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CHAPTER-1
BASIC ASPECTS OF PROTECTION
1.0 Principles of Relays
Every electrical equipment is designed to work under specified normal
conditions. In case of short circuits, earth faults etc., an excessive current will
flow through the windings of the connected equipment and cause abnormal
temperature rise, which will damage the winding. In a power station, non-
availability of an auxiliary, at times, may cause total shut down of the unit,
which will result in heavy loss of revenue.
So, in modern power system, to minimise damage to equipment two alternatives
are open to the designer, one is to design the system so that the faults cannot
occur and other is to accept the possibility of faults and take steps to guard
against the effect of these faults. Although it is possible to eliminate faults to a
larger degree, by careful system design, careful insulation coordination, efficient
operation and maintenance, it is obviously not possible to ensure cent percent
reliability and therefore possibility of faults must be accepted; and the equipment
are to be protected against the faults. To protect the equipment, it is necessary to
detect the fault condition, so that the equipment can be isolated from the fault
without any damage. This function is performed by a relay. In other words,
protective relays are devices that detect abnormal, conditions in electrical
circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities, which are different
under normal and faulty conditions. The basic quantities which may change
during faulty conditions are voltage, current, frequency, phase angle etc. Having
detected the fault relay operates to complete the trip circuit which results in the
opening of the circuit breaker thereby isolating the equipment from the fault.
The basic relay circuit can be seen in Mg. No. 1. 1

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Some Terms Associated with Protective Relaying
Circuit Breaker : It is an On-load switch, used to make or break an electrical circuit
when it is carrying current.
Current Transformer : These are used for measuring protection purpose since it is not
possible to measure very high currents directly, it will be stepped down by means of a
current transformer to about 5A or 1A and the secondary current will be measured and
monitored.
Voltage Transformer : These are also used for measuring purpose and protective
relaying purpose. Since it is not practicable to measure and monitor high and extra high
voltages they are stepped down to 1 1OV and the secondary voltage is measured and
monitored.
Relay time : It is the interval between the occurrence of the fault and closure of relay
contact.
Pick Up : The operation of relay is called relay pick up. Pick up value or the level is
the value of operating quantity at which the relay operates.
Back UP Protection : A protective system intended to supplement the main protection
in case the latter should be ineffective, or to deal with faults in those parts of the power
system that are not readily included in the operating zones of the main protection.
Protected Zone It is the portion of a power system protected by a given protective
system.
Protective Gear : These are the apparatus, including protective relays, current/voltage
transformers and ancillary equipment for use in a protective system.
Protective Relay : A relay is designed to initiate disconnection of a part of an electrical
installation or to operate a warning signal, in case of a fault or o er abnormal condition
in the installation. A protective relay may include more than one unit electrical relay
and accessories.
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Rating : It is the nominal value of an energizing quantity which appears in the
designation of a relay. The nominal value usually corresponds to the CT & VT
secondary rating.

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Resetting Value : It is the value of the characteristic, quantity at which the relay returns
to its initial position.
Unrestricted Protection : It is a protection system which has no clearly defined zone of
operation and which achieves selective operation only by time grading.
Basic Symbols: The equipments they represent are as given below:
Sr. No. Symbol Equipment Function
1 Circuit Breaker Switching during normal and abnormal conditions,
interrupt the fault currents.

2 Isolator Disconnecting a part of the system from live parts


under no load conditions.

3 Earth switch Discharging the voltage on the lines to the earth


after disconnection.

4 Lighting Diverting the high voltage surges to earth.


Arrestor

5 Current Stepping down the current for measurement,


Transformer protection, and control.

6 Voltage Stopping down the voltage for the purpose of


Transformer protection, measurement and control.

1.2 Functions of protective Relaying


§ To sound an alarm, so that the operator may take some corrective action and/or
to close the trip circuit of circuit breaker so as to disconnect a component during
an abnormal fault condition such as overload, under voltage, temperature rise
etc.
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§ To disconnect the faulty parts as quickly as possible so as to minimize the
damage to the faulty part. Ex: If a generator is disconnected immediately after a

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winding fault only a few coils need replacement. If the fault is sustained, it may
be beyond repairable condition.
§ To localise the effect of fault by disconnecting the faulty part from the healthy
part, causing least disturbance to the healthy system.
§ To disconnect the faulty part as quickly as possible to improve the system
stability and service continuity.
1.3 The requirements of protective relaying
* Speed: Protective relaying should disconnect a faulty element as quickly as
possible, in order to improve power system stability, decrease the amount of
damage and to increase the possibility of development of one type of fault
into other type. Modern high speed protective relaying has an operating
time of about 1 cycle.
* Selectivity : It is the ability of the protective system to determine the point
at which the fault occurred and select the nearest of the circuit breakers,
tripping of which leads to clearing of fault with minimum or no damage to
the system.
* Sensitivity : It is capability of the relaying to operate reliably under the
actual minimum fault condition. It is desirable to have the protection as
sensitive as possible in order that it shall operate for low value of actuating
quantity.
* Reliability : Protective relaying should function correctly at all times under
any kind of fault and abnormal conditions of the power system for which it
has been designed. It should also not operate on healthy conditions of
system.
* Simplicity : The relay should be as simple in construction as possible. As a
rule, the simple the protective scheme, less the
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number of relays, and contacts it contains, the greater will be the reliability.
* Economy : Cost of the protective system will increase directly with the
degree
of protection required. Depending on the situation a designer should strike
a

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balance between with the degree of protection required and economy.
1.4 Classification of Relays
1.4.1 Depending upon their principle of operation they are classifted as:
Electromagnetic attraction type relays: These relays operate by the virtue of a
plunger being drawn into a solenoid or an armature being attracted towards the
poles of an electromagnet.
Induction type Relays: In this type of relay, a metal disc or cup is allowed to
rotate or move between two electro-magnets. The fields produced by the two
magnets are displaced in space and phase. The torque is developed by
interaction of the flux of one of the magnets and the eddy current induced into
the disc/cup by the other.
Thermal Relays : They operate due to the action of heat generated by the
passage of current through the relay element. The strip consists of two metals
having different coefficients of expansions and firmly fixed together throughout
the length so that different rates of thermal expansion of two layers of metal
cause the strip to bend when current is passed through it.
Static Relays : It employs discrete electronic components like diodes,
transistors, zenners, resistors/capacitors or Integrated circuits and use electronic
measuring circuits like level detectors, comparators, integrators etc. to obtain
the required operating characteristics.
Moving Coil Relays : In this relay a coil is free to rotate in magnetic field of a
permanent magnet. The actuating current flows through the
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coil. The torque is produced by the interaction between the field of the
permanent magnet and the field of the coil.
1.4.2 Relays can be classified depending upon their application also.
§ Over voltage, over current and over power relays, in which operation takes place
when the voltage, current or power rises above a specified value.

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§ Under voltage, under current under frequencies low power relays, in which
operation takes place when the voltage, current frequency or power fall below a
specified value.
§ Directional or reverse power relays: In which operation occurs when the
direction of the applied power changes.
§ Distance Relays : In this type, the relay operates when the ratio of the voltage
and current change beyond a specified limit.
§ Differential Relays : Operation takes place at some specific phase or magnitude
difference between two or more electrical quantities.
1.4.3 Relays can also be classified according to their time of operation.
§ Instantaneous Relay : In which operation takes place after negligibly small
interval of time from the incidence of the current or other quantity causing
operation.
§ Derinite time lag Relay: This operates after a set time lag, during which the
threshold quantity of the parameter is maintained.
§ Inverse time lag Relay: This operates after a set time Lab, during which the
operating quantity of the parameter is maintained above its operating threshold.
1.5 Operating Principles of different types of Relays
1. 5. 1 Induction over current and earth fault relays
These are quite commonly used relays. Schematic diagram of induction disc
type relay is shown in Mg. No. 1.2.
The output of the current transformer is fed to a winding (1) on the centre limb
of the E-shaped core, the second winding (2) on the limb

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is connected to two windings on the poles of the E and U shaped cores. The
magnetic flux across the air gap induce currents in the disc, which in conjunction
with the flux produced by the lower magnet, produces'a rotational torque. A
magnet (3), is used to control the speed of the disc. The time of operation of the
relay v aries inversely with the current fed into it by the current transformer of
the protected circuit. The permanent magnet used for breaking has a tendency to
attract iron filings, which can prevent operation. So care has to be taken while
manufacturing this type of relays. Time-current characteristics induction type
relays has been given in Fig. 1.3.
1.5. 2 Balanced Beam Relays
It,consists of a horizontal beam pivoted centrally, with one armature attached to
either side. There are two coils one on each side. The current in one coil gives
operating torque. The beam is given a slight mechanical bias by means of a
spring so that under normal conditions trip contacts will not make and the beam
remains in horizontal position. When the operating torque increases then the
beam tilts and closes the trip contacts. In current balance system both coils are
energised by current derived from CT's. In impedance relays, one coil is
energised by current and other by voltage. In these relays the force is
proportional to the square of the current, so it is very difficult to design the relay.
This type of relay is fast and instantaneous. In modern relays electromagnets are
used in place of coils (See Mg.. 1.4.).
1.5.3 Permanent - Magnet Moving - Coil Relgys:
There are two general types of moving coil relays. One type is similar to that of
a moving coil indicating instrument, employing a coil rotating.between the poles
of a permanent magnet. The other is, employing a coil moving at right angles to
the plane of the poles of a permanent magnet. Only direct current measurement
is possible with both the types.

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The action of a rotating coil type is shown in the Fig. 1.5. A light rectangular coil
is pivoted so that its sides lie in the gap between the two poles of a permanent
magnet and a soft iron core. The passage of current through the coil produces a
deflecting torque by the reaction between the permanent magnetic field and the
field of the coil
(See Fig. 1. 5)
The moving contact is carried on an arm which is attached to the moving coil
assembly. A phosper bronze spiral spring provides the resetting torque.
Increasing the contact gap and thus increasing the tension of the spring permits
variation in the quantity required to close the contacts.
Time current characteristic of a typical moving coil permanent magnetic relays is
shown in Fig. 1. 6.
1.5. 4 Attracted armature relays :
It is required to clear the faults in power system as early as possible. Hence, high-
speed relay operation is essential. Attracted armature relays have a coil or an
electromagnet energised by a coil. The,coil is energised by the operating quantity
which may be proportional to circuit current or voltage. A plunger or a rotating
vane is subjected to the action of magnetic field produced by the operating
quantity. It is basically single actuating quantity relay.
Attracted armature relays respond to both AC and DC quantities. They are very
fast in operation. Their operating time will not vary much with the amount of
current. Operating time of the relay is as low as 10-15 m seconds and resetting
time is as low as 30 m sec can be obtained in these relays. These relays are non-
directional and are simple type of relays. Examples of attracted armature type
relays are given in Fig.1.7
1.5.5 Time Lag Relays:
These are commonly used in protection schemes as a means of time
discrimination. They are also frequently used in control, delayed
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auto-reclosing and alarm scheme to allow time for the required sequence of
operations to take place, and to measure the duration of the initial condition to
ensure that it is not merely transient.

