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Abdul Hasib

Lecturer, Institute of Information and Communication Technology


ABSTRACT will be a burden to us. This paper will try to give a

guideline on which “last mile” broadband access network
The Consumption of IT in Bangladesh is rapidly infrastructure, government or private investor should
increasing both in public and private sectors. But our emphasis on and invest to attain the insatiable bandwidth
communication network infrastructure is not yet ready to demand of potential users. Here, an urgent solution for
serve the customer requirement to every corner of the backbone network, in absence of fiber-optic network
country. We believe the rapidly deployable, scalable, backbone, is also discussed. These technologies will
distance-insensitive nature, and emerging low costs enable high speed Internet, open new ways of doing
associated with wireless solutions make broadband business like Telemedicine, Distance Learning, Electronic
wireless a highly viable technology in a developing Service Delivery and Information Sharing. In first step,
country like Bangladesh. High frequency point-to-point targeted group of users are core public service
wireless solutions can serve as urgent backhaul network organizations, educational institutes and health care
and point-to-multipoint solution can be “last mile” organization across the country. The possible outcomes
broadband access network. These technologies will enable are lower telecommunications costs, minimize the digital
high speed Internet, open new ways of doing business like divide between rural and urban communities and improve
Telemedicine, Distance Learning, Electronic Service government service delivery to small and rural
Delivery and Information Sharing. In first step, targeted communities.
group of users are core public service organizations,
educational institutes and health care organization across
the country. We hope that rapid investment on broadband 2. INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES
wireless infrastructure will connect every town, even rural
area, of Bangladesh with high-speed communication link Bangladesh has a very few communication network
and minimize the digital divide between rural and urban infrastructure. To meet the near future demand of an IT
communities. society, we need to invest on broadband technologies.
Broadband is characterized by high speed, always-on
connection and two-way capability and can support
applications in e-commerce, education, health care,
1. INTRODUCTION entertainment and e-government. Bangladesh has limited
broadband setup mainly in big cities and at IT
The Consumption of IT in Bangladesh is rapidly organization level. Most of the Internet user use Dial-up
increasing both in public and private sectors. The connection with wire line modem of 56 kbps.
Government's policy on ICT is also very positive. For an optimal investment on network infrastructure,
Bangladesh’s National ICT Policy aims to harness and considered technology should have following
utilize the immense potentialities of IT for the overall characteristics:
welfare of Bangladesh. Government has already taken • Reliable and assure quality of service
several steps like signing agreement for connectivity to • Affordable to ensure its acceptance
Submarine Cable Network, setting up Software • Excellent Value
Technology Park etc. to attain that goal. But our • Effectively connect people with respect to coverage
communication network infrastructure is not yet ready to and bandwidth capacity
serve the customer requirement to every corner of the • Re-locatable technology with simple installation and
country. Even more, in a very near future, when maintenance
Bangladesh will be connected to Intercontinental Fiber
optic super high way, to utilize immensely available
bandwidth, we need broadband “last mail” access network.
Other than broadband access, any other access technology
Integrated services digital network (ISDN) offers a digital
We now have the capability to generate and process telephone line that provides access two to five times faster
massive amounts of data from our desktop. An always- than traditional analog phone lines. ISDN provides
growing range of applications leaves us craving more capacity for e-mail, video conferencing, faster Internet
capacity. That is the underlying reason of “broadband” browsing, and other digital services by operating at 128
development. Between the desktop and the fiber backbone Kbps. It also allows multiple stations to be online, so it
is that stretch of the information highway known as the provides options for business use. The obstacles for ISDN
