations are necessary.3: Imperfection factor a for the buckling curves The isolated non-sway composite columns need not be checked for buckling.The factor allows for different levels of imperfections and residual stresses in the columns corresponding to curves a. 16. Table 16. and c.

7 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending using the simplified method 3 .and concrete about their own centroids respectively and are plastic section moduli of the reinforcement.Where are plastic section moduli of the reinforcement. 16. steel section. • At point follows. the compressive and the moment resistances of the column are given as Fig. and concrete about neutral axis respectively. steel section.

16.8 Stress distributions for the points of the interaction curve for concrete filled rectangular tubular sections Fig.9 Variation in the neutral axis positions 4 . 16.Fig.

the 'first order' displacements may be significant and additional or 'second order' bending moments may be induced under the actions of applied loads.3. (2) Elastic slenderness conforms to: is the elastic critical load of the composite Where is the non-dimensional slenderness of the composite column In case the above two conditions are met. As a simple rule. the second order effects may be allowed for by modifying the maximum first order bending moment (moment obtained initially). does not need to be considered separately. as its effect on the buckling resistance of the composite column is already accounted for in the European buckling curves. For slender columns. is the elastic critical load of the composite 16. the second order effects should be considered if the buckling length to depth ratio of a composite column exceeds 15. is defined as follows: with a correction factor which Where is the applied design load and column.3 Resistance of members under combined compression and uni-axial bending The design checks are carried out in the following stages: (1) Check the resistance of the section under axial compression for both (2) Check the resistance of the composite column under combined axial compression and uni-axial bending The design is adequate when the following condition is satisfied: 5 .3.2 Analysis of bending moments due to second order effects The second order moment.16. or 'imperfection moment'. The second order effects on bending moments for isolated non-sway columns should be considered if both of the following conditions are satisfied: Where is the design applied load. and column.

if necessary is the moment resistance ratio obtained from the interaction curve and is the plastic moment resistance of the composite cross-section. 16.10) or may be In accordance with the UK NAD. is the design axial resistance 16. . ratio. Fig. which may be factored to allow for second order effects.4 Combined Compression and Bi-axial Bending The design checks are carried out in the following stages: (1) Check the resistance of the section under axial compression for both and 6 .10 Interaction curve for compression and uni-axial bending using the simplified method Moment resistance ratio evaluated can be obtained from the interaction curve (Figl6.Where is the design bending moment. the moment resistance ratio for a composite column under combined compression and uni-axial bending is evaluated as follows: is axial resistance ratio due to the concrete.

11 Fig.11 Moment interaction curve for bi-axial bending The moment resistance ratios and for both the axes are evaluated as given below: 7 . 16.(2) Check the resistance of the composite column under combined axial compressionand bi-axial bending The three conditions to be satisfied are: The interaction of the moments must also be checked using moment interaction curve as shown in Fig. 16.

When the effect of geometric imperfections is not considered the moment resistance ratio is evaluated as given below: 8 .Where and are the reduction factors for buckling in the and directions respectively.

Limit States are states beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance requirements and fulfils the purpose for which it is built. partitions.The numerical factor by which the working load is to be multiplied to obtain an appropriate design ultimate load.A cross section capable of developing full plastic distribution across it. Effective Lateral Restraint .The factor by which the yield stress of the material of a member is divided to arrive at the permissible stress in the material.The self weights of all permanent constructions and installations including the self weights of all walls. Characteristic load is that value of the load. which has an accepted probability of not being exceeded during the life span of the structure. Limit States. floors and roofs. which produces sufficient resistance in a plane perpendicular to the plane of bending to restrain the compression flange of a loaded strut. Imposed (Live) Load . Dead Loads . impact and vibration and snow loads but excluding.The elastic moment which will initiate yielding or cause buckling. Factor of Safety . (For example the characteristic yield stress of steel is usually defined as that value of yield stress below.APPENDIX A: Terminology Buckling Load . Characteristic resistance of a material (such as Concrete or Steel) is defined as that value of resistance below which not more than a prescribed percentage of test results may be expected to fall. 9 . expected to fall).The load assumed to be produced by the intended use of occupancy including distributed. without local buckling in any of the component members but not capable of developing ductility. concentrated. Load Factor . Characteristic load is therefore that load which will not be exceeded 95% of the time. Gauge .Restraint. beam or girder from buckling to either side at the point of application of the restraint. wind and earthquake loads. In other words. which not more than 5% of the test values may be. Compact Section .The transverse spacing between parallel adjacent lines of fasteners.The load at which a member or a structure as whole collapses in service or buckles in a load test. this strength is expected to be exceeded by 95% of the cases. Elastic Critical Moment .