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Various methods are used to obtain a time lag between the initiation of the relay
and the operation of its contact mechanism. These includes gearing, permanent
magnet damping, friction, thermal means or R.C. circuits. In some cases the time
lag in operation of the contacts is achieved by a separate mechanism released by a
voltage operated elements. The release mechanism may be an attracted armature
or solenoid and plunger. The operating time of such relay is independent of the
voltage applied to the relay coil. One of the simplest forms of time lag relay is
provided by a 'Mercury switch in which the flow of mercury is impeded by a
constriction in the mercury bulb. The switch is tilted by a simple attracted
armature mechan,iwn. The time setting of such a relay is fixed by the design of
the tube. Another method of obtaining short time delays is to delay operation of a
normally instantaneous relay by means of a device which delays the build up or
decay of the flux in the operating magnet. The device consists of a copper ring
(slug) around the magnet and can produce delay on pickup as well as delay on
reset.
1.6 Testing and Maintenance of Protective Relays :
Unlike other equipment, the protective relays remain without any operation until a
fault develops. However, for a reliable service and to ensure that the relay is
always vigilant, proper maintenance is a must. Lack of proper maintenance may
lead to failure to operate.
It is possible for dirt and dust created by operating conditions in the plant to get
accumulated around the moving parts of the relay and prevent it from operating.
To avoid this, relays are to be cleaned periodically.
In general, overload relays sense over load by means of thermal element. Loose
electrical connections can cause extra heat and may
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result in false operation of the relay. To avoid this, all the relay connections are to
be tightened every now and then.
To confirm that the relay operation at the particular setting under particular
conditions for which the relay is meant for operating, we should perform number
of tests on the relays. Quality control is given foremost consideration in
manufacturing of relay. Tests can be grouped into following five classes:

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1. Acceptance test
2. Commissioning test
3. Maintenance tests
4. Repair tests
5. Manufacturers tests
1.6. 1 Acceptance Test
Acceptance tests are generally performed in presence of the customer in the
laboratory or by the customer himself. These tests fall into two categories:
1. Type tests such as High frequency disturbance, Impulse voltage test, Fast
transient test etc. on new relays. These tests are carried out to prove the
design and are not recommended for normal production relays.
2. Routine Tests like operating value check, operating characteristic on Relays
which were used earlier and of proven design, requiring only minimum
necessary checks.
After receiving the relays package, it should be visually examinee for the
damage in the transit. The following precautions are to be taken while removing
the relay -
* Care to be taken not to bend the light parts
* Avoid handling contact surface
* Operating movement (disc, armature etc.) is to be checked for free
movement after removin the packing pieces.
* Do not take steel screw drivers near the permanent magnet.
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1.6.2 Commissioning Tests:
These are the field tests to prove the performance of the relay circuit in actual
service. These are repeated till correct operations are obtained. These are
performed by simulated tests with the secondary circuits energised from a
portable test source; or simulated tests using primary load current or operating
tests with primary energised at reduced voltage. The following steps are
involved in commissioning tests.
* Checking wiring on the basis of the circuit diagram
* Checking C.T. polarity connections

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* Measuring insulation resistance of circuits.
* Checking C.T. Ratios
* Checking P.T. ratio, polarity and phasing
* Conducting secondary injection test on relays.
* Conducting primary injection test
* Checking tripping and alarm circuits.
* Stability check for balanced protections like differential/REF.
1.6.3 Maintenance Tests
Maintenance tests are done in field periodically. The performance of a relay is
ensured by better maintenance. Basic requirements of sensitivity, selectivity,
reliability and stability can be satisfied only if the maintenance is proper.
The relay does not deteriorate by. normal use; but other adverse conditions cause
the deterioration. Continuous vibrations can damage the pivots or bearings.
Insulation strength is reduced because of absorption of moisture; polluted
atmosphere affects the relay contacts, rotating systems etc., Relays room,
therefore, be maintained dust proof. Insects may cause mal-operation of the
relay. Relay maintenance generally consists of
a) Inspection of contacts
b) Foreign matter removal
c) Checking adjustments
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d) Checking of breaker operations by manual contact closing of relays.
e) Cleaning of covers etc.
1.6.4 Maintenance Schedule:
1. Continuous Supervision: Trip circuit supervision, pilot supervision, relay,
auxiliary voltage supervision, Battery supervision, CT circuit supervision.
2. Relay flags are to be checked and resetted in every shift.
3. Carrier current protection testing is to be carried out once in a week.
4. Six monthly inspections : Tripping tests, insulation resistance tests, etc.
Secondary injection tests are to be carried out at least once in a year.
The following tests are to be performed during routine maintenance:

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Inspection : Before the relay cover is removed, a visual check of the cover is
necessary. Excessive dust, dirt, metallic material deposited on the cover should
be removed. Removing such material will prevent it from entering the relay
when the cover is removed. Fogging of the cover glass should be noted and
removed when the cover has been removed. Such fogging is due to volatile
material being driven out of coils and insulating materials. However, if the
fogging is excessive, cause is to be investigated. Since most of the relays are
designed to operate at 400C, a check of the ambient temperature is advisable.
The voltage and current carried by the relay are to be checked with that of the
name plate details.
1.6. 5 Mechanical, adjustments and Inspection:
The relay connections are to be tight, otherwise it may. cause overheating at the
connections. It will cause relay vibrations also. All gaskets should be free from
foreign matter. If any foreign matter is found gaskets are to'be checked and
replaced if required.,
Contact gaps and pressure are to be measured and compared with the previous
readings. Large variation in these measurements will
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indicate excessive wear, in which case worn contacts are to be replaced.
Contacts alignment is to be checked for proper operation.
1.6.6 Electrical Tests and Adjustments
Contact function : Manually close or open the contacts and observe that they
perform their required function.
Pick up: Gradually apply actuating quantity (current or voltage) to see that
pickup is within limits.
Drop out or reset: Reduce the actuating quantity (current or voltage) until the
relay drops out or fully resets. This test will indicate excess friction.
Repair tests involve recalibration, and are performed after major repairs.
Manufacturers tests include development tests, type and routine tests.
1.7 Test Equipment
1.7. 1 Primary current injection test sets:

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Generally protective gear is fed from a current transformer on the equipments to
be protected and primary current injection testing checks all parts of the
protection system by injecting the test current through the primary circuit. The
primary injection tests can be carried out by means of primary injection test sets.
The sets are comprising current supply unit, control unit and other accessories.
The test set can give variable output current. The output current can be varied
by means of built-in auto transformer. The primary injection test set is
connected to AC single phase supply. The output is connected to primary circuit
of CT. The primary current of CT can be varied by means of the test set. By
using this test one can find at what value of current the relay is picking up and
dropping out.
1.7.2 Secondary current injection test set:
It checks the operation of the protective gear but does not check the overall
system including the current transformer. Since it is a rare
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occasion for a fault to occur in CT, the secondary test is sufficient for most
routine maintenance. The primary test is essential when commissioning a new
installation, as it checks the entire system. A simple test circuit is given in Mg.
1. 8.
1.7.3 Test Benches
Test benches comprise calibrated variable current and voltage supplies and timing
devices. These benches can be conveniently used for testing relays and obtaining
their characteristics.

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1.8 Static Relaying Concepts
1.8. 1 Introduction
Static Relay is a relay in which the comparison or measurement of electrical
quantities is done by stationary network which gives a tripping signal when the
threshold value is crossed. In simple language static relay is one in which there
are no moving parts except in the output device. The static relay includes
electronic devices, the output circuits of which may be electric, semiconductor or
even electromagnetic. But the output device does not perform relay
measurement, it is essentially a tripping device. Static relay employs electronic
circuits for the purpose of relaying. The entity voltage, current etc. is rectified
and measured. When the output device is triggered, the current flows in the trip
circuit of the circuit breaker.
With the inventions of semiconductors devices like diodes, transistors, thyristors,
zener diodes etc., there has been a tremendous leap in the field of static relays.
The development of integrated circuits has made an impact in static relays. The
static relays and static protection has grown into a special branch.
1.8.2 Advantages of Static Relays:
The static relays compared to the electromagnetic relays have many advantages
bind a few limitations.
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1.8. 3 Low Power Consumption
Static relays provide less burden on CTs and PTs as compared to conventional
relays. In other words, the power consumption in the measuring circuits of static
relays is generally much lower than that for the electromechanical versions. The
consumption of one milli-VA is quite common in static over current relay
whereas as equivalent electromechanical relay can have consumption of about 2-
3 VA. Reduced consumption has the following merits.
a) CTs and PTs of less ratings are sufficient
b) The accuracy of CTs and F'Ts are increased
c) Air gaped CTs can be used
d) Problems arising out of CT saturation are avoided
e) Overall reduction in cost.

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1.8.4 Operating time
The static relays do not have moving parts in their measuring circuits, hence
relay times of low values can be achieved. Such low relay times are impossible
with conventional electromagnetic relays.
By using special circuits the resetting, times and the overshoot time can be
improved and also high value of drop off to pick up ratio can also be achieved.
1.8. 5 Compact
Static relays are compact. The use of integrated circuit have further reduced
their size. Complex protection schemes may be obtained by using logic circuits
or matrix. Static relays can be designed with good repeat accuracies. Number of
characteristics can be obtained in a single execution, unlike in case of their
Electro-mechanical counter parts.
Most of the components in static relays including the auxiliary relays in the
output stage are relatively immune to vibrations and shocks. The risk of
unwanted tripping is therefore less with static relays as
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compared to electromagnetic relays. So, these can be applied in earthquake prone
areas, ships, vehicles, aeroplanes etc.
1.8. 6 Transducers
Several non-electrical quantities can be converted into electrical quantities and
then fed to static relays. Amplifiers are used wherever necessary.
1.8.7 Limitations
Auxiliary voltage requirement : This disadvantage is not of any importance as
auxiliary voltage can be obtained from station battery supply and conveniently
stepped down to suit load requirements.
Static relays are sensitive to voltage spikes or voltage transients. Special
measures are taken to overcome this difficulty. These include use of surge
supressors and filter circuits in relays, use of screened cables in input circuits,
use of galvanically isolated auxiliary power supplies like d.c./d.c. convertors, use
of isolating transformers with grounded screens for C.T./P.T. input circuits etc.
1.8.8 Temperature Dependence of Static Relays

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The characteristic of semiconductors are influenced by ambient temperatures.
For example, the amplification factor of a transistor, the forward voltage drop of
a diode etc., changes with. Temperature variation. This was a serious limitation
of static relays in the beginning. Accurate measurement of relay should not be
affected by temperature variation. Relay should be accurate over a wide range
of temperature. (-200C to +50OC) this difficulty is overcome by
a) Individual components in circuits are used in such a way that change in
characteristic of component does not affect the characteristic of the
complete relay.
b) Temperature compensation is provided by thermistor circuits.
Extra precaution for quality control of the components has to be taken. As the
failure rate is highest in early period of components life, artificial ageing of the
components is normally done by heat soaking.
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1.8. 9 Level Detectors
A relay operates when the measured quantity changes, either from its normal
value or in relation to another quantity. The operating quantity in most
protective relays is the current entering the protected circuit. The relay may
operate on current level against a standard bias or restrain, or it may compare the

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current with another quantity of the circuit such as the bus voltage or the current
leaving the protected circuit (Fig. 1. 9).
In a simple electromagnetic relay-used as level detector, gravity or a spring can
provide the fixed bias or reference quantity, opposing the force produced by the
operating current in electromagnet. In static relays the equivalent is a D.C.
voltage bias.
E.g. In the semiconductor circuit (See Fig.1.10) the transistor is reverse biased in
normal conditions. No current flows through the relay coil. Under fault
conditions capacitor will be charged to +ve potential at the base side. If this
potential exceeds that of the emitter,, the B-E junction will be forward biased
and transistor will conduct there by tripping the relay. Thus the comparison is
made against the D.C. fixed bias.
1.8.10 Comparators
In order to detect a fault or abnormal conditions of the power system, electrical
quantities or a group of electric quantities are compared in magnitude or phase
angle and the relay operates in response to an abnormal relation of these
quantities. The quantities to be compared are fed into a comparators as two or
more inputs; in complex relays each input is the vectorial sum or difference of
two currents or voltages of the protected circuit, which may be shifted in phase -
or, changed in magnitude before being compared.
1.8.11 Types of comparators :
Basically there are two types of comparators, viz.