“last mile” or access portion of the network. “Broadband include its cost, which is usually considerably higher than
access” can be served by several broadband technologies, telephone service, and difficulty of installation. The
mentionable, advantage of E-1 or E-3 is very large capacity that is
• PSTN dedicated to the use of the subscriber for multiple uses.
• xDSL The primary problem for the leased lines is expense. A E-1
• ISDN or Private/Leased Line line can cost $2,000-$3,000 to install, with the average
• Cable Modem monthly cost between $500 and $1,000. Wireless high-
• Fixed Wireless etc. speed access, DSL, and cable all other option will cost less
than E-1.
3.1. PSTN
3.4. Coaxial Cable
The biggest network infrastructure laid on Bangladesh is
Public Switched Telephone network (PSTN). Most The greatest benefit of cable is its speed, which can
Internet access has been gained through traditional deliver data at speeds up to 100 times faster than
telephone lines. Copper infrastructure is widespread, telephone modems. However, cable was built as a one-way
readily available, and easy to commission. Copper can transmission pipe and must be upgraded to handle two-
competently handle bandwidth speeds up to 56 Kbps. way capacity. The cost for the upgrades is estimated to run
However, the public demands for higher connectivity is up to $1,000 or more per home. Because of this cost, the
dramatically increasing, and the imbedded copper cable build-out is progressing slowly and the service cannot be
plant is becoming the bottleneck. offered in many areas. Another drawback from the user’s
standpoint is that it is a shared resource. The technology
3.2. Digital Subscriber Line (xDSL) puts a group of nearby users served by the same node into
what is essentially a network, with the bandwidth shared
A digital subscriber line (DSL) provides broadband by all users online. As more users go online, there is a
service by converting an existing analog telephone line reduction of throughput in data and consistent speed. From
into a digital voice and data circuit. DSL is available in a practical standpoint, the first user to sign on may find the
various alternatives, including HDSL (high data-rate speeds very fast, but they drop as soon as the next user
DSL), which operates at 1.54 Mbps symmetric, ADSL signs on. As more users log on, the system continues to
(asymmetrical DSL), which is faster than HDSL with split the bandwidth among all users, resulting in
greater downstream than upstream capacity - benefit for inconsistent service.
residential use; and VDSL (very high data-rate DSL),
which runs faster than ADSL but can only operate over 3.5. Fixed Wireless
short distances. The always-on connection and maximum
speed allure of 8 Mbps downloading and 1 Mbps Fixed-wireless systems can be used for almost anything
upstream, combined with a cost much lower than other that wire line or fiber is used for, whether the connection is
more high-speed leased lines such as T-1 lines, make DSL an E-1 circuit, a cable television connection, an Ethernet
a frequent choice of high speed accessibility for small to connection, or a fiber-optic connection. It is designed to
medium enterprises (SMEs). But to provide mass IT emulate wireline and fiber-optic connections, and they use
literate people, DSL has major limitations. First, the home the same type of interfaces and protocols, such as E-1,
or business fixed-line service must be located no more frame relay, Ethernet, and ATM. The technologies can
than 18,000 feet from a telephone company switch. deliver data rates from less than E-1 up to and beyond 155
Secondly, DSL requires a digital subscriber line access megabits per second (Mbps).
multiplexer (DSLAM) to be installed in a phone company Broadband wireless allows:
switch, which requires large user group in an area to prove a) High Capacity: Broadband wireless solutions use
it economically viable. spectrum with a powerful dynamic bandwidth allocation
mechanism to support the exponential growth in data
communications and the tremendous demand for low-cost • Private Licensed Links (Microwave)
circuit services. • Private Unlicensed Links (Spread Spectrum)
b) Fast Rollout and Early Market Capture: Broadband • 2.5GHz and 3.5GHz MMDS (Multichannel
wireless solutions are easy and quick to implement, giving Multipoint Distribution Service)
the first-mover the opportunity to “cherry pick” the most • UNII (Unlicensed National Information
profitable customers. Infrastructure); Broadband Radio Access Network
c) Low Start-Up Costs: With no cables to lay or DSLAM (BRAN)
(for xDSL) access fees to negotiate and pay, deployment • LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Service)
costs are kept low. • 38 GHz fixed wireless system