The centre-to-centre distance between individual fasteners in a line of fastener. Welding Terms . 10 . Serviceability Limit States .Ultimate Limit States are those associated with collapse or other forms of structural failure. Yield Stress . Plastic Section . with a triangular stress distribution in a beam) but not capable of developing redistribution of stresses. which adversely affect the appearance or its proper functioning and include vibration that causes discomfort to people or damage to the building Slender Section .A cross section capable of developing full plasticity across it and exhibit considerable ductility. without buckling of any of the component elements (e.Serviceability Limit States correspond to states beyond which the criteria for service are no longer met and include deformations and deflections.Unless otherwise defined in this standard the welding terms used shall have the meaning given in IS: 812-1957. Semi-Compact Section .Main Member .The minimum yield stress of the material in tension as specified in relevant Indian Standards.Secondary member is that which is provided for stability and or restraining the main members from buckling or similar modes of failure. local buckling of one of the components will occur before the attainment of yield stress in extreme fibre.A structural member that is primarily responsible for carrying and distributing the applied load. which may endanger the safety of people.A cross section capable of developing yield stress at the extreme fibres.g. Pitch .In a slender section. Ultimate Limit States . failure by excessive deformation. will fail by formation of plastic hinges) Secondary Member . rupture etc. This includes the loss of equilibrium of the structure (or any part of it). (Plastic cross-sections when used as beams.

Gauge Outstand of the stiffener Moment of inertia Flexural stiffness Coefficients Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet of member to be stiffened Span/length of the member Effective length of the member Bending moment Maximum moment (plastic) capacity of a section Maximum moment (plastic) capacity of a section subjected to bending and axial loads.APPENDIX B: Symbols Cross-sectional area ( used with subscripts has been defined at appropriate place) Respectively the greater and lesser projection of the plate beyond column Length of side of cap or base Width of steel flange in encased member Coefficient The distance centre to centre of battens Distance between vertical stiffeners Respectively the lesser and greater distances from the sections neutral axis to the extreme fibres Overall depth of beam Depth of girder .the clear distance between the horizontal stiffener and the tension flange. ii) For the web of a beam with horizontal stiffeners . Twice the clear distance from the neutral axis of a beam to the compression flange. Lateral buckling strength in the absence of axial load Number of parallel planes of battens 11 . also known as Euler critical stress.to be taken as the clear distance between the flange angles or where there are no flange angles the clear distance between flanges ignoring fillets Diameter of the reduced end of the column i) For the web of a beam without horizontal stiffeners . neglecting fillets or the clear distance between the inner toes of the flange angles as appropriate. taken as Mpa in this Guide.the clear distance between the flanges. Yield stress Elastic critical stress in bending Elastic critical stress in compression. The modulus of elasticity for steel. neglecting fillets or the inner toes of the flange angles as appropriate. neglecting fillets or the inner toes of the tension flange angles as appropriate.

ratio of the effective length to the appropriate radius of gyration Characteristic slenderness ratio = Maximum permissible compressive stress in an axially loaded strut not subjected to bending Maximum permissible tensile stress in an axially loaded tension member not subjected to bending Maximum permissible compressive stress in slab base Maximum permissible compressive stress due to bending in a member not subjected to axial force.Coefficient in the Merchant Rankine formula. Maximum permissible tensile stress due to bending in a member not subjected to axial force Maximum permissible stress in concrete in compression Maximum permissible equivalent stress Maximum permissible bearing stress in a member Maximum permissible bearing stress in a fastener Maximum permissible stress in steel in compression Maximum permissible stress in axial tension in fastener Calculated average axial compressive stress Calculated average stress in a member due to an axial tensile force Calculated compressive stress in a member due to bending about a principal axis 12 .4 Axial force. compressive or tensile Calculated maximum load capacity of a strut Calculated maximum load capacity as a tension member Euler load Yield strength of axially loaded section The reaction of the beam at the support Radius of gyration of the section Transverse distance between centroids of rivets groups or welding Staggered pitch Mean thickness of compression flange used with subscripts has been defined at appropriate place) Thickness of web Transverse shear Longitudinal shear Calculated maximum shear capacity of a section Total load Pressure or loading on the underside of the base Plastic modulus of the section Ratio of smaller to larger moment Stiffness ratio Slenderness ratio of the member. assumed as 1.