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a) Amplitude comparators, and
b) Phase comparator
The amplitude comparator compares the magnitudes of two inputs by rectifying
them and opposing them. If the inputs are A and B, the output of the comparator
is A-B and this is positive if A is greater than B i.e. if the ratio of A/B is greater
than one. Theoretically, the comparison should be purely scalar, i.e. the phase
relation of the inputs should have no effect on the output, but this is usually so if
at least one input is completely smoothened as well as rectified.
The phase comparator achieves a similar operation with phase angle; its output is
positive if arg A-arg B is positive i.e. if arg A/B is less than @ where ?, is the
angle determining the shape of the characteristic; X = 90 for a circular
characteristic.
Both types of comparators can be arranged either for direct comparison
(instantaneous) or to integrate their output over each half cycle.
Amplitude Comparators : Fig. 1. 1 1 shows how two currents can be compared
in magnitude only, using rectifiers and, in fig. 1. 16 two voltages are compared.
In current comparator, the rectifiers providing a limiting action so 'that the relay
can be, made more 'sensitive, the voltage across the rectifier bridge remains
substantially constant and hence the rectifiers and the sensitive relay are
protected at high currents. In voltage comparator, the increase of resistance at
low voltage makes the relay less sensitive at low voltage and the rectifiers are
not protected at high currents.
1.8.12 Circulating Current Comparator
Operation : Normally the restraining current flow in the winding of the
polarised Pelay in the blocking direction. If the restraining current is small and
operating, current is zero the flow of resultant current will be as shown in Fig. 1.
1

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The voltage across the restraining coil is -V, across tile relay serves as a bias in
the forward direction of bridge 1. If the restraining current I, is further increased,
the voltage drop the relay will rise to a value Vt, the threshold voltage of bridge
1 and it will then conduct, then the current paths will be shown in FYg. 1.13.
The current through the relay consists of fairly flat topped half waves as shown
in Mg. 1. 14.
The reverse is true if I. flows alone: The voltage drop across relay will now be
V and this will bias the restraint rectifier in its forward direction. When the
voltage drop across the relay attains a value Vt, corresponding to the threshold
voltage of two rectifiers in the series, the surplus current from bridge 1 is spilled
through bridge 2. This corresponds to the case of i. is greater than i, in the Fig. 1.
14.
When both bridges are energised simultaneously the relay is responsive to small
differences between io and i, without requiring a sensitive output relay. The
composite characteristic (ideal) for the relay is shown in FYg. 1. 1 5.
Opposed Voltage Comparator In this voltage comparator the voltage drop in
the resistance connected externally in the bridge circuits is compared. The
current directions are shown in Fig. 1. 16. If the two drops are equal no current
will flow through the relay coil and the relay will not operate. If the two
voltages are not equal then unequal currents will flow through the resistances
and a current will flow through the relay coil in a direction determined by the
largest voltage drop in the resistor. That is, if the drop in the resistance of the
operating bridge is more than that of the restraining bridge then a current will
flow in the operating direction through the relay. The reverse is true if the drop
across the restraining resistance is more than the operating resistance.
Phase Comparators There are two main types of static phase Comparators:

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a) Those whose output is a D.C. voltage proportional to the vector product
of the two A.C. input quantities;
b) Those which give an output whose polarity depends upon the phase
relation of the inputs. The later are sometimes called coincidence type and can
be direct acting or integrating.
1.8.13 Operating Principles of Static Time Current Relays:
Fig. 1. 1 7 shows the block diagram of a static time current relay. The auxiliary
C.T. has taps on the primary for selecting the desire pickup and current range.
Its rectified output is supplied to, a fault detector and an RC timing circuit.
When the voltage of the timing capacitor has reached the value for triggering the
level detector, tripping occurs.
Operation of a typical static time current relay : The current from the main 0,.T.
is first rectified and smoothed by the capacitor 'Cs' and then passed through the
tapped resistor 'Rs' so that the voltage across it is proportional to the secondary
current. The spike filter RC protects the rectifier bridge against transient over
voltages in the incoming current signal, Fig. 1. 18.
1.8.14 Timing Circuit
The rectified voltage across the 'Rs' charges the capacitor 'Ct' through resistor
'Rt'. When the capacitor voltage exceeds the base emitter voltage 'Vt' the
transistor 'T2' in the Fig. 1,20 becomes conductive, triggering transistor 'T3' and
operating the tripping relay.
Resetting circuit : In order that the relay sha.11 have an instantaneous reset, the
capacitor 'Ct' must be discharged as quickly as possible. This is achieved by the
detector as follows (Fig. 1. 1 9).
The base of the transistor 'Tl' is normally kept sufficiently positive relative to
emitter to keep it conductive and hence short circuiting the timing capacitor 'Ct'
at YY in Fig. 1.20. When a fault occurs the over current through the resistor 'Rs'
makes the base of 'Tl' negative and cuts it off leaving 'Ct' free to be charged.
When the fault is cleared the

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current falls to zero and the negative bias on 'Tl' disappears so that 'Ct'is again
short circuited and discharged immediately.
A weakness of very fast instantaneous units is the tendency to over sensitivity on
off-set current waves. The instantaneous unit can be made insensitive to the
D.C. off set component by making the auxiliary C.T. saturate just above the
pickup current value and connecting the capacitor and a resistor across the
rectified input to the level detector. This prevents tripping until both halves of
the current wave are above pickup valve. That is, until the off set has gone, the
short delay thus entailed is acceptable with time current relaying.
PAGE 32
CHAPTER-2
INDUCTION DISC TYPE IDMT
OVER CURRENT RELAYS
2.1 Introduction
Induction types relays are most widely used for protective relaying purposes
involving A.C. quantities. Torque is produced in these relays when alternating
flux reacts with eddy currents induced in a disc by another alternating flux of the
same frequency but displaced in time and space. These relays are used as over
current or earth fault relay. In its simplest form, such a relay consists of a
metallic disc which is free to rotate between the poles of two electromagnets
(Fig. 2. 1).
The spindle of this disc carries a moving contact which bridges two fixed
contacts when the disc rotates through an angle which is adjustable. By
adjusting this angle the travel of the moving contact can be adjusted so that the
relay can be given any desired time setting which is indicated by a pointer on a
time setting dial. The dial is calibrated from 0 to 1. These figures do not
represent the actual .operating times but are multipliers to be used to convert the
time known from the relay name plate curve into the actual operating time.
The upper electromagnet has a primary and a secondary winding. The primary
is connected to the secondary of a C.T. in the line to be protected and is provided
with tappings. These tappings are connected to a plug setting bridge which is
usually arranged to giv@, seven selections of tapping, the over current range

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being 50 per cent to 200 per cent in steps of 5% and the earth fault 10% to 40%
or 20% to
80% in steps of 5% & 10% respectively. These values are percentages of the
current rating of the relay. Thus a relay may have a current rating of 5A,
indicating that it is suitable for use on CT having a secondary current rating of
5A but with a setting of 50% the relay would start to operate at 2.5A. Similarly if
set at 200% it would start to operate at 10A. Thus the relay can be set to pick-up
at any
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PAGE 34
desired tapping and, therefore, current setting can be selected by inserting a pin
between the spring loaded jaws of the bridge type socket at the appropriate tap
value. When the pin is withdrawn for the purpose of changing the setting while
the relay is in service, the relay automatically adopts a high setting, thus ensuring
that the C.T. secondary is not open circuited and that the relay remains operative
for faults during the process of changing the settings. The secondary winding
surrounds the limbs of the lower electromagnet as well. The torque exerted on

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the disc is due to the interaction, of eddy currents produced therein by means of
the leakage flux from the upper electromagnet and the flux from the lower
electromagnet: these two fluxes having a phase displacement between them.
2.2 Characteristic Curve
A set of typical time current characteristic curves of this type of relay is shown
in Fig. 2.2. The curve shows the relation between the operating current in terms
of current setting multiplier along the x-axis and operating time in seconds along
the y-axis. A current setting multiplier indicates the number of times the relay
cut-rent is in excess of the current setting. The current setting multiplier is also
referred to as plug setting multiplier (P. S. M.). Thus
P.S.M. = Primary Current
Primary Setting Current
= Primary Current
Relay Current Setting XC.T.Ratio
where, as is usually the case, the rated current of the relay is equal to the rated
secondary current of C.T. From the figure the operating time, when current
setting multiplier is 10 and the time multiplier is sea at 1, is 3 seconds. This is
sometimes called the basic 3/ 10 curve.
It is evident that at the same current setting but the time multiplier set at 0.8, the
time of operation is 2.4 seconds. Thus to get the actual time of operation a ainst
any particular time multiplier setting, 9
multiply the time of operation of the basic curve by the multiplier

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setting. Thus in this example the time of operation is 3 x 0.8 2.4 secs.
The time current characteristics of FYg. 2.2 are the inverse definite minimum
time (I.D.M.T.) type since the time of operation is approximately inversely
proportional to smaller values of current and tends to a definite minimum time as
the current increases above 10 times the setting current.
The D.M.T. characteristic is obtained by saturating the iron in the upper magnet
so that there is practically no increase in flux after current has reached a certain
value. This results in the flattening out of the current time curve.
Example : An I.D.M.T. over current relay has a current setting of 150% and has
a time multiplier setting of 0.5. The relay is connected in the circuit through a
C.T. having ratio 500:5 amps. Calculate the time of operation of the relay if the
circuit carries a fault current of 6000 A. The relay characteristic is shown is Fig.
2.3.
Solution: Sec fault current 6000 X 5 60A
500
Plug Setting multiplier (P. S. M.) = Actual Current in Relay = 60 =8
Setting Current 5 x 1.5
Time from graph against this multiplier of 8 = 3 15 sec.
Operating time = 3. 1 5 x 0. 5 = 1. 575 sec.
PAGE 37
CHAPTER - 3
MOTOR PROTECTION
Electrical Motor is an important component of an industry. Squirrel cage
induction motor is most widely used in power stations and industries. To protect
the motor from different faults condition various protection are provided, which
are as listed below.
3.1 Overload Protection
A motor may get overloaded during its operation because of excessive
mechanical load; (b) Single phase; (c) Bearing fault. An overloaded' motor
draws overcurrent resulting in overheating of the winding insulation. A
reasonable degree of overload protection can be provided by Bi-metallic thermal

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overload relay with setting, 15% for continuously rated motor and 40% for large
motors. Modern Motor Protection Relays provide a I2 sensitive Thermal
overload protection having a range of exponential current/time: characteristics to
match with the thermal withstand characteristic of motor.
3.2 Single Phasing Protection or Unbalance Protection
When one of the supply fuse of a 3 phase motor blows off or a terminal
connection comes out, single phasing at the motor may occur. In such case,
motor may continue to rotate, but the two healthy phases may draw high current
leading to thermal stress on the insulation.
Besides, the Negative Phase sequence (I2) component of the unbalanced current,
produces a reverse reaction field which cuts the Rotor iron and winding at
approximately double the speed, thereby inducing double frequency eddy
currents, causing over heating of the rotor.
I2 based single. phasing protection having Inverse or definite time delay is used
to protect the motor against this eventuality. For small L.T. Motors, single
phasing preventor (unbalanced voltage V2 or current I2 based) is used to detect
single phasing and isolate the defaulting Motor.
3.3 Short Circuit Protection
A short circuit in the winding or at the terminals of a motor, results in
overcurrent and thus overheating/damage to the winding insulation.
PAGE 38
An instantaneous high set over current relay with a setting sufficiently above the
starting/locked Rotor current is used for this protection.
For contactor controlled motors (usually L.T. Motors of small ratings), the short
circuit protection is provided by the backup fuse in view of the limited break
rating of the contactor.
3.4 Stalling Protection (Lock Rotor Protection)
A motor may stall during its operation because of excessive mechanical load
resulting in overloading of the motor. A definite time over current relay, with a
setting of 1.5 - 2 times the Motor rated current, is used to protect the Motor
against stalling condition. The time delay set, is usually above the Acceleration
time and below the stall withstand time.