d) On-Demand Build-Out: When demand increases, the The lower the frequency, the farther the signal travels
broadband wireless access solutions scale simply by and the better it can penetrate obstacles. For carriers,
increasing sectorization or adding more cells, allowing a lower frequencies mean cheaper network build-outs and
business to expand. greater reach than higher frequencies. In addition, mobile
e) Fast Payback: Since the initial investment is services tend to work better at frequencies lower than 3
comparatively low and deployment is fast, operators start GHz (cellular is at 800 MHz, and PCS is just less than 2
seeing a return on investment sooner. GHz). At frequencies higher than 3 GHz, wireless services
f) Greater flexibility: One of the major driving forces for providing substantial range performance usually require a
broadband wireless will be the simplicity and re-locate fixed antenna rather than a mobile one. Most higher-
ability it provides. Once the technology become obsolete bandwidth systems use frequencies greater than 10 GHz.
is one group of user, it will be repositioned to a less Antennas at these frequencies are smaller due to the
demanding group of user. smaller wavelengths, making systems easier to deploy. But
Considering the above reasons, when both wireless and with higher frequency, components demand more
wire line options exist, number of companies are sophisticated technology, so systems typically cost more.
deploying or planning to deploy wireless networks. Also, propagation distance for reliable communications
Wireless communication offers tremendous flexibility decreases, and the signal is more susceptible to weather
and ever-improving performance, but it does have some conditions like rain and fog. Higher-frequency systems,
limitations. First and foremost, wireless uses radio those greater than approximately 30 GHz, are sometimes
spectrum, a finite resource. This limits the number of referred to as millimeter wave because the wavelength of
wireless users and the amount of spectrum available to any these signals is on the order of 1 millimeter.
user at any moment in time. The amount of spectrum Both private and carrier systems have a choice of using
available equates almost directly to data bandwidth, with 1 licensed or unlicensed spectrum. The main advantage of
Hz of spectrum typically yielding between 2 bps and 8 bps unlicensed spectrum is being able to deploy a system
of throughput depending on various factors such as the without applying for a license from the FCC (or equivalent
type of modulation used and environmental factors. The body in other countries). The disadvantage is that user
amount of spectrum actually available varies from radio could experience or cause interference, though the type of
band to radio band, but suffice it to say that fiber-optic technology used in these frequencies minimizes this
cable offers far greater overall capacity. Despite this possibility.
capacity limitation, wireless offers more than sufficient
bandwidth for many applications. Another limitation is
that fixed- wireless systems operate at frequencies that 5. THE BROADBAND WIRELESS INDUSTRY
almost always require line-of-sight and that are restricted SEGMENTATION AND SPECTRUM
to distances that vary from a few miles to tens of miles.
New wireless technologies are developing to overcome the The market for wireless access systems is diverse and
limitations. changing. There are generally two types of fixed wireless
Considering all of these characteristics, broadband solutions, one in which one terminal station is dedicated to
wireless can be a potential tool to reach people at remote another terminal station, known as point-to-point, and the
places of Bangladesh. other that enables transmissions between multiple terminal
stations and a single base station, known as point-to-
multipoint. A point-to-multipoint wireless system enables
4. RADIO SPECTRUM a single base station located at the center of a cell to
support a few hundred to thousand terminal stations all
The spectrum needs for broadband radio access networks located at the premises of different customers within that
vary with the application and the environment in which cell, similar to a cellular phone network. This allows a
they are deployed. Different prominent broadband wireless carrier to spread the cost of a base station, the most
systems are:
expensive portion of the wireless link, across many users,
providing cost-effective broadband wireless services. Table 1: Broadband Wireless Market Segments
Breaking the last-mile bandwidth barrier using broadband
wireless is an ideal business opportunity, especially as a
cost-attractive alternative to fiber, which can be priced at
more than $100,000 per mile. Holders of valuable