The subscript x. For symmetrical sections.Calculated compressive stress in a member due to bending about a principal axis Calculated tensile stress in a member due to bending about both principal axes Maximum permissible average shear stress in a member Maximum permissible shear stress in a member Maximum permissible shear stress in fastener Ratio of the rotation at the hinge point to the relative elastic rotation of the far end of the beam segment containing plastic hinge angle of twist (in a beam subjected to torsion) Coefficient Ratio of total area of both the flanges at the point of least bending moment to the corresponding area at the point of greatest bending moment Ratio of moment of inertia of the compression flange alone to that of the sum of the moments of inertia of the flanges each calculated about its own axis parallel to the y-y axis of the girder. NOTE . at the point of maximum bending moment. y denote the x-x and y-y axes of the section respectively. x-x denotes the major principal axis whilst y-y denotes the minor principal axis. 13 .

screws. nuts and lock nuts (diameter range 6 to 39 mm) (first revision) 1367-1967 Technical supply conditions for threaded fasteners (first revision) 1393-1961 Code of practice for training and testing of oxy-acetylene welders 1395-1982 Molybdenum and chromium molybdenum vanadium low alloy steel electrodes for metal arc welding (third revision) 1477 Code of practice for painting of ferrous metals in buildings: (Part 1) .1991 Part 1 for welding products other than sheets (Part 2) .1995 Part 1 Pre-treatment 173 . nuts and lock nuts (diameter 6 to 39mm) and black hexagon screws (diameter 6 to 24 mm) (first revision) 1364-1967 Precision and semi-precision hexagon bolts.1991 Part 2 for welding sheets 816-1969 Code of practice for use of metal arc welding for general construction in mild steel (first revision) 817-1966 Code of practice for training and testing of metal arc welders (revised) 819-1957 Code of practice for resistance spot welding for light assemblies in mild steel 875-1987 Code of practice for structural safety of buildings: Loading standards 919-1963 Recommendations for limits and fits for engineering (revised) 961-1975 Structural steel (high tensile) (Second revision) 962-1967 Code of practice for architectural and building drawings (first revision) 1024-1992 Code of practice for use of welding in bridges and structures subject to dynamic loading 1030-1982 Carbon steel castings for general engineering purposes (second revision) 1148-1973 Hot-rolled steel rivet bars (up to 40mm diameter) for structural purposes (second revision) 1149-1982 High tensile steel rivet bars for structural purposes 1261-1959 Code of practice for seam welding in mild steel 1278-1972 Filler rods and wires for gas welding (second revision) 1323-1962 Code of practice for oxy-acetylene welding for structural work in mild steel (revised) 1363-1967 Black hexagon bolts.APPENDIX C: Relevant Indian Standards IS: 226-1975 Structural steel (standard quality) (fifth revision) 456-2000 Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete (third revision) 696-1972 Code of practice for general engineering drawings (second revision) 786-1967 (Supplement) SI supplement to Indian Standard conversion factors and conversion tables (first revision) 800-1984 Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel 801-1975 Code of Practice for the use of cold-formed light gauge steel structural members in general building construction 812-1957 Glossary of terms relating to welding and cutting of metals 813-1961 Scheme of symbols for welding 814 Covered electrodes for metal arc welding of structural steels: (Part 1) .

1995 Part 2 Painting 1893-1991 Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures (third revision) 1929-1961 Rivets for general purposes (12 to 48 mm diameter) 1977-1975 Structural steel (ordinary quality) (second revision) 2062-1992 Weldable structural steel (third revision) 2155-1982 Rivets for general purposes (below 12 mm diameter) 3613-1974 Acceptance tests for wire-flux combinations for submerged-arc welding of structural steels (first revision) 3640-1967 Hexagon fit bolts 3757-1972 High-tensile friction grip bolts (first revision) 4000-1967 Code of practice for assembly of structural joints using high tensile friction grip fasteners 5369-1975 General requirements for plain washers and lock washers (first revision) 5370-1969 Plain washers with outside diameter 3 times inside diameter 5372-1975 Taper washers for channels (ISMC) (first revision) 5374-1975 Taper washers for I-beams (ISMB) (first revision) 6419-1971 Welding rods and bare electrodes for gas shielded arc welding of structural steel 6560-1972 Molybdenum and chromium-molybdenum low alloy steel welding rods and base electrodes for gas shielded arc welding 6610-1972 Heavy washers for steel structures 6623-1972 High tensile friction grip nuts 6639-1972 Hexagon bolts for steel structures 6649-1972 High tensile friction grip washers. 7205-1973 Safety code for erection of structural steel work 7215-1974 Tolerances for fabrication of steel structures 7280-1974 Bare wire electrodes for submerged arc welding of structural steels 7307 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welding procedures: Part I Fusion welding of steel 7310 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welders working to approved welding procedures: Part 1 Fusion welding of steel 7318 (Part 1) -1974 Approval tests for welders when welding procedure is not required: Part 1 Fusion welding of steel 8500-1977 Weldable structural steel (medium and high strength qualities) 9595-1980 Recommendations for metal arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese steels.Application of Plastic theory in the Design of Steel Structures 174 .1972 Handbook for Structural Engineers . SP6 .(Part 2) .