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For high inertia motors, having safe stall withstand time less than the starting
time, the stalling protection is required to be controlled by a speed switch,
mounted on the Motor shaft. During normal acceleration, the speed switch
opens to disable the stalling protection, whereas during a genuine condition the
speed switch remains closed, thereby enabling the stalling protection and
disconnects the defaulting Motor within the safe stall withstand time.
3.5 Differential Protection
To protect the motor against internal faults, differential protection based on
circulating current principle is provided for large critical motors. The
differential protection requires C.Ts of identical ratio and ratings (Class PS) on
both line and neutral side of the Motor for each phase (i.e. 6 C.Ts in total). The
differential relay is usually of high impedance type.
3.6 Earth Fault Protection
A motor may suffer an earth fault because of damage to the winding insulation.
Earth fault may occur in the connecting cable also. Usually two types of earth
fault protections are in vogue.
a) Residually connected earth fault protection with a setting of 10% or above. No
time delay is required except on contactor controlled motors where it is
necessary to prevent earth fault element over riding the
PAGE 39
fuse, for infeeds above the break rating of the contactor. The relay is, however,
required to be used with a series stabilizing resistor, which impedes any
unbalance current produced due to unequal errors in the CTs during starting
transients.
b) C.B.C.T. operated earth fault relay with a setting of typically 1%, where low
earth faults are expected, requiring very high sensitivity.
3.7 Undervoltage Protection
A reduced supply to a motor will increase motor losses and overloading of the
winding. An IDMT or definite time under voltage relay operated off Bus P.T. is
used to protect the motor. The under voltage relay trips the motors connected to
the Bus on upstream supply failure and eliminates possibility of co-incident

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starting of all motors together, when the supply is subsequently restored. Thus,
prevents stressing of the supply source.
Composite Motors Protection Relays (Conventional analog types) provide
following protection functions.
a) Thermal overload (Alarm/Trip) - ITH
b) Short circuit (Isc)
c) Single Phasing (I2)
d) Earth Fault (I0)
e) Stalling (lIt)
Numerical versions are now available which offer following additional
protection functions, besides those given above.
f) Prolonged starting time
g) Too many start
h) Loss of load
The Numerical versions have data acquisition capabilities and provide useful
service Data (such as load currents, I2/I. content in load current, thermal status
etc.), historic data fault data on operation. These relays have programmable
settings, programmable output relays and continuous self monitoring against any
internal failures.
PAGE 40
CHAPTER - 4
TRANSFORMER PROTECTIONS
4.1 Transformer protections are provided
a) against effects of faults in the system to which the transformer is
connected.
b) against effects of faults arising in the transformer itself.
4.1.2 Protections against faults in the System
a) Short Circuits
b) High Voltage, high frequency disturbance
c) Flure Earth Faults.
4.1.3 System Short Circuits

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A short circuit may occur across any two phases (phase to phase) or between any
one line and earth neutral (phase to earth). The effect is excessive over current
and electromagnetic stresses proportional to square of short circuit current. For
these type of faults additional reactance and additional bracing of the transformer
winding and end leads is resorted to. This reactance may be incorporated in the
design itself or separate series reactance with primary of transformer is provided.
4.1.4 High Voltage High frequency surges:
These surges may be due to arching grounds, switching operation surges or
atmospheric disturbances. These surges have very high amplitudes, steep wave
front currents and high frequencies. Because of this, the breakdowns of the
transformer turns adjacent to line terminals occurs causing short circuit between
the turns.
To take care of this, the transformer winding is to be designed to withstand the
impulse surge voltages as specified below and then protect it by surge divertors.
PAGE 41
System Voltage KV(RMS) Impulse voltage withstand level(Peak value)
7.2 KV 60 MV
12.5 KV 75 KV
33 KV 170 KV
66 KV 250 KV
145 KV 550 KV
245 KV 900 KV
400 KV 1350 KV
Surge divertors are provided from each line to earth. These consist of several spark
gaps in series with a non-linear resistance. This spark gap breakdown when surge
reaches the divertor and disturbance is discharged to earth through nonlinear resistance
since at high voltage divertors resistance is low. These surge divertors should have
rapid response, non-linear characteristics, high thermal capacity, high system flow
current interrupting capacity and consistent characteristics under all conditions.
4.1.5 System Earth Faults

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a) When neutral of the system is earthed :-It represents short circuit across the
phase. Hence, same protection as for short circuit can be provided.
b) When neutral is not earthed transformer is used. :-Surge divertor gears in
front of transformer is used.
4.2 Protection against Internal Faults
a) Electrical faults which cause serious immediate damage but are detectable
by unbalance of current or voltage.
i) Phase to Earth Fault or phase to phase faults on HV and LV external
terminals.
ii) Phase to earth faults or phase to phase faults on HV & LV winding.
iii) Short circuit between turns on HV & LV winding (inter turn faults)
iv) Earth faults on tertiary winding or short circuit between turn of tertiary
winding.
v) Problem in tap changer gear.
PAGE 42
b) Incipient faults : These are initially minor but subsequently develops
itself resulting into damage to the transformer. These may be due. to -
i) Poor electrical connection of conductors due to breakdown of insulation of
laminations, core bolt faults, clampings, rings etc.
ii) Coolant failure
iii) Blocked oil flow causing local hot spot on winding.
iv) Continuous uneven load sharing between transformers in parallel causing
overheating due to circulating current.
4.3 Principles of Protection System Principles used are -
i) Overheating
ii) Over current
iii) Un-restricted earth faults
iv) Restricted earth-faults
v) Percentage bias differential protection
vi) Gas detection due to incipient faults
vii) Over fluxing
viii) Tank earth current detection

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ix) Over voltage
x) Tap changer problems.
4.4 Gas Detection
a) Buchholz relay protection
b) Pressure relief valves/switches (for heavy internal faults)
4.4.1 Buchholz Protection
This is for two types of faults inside the transformer.
a) for incipient faults because of -
i) bolt insulation failure
ii) short circuit in laminations
iii) local over heating because of clogging of oil
iv) Excess ingress of air in oil system
PAGE 43
v) loss of oil due to heavy leakage
vi) Uneven load sharing between two transformers in parallel causing
overheating due to circulating current.
These generate gases causing operation of upper float and energises the alarm
circuits.
b) For serious faults inside the transformer due to -
i) short circuit between phases
ii) winding earth faults
iii) puncture on bushing
iv) tap changer problems
These types of faults are of serious nature and operate both the floats provided in
the buchholz relay and trip out the transformer.
4.4.2 Principles of Buchholz Relay Operation (Fig. 4. 1)
This relay is provided in the connecting pipe from transformer tank to
conservator. Two floats are provided inside the relay and are connected to
mercury switches. Normally the relay is full of oil and in case of gas collection
the floats due to their buyopancy, rotate on their supports until they engage their
respective stops. Initially fault develops slowly an heat is produced locally
which begins to decompose solid or liquid insulating material and thus produce

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inflammable gases. Gas bubbles are collected in relay causing oil level to lower
down. The upper float rotates as the oil level in the relay goes down and when
sufficient oil is displaced the mercury switch contacts close and initiates alarm.
For serious faults as described above, gas generation is more violent and the oil
displaced by gas bubbles flows through connecting pipe to conservator. This
abnormal flow of oil causes deflection of both float and trip out the transformer.
Recently the dissolved gas analysis technique (gas chromatography) is in use for
pre-detection of type of slowly develo ing faults inside the transformer which
helps to decide whether the transformer maintenance/internal inspection is
required to be
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PAGE 45
carried out or otherwise, and thus helps to predict transformer damage in future.
4.4.3 Dissolved Gas Analysis
The inflammable gases dissolved in the transformer oil are mainly hydrocarbon
gases (methane CH4, Ethane C2H6, Ethylene C2H4, Acetylene C2H2, Propane,

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hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide). With the help of dissolved gas
analysis equipment the concentration of these gases in PPM can be known and
can be cross checked with the IS standard. Also with the help of Roger's ratio
method, the type of probable incipient fault can be judged and corrective action
can be taken in advance to prevent failure of the transformer (Ref. Annex. 1 &,
H).
4.5 Over Heating Protection
Protection is mainly required for continuous over load of the transformer.
a) Protection is based on measurement of winding temperature which is
measured by thermal image technique.
b) Thermal sensing element is placed in small pocket located near the top
transformer tank in the hot oil. A small heater fed from a current
transformer (winding temp. C.T.) in the lower voltage terminal of one
phase, is also located in this pocket and produces a local temp. rise,
similar to that of main winding and proportional to copper losses, above
general temp. of oil.
c) Winding temperature high alarm/trip is provided through mercury
switches in the winding temp. indicators.
d) By thermometers, mercury switches heat sensing silicon resistance are
also used for sensing the temp. rise.
e) Thermisters are provided mainly in the dry type transformers for
temperature sensing.
Temperature of 550 above ambient of 500C is generally provided for tripping.
PAGE 46
4.6 Over Current & Earth leakage protection
4.6.1 Earth Leakage Protection
In case of transformer earthed through resistance or earthed through impedance.
Resistance Grounding : The earth fault current in faulty winding in resistance
grounded transformer depends on voltage between neutral and fault point and is
inversely proportional to neutral resistance.
10kv x P
ly = √3. Rn

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Where ly is earth fault current; P = percentage of winding to be protected; KV -
line to line voltage and Rn = Neutral Grounding resistance. Suitable earth fault
relay can be provided across C.T. in the neutral of the transformer depending
upon the minimum earth fault current to be detected.
Impedance Grounding Transformer neutral is connected to the primary of
neutral grounding transformer. The suitable resistance is connected in parallel
with the secondary of this neutral grounding transformer. The earth fault relay
(neutral displacement relay) is connected across this resistance. The earth fault
relay can be set at about 2.5 percent of maximum neutral voltage The relay is
time delayed for transient free operation.
4.6.2 Over current protection
i) HRC fuses are provided for small distribution transformer.
ii) Over current relays are used for power transformers, considering
the following:
a) IDMT relays should be chosen
b) Discrimination with circui t protection of secondary side should be
provided;
c) instantaneous trip f@cility for high speed clearance of terminals short
circuit should be provided.
PAGE 47
d) Setting depends on transformer reactance or percentage impedance,
faults MVA, type of relay used.
e) Setting of over current relays can be slightly higher than rated full load
current (say 120 percent of FL) with proper discrimination.
4.6.3 Combined over current and unrestricted EIP Protection (Ref. -Kg. 4.2)
a) Typical over current/earth fault protection is shown for a Delta/start
transformer in Fig. 4.2.
b) IDMT O/C elements on delta and star side, primarily serve as back up
protection against downstream short circuits and are time coordinated
with downstream O/C protections.
c) The high set instantaneous O/C elements on Delta side (connected to
source) are provided to detect severe terminal short circuits and quickly

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isolate the transformer. These are set over and above the maximum
short circuit current infeeds of the transformer for star side faults.
d) The start side earth fault protection (IDMT) serves as a backup against
downstream earth faults and is required to be suitably time graded. This
can either be residually connected across the phase C.Ts or operated off
a C.T. in the Neutral Earth connection (standby earth fault relay). The
latter is considered to be advantageous since it can detect star winding
earth faults, beside providing backup for downstream earth faults. Since
the neutral C.T. ratio is not tied up with the load current, a lower C.T.
ratio consistent with the maximum E/F current limited by NGR can be
provided. This renders good sensitivity for the standby E/F protection.
e) The E/F protection on delta side is inherently restricted to delta winding
earth faults and does not respond to earth faults on the star side, due to
zero sequence isolation provided by the delta connection. The delta side
E/-F protection, therefore, assumes the form of REF

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protection, enabling sensitive setting and instantaneous operation. The relay is
connected in high impedance mode with a series stabilizing resistor, as shown.
4.6.4 Restricted Earth Fault Protection : (Ref. Mg. 4.3)
a) REF protection is used to supplement the differential protection,
particularly where star neutral of the transformer is grounded through a
neutral grounding resistor to limit the earth fault current. REF protection
provides increased coverage to the star winding against earth faults.
b) The REF protection operates on the principle of Kirchoff's law and
requires CTs of identical ratio and ratings as the phases and neutral
earth connection. The relay is connected across the parallel combination
of the CTs in High Impedance mode.
c) For external earth fault, the associated CTs have dissimilar polarities
forming a series connection. Thus, the resulting current through the
relay is negligible. For internal fault, however, the CTs have similar
polarities, forming a parallel connection, thus adding up the current in the
relay branch. This ensures positive operation of the relay.
4.7 Percentage Bias Differential Protection
a) In this protection, operating current is a function of differential current.
b) The value of restraining current depends on 2nd and 5th harmonic
component of differential current during magnetic inrush and over excited
operation.
c) Bias current is a function of through current (external fault current) and
stabilizes the relays against heavy external fault.
4.7. 1 Basic Consideration for differentiaz protection
a) Transformer ratio : the current transformers should match to the rated
currents of the primary windings.
PAGE 50
b) Transformer Connection: In delta star connected transformer, the phase
shift of 300C between primary and secondary. side current exist. Also
zero sequence current flowing on the star side will not produce the
reflected current. in the delta on the other side. To eliminate zero
sequence compo nent on star side the current transformer must be

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connected in delta and the current transformer of delta: side must be
connected in start.
c) For star/star transformer CTs on both sides should be connected in . delta.
d) In order that secondary currents from two groups of CTs may have the
same.magnitude (i.e.. primary side CTs and secondary side CTs). The
ratio of star connected CTs if 5 Amp, then those of delta connected group
may be 5/ @3 2.89 Amps.
e) The operating current is a appropriate percentage of reflected through
fault current in the. restraining (bias) coils and the ratio is termed as
percentage slope.
f) Operating coil is provided with vectors sum of the currents in the
transformer windings and the bias coil sees the average scaler sum of the.
reflected through fault current. Spill current required to operate the relay
is expressed as percentage of through current.
g) The relay is also provided with an unrestrained differential high set, to
protect against heavy faults which are en ough to saturate the line current
transformers. The settin of this high set unit is kept above the maximum
in rush current magnitude. This will operate in typically one cycle for
heavy internal faults.
4.7.2 Operating Principlesfor Internalfault & externalfaults
During external fault condition (through fault) (Fig. 4.4):
Current in pilot wires would pass, through whole of bias coils and only .ou@t of
balance current due tb mis-match caused by OLTC and C.T. errors

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PAGE 52
would flow through operating coil. Under this condition biasing effect
predominates and prevents the relay operation.
During Internal faults: (FYg. 4. 5)
In this case, the reflected current flows through only one half of bias coil and the
operating coil and back to CT neutral connection. Here the operating quantity
predominates resulting into operation of the relay.
4.8 Over Voltage Protection
a) Two stage protection is provided
b) the delayed trip is set at 1 10 percent of the rated voltage with two second
time delay (typical).
c) Instantaneous setting is kept at 1 15 - 120 percent of the rated voltage
d) During voltage fluctuations the AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator) will
take care to avoid over voltage condition if fluctuations are within its
operating limits (for Generator step-up transformer).
4.9 C)ver Fluxing Protection
a) This protection is commonly used for Generator Transformers and large
inter connecting transformers in the Grid.
b) This condition arises during abnormal operating conditions i.e. heavy
voltage fluctuations at lower frequency conditions. This condition is
experienced by the transformer during heavy power swings, cascade
tripping of the generator sets and HT line in the Grid, interstate system
separation conditions and due to AVR malfunctioning during start-up or
shutting down in case of Generator Transformers.
c) The power frequency over -voltage cause both stress on insulation and
proportionate increase in the magnetising flux inside the transformer due to
which the iron losses are increased and the core bolts get maximum
component of flux, thereby rapidly heating and damaging its own
insulation and coil insulation. Reduction in frequency during high voltage
fluctuation has the same effect.