Figure 2: Broadband Wireless MAN [2]

Figure 1: “Last Mile” Broadband Access Technology [1] 5.1. Point-to-Point Wireless Broadband Access

spectrum are in an optimal position to build and grow Fixed-wireless systems have a long history. Point-to-point
profitable businesses quickly by providing the microwave connections have long been used for voice and
evolutionary services necessary to keep pace with data communications, generally in backhaul networks
pervasive demand. operated by phone companies, cable TV companies,
PtP products are targeting application where data link utilities, railways, paging companies, and government
rates range from T-1 up to OC-3 with a high degree of agencies, and will continue to be an important part of the
spectral efficiency; whereas, PtMP application of wireless communications infrastructure to support constant
is typically targeting a lower “shared” bandwidth and bandwidth requirement to single locations. An alternative
multiple distributed users in an area. to a microwave link is to use spread-spectrum bridging
products. Many wireless LAN vendors offer such products
because they incorporate much of the required technology
Point-to-Point Point-to-Multipoint within their access points. These wireless bridges, mostly
High High Capacity High Capactity (FDMA operating in the 2.4 GHz band, offer rates of 1 Mbps
- (OC-3 [155 Mbps], [>40 MBPS]) through 11 Mbps and distances up to 10 or 25 miles (16 to
Freq. OC-12 in future) Medium Capacity or 40 kilometers) depending on the type of antenna used. For
Narrowband (T1 Wideband (TDMA 1- longer distances, a user may not be able to achieve as high
[1.5 Mbps] 40 Mbps) a throughput. The above-mentioned technologies are
to DS3 [45 Mbps]) 10, 24, 26, 28, and 31 already available in Bangladesh.
(LMDS); and 38GHz Technology has continued to advance, allowing higher
Low- Microwave and Medium Capacity frequencies, and thus smaller antennas, to be used,
Freq. Bridge market (fractional T-1 to >10 resulting in lower costs and easier-to-deploy systems for
(OC-3 [155 Mbps] Mbps) private use and for a whole new generation of carriers that
to Unlicensed (2.4 GHz use broadband wireless as their last mile of
fractional T-1s [sub- and 5 GHz ), communication.
1 Mbps]) MMDS and 3.5 GHz
• Three times DS-3/E-3
• 100 base T Fast Ethernet + DS-3/E-3 or
• Two times 100baseT Fast Ethernet
This flexibility offers carriers the very significant benefit
to directly provision for all key voice and data formats
(e.g., IP and ATM over SONET) and associated
broadband data rates as required for various customer
applications. And last, lower capacity systems are also
offered using even higher order modulation (64 QAM) to
allow carriers to deploy DS-3 service in much smaller
channel bandwidths (12.5 MHz) than previously possible.
Single 100baseT Fast Ethernet circuits are also available
in that same narrow bandwidth.
With the transmission capacity up to 155 Mbps, PtP can
satisfy customers at distance places quickly and cheaply
compared to fiber lay down. Wireless service provider
risked no significant sunken costs; if their customers
terminated service or moved, the radio link is easily
moved and reused elsewhere. Wireless carriers believe
that their large spectrum holdings are ideal for such
Figure 3: Elements of a Point-to-Point Broadband higher-capacity services.
Wireless System [1]
5.2. Point-to-Multipoint (PtMP) Wireless Broadband
At a minimum, any PtP link will contain two terminals Access
where each terminal consists of an OutDoor Unit (ODU)
and InDoor Unit (IDU). The ODU is typically the antenna Where broadband wireless customers are geographically
and RF functions, while the IDU is the modem and a dispersed, PtP is not appropriate because of the need for
variety of network interfaces. many antennas at a central location and the lack of ability
PtP is connecting the tremendous bandwidth available to spread costs, or more importantly, for users to share
on the long-haul backbones and metropolitan fiber rings to bandwidth. We believe the benefits of PtMP are best
buildings and their business tenants. These networks now leveraged when the number of connection points is
form a reliable, sophisticated data infrastructure that can increased to justify the cost of the controlling hub, and
also serve as the basis for Voice over IP. In many cases, when the data demands are not as high as what PtP
DSL technology on copper wiring inside customer solutions provide or when data allocation adaptation is
buildings can be combined with fixed-wireless networks necessary on the fly between a few nodes. PtMP systems
outside the buildings to provide a lower-cost, entry-level are, of course, being developed for numerous bands; they
data service for smaller companies. are intended to offer diverse, flexible capacity services to a
Four critical characteristics differentiate the leading multitude of end-users.
companies in this equipment category from previous The point-to-multipoint common objectives include the
microwave suppliers. First, instead of starting with low- following:
capacity radios and trying to work up to higher data rates • Low cost with simple installation/deployment
to meet the demand for capacity, engineers designed high- procedures (i.e., it must be consumer installable for
capacity systems in the SONET OC-3/SDH STM-1 range. the residential target market) and scalable deployment
So the baseline systems already offer capacity more than architectures;
three times greater than the DS-3 rate that was the • Efficient coverage capabilities (potentially including
maximum previously available. Second, they have selected in-building coverage);
modulation schemes (16 QAM, 64 QAM, 128 QAM, and • Spectrially efficient delivery of high data rates and
256 QAM) that are much more spectrally efficient than overall throughput (relative to the frequency
those of their predecessors. This provides OC-3 (155 bandwidth available); and
Mbps) in the same 50 MHz channel that otherwise • Low-cost continuation support and management.
accommodated at best a single DS-3 (45 Mbps). Third,
they have integrated very flexible multiplexers into their
indoor units that offer carriers interface options of:
• Direct fiber or copper OC-3/STM-1
years away from having either DSL or fiber nearby,
need access to this technology.