the warping resistance can be interpreted in a simple way. The angle of twist. the member itself will be in non-uniform torsion. For an section. 2. The applied torque is replaced by a couple of horizontal forces acting in the plane of the top and bottom flanges as shown in Fig. The rotation of the section will be accompanied by bending of flanges in their own plane. 3. a simple approach often adopted by structural designers for rapid design of steel structures is known as the bi-moment method and is sufficiently accurate for practical purposes. Each of these flanges can be visualised as a separate beam subjected to bending moments produced by the forces This leads to bending stresses in the flanges. These are termed Warping Normal Stresses. When a uniform torque is applied to an open section restrained against warping. The applied torque is resisted by a couple comprising the two forces equal to the shear forces in each flange. varies along the member length.APPENDIX D: An Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis 1. The direct and shear stresses caused are shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. The magnitude of the warping normal stress at any particular point given by in the cross section is Where = normalized warping function at a particular point in the cross section 16 . therefore. These forces act at a distance equal to the depth between the centroids of each flange.0 Approximate Method of Torsion Analysis An Due to the complexity of the Torsion analysis.

.

176 .

1. The stiffness of the member associated with the former stresses is directly proportional to the warping rigidity. In other words.g. rectangular or square hollow sections) angles and Tees behave this way. as do most flat plates and all circular sections. then the section will effectively be in "uniform torsion".2 End Conditions The end support conditions of the member influence the torsional behaviour significantly. This is also called "fixed" end condition. Most thin walled open sections fall under this category. When the torsional rigidity is very large compared to the warping rigidity. Closed sections (e. Conversely if is very small compared with the member will effectively be subjected to warping torsion.1 The effect of Torsional Rigidity (GJ) and Warping Rigidity (ET) on the Design of Sections The warping deflections due to the displacement of the flanges vary along the length of the member. 177 . Both direct and shear stresses are generated in addition to those due to bending and pure torsion. 1. Their magnitude varies along the length of the element. the members will be in a state of non-uniform torsion and the loading will be resisted by a combination of uniform (St. The following end conditions are. =0 at the end). Warping fixity cannot be provided without also ensuring torsional fixity. The in-plane shear stresses are called Warping shear stresses. Hot rolled sections as well as channel sections exhibit a torsional behaviour in between these two extremes.Venant's) and warping torsion. three ideal situations are described below. The magnitude of the warping shear stress at any given point is given by where = Warping statical moment of area at a particular point Values of warping normal stress and in-plane shear stress are tabulated in standard steel tables produced by steel makers. Warping fixed: This means that the twisting along the longitudinal (Z) axis and also the warping of cross section at the end of the member are prevented. (It must be noted that torsional fixity is essential at least in one location to prevent the structural element twisting bodily). They are constant across the thickness of the element. therefore.An approximate method of calculating the normalised warping function for any section is described in by Nethercot etal. relevant for torsion calculations • Torsion fixed.

inducing additional warping moments and torsional 178 . It is also necessary to restrain the flanges by additional suitable reinforcements.• Torsion fixed. then the member would develop only pure torsion. which provides fixity for bending about both axes. The total angle of twist over a length of is given by Where = applied torque = Torsional Rigidity When a member is in non-uniform torsion. The warping shear stress at a point is given by Where = Modulus of elasticity = Warping statical moment at a particular point S chosen. Effective warping fixity is difficult to provide. The unsupported end of cantilever illustrates this condition. The angle of twist caused by torsion would be amplified by bending moment. Warping free: This means that the cross section at the end of the member cannot twist. It is not enough to provide a connection. but is allowed to warp. due to bending moment in-plane of flanges (bi-moment) is The warping normal stress given by where 3. the rate of change of angle of twist will vary along the length of the member. It may be more practical to assume "warping free" condition even when the structural element is treated as "fixed" for bending.0 = Normalised warping function at the chosen point S. 2. Warping free: This means that the end is free to twist and warp. This is also called "pinned" end condition. • Torsion free.0 Pure Torsion and Warping When a torque is applied only at the ends of a member such that the ends are free to warp. (This is also called "free" end condition). Combined Bending and Torsion There will be an interaction between the torsional and flexural effects. when a load produces both bending and torsion.

The following design checks are suggested in the SCI publication "Design of members subject to combined Bending and Torsion' by Nethercot. 3. Salter and Malik. The SCI publication has suggested a simple "buckling check" along lines similar to BS 5950. when is less than the values of and will be amplified.shears. part 1 179 .1 Maximum Stress Check or "Capacity check" The maximum stress at the most highly stressed cross section is limited to the design strength Assuming elastic behaviour and assuming that the loads produce bending about the major axis in addition to torsion. This is analogous to the checks for buckling effects in columns due to effects.e.2 Buckling Check Whenever lateral torsional buckling governs the design (i. the longitudinal direct stresses will be due to three causes. is dependent on twist which itself is dependent on the major axis moment and the Methods of evaluating for various conditions of loading and boundary conditions are given in the SCI publication referred above. 3.