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PAGE 54
d) Transformer should be isolated within one or two minutes or as
recommended by the manufacturer.
e) The core flux @ α V/f where V- impressed voltage and f- frequency. The
index of over fluxing is, therefore, V/f. Over fluxing relays having variable
V/f setting and time delays are used for this protection.
4.10 Overall Differential Protection
a) This is provided for complete protection of generator, and generator
transformer and as such is a compound overall differential protection.
b) In addition to normal differential protection of generator, overall biased
differential protection relay is connected to protect the unit as shown, in Mg. 4.6.
c) 200/o pickup and 20% bias setting is provided.(The values are typical).
d) This is a supplementary protection for individual differential protection of
the generator.
e) Unit auxiliary transformers . are provided with separate differential
protection.
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ANNEXURE-I
PERMISSIBLE CONCENTRATIONS OF DISSOLVED
GASES IN THE OIL OF HEALTHY TRANSFORMER
(TRANSFORMERS UNIO AG)
Less than four 4-10 years in More than 10
Gas years in service service years in service

Hydrogen 100 / 150 ppm 200 / 300 ppm 200 / 300 ppm

Methane 50 / 70 ppm 100 / 150 ppm 200 / 300 ppm

Acetylene 20 / 30 ppm 30 / 50 ppm 100 / 150 ppm

Ethylene 100 / 150 ppm 150 / 200 ppm 200 / 400 ppm

Ethane 30 / 40 ppm 100 / 150 ppm 800 / 1000 ppm


Carbon
Monoxide 200 / 300 ppm 400 / 500 ppm 600 / 700 ppm
Carbon
dioxide 3000 / 3500 ppm 4000 / 5000 ppm 9000 / 12000 ppm

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CHAPTER - 5
GENERATOR PROTECTIONS
5.1 Introduction
Generators are designed to run at a high load factor for. a large number of years
and permit certain incidences of abnormal working conditions. The machine and
its auxiliaries are supervised by monitoring devices to keep the incidences of
abnormal working conditions down to a minimum. Despite of this monitoring,
electrical and mechanical faults may occur, and the generators must be provided
with protective relays, which in case' of a fault, quickly initiate a disconnection
of the machine from the system and, if necessary, initiate a complete shut-down
of the machine.
The following are the various types of protections provided for a 200 / 2 1 0 MW
Generator.
1. Stator ground (earth) fault protection
a) 95% stator ground fault protection
b) 100% stator ground fault protection
2. Rotor earth fault protection
a) First rotor earth fault protection
b) Second rotor earth fault protection
3. Generator Interturn fault protection
4. Generator Negative phase sequence protection
5. Generator Loss of excitation protection
6. Generator Minimum Impedance (MHO backup) protection
7. Generator Differential protection
8. Generator Overall differential protection
9. Generator Reverse power protection
10. Generator Over frequency protection
11. Generator Under frequency protection
12. Generator Thermal overload protection
13. Generator Over voltage protection
14. Generator out of step (Pole slipping) Protection

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5.2 Stator Earth Faults:
In most countries, it is a common practice to ground the generator neutral
through a Grounding Transformer having a loading resistor across its secondary.
This method of earthing is called High Impedance earthing where the earth fault
current is limited to 5-10 Amps. Tuned reactor which limit the ground fault
current to less than 1.OA are also used.
The generator grounding resistor normally limits the neutral voltage transmitted
from the high voltage side of the unit transformer in case of a ground fault on the
H.V. side to maximum 2-3% of rated generator phase voltage.
Short circuits between the stator winding in the slots and the stator core are the
most common electrical fault in Generators. Interturn faults, which normally are
difficult to detect, will quickly develop into a ground fault and will be tripped by
the stator ground fault protection.
5.2.1 95% Stator Ground fault Relay for Generator (Fig. 5. 1)
For generators with unit transformer and with high impedance grounding of the
neutral, a neutral voltage relay with harmonic immunity and independent time
delay is used. The relay is normally set to operate at 5% of maximum neutral
voltage with a time delay of 0.3 - 0.5 second. With this voltage setting, it
protects approximately 95% of the Stator winding.
It also covers the generator bus, the low voltage winding of the unit transformer
and the high voltage winding of the unit aux. Transformer.
Relay details 64 A/B - Neutral Displacement Relay having IDMT or definite
time characteristic.
5.2.2 100% Stator Ground fault protection for Generator
Ground faults caused by mechanical damage may occur close to the generator
neutral. Today there is a distinct trend towards providing ground fault protection
for the entire stator winding (1 00% stator ground fault protection).
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The principle diagram of the relay is shown in Fig. 5.2. The 100% stator ground
fault scheme includes a 95% unit (1), which covers the stator winding from 5%

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of the neutral and a 3rd harmonic voltage measuring unit (2) which protects the
rest of the stator winding.
For generators with 3rd harmonic voltage less than 1%, a filter is available with
a damping factor of more than 1 00.
When the generator is running and there is no ground fault near the neutral, the
third harmonic voltage unit (2) and the voltage check unit (4) are both activated
and the relay contact used in alarm/trip circuit is open. If a ground fault occurs
close to the generator neutral, the third harmonic voltage unit will reset,
operating relay contact will close and alarm or tripping is obtained.
The voltage check unit is included to prevent faulty operation of the relay at
generator standstill or during the machine running up or running down period.
Generators which produce more than 1% third harmonic voltage under all
service conditions, can have the entire stator winding up to and including the
neutral point protected by the 100% stator ground fault relay.
5.3 Rotor Earth Fault Protection (64R1/64R2):
The field circuit of generator (i.e. rotor winding) is a isolated D.C. circuit and
not earthed anywhere. The field circuit can be exposed to abnormal mechanical
or thermal stresses due to vibrations, excessive currents or choked cooling
medium flow. This may result in a breakdown of the insulation between the
field winding and the rotor iron at one point where the stress has been too high.
A single earth fault in the field winding or its associated circuits, therefore, gives
rise to a negligible fault current and does not represent any immediate danger.
If, however a second ground fault should occur, heavy fault current and severe
mechanical unbalance may quickly arise and lead to serious damage. It is
essential therefore that any occurrence of insulation failure is discovered and that
the
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machine is taken out of service as soon as possible. Normally the machine is
tripped instantly on occurrence of second rotor earth fault. Three methods are
available to detect this type of faults - (First Rotor earth fault protection) 64Rl.
a) Potentiometer method
b) A.C. injection method

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c) D.C. injection method
5.3.1 Potentiometer Method (Fig. 5.3)
In this scheme, a centre tapped resistor is connected in parallel with the main
field winding as shown in Fig. 5.3. The centre point of the resistor is connected
to earth through a voltage relay. An earth fault on the field winding will produce
a voltage across the relay. The maximum voltage occurring for faults at the ends
of the winding.
A 'blind spot'exists at the centre of the field winding, this point being at a
potential equal to that of the tapping point on the potentiometer. To avoid a fault
at this location remaining undetected, the tapping point on the potentiometer is
varied by a push button or switch. It is essential that station instructions be
issued to make certain that the blind spot is checked at least once per shift. The
scheme is simple in that no auxiliary supply is needed. A relay with a setting 5%
of the exciter voltage is adequate. The potentiometer will dissipate about 60
volts.
5.3.2 A. C. Injection Method (Mg. 5. 4)
This scheme is shown in Fig. 5.4. It comprises of an auxiliary supply
transformer, the secondary of which is connected between earth and one side of
the field circuit through an interposed capacitor and a relay coil.
The field circuit is subjected to an alternating potential at the same level through
out, so that an earth fault anywhere in the field system will give rise to a current
which is detected by the relay. The capacitor limits the magnitude of the current
and blocks the normal field voltage, preventing the discharge of a large direct
current through the transformer.

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This scheme has an advantage over the potentiometer method in that there is no
blind spot in the supervision of the field system. It has the disadvantage that
some current will flow to earth continuously through the capacitance of the field
winding. This current may flow through the machine bearings, causing erosion
of the bearing surface. It is a common practice to insulate the bearings and to
provide an earthing brush for the shaft. and if this is done the capacitance current
would be harmless.
5.3.3 D. C. Injection Method (FYg. 5. 5)
The capacitance current ob ection to the a.c. injection scheme is' overcome by
rectifying the injection voltage as shown in Fig. 5.5. The d.c. out put of a
transformer rectifier power unit is arranged to bias the positive side of the field
circuit to a negative voltage relative to earth. The negative side of the field
system is at a greater negative voltage to earth, so an earth fault at any point in
the field winding will cause current to flow through the power unit. The current
is limited by including a high resistance in the circuit and a sensitive relay is
used to detect the current.
The fault current varies with fault position, but this is not detrimental provided
the relay can detect the minimum fault current and withstand the maximum.
The relay must have enough resistance to limit the fault current to a harmless
value and be sufficiently sensitive to respond to a fault which at the low injection
voltage may have a fairly high resistance. The relay must not be so sensitive as
to operate with the normal insulation leakage current, taking into account of the
high voltage to earth at the negative end of the winding and any over voltage due
to field forcing and so on.
5.3.4 (a) Second Rotor Earth Fault Protection 64R2 (FYg. 5.5 a)
In this test system is replaced by a replica field system in the form of potential
divider, two IK potentiometers in parallel with station D.C. is used as shown in
Figure 5.5 (a) with SWI at lst rotor E/F position. Close switch S 1 check that 1
st rotor E/ F relay VAEM (64R 1) operated.