5.2.1. System Deployment Architecture

The system deployment architecture refers to the
technological approach used in the actual field deployment
of the equipment (i.e., the positioning of the wireless base
stations or hubs to adequately cover a service area). In
general, there are three different architecture strategies,
each with different implications for the product design and
system function. The first strategy is an ad hoc approach,
where base stations are simply positioned where coverage
is needed. This approach is typically the most inefficient
relative to coverage and scalability in that it does not
employ an overall plan on delivering service to a large
number of customers over a broad area. It can, therefore,
be quite problematic. In particular, the uniformity of
Figure 4: Elements of a Point-to-Multipoint Broadband coverage can be inconsistent (i.e., in-building coverage
Wireless System [1] close to the base station and not in areas further away),
and interference issues can result as additional base
PtMP system has minimum of nine elemental functions:
stations are added. This technique is still used, however, in
• Computer, television, or telephone at the customer’s
situations where customer density is low and where
premise to interact with the desired data, audio, or
performance/interference issues can be managed in detail.
An incrementally better architecture is the supercell
• A modem to encode and decode information;
approach in which a plan is derived to cover a given
• A transceiver and antenna to convert the information geographic area (typically a large area) with a few large-
to and from radio frequency (RF); diameter cells (typically 10-25 miles in diameter for
• A centralized base station antenna; 2.5/3.5 GHz frequencies), i.e., supercells. This approach is
• Transmitters, receivers, and switches for the base better than an ad hoc architecture in that it reduces
station; interference issues with an overall plan detailing where
• A wireless hub that encodes and decodes information base stations should be located. Each base station is
for and from all users; designed to cover a large area and thus typically uses high
• Network management tools to monitor the network’s antenna towers. The supercell architecture is ideal for
health and manage all users; areas with low customer density and situations where a
• A gateway and router to effectively connect to other very cost-effective deployment is required. In addition, a
networks and distribute and receive information for supercell architecture can be a very cost-effective way to
all customers; and finally, initially enter a marketplace because a large area can be
• A connection to an information network or source-in covered and initial customers (typically a small number of
this case the Internet. customers) can be added quickly. In this situation, as
Deployment of a nationwide PtMP system would customers increase, supercells can be augmented with
provide an information pipe to several under-served smaller cells on different frequencies as long as the overall
segments, including: system and frequency availability support this scalability.
• Residential customers-especially those in rural areas The disadvantage of supercells is in quality of coverage
where it is cost-prohibitive cable companies to build because base station signal strengths may vary
systems or for telephone companies to supply DSL considerably from the inner portion of the cell to the outer
service. edge of the cell. This can result in dramatically
• Schools-all learning institutions, from kindergarten inconsistent data rate capabilities from one area to the next
through universities, need data. and non-existent in-building coverage in most areas. The
• Branch offices-small to mid-sized public and private last architecture strategy is the cellularized approach,
offices must have a network to transmit among their which ultimately is very similar to the cellular
locations. infrastructure used for mobile wireless communications. A
• Businesses in urban sprawl-those businesses not cellular approach uses much smaller cells (typically three
located in the primary business district, and are thus to five miles in diameter for 2.5/3.5 GHz frequencies) and
offers more uniform coverage capabilities and even in-
building coverage penetration
(Depending on the power output of the transceivers and (SOHO), telecommuters, and small and medium
the modulation techniques used). A cellular approach is enterprises (SMEs).
the highest-capacity architecture (in terms of customers
and aggregate data throughput) and is thus typically used 6.2. DOCSIS+
in customer-dense areas. Like mobile cellular
infrastructures, frequencies must typically be coordinated The Data Over Cable System Interface Specification
on an overall planning basis between base stations to avoid (DOCSIS) [4] was developed by a consortium of
interference. In addition, due to the smaller cell size, base equipment manufacturers and CATV operators with
station density is much higher and thus results in a higher ratification in August 1998. The specification establishes a
infrastructure deployment cost. clear standard for cable modems and the cable modem
termination system (CMTS) to allow interoperability of
products from various manufacturers. It specifies the RF
6. STANDARDS physical layer, with specific modulation types and symbol