4 Torsional Shear Stress check Torsional shear stresses and warping shear stresses should also be amplified in a similar manner: This shear stress should be added to the shear stresses due to bending in checking the adequacy of the section. 180 .3. the "capacity checks" and the "buckling checks" are modified as follows: Capacity check: 3.3 Applied Loading having both Major axis and Minor Axis Moments When the applied loading produces both major axis and minor axis moments.

APPENDIX E: Location of Neutral Axis (1) For concrete encased steel sections: Major axis bendins 181 .

Note: is the sum of the reinforcement area within the region of (2) For concrete filled tubular sections Major axis bending Note: • For circular tubular section substitute can be used by For minor axis bending the same equations interchanging and as well as the subscripts and 182 .

for hardcopy and CD ROM version separately. Following are a brief glimpse on some of the activities of INSDAG: A. INSDAG has undertaken some important projects and already published some valuable documents. which has a listing of about 220 steel companies/traders/importers etc. designers. The manual contains details of products. grades of steel and marketing procedure including lead time.INSDAG'S ACTIVITIES AND PUBLICATIONS During the past three and half years. In 8 . the Manual also contains brief extract from important codes. INSDAG has prepared and published up-to-date "Reference Manual for Structural Engineers". builders. Publication No INS/PUB/003 Price Rs 450/- 4. fabricators. In addition to sectional properties. steel producers. Their popularity is largely due to the speed with which bridges / flyovers can be constructed in busy metros. Handbook on Composite Construction: Bridges and Flyover Steel-concrete Composite Construction is widely used in the advanced countries. details of producers etc. Publications Avalable For Sale 1. 3. importers etc. consultants. The 'Buyer's Manual' brought out by the Institute is a very useful document. The directory fulfills long-standing need of professionals in the country. Publication No INS/PUB/ 002 Price Rs 350/. Some of the projects are currently on going and the publications will be available in appropriate times.for a complete set of hardcopy and CD ROM together. It contains contact details of more than 5000 architects. re-rollers. The manual is also available in the form of user-friendly CD version. Directory of Steel Supply Chain The Institute compiled and printed 'Directory of Steel Supply Chain' for improving interaction among professionals engaged directly or indirectly in the business of steel. Publication No INS/PUB/001 Price Rs 685/- 2. minimum order quantity etc. Buyer's Manual (including CD ROM) The professionals in the steel supply chain have also been in need of a source book for obtaining ready reference for their steel product needs. and Rs 550/. Reference Manual for Structural Engineers Since the existing BIS Structural Engineers Handbook (last revised in 1964) does not contain information about sectional properties of all the presently available sections from the producers and import as required by designers.

Publication No INS/PUB/017 Price Rs 600/- . It has been observed that though the initial cost of the concrete intensive option was 10 percent lower than the steel intensive option. construction. In the advanced countries. Base paper Price Rs 200/- 8. printed and widely circulated. life cycle cost (LCC) is generally favourable. This handbook is user friendly and contains 4 sample calculations for 16 metre and 24 metre spans along with properties of Composite Sections to help in designing similar problems quickly and accurately. erection and cost apart from being aesthetically elegant. Life Cycle Cost Study on Bangalore Mass Rapid Transit System INSDAG has carried out a techno-economic study on life cycle cost assessment of elevated viaducts for the proposed Bangalore Mass Rapid Transit System Limited with the steel intensive construction route.order to provide guidance to the professionals to use this technology for design of bridges and flyovers. an interesting life cycle cost assessment study has been made fore a typical urban flyover for two city locations. In order to provide the engineers proper technical write-up about occurrence of corrosion and ways to overcome it as being done in the developed countries. Case Studies on Pre-Engineered Buildings and Space Frame Pre-engineered buildings and space frames are widely employed in the advanced countries in view of their multifarious benefits such as: significant saving in time of designing. Publication No INS/PUB/ 016 Price Rs 285/- 7. Ltd. Keeping this in view. With a view to popularize their use in India. LCC is often used an important tool for decision.making. Life Cycle Cost Assessment of a Typical Urban Flyover Though presently steel intensive construction is not able to compete with concrete construction on the initial cost basis. The study was made in April 2000. The work has been done in association with two leading consultants: M/s STUP Consultants Ltd and M/s CES (I) Pvt. one handbook. Further detailed analysis has also been made. based on Indian codes. nine case studies of such constructions recently executed in the country have been prepared and published. the life cycle cost of the steel option is economical to the owner by 49 percent as well as the BOOT partner by 28 percent. Publication No INS/PUB/ 005 Price Rs 85/- 6. has been prepared. Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel in Buildings and Bridges Corrosion has been told to be the major problem for application of steel in construction sector. Publication No INS/PUB/ 004 Price Rs 525/- 5. a comprehensive corrosion protection guide publication has been published.