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Shift SWI to Balance. Obtain balance on the mA meter (Galvanometers) by
coarse/fine adjustment of potentiometer. Shift SWI on "Test' position, check
operation of relay 64R2 by closing sw,itch S2 thus creating an unbalance which
simulates second EIF.
5.3.4(b) Rotor Earth Fault (Fig.5.5b)
The schemeto detect Rotor Earth Fault in case of Brushless excitation system is
shown in Mg. 5.5.(b). In this case, Rotor Earth Fault relay forms the three arms of
a bridge whose, fourth arm is the, field winding capacitance to Rotor body.
During Rotor earth fault, this capacitance gets shorted and the bridge becomes
unbalanced operating the relay. Main exciter winding, rotating diodes and
Generator field winding is protected by this relay.
5.4 Generator Interturn Fault Protection (95A,B,C) (Fig. 5.6)
Intertum faults have commonly been disregarded on the basis that if they occur
they will quickly develop into earth faults. This is probably true if the fault is in
the slot portion but will take a little longer in the region of the end connection. An
approach of this kind is never attractive and may be entirely unjustified. There is
a possibility of the machine being very seriously damaged before the fault evolves
to a condition that can be detected by the longitudinal system.
Modern medium size and large size turbo generators have the stator winding
designed with only one turn per phase per slot. For these machines interturn
faults can only occur in case of double ground faults or as a result of severe
mechanical damage of the stator end winding. The latter is considered rather
unlikely to occur.
It is generally considered difficult to obtain a reliable protection against short-
circuiting of one turn if the stator winding has a large number of turn per phase.
For generators with split neutrals, the conventional inter-turn fault protective
scheme comprises a time delayed low set over-current relay which senses the
current flowing in the connection between the neutrals of the stator winding. The
fault current can be extensively large in case of interturn fault, hence the time
delay must be short,

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0.2 to 0.4 sec and the over current relay must be set higher than the maximum
unbalanced current in case of external faults and the minimum unbalanced
current for single turn short circuit have to be obtained from the manufacturer
of the machine.
Due to the difficulties in obtaining, a reliable and secure interturn protection, it
is in most cases omitted. It is assumed that the interturn fault will lead to a
single phase ground. fault at the faulty spot, and the machine will. then be
tripped by the ground fault relay within 0.3 - 0.4 secs.
Relay is shown for one phase only. Similar connections are for other two
phases, Time delay of 200 sec. is provided. to avoid operation of relay in
system disturbance condition.
5.5 Generator Negative Phase sequence Current Protection(46)(Fig. 5.7)
When the generator is connected to a balanced load, the p age currents are equal.
in magnitude and displaced electrically by 120o. The ampere turn wave
produced by the stator currents rotate synchronously with the rotor and no eddy
currents are induced in the rotor parts.
Unbalanced loading gives rise to a negative sequence component in the stator
current. The negative sequence current produces an additional ampere turn wave
which rotates backwards, hence it moves relatively to the rotor at twice. the
synchronous speed. The double, frequency eddy currents induced in the rotor
may cause excessive 'heating, primarily in the surface of cylindrical rotors and,
in. the damper winding of rotors with salient poles..
The approximate heating effect on the rotor of a synchronous machine for
various unbalanced fault or severe load unbalance conditions is
determined by the product I22 t K, where
I2 = Negative sequence current expressed per unit of stator current(PU)
T = Time in seconds
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K = a constant depending on the heating characteristic of the machine (rotor) i.e.
type of machine and the method of cooling adopted for rotor.

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The capability, of machine to withstand continuously unbalanced currents is
expressed as negative sequence current in percent of rated stator current.
Typical values for generators are given in table.
Type of generator Max. permitted Max. permitted
2 continuous I2 (%)
I2.t

A Cylindrical rotor
Indirectly cooled 30 10
Directly cooled (5 - 10) (5 - 8)
B Salient pole rotor with
Damper winding
Without damper winding
40 10
40 5

Single phase and specially two phase short circuits give rise to large negative
sequence currents. The faults are however, cleared by other relays in a time
much shorter than the operate time of the negative sequence relay.
A two phase short circuit with fault current equal to 3.46 (2 @3 ) time rated
generator current implies a negative sequence , current component equal to twice
the rated current (2 p.u.). Hence a negative sequence relay with the setting.
I22t = 10s would trip with a time delay of
10 = 2.5 sec.
22
Examples on load dissymetries which give rise to negative sequence currents in
the generator are -
1. Unbalanced single phase loads-Traction loads and induction furnaces.
2. Transmission line dissymetries due to capacitors, non-transposed phase wire or
open conductors (C.B. pole failure)
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An open conductor may give rise to a considerable negative sequence current, as
a maximum of more than 50% of rated machine current. The combination of
two or more of the above mentioned dissymetries case give rise to harmful
negative phase sequence current, even if each of them gives rise to a relatively
small unbalance. The Fyg. 5.7 will illustrate the C.T. and relay circuit.
5.6 Generator Loss of Excitation Protection (40G) (Mg. 5.8)

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A complete loss of excitation may occur as a result of -
a. Unintentional opening of the field breaker
b. an open circuit or a short circuit of the main field
c. a fault in the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) with the result that the
field current is reduced to zero.
When a generator with sufficient active load looses the field supply, it goes out
of synchronization and starts to run asynchronously at a speed higher than the
system, absorbing reactive power (VAR) for its excitation from the system,
operates as an induction generator.
The maximum active power that can be generated without. loss of synchronism
when the generator losses its excitation depends on the difference between the
direct axis and quadrature axis synchronous reactance. For generators with
salient poles, the difference is normally sufficiently large to keep the machine
running
synchronously; even with an active load of 15-25% of rated load.
For cylindrical turbo generators, the direct and quadrature axis reactance are
practically equal, and the machine falls out of synchronism even with a very
small active load. The slip speed increases with the active load.
The stator end regions and parts of the rotor will be overheated, if the machine is
permitted to run for a long time at higher slip speeds The relay used to detect
field failure is an offset MHO Relay with 900 lead MTA (40G). On field failure,
the terminal impedance locus moves within the Relay characteristics, causing
operation. The relay is used with an external or built-in time delay for its
transient free operation.

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5.6.1 Out of Step Protection of Generator
A generator may lose synchronism with the power system, without failure of the
excitation system, because of a severe system fault disturbance or operation at a
high load with a leading power factor and hence a relatively weak field. In this
condition, which is quite different from the failure of field system, the machine
is subject to violent oscillations of torque, with vide variations, in current, power
and power factor. Synchronism can be regained if the load is sufficiently
reduced but if this does not occur within a few seconds it is necessary to isolate
the generator and then resynchronize.
The impedance of the generator measured at the 'stator terminals changes mostly
when synchronism is lost. by the machine. The terminal voltage will begin to
decrease and the current to increase, resulting in a decrease of impedance and
also a change in power factor.
A pole slipping protection comprising of two ohm relays is used to detect out of
step operation. The relay monitors the load impedance at the machine terminals
and operates when the terminal impedance locus sequentially crosses both ohm
relay characteristics which corresponds to one pole slip between the defaulting
machine and the system.
5.7 Generator Minimum Impedance (MHO Back) Protection (2101, G2, G3):
The Generator minimum impedance protection (or Impedance back-up
protection) is primarily provided to protect the Generator against uncleared
external short circuits on the lines emanating from the station bus bars. The
relay has an impedance or offset MHO characteristic and is set to cover the
impedance of the longest line. The Generator transformer being delta/star,
introduces a 300 phase shift on @the HV side. To ensure correct impedance
measurement of the lines, the machine voltage fed to the relay (via Generator
V.TS), is phase corrected by using Interposing voltage transformers (delta/ star)
connected in the same vector group as that of the Gen.Transformer.
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The relay operation is delayed by using external or built-in timer so as to
discriminate with line back-up protections.

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Over current type of back-up protection is also used for Generator. This is
usually of voltage restraint or voltage controlled type where the voltage input
from the Generator V.T. is used to sensitise the over current protection on fault.
This ensures positive operation even though the sustained fault current is less
than the full load current of the machine due to the effect of armature reaction.
The over current backup is also set with adequate time delay to coordinate with
down stream backup protections.
5.8 Generator Differential Protection (87A,B,C) (Fig. 5. 10)
5.8.1 Principle of Operation
Current transformers at each end of the protected zone are interconnected by an
auxiliary pilot circuit as shown in Fig. 5. 1 0. Current transmitted through the
zone causes secondary current to circulate round the pilot circuit without
producing any current in the relay. A fault within the protected zone will cause
secondary currents of opposite relative phase as compared with the through fault
condition. The summated value of these currents will. flow in the relay, thus
energizes the relay. The relay voltage setting is decided from the secondary load
drop by the following formula.
Vmax = I11(RcT + RL) where
I11 = Secondary subtransient short circuit current.
RL = resistance of pilot wire between current transformer (CT) and relay.
RcT = resistance of the secondar-y winding of the saturated current
transformer.
The relay operating voltage is set higher than Vmax. The minimum operating
current depends mainly on the current setting of the relay, the magnetizing
characteristics current of the associated CTs and CT Ratio.
For internal faults, the fault current equal to or above the minimum operating
value of the relay, the voltage across the relay goes upto the

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full saturation voltage of the CTs and the relay operates in 10-15 msec.
Non-linear Resistor (metrosils) across the differential relay limits the voltage to a
safe level. The primary operating current is normally between 1-5% of rated
generator current. The relay requires separate CT cores.
The differential relay is usually high impedance relay. The current transformers
on the generator neutral and the line side shall have identical turns ratio and
similar magnetizing characteristics. Hence under normal,service conditions and
external faults, with unsaturated current transformers, the voltage across the
relay is negligible.
Biased differential relays are also used for generator differential protection. The
operating principle is same as that for the biased differential protection of
transformers. However, a moderate bias (10 to 20%) is adequate for Generator
since the mismatch is primarily due to CT errors, unlike in case of transformers
where OLTC produces maximum mismatch on end taps. Besides, inrush
immunity is not required in case of Generator, unlike in case of transformers.
5.9 Generator Overall differential Protection (87GT) (Mg. 5. 1 1)
This protection is used to protect the complete bus of generator, generator
transformer and high voltage bus side of unit auxiliary transformer. The special
features of the relay are -
1) Though current restraint for external faults
2) Magnetizing inrush restraint
3) Over excitation restraint to counteract operation at abnormal magnetizing
currents caused by high voltage/low frequency.
The magnetizing restraint is required to keep the relay stable when a nearby fault
on an adjacent feeder is cleared.
During the time of fault, the terminal voltage of the main transformer is
practically zero and after fault clearance i.e. when the circuit breaker of the
faulty feeder opens, the transformer terminal voltage quickly rises. This may
cause severe recovery inrush currents. The

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Inrush restraint is also required when the unit transformer energized from the HV
bus.
The over excitation restraint is important since there is a possibility of over
voltage when load is suddenly disconnected in which, the differential relay may
trip the generator and the voltage remains high until the automatic voltage
regulator (AVR) brought it back to the normal value.
The relay has an unrestrained differential high set unit. The unrestrained
operation must be set higher than the maximum inrush current of the transformer.
It gives fast tripping (10-20m sec.) The CT and relay connections are shown in
Fig. 5.1 1.
5.10 Generator Reverse Power Protection (32) (Flg. 5.12)
This is basically/the protection provided for the prime mover i.e. turbine. If the
driving torque becomes less such as closure of main steam valves in case of
steam turbo generator, the generator starts to work as a synchronous
compensator, taking the necessary active power from the network. The
reduction of steam flow reduces the cooling effect on the turbine blades and
overheating may occur. The work done by the entrapped steam in the turbine is
then zero. As generator is not designed to run as a motor it should be
immediately tripped when the steam flow to the turbine is stopped and to avoid
damage to the turbine blades.
The generator currents remain balanced when the machine is working as a
motor. For large turbo-generator, where the reverse power may be substantially
less than 1%, reverse power protection is obtained by a minimum power relay,
which normally is set to trip the machine when the active power out put is less
than 1% of rated value.
The relay contains directional current relay which measures the product IX coso,
where 0 is the angle between the polarizing voltage and the, current to the relay.
The scale range used is 5-2OmA for 1A and 30-120 mA for 5A rated CT
secondary currents. Time delay of 2 seconds is provided. The detail
connections of CT and relay are shown in Fig. 5.12.
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5.11 Generator Over Frequency Protection
5.12 GeneratorUnder PrequencyProtection(14A/14T/81)
The Generators are designed to give rated output at rated terminal voltage and
rated frequency. Hence an operation above certain limit i.e. +5% and -5% of
rated frequency is avoided to protect various apparatus in a network and also the
generator and turbine. Operation at low frequency must be limited, in order to
avoid damage to generators, generator transformers and turbines, (over
fluxingmay occur if frequency is less than rated).
In practice, prolonged generator operation at low frequency can only occur when
a machine with its local load is separated from the rest of the network. The
necessity of under frequency protection has to be evaluated from knowledge of
the network and characteristics of the turbine regulator. A time delay of about 2
seconds is introduced in. the tripping circuit to avoid transient tripping.
5.13 Generator Thermal Overload Protection (51A/51B) (Fig. 5.13)
A generator operating on a large system under continuous supervision is not in
much danger of accidental overloading. The power that can be generated is
limited by the steam production and hence can not rise unnoticed or maintained
for any appreciable period above the programmed level. Overloads in terms of
current or MVA as distinct from megawatts are possible. Depending on the
voltage regulator setting and type of control relative to the rest of the system, a
given generator may take a disproportionate share of the MVAR load on the
system. Overloads upto 1.4 times the rated current are not normally detected by
the impedance or overcurrent protection. Sustained overloads within this range
are usually supervised by temperature monitors (RTD/or thermocouples).
As an additional check of the stator winding temperature, an accurate thermal
overload relay may be used. With static relay it is possible to obtain the short
relay time constants required for adequate thermal protection. The current
overload relay are not expected to give exact measurement of the winding
temperature under all conditions.