rates. The protocols for initialization, data control, and
Very few standards exist for broadband wireless systems, security aspects are also defined. DOCSIS is a standard
and users need to purchase equipment from the same that has several advantages: lower costs, multiple
vendor for both sides of the connection to ensure knowledgeable sources, add-ons, and plug-ins from third
interoperability. In some vertical markets, interoperability parties. DOCSIS was conceived and is designed for the
and standards are moot because the entire system, from CATV hybrid-fiber/coax plant. DOCSIS+ (a wireless
application to access point to user device, is sold as a version of the DOCSIS specification) builds on the
package. The broadband wire-less access industry has specification by adding several enhancements.
numerous suppliers for the various elements of the Specifically, it adds a superset of features to the DOCSIS
infrastructure throughout the world and will, therefore, specification. These features extend the frequency
require standardization to attain all of the benefits of tolerance, add more signal path equalization, increase the
interoperability. dynamic range, and support multiple modulation types and
modulation symbol rates. These enhancements improve,
6.1. IEEE 802.16 Broadband Wireless Access among other things, the signal-to-noise margin for robust
Systems performance under the less-than-ideal conditions of
broadband wireless operation. The new DOCSIS 1.1
The IEEE 802 standard [3] covers local and metropolitan features quality of service (QoS), data and voice/video
area networks whereas Part 16 specifies the standard air application, service flows, classifiers, scheduling types,
interface for fixed broadband wireless access systems and dynamic service establishment.
under 802.16 The overall purpose of this standards body is
to: 1) Enable rapid worldwide deployment of innovative, 6.3. Broadband Radio Access Network (BRAN)
cost-effective, and interoperable multivendor broadband Project
wireless access products; 2) To facilitate competition in
broadband access by providing alternatives to wireline The Broadband Radio Access Network project [5] has
broadband access; and 3) To facilitate coexistence studies, defined three types of broadband radio networks:
encourage consistent worldwide allocation, and accelerate HIPERLAN/2, HIPERACCESS, and HIPERLINK.
the commercialization of broadband wireless access HIPERLAN/2, a complement to HIPERLAN/1, ETSI’s
spectrum. This standard specifies the medium access high-speed wireless LAN, is a local access network that
control layer and physical layers of the air interface of provides communication between portable computing
interoperable, fixed point-to-multipoint broadband devices and broadband core networks aimed at
wireless access systems. The specification enables telecommunications access and capable of supporting the
transport of data, video, and voice services. Physical multimedia applications of the future. User mobility is
layers are specified for both licensed and license-exempt supported, but only within the local service area, which
bands. It will identify techniques to tolerate interference in ranges from 50 meters indoors to a few hundred meters
the unlicensed bands and facilitate strategies for outdoors.
coexistence with other unlicensed band systems such as HIPERACCESS is an outdoor, high-speed radio access
802.11 and 802.15. It will encourage consistent worldwide network that provides fixed radio connections to customer
spectrum allocation and accelerate the commercialization premises (other technologies such as HIPERLAN/2 might
of unlicensed broadband wireless access spectrum. be used for distribution within the premises).
Utilization of unlicensed frequencies will address a market HIPERACCESS will allow an operator to rapidly roll out
that includes residences, small office/home office a wide area broadband access network to provide
connections to residential households and small
businesses. It will be an attractive alternative to wired
access technologies such as digital subscriber loop or
cable modems, especially in the competitive market of the
future where no one operator will have the certainty of
The third category is HIPERLINK, which is a very high-
speed radio network for small-scale interconnections. A
typical use is the interconnection of HIPERACCESS
networks and/or HIPERLAN Access Points into a fully
wireless network.
With this standardized solutions, we believe customer
premise equipment pricing less than $200 to $400 will be
necessary instead of the $1,500 to $4,000 and multi-hour
installation currently being experienced.


The development of broadband wireless is no different

from any other new market: the explorers have mapped the
terrain, and now the settlers are moving in for growth and
expansion. We believe the rapidly deployable, scalable,
distance-insensitive nature, and emerging low costs
associated with wireless solutions make them a highly
viable broadband access technology in a developing
country like Bangladesh. We hope that rapid investment
on broadband wireless infrastructure will connect every
town, even rural area, of Bangladesh with high-speed
communication link and ensure that rural and urban
communities have the same opportunity to participate in
the digital economy.


[1] Michael A. Helgeson, Broadband Wireless:

The Worldwide Assessment. Institutional Research, DAIN