Inspection and acceptance criteria. Publication No INS/PUB/ 019 on Car Park Price Rs 625/- 11. Publication No INS/PUB/ 018 Price Rs 250/- 10. Stairs and Hand Railings etc. and other useful information. It is spread over 12 chapters and 6 Appendices namely: Joining. Publication No. The guide is broadly divided into seven chapters namely: Structural steel and welding. Handbook on Composite Construction: Multi-Storey Buildings INSDAG brought out this publication to promote steel-concrete composite construction in Multi-Storey Building.9. Handbooks on Composite Construction : Multilevel Carparks With the same objective of Composite Construction: Bridge and Flyover handbook. Welding Guide for Structural Steel Various steel products—sections in the form of joists. a Handbook on Steel Detailing is have been prepared. Welding defects. Publication No: INS/PUB/020 Price Rs 350/- 12. Trusses. Welding process and joints. and Ladders. Though different steel companies and welding suppliers have published some information on welding aspects of their specific products using proprietary consumables. Beam to Beam Connection. Electrodes and Equipment. Weld economics and cost calculations. The outcome of this study indicates that initial direct cost of 5 level & 7 level steel intensive Carpark is lower than that of RCC option. SHS/RHS and plates of different thicknesses are now available in the domestic market. It has been observed that bridges with steel superstructure constructed even more than 100 years ago are still functioning well. and relevant data for another about 50 bridges have been collected. channels. about 50 rail bridges were visited for data collection.: INS/PUB/021 Price Rs 825/- 13. Survey of Important Rail Bridges It had been planned to conduct survey of about 100 important rail bridges to ascertain the performance of steel bridges vis-a-vis RCC and pre-stressed concrete bridges. columns & composite 10 . Handbook on Structural Steel Detailing To simplify the fabrication process by bringing about uniformity in detailing as also to reduce the risk of corrosion and to provide technical aid to small fabricators and designers. controls and care. this welding guide will provide consolidated information covering structural steel grades. Splices. design guidebooks are also being prepared on Car Parks (Part 2) and Buildings (Part 3) under the steel intensive composite construction route. which could serve a useful reference for the Supervisors/Practicing Engineers engaged in steelwork. RDSO and railway officials in different zones. angles. With the help and support from ED (B&S). The book is comprised of about 230 pages including 180 figures and 37 tables. Write-up on design aspects of composite beams.

though its cost effectiveness is often questioned. Keeping this in view. Use of steel-concrete composite truss is ideally suited for applications in community halls. In order to assess the most cost effective pavement solution for National Highways & Expressways INSDAG carried out a study on CRCP and published a document entitled "Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Techno-Economic Study for the Use of Reinforced Cement Concrete Roads in National Highways and Expressways". Some beginning has been made in our country also. analysis and connection details followed in advanced countries. The outcome of the study reveals that the LCC cost of CRCP is much lower than flexible pavement. use of steel truss as the structural member of composite section is most desired. 475/- . a study on the construction cost. industrial buildings.: INS/PUB/023 Price Rs 600/Price Rs 625/- 15. Design of Composit Truss for Building Rolled/fabricated beams are commonly being used as the structural members of medium span structures. shows that LCC cost of CRCP is lower than jointed plain concrete pavement (JPCP). On life cycle cost basis rigid pavements are very cost effective due much lower vehicle operating cost & maintenance cost. where large column free spans are a necessity. It also contains a detailed example covering all important aspects of design by limit state method. based on the applicable Indian. office buildings.: INS/PUB/022 14. The sustainability of construction is also another important modern concept for buildings. 325/Price Rs. conference halls etc. Life Cycle Cost Analysis and Techno-Economic Study for the Use of Reinforced Cement Concrete Roads in National Highways and Expressways Rigid pavement is widely used in the developed countries. An analysis. This design handbook also covers the complete detail design of a typical G+3 & B+G+9 storeyed Residential & Commercial Buildings. total initial cost and life cycle cost assessment of two typical urban commercial buildings has been done in association with leading consultants like M N Dastur & Co Private Ltd. The publication mainly covers framing. Publication No INS/PUB/ 035 Price: Rs. and Development Consultants Private Ltd.: INS/PUB/034 16. Publication No. Accordingly CRCP is the best long-term pavement solution both on cost as well as maintenance point of view for National highways & expressways. Economics of Two Steel Framed Commercial Buildings: Under Initial Cost and Life Cycle Cost Assessment Route Steel intensive construction for buildings is gradually becoming a subject of interest in India.Moreover for longer spans.slabs using profiled deck. Publication No. AASHTO and British Standards as well as based on the published literature. Publication No.