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5.14 Generator Over voltage Protection (I/II(59A/59B) (Fig. 5.14)
During the starting up of a generator, prior to synchronization, the Generator
terminal voltage is obtained by the proper operation of the automatic voltage
regulator (AVR). After synchronization, the terminal voltage of the machine
will be dictated by its own AVR and also by the voltage level of the system and
the AVRS of nearby machines. It is not possible for one machine to cause any
appreciable rise in the terminal voltage as long as it is connected to the system.
Increasing the field excitation, owing to a fault in the AVR, merely increases the
reactive MVAR output, which may ultimately lead to tripping of the impedance
relay or the V/Hz. Relay. Maximum excitation limit prevents the rotor field
current and the reactive output power from exceeding the design limits.
This protection is used for the insulation level of the generator stator windings.
Severe over voltage will occur, if the generator circuit 'breaker is tripped while
the machine is running at full load and rated power factor, the subsequent
increase in terminal voltage will normally be limited by a quick acting AVR.
However, if the AVR faulty or at this particular time switched over to manual
control, over voltage will occur. This voltage rise will be further increased if
simultaneous over speeding should occur, owing to a slow acting turbine
governor.
Modern unit transformers with high magnetic qualities have a relatively sharp
and well defined saturation level, with a knee point voltage between 1.2 and 1.25
times the rated voltage (Un). A suitable setting of the over voltage relay is,
therefore, between 1. 15 and 1.2 times Un and with a definite delay of 1 to 3 sec.
An instantaneous high set voltage relay can be included to trip the generator
quickly in case of excessive over voltage following a sudden loss of load and
generator over speeding.

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CHAPTER - 6
BUS ZONE - PROTECTION AND LOCAL BREAKER
BACKUP PROTECTION
6.1 Introduction
With ever increasing short circuit levels and growing complexities of the supply
system, Busbar protection is becoming increasingly relevant even at medium
voltage level in Industrial Distribution systems. Besides, major Industrial
installations with high contract demand and growth potential, often get utility
supply at Extra High Voltage (EHV) level i.e. 132 KV and above where high
speed bus bar protection is considered -essential from the point of view of
system stability.
Local breaker backup protection (against stuck breaker condition) though more
prevalent in utility systems can be applied in industrial distribution system at an
advantage. This protection gets well with Bus bar protection as it can share
common tripping logic with bus bar protection.
6.2 Bus Bar Protection - Requirements
6.2.1 Stability
It should be stable under maximum through fault condition with fault level
approaching switchgear breaking capacity.
6.2.2 High Speed Operation
Typical operating time range between 10-30 msecs. Fast clearance enables
maintaining system stability, besides limiting equipment damage and also
enables localised isolation of the faulted Busbar avoiding wide spread disruption
in the system.
6.2.3 Selectivity
It should be selective in isolating the faulted busbar, particularly in case of multi-
bus installations.
6.2.4 The protection should operate positively for internal fault, despite long
intervening quiescent periods, the bus faults being fewer and far apart.

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6.2.5 Sensitivity
The protection should be adequately sensitive to clear low in feed ,faults,
particularly during minimum generating conditions.
6.2.5 Suitable for use with moderate C. T. ratings
This is necessary since the CTs have to handle high fault currents, worst case
being faults approaching switchgear breaking capacity.
6.2.6 Conftgurable to different Busbar arrangements
The busbar arrangement may undergo changes such as sectionalisation and
additional circuits may be connected in future. The protection should be
extendable to such configuration changes.
6.3 Types of Bus Bar Protection
The most commonly used bus bar protection system are :
1) System Protection covering Busbar
2) Differential protection
6.3.1 System Protections Covering Busbar
These are primarily local or remote backup protection such as over current/earth
fault relay on feeders/transformers or distance protection provided on lines.
The distance protection for example, provides backup protection to remote
busbars in time delayed zone 2 or backup to local busbars in time delayed zone 3
with a small reverse reach. The IDMT overcurrent. Earth fault relays also
provide similar backup protection to the connected circuits against bus faults.
However, these cannot be considered as primary protection for busbar, being
time delayed and non-selective.
6.3.2 Differential Protection
The differential protection is the primary protection for bus bar against both
phase and earth faults. Practical bus differential schemes have all the ingredient
as spelled out under 6.2 above.
6.3.2.1 Operating Principle of Differential Protection
The protection uses a circulating current arrangement, with CTs of identical ratio
and ratings on all incoming and outgoing circuits having heir secondaries

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connected in parallel (phase by phase) to form a replica of the primary bus bar
arrangement. The differential relay is connected across the CT secondary bus
wires.
For external faults, the summated inflow from healthy circuits is equal to the
outflowing current from faulted circuit and thus the currents are balanced, with
no differential current through the relay. For internal fault, however, all CTs see
inflow of current into the bus. The secondary currents, therefore, add up into the
relay branch. Typical current distribution for external and internal fault is shown
in Mg. 6.3.2. 1.
The above illustration, considers ideal current transformers with no errors which
is too simplistic an assumption. In practice, CTs have errors and may experience
unequal saturation due to remnant flux in the core and dissimilarities in their
magnetizing characteristics, particularly if the fault current is asymmetrical
having a slowly decaying d.c. component. This may produce transient
unbalance, causing operation of the high speed differential relay. The practical
differential protection for busbars, circumvent this problem either by making the
relay branch high impedance or providing a through current bias, thereby,
automatically increasing the pickup threshold of the differential relay, above the
expected unbalanced current, on@ through faults. Two types of bus bar
protection schemes a@'e@ in vogue
1. High Impedance
2. Low Impedance (Biased)
6.3.2.2 High Impedance Scheme (Mg. 6.3.2.2)
1. The relay branch is made high impedance either by using a voltage
operated high impedance relay or by connecting an external series resistor
(stabilizing resistor) in case of current operated differential relay.

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2. This type of protection requires special class PS CTs (with low turns ratio
errors) of identical ratio and ratings on all circuits. Exclusive CT cores
are required for high impedance schemes which cannot share common CT
cores with other protections.
3. High impedance schemes are primarily fundamental frequency turned,
over current or over voltage relays and hence simple in design and
execution.
6.3.2.3 Supervision
The differential protection has a fail safe design. Consequently, the relay
becomes potentially unstable for any open circuit or cross connection in the CT
secondary of the associated feeders. The maloperation of the Busbar protection
can be prevented on load under the above condition by setting the pick up
threshold of the differential element over and above the maximum loaded circuit
current. However, the relay may still maloperate on a through fault, if the CT
secondary open circuit goes undetected. A maloperation of busbar protection
could be catastrophic, particularly in interconnected system and hence
continuous supervision of CT secondary is required as an additional safeguard.
The supervision relay is an AC voltage relay, connected across the differential
relay branch, having a sensitive setting range (usually 2 -14 volts) and a fixed
time delay to prevent transient operation on internal faults. The relay is
connected to sound an alarm and short CT secondary Bus wires, on operation.
Typical circuit arrangement for CT supervision relay is shown in Fig. 6.3.2.3.
6.3.2.4 Check Feature
Since stability is a very critical parameter of busbar protection, additional check
feature is usually provided in high impedance schemes to enhance security
against possible maloperation.
The check feature is o erated off a separate CT core on all incoming and
outgoing circuits connected to the bus and is a virtual duplication of the main
differential system. The contacts of the main and check

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differential relay are connected in series so that tripping is conditioned by
simultaneous operation of both for an internal fault. The check zone provides a
two fold advantage.
1. It enhances security in Multi-Bus Installations where CT switching
becomes inevitable for zonal discrimination.
2. It enables sensitive setting to be adopted on the differential relay without
the risk of maloperation with CT open circuiting under maximum load
condition.
A typical 2 zone scheme for sectionalized busbars with check feature is
illustrated in Fig. 6.3.2.4.
6.3.2.5 C. T. Switching
In case of multi bus arrangement (2 Bus/3 Bus arrangement), CT secondaries of
incoming/outgoing circuits are required to be switched to form a secondary
replica of the primary Bus arrangement to achieve zonal discrimination. This is
done either by using the bus isolator Auxiliary contacts of individual circuits or
by using separate contact multiplication ,relay of Electrical reset type as shown
in the Fig. 6.3.2.5.
6.4 LOW IMPEDANCE SCHEME (BIASED)
Typical CT connections for the scheme is shown in Fig. 6.4.0. Low impedance
Bus differential relay is primarily a biased differential relay where the through
current bias (restraint) increases the pickup threshold of differential relay on
external fault to ensure stability. The low impedance relay is more tolerant to
CT mismatch and can share common CT core with other protections. Practical
low impedance schemes provide CT saturation detectors to enhance stability.
6.5 LOCAL BREAKER BACK-UP (LBB) PROTECTION
6.5. 1 Introduction
In EHV substations, reliability of fault detection is enhanced by providing
duplicated protections (either Main 1/.Main 2 or Main and Backup Protection).
At the upper end of the EHV levels, the D.C. sources for protection are also
duplicated for better redundancy.

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Besides, the control breakers are provided with duplicated trip coils. All these
measures, undoubtedly improve the reliability of fault detection and isolation.
However, the possibility of mechanical failures of the switchgear or
interrupter flash overs can not be covered by these means for obvious reasons.
A failure of the breaker may therefore, result inspite of correct operation of
the protection and energisation of trip coils. This situation can be corrected
by providing local breaker backup (LBB) or breaker fail protection.
6.5.2 Operating Principle
LBB protection comes into operation, only if, the breaker fails to trip, following
energisation of its trip coil, through the circuit trip relays. The main ingredient
of LBB protection, is a. current check relay initiated by the circuit trip relays and
a follower timer. The current check relay, on initiation, check the presence of
the current in the faulted circuit and if it persists beyond a preset time, proceeds
to trip all other circuits connected to the Busbar to which the stuck breaker is
connected, thereby, ensuring local isolation. Tripping of remote breaker is also
initiated through a separate carrier channel, in case of line breakers to arrest
infeeds from remote end. A typical simplified LBB scheme is shown in Fig.
6.5.2 to illustrate its operating principle.
The circuit protections (M1/M2/BU) on operation initiate CB tripping and
simultaneously trigger LBB current check relay by extending DC. The LBB
protection, therefore, gets initiated on operation of the circuit protection and
hence does not require any time co-ordination with the circuit protections.
Besides a much sensitive setting can be provided in the current check relay,
independent of the circuit loadings. Typical setting range for the current check
relay and follower timer and recommended settings are given below.
Application Current check relay Follower Timer
Range Recommended Range Recommended
Setting setting
Generator Circuit 5 - 80% 5% 0.1 - 1 secs. 0.2 secs

All other circuits 20 - 320% 20% 0.1 - 1 secs. 0.2 secs


(TFRs/Lines/Bus
Couplers etc.

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A more sensitive setting is generally adopted for Generator application, in
view of the fact that a stuck breaker situation for certain abnormal conditions
like motoring, may involve very low current infeeds.
6.5.3 Combined Tripping Logic for LBB/Bus Bar Protection
Where Busbar protection is contemplated, the LBB scheme can share common
trip logic/tripping relays with Busbar protection. A typical combined Busbar
protection/LBB scheme is shown in Fig. 6.5.3 for 2 Bus Installation.
6.5.4 Setting Criteria for LBB Timer
The LBB time delay is primarily influenced by the tripping time of the breaker
and the reset time of the current check relay on correct tripping of the breaker.
Besides, adequate safety margin is also to be allowed. The timing criteria is
explained on a time scale below.