Architects to selects an econoimic and safe Technical option for their projects. The habitation conditions of the Indian villagers particularly need to be improved. sourcing and application of these products. The design of the Structural elements has been carried out in Limit State Method of Design following Indian/foreign standards both for RCC & Composite options.17. hotels. With the developments taken place in advanced countries. Steel windows. Standards for Manufacturing.. designers.. Publication No. offices. which has indicated substantial savings over its RCC option.: INS/PUB/047 Price Rs 650/- 19. This publication covers a study on the cost effectiveness of the fast-track Steel -Concrete Composite construction in comparison with the RCC option based on the same type plan of a (B+G+20) storied residential building which has been collected from a live example. specifiers / procurement officers. builders and suppliers. The beneficiaries of this publication are buyers.(B+G+20) Storied Residential Building with Steel-Concrete Composite Option In India residential buildings are coming up in numbers with a height of 20 storied and above to accommodate the influx of population to Metros which are facing severe space constraint. This publication provides general and technical information concerning steel doors & windows. (G+3) & (G+6) Storied Residential Buildings with Steel -Concrete Composite Option In the publication the modern trend of Steel-Concrete Composite construction has been considered. manufacturers. Publication No INS/PUB/ 036 Price: Rs. Users of windows. Guidebook on Steel Doors and Windows for Domestic Use Traditionally wooden doors and windows have been used in places like homes. The Composite options have been considered with conventional brick cladding and with lighter cladding material like M2 Panel/Aerocon Blocks/Gypcrete etc. Typical Design of Cost-effective Rural Housing Housing is considered as one of the major problems in the world. manufacturing process. distributors/ retailers. The design of the structural elements have been carried out following relevant Indian/foreign standards in Limit State Method of Design both for RCC and Composite construction. Corrosion Protection & Maintenance. steel doors and windows are now being preferred for various applications. Steel Doors. It also includes a study of the cost effectiveness of the steel-Concrete Composite options vis-a-vis RCC option based on the type plan of (G+3) & (G+6) storied residential buildings collected from a live example. This guidebook is broadly divided into seven chapters namely: Introduction. doors and related accessories will find it very useful in terms of design. 300/- 18. Cost Index & Practices and Bibliography. flats. which has indicated substantial savings over its RCC option. this book helps the builders. The Composite options have been considered with conventional brick cladding and with lighter cladding material like M2 Panel/Aerocon Blocks/Gypcrete etc. beams & trusses with SHS sections and Ferro-Cement 12 . policy-workers and government officials. architects. designers. factories and hospitals. This publication includes a Housing scheme with Steel in frame having colums.: INS/PUB/048 Price Rs 650/- 20. Publication No.

which makes habitation comfortable for the villagers.one of the major stakeholders. ft. All the 45 chapters are available in the INSDAG website www. Mr A. 4. Orissa. 640 sq. Satish Kumar. Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Steel is globally used for earthquake resistant structures. DrS. INSDAG had prepared a steel intensive design for a raised two-storey school building (15 m X 15 m X 8 m) with required wind loading to be used as a cyclone/flood relief center in Paradeep. Price Rs 3007- . ft. 3. BE College(DU)-Howrah. R. the Institute has also developed detail-engineering drawings for the single-storeyed building and the G+3 building (640 sqft appartments) and submitted to the concerned authorities in Gujarat. 435 sq. Delhi College of Engineering-Delhi. The project on Teaching Resource for Structrual Steel Design for the Faculty of Civil/Structural Engineering has been pursued by the Expert Team (Dr V Kalyanraman. Design of a Typical cyclone / Flood relief Center at Paradip At the instance of JPC .ft. Teaching Resource for Structural Steel Design for Faculty of Civil/Structural Engg. Six Workshops for the university faculty have been organized at six different places namely IIT-Chennai. Projects Under Progress 1. Publication No.steel-insdag. in G+1 and G+3 modules) with the help of a leading consultant and submitted to concerned authorities in Gujarat. Road Island Project INSDAG has prepared a design of an exquisite inverted pyramid (top: 16 m X 16 m.R. Jayachandran and others) under the leadership of Dr. Dr A R Santhakumar. and it is designed to take care of the effects of Earthquake & Wind. These drawings are available for sale. the Institute had prepared general arrangement drawings of 7 variants (260 sq. The housing scheme has been developed with doubled-layered Ferro-Cement cladding having an air-gap in between and with sufficient openings for ventilation. In view of the need for speedy rehabilitation and reconstruction of earthquake affected areas in Gujarat and based on interaction made with various agencies. Malviya National Institute of Technology-Jaipur and IIT-Roorkee with total involvement of the expert team to train approximately 220 teachers from 173 engineering colleges using the state-of-art teaching material.: INS/PUB/049 B.org. and 840 sq. IIT-Mumbai.panels used for roofing and cladding. UK.ft. Narayanan. expert from Steel Construction Institute. height: 8 m) of tubular structure displaying steel application in a typical road island.. for rural areas. Seetharaman. Elevated units also take care of water clogging during monsoon. 2. Later on. DrS. Preparation of all the 45 chapters for one semester course had been completed after expert reviews.

These consist of two at Calcutta. The technical volumes are available for sale.with CD). The final selection will be done in June 2003. one each at Delhi. Insdag's Steel in Construction . Bhubaneswar. The last date of recipt of entries is 30th January 2003 The entries will be evaluated by Zonal Committees in the month of April 2003. Ahmedabad. architects. Hyderabad. Considering the importance of ductile design of steel structures. builders at various conferences and other forums: • • • • • Pre-engineered Buildings Steel —The Right Choice for Building Construction Steel — The Trusted Material for Bridges and Flyovers Corrosion Protection of Structural Steel in Buildings and Bridges Steel Car Parks . About 250 professionals and 50 faculties have been exposed to composite construction technology. Price Rs 800/. an exciting brief entitled "World Class Shopping Plaza" had been prepared and circulated to more than 100 Schools of Architecture / Engineering Colleges.only. 14 .(for each course) C. Regular Publications of Insdag 1. 5. 3.A Worldwide Choice D. Twelve refresher courses had been conducted till December 2002.Technical volumes are available for sale. Ranchi and IITGuwahati.Monthly Price Rs 90/Price Rs 20/Free E.03) for the "Student Award Scheme for the Innovative Use of Steel in Architecture". consultants.for full set (Rs 3000/. 2. Price Rs 2500/. Student Award Scheme for Best Innovative Use of Steel inArchitecture In the fourth year (2002 .a half yearly technical journal INSDAG News . concept of earthquake resistant design had also been included in the lecture material of some refresher courses.a quarterly news bulletin Insdag E-News Letter . Only CD ROM is available at Rs 800/. Other Activities 1. two at Chennai. Steel Promotional Brochures The Institute has published five attractive promotional/ awareness brochures for free distribution to target customers such as designers. Refresher Courses on Composite Construction Improving knowledge and skill of professionals in design using composite construction has been identified as an important area of activity.

steel bridges respectively. Copyright Publications From SCI. The entries will be evaluated by Zonal Committees in the month of April-May 2003. IRC 24 and some IS codes. It has been estimated that amended clause on deflection stipulation itself will reduce the weight of bridge girder to the tune of 13 percent. INSDAG has been involved in IRC B-7 Committee engaged in revision of IRC 22.2003) for the "Award Scheme for Civil and Structural Engineering Students for Best Innovative Structural Steel Design". UK on steel intensive design of structures. 24 pertaining to construction of composite. INSDAG has been included in a sub-committee entrusted to preparation of "Guidelines for design of Composite / Steel Box Girder bridges" considered to be cost effective for relatively higher spans where composite bridges using steel plate girders are not economical compared to other competitive options. Review of Relevant Documents for Modification of IRC 22. UK In addition to the above. modular ratio and shear connector capacity in the present design environment (working stress method).2. A list of such publications is provided below: . pertaining to construction in steel as well as steel-concrete composite. Award Scheme for Civil and Structural Engineering Students for Best Innovative Structural Steel Design In the third year (2002 . modifications have been suggested to clauses pertaining of deflection stipulation. Advances on knowledge of structural behaviour resulting from research need to be adopted in design practice for innovative / efficient design techniques. Interfacing with the MOS The Institute has prepared technical documents/Vision Paper for consideration/perusal by concerned authorities: o Use of steel crash barriers on bridges and highways o Input paper on National Steel Policy with particular focus on construction sector safety requirement o Justification for adoption of steel scaffolding in place of bamboo/wood based on life cycle costing and 4. The last date of receipt of entries is 31 st March 2003. INSDAG has published 20 important documents under copyright from the steel Construction Institute. and a Committee on IS 800 engaged in modifying the Code of Practice for use of structural steel in general building construction to limit state method. an exciting brief on the theme of "Elevated Light Rail Transit System" has been prepared and circulated to more than 240 Engineering Institutions. To make the design of steel bridges as well as steel-concrete composite bridges economical and rational based on the state-of-the-art methodologies. The final selection will be done in July 2003. This necessitated modification of Codes of Practices (BIS/IRC Codes which have not kept pace with the technological improvements in latest design methodologies). F. 3. Also.

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