TLLB = T CB + TDO + TM - Tpu


Where TLLB - LBB Follower timer setting
TcB - Breaker Tripping time
TDo - Drop off time of current check relay
Tpu - Pick up time of current check relay Tm - Safety Margin
Usually a time delay of 200'msecs. Is adopted which allows sufficient
time co-ordination with remote back up protection.
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7. DISTRIBUTION FEEDER PROTECTION
7.1 Introduction

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Industrial Power Distribution systems make extensive use of 'cable feeders for
example, between captive generation Bus or 'Grid Suppl y Bus', to load
centres/Power control centres. These feeders are often radial or some times form
part of a ring main systems. While IDMT over current/earth fault protection is'
mostly used for radial distribution feeders particularly in the tail end unit
type,protections, such as pilot wire protection are also sometimes used on critical
feeders.
The unit protections are highly selective, sensitive and fast in operation, but do
not have any back up capabilities. The IDMT protection on the contrary, are
simple and economical but slower in operation to, necessitate time coordination
between adjacent sections for selective trappings. IDMT relays, however,
provide excellent backup protection to the down stream system.
7.2 Unit Protection
The principle of unit systems was first established by Merz and Price. This
fundamental differential system have formed the basis of many highly developed
protective arrangements for feeders and many other plant equipments. Two
forms of different schemes are available.
a) Circulating Current System
b) Balanced voltage system
7.2.1 Circulating Current System
In this arrangement current transformers of identical ratio and ratings are
provided at,each end of the protected zone and are interconnected by secondary
pilots as shown in Fig. 7.2. 1 (a)
For external faults, the two end CTs see equal inflow and outflow producing a
circulating current between the C.T. secondary and pilots, with no differential
current through the relay. For an in-zone fault, however, the secondary currents
have a additive polarity and, hence the summated current flows through the
relay, causing operation.

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In practicel unequal saturation of the CTs can cause increased spi . 11 current
through the relay on external faults, producing instability. The problem is
normally overcome by ma@ing the relay branch "high impedance" by adding
series stabilizing resistor.
7.2.2 Balanced Voltage System
In balance voltage system, the CT secondary outputs are opposed for through
fault so that no current flows in the series connected relay. An in-zone fault
however, produce a circulating current causing operation. The arrangement is
shown in FYg. 7.2.2.(a).
In the above arrangement, external fault would ineffect cause a CT open circuit
condition as no secondary current would flow. To avoid excessive saturation of
the core, the core is provided with nonmagnetic gaps to absorb the maximum
primary m.m.f. The secondary winding therefore would produce an e.m.f and
can be regarded a voltage source.
The inherent CT errors and pilot capacitance would produce substantial spill
current through the relay on through fault, causing instability. The problem is
overcome by providing a through current bias (restraint) which increases the
differential pickup approximately proportional to the through fault current,
thereby ensuring stability.
7.2.3 Summation Arrangement
In 3 phase systems, independent protection can be provided for each phase,
using phase by phase comparison of the two end currents. This would however,
require a minimum 4 core pilot adding up to the cost. An alternative is to
combine the separate phase currents into a single quantity for comparison over a
pair of pilots. This is achieved by using summation current transformers.
A typical summation C.T. is shown in Fig. 7.12.3 (a)
The interphase section of the summation winding (i.e. A-B & B-C) usually have
equal number of turns and the neutral end winding (C-N) having greater number
of turns.
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The above summation arrangement would produce output for both balanced as
well as unbalanced faults. Moreover, the relay offers different sensitivities for
different types of faults depending upon the phases involved. In the summation
arrangement illustrated, the associated relay will have highest sensitivity for A-C
and A-N faults.
7.2.4 Supervision of Pilots
The pilot circuits are subjected to various hazards which can cause open,circuit
or short circuit of the pilot cores. While overhead pilots are vulnerable to
storms, buried pilots may be damaged during excavation. The pilot failure may
lead to either mal-operation or nonoperation of the protection and hence
continuous supervision of the healthiness of the pilots become necessary.
This is achieved by injecting a small d.c. current though the pilot from one end
and monitoring its presence at the other end by energizing an auxiliary relay.
The auxiliary relay resets in the event of any discrepancy in the pilots and
sounds an alarm. A small time delay is introduced to prevent transient operation
due to primary system faults, causing momentary dip in the auxiliary supply.
Over current check feature may also be incorporated to prevent tripping on load
in the event of a pilot open circuit condition as it may lead to instability.
7.3. IDMT Over current & Earth Fault Protection
While at the lower end of the distribution system (particularly at low Voltage
Levels), fuses or series connected trip coils operating on 'Switching devices, are
used for short circuit protection. - IDMT over current/earth fault relay find wide
application at medium voltage levels.
As the name implies, IDMT relays have an Inverse time/current characteristic
(i.e. The operating time is inversely proportional to the current)and a Definite
Minimum Time (DMT) for high multiples of setting current. The time/current
characteristic is usually represented on a logarithmic scale and gives the
operating time at different multiples of setting current for the ' maximum "Time
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Multiplier Setting" (TMS). The TMS is continuously adjustable giving a range
of time/current characteristic.
7.3.1 IDMT Characteristic Variations and their Applications

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There are different variations of IDMT Characteristics. These are
i) Standard Inverse t = 0. 1 4 / (I0.02- 1)
ii) Very inverse t = 13.5/ (I- 1)
iii) Extremely Inverse t = @80/ (12- 1)
iv) Long inverse t 120/ (I- 1)
Where t = Relay operating time (seconds)
And I = Current (as multiple of Plug setting)
Fig. 7.3. 1 (a) shows the above characteristic at the max. time multiplier setting
of I.0.
While standard Inverse Characteristic covers majority of the applications, very
inverse characteristic is particularly useful where there is a substantial reduction
in the fault current as the distance from the power source increases. Extremely
Inverse characteristic is particularly suitable in grading with fuses (the operating
time being inversely proportional to the square of the current, the characteristic
eminently matches with the fuse characteristic). Long Inverse characteristic is
primarily used for overload protection or earth fault protection in resistance
grounded systems.
The IDMT relays provide both time and current grading to achieve
discrimination between successive stages in.the distribution system.
7.3.2 Grading Margin
The time interval (grading margin) between adjacent relay for selective
operation depends upon following factors.
i) Circuit Breaker tripping time
ii) Over shoot time of the relay
iii) Relay timing errors
iv) Safety Margin
The table below gives typical allowance to be made for the above factors.

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EEM Relay Static Relay
Timing Error (%) 7.5 5.0
Over Shoot (Sec. 0.05 0.03
Safety Margin (Sec.) 0.1 0.05

A suitable grading margin can be calculated as follows


T2 (2ER/ 100) x t + TCB +To + T sm
Wheret2 = time interval between adjacent relays
t = Relay nominal operating time
ER = % Timing error as given by manufacturer
TCB = Circuit Breaker tripping time (seconds)
To = Relay over shoot (seconds)
Tsm = Safety Margin (seconds)
Typically a grading margin of 0.3 to 0.4 second is considered adequate.
7.3.3.1 IDMT relays supplemented by High set Instantaneous over current
elements
Particularly on transformer feeders or long distribution feeders connected to
strong sources where there is a substantial reduction in the fault infeed for faults
beyond the protected section, high set instantaneous over current element is often
incorporated with the IDMT over current relay. The high set element is set over
and above the infeeds for fault beyond the protected equipment/section such that it
remains stable for such faults, while at the same time, offers high speed clearance
for close up faults within the section.
A typical example for High set over current application is given in Fig. 7.3.3. 1
(a).
H.S. o/c setting at A = 1.3 x 3000
= 3900 Amp (primary)
= 6.5 Amp (secondary)
The relay thus remains stable for faults beyond station, "B", but would offer
instantaneous clearance for close up faults in section A-B.
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The initial fault current may be asymmetrical with slowly decaying d.e. offset.
To enable close setting above the steady sate through fault current, the highset
element should immune to the d.c. offset. Such immunity is defined in terms of
transient over reach which should be low. Relays with less than 5% transient
over-reach are available.
The high set unit also improves overall grading as the IDMT relays are now
required to be time coordinated up to highset setting current and not upto the
maximum short circuit current close to relaying point.
7.3.3.2 Directional IDMT Relays
When fault current can flow in both direction at the relay location, directional
IDMT over current/earth fault can be used at an advantage to ensure selective
tripping. Usually a separate directional element is provided which controls the
operation of the IDMT over current relay. The directional unit is basically a
power measuring device in which the relative direction or phase of the fault
current is checked with reference to the system voltage.
Typical CT/VT input connection and Vector diagram for directional over current
and earth fault relay is shown in Fig. 7.3.3.2 alb and Fig. 7.3.3.2 cl d.
Referring to A phase element, the voltage coil flux lags the input volts "Vfic " by
450, whereas the current coil flux is in phase with current IA. Since the torque is
function of Ov x 01 sin a, where Ov = voltage coil flux, 01 = current coil flux
and a = Angle between the two interacting fluxes, maximum torque will be
produced when a = 900. The maximum torque will, therefore be realized when
IA lags VA by 45 o (IA'). The operational range of the directional element will
be 45 0 lead to 135 0 lag as shown in the vector diagram.
7.3.3.3 Typical Applications of Directional IDMT Relay
Following are the typical application of directional IDMT Relays.
1) Parallel Feeders : Directional relays are used at the receiving end of the
parallel feeders to ensure selective tripping as shown in Mg. 7.3.3.3. 1 (a).

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Referring to the figure above, for a fault on CKT2, while the relay at Receiving
End(B) on CKT2, sees an infeed in its looking direction and operates, the relay on
CKT 1 sees a current flow in the reverse direction and restrains. By time
coordinating the relays at, A and B, a selective tripping can be obtained. Besides
the directional relays at End "B" are non responsive to downstream faults and
hence do not require any time coordination with downstream backup, thereby
enabling a relatively faster clearance.
2) Ring Main System: Directional relays are used for Ring Mains. A typical
example is shown in Kg. 7.3.3.2(a). While the source end station (A), can have
non-directional relays (in view of no possibility of infeed reversal), the
intermediate stations should have directional relays looking into the feeders.
The time grading can be worked out by considering the grid open at one side of
the supply point, reducing it to radial system and grade from the tail end. The
same procedure can be repeated by opening the grid on the other side, at the
supply point.
Directional IDMT relays are also used on the feeders between Grid supply and
captive supply Bus for selective tripping and improved coordination.
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CHAPTER-8
LINE PROTECTION (DISTANCE SCHEMES)
8.1 Introduction
Distance Protection is one of the most extensively used form of protection for
transmission and sub-transmission lines. Distance relay, primarily measures the
impedance of the line between the relaying point and fault point and compares it
with the setting impedance to ascertain whether the fault is within the zone or
outside. Practical distance relays have normally 3 zones of operation - an
instantaneous first zone and time delayed backup zone 2 and 3.
When applied in conjunction with a signaling channel, it provides selective, high
speed protection for the line in question, and also a time delayed backup to the
adjoining lines through its second and third zone, thereby combining the
advantages of a unit as well as non-unit protection.

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The heart of a distance protection is a comparator which carries out the
impedance measurement. Several impedance measuring characteristics are
available covering both short and long lines, which are discussed below.
8.2 Measuring Characteristics
The various measuring characteristics and their applications are described below:
8.2.1 Impedance Characteristic (Fig. 8. 2. 1)
An impedance characteristic is represented by a circle with its centre at the
origin on the R-X diagram, and its radius equal to its reach setting.
The characteristic is produced by using an amplitude comparator and does not
take into account the phase relationship between the voltage and current.
The impedance characteristic is non-directional and is highly susceptible to
power swings and load encroachment because of its larger coverage on

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the R-X . plane. This characteristic is normally used for fault detection or as a
time delayed backup zone.
8.2.2. AMO Characteristic (Or Directional Impedance characteristic)
There are three Prin' Plc variations of MHO characteristic.
a) Self Polarised MHO
b) Cross Polarised MHO
c) Offset MHO
8. 2.2. 1 Seif Polarised MHO (Fig. 8.2.2. 1. a)
The self polarised MHO characteristic is a circle whose circumference passes
through the origin and diameter represents the setting impedance or Replica
Impedance (ZR) at an angle 0.
MHO Characteristic has an angle dependant reach (being maximum along the
setting Impedance angle) and is directional. It is less prone to power
swings/load encroachment due to its restricted coverage on the RX plane,
particularly along the Resistive Axis.
8.2.2.2 Cross Polarised MHO (Fig. 8.2.2.2a)
The cross polarised MHO characteristic is produced by deriving the polarising
voltage reference from healthy phase(s). While the characteristic is directional
and has an angle dependant reach, it provides increased tolerance to fault
resistance since the characteristic expands along the resistive axis for forward,
unbalanced faults. This happens due to the healthy phase polarization.
This characteristic is eminently suitable for short lines tied up to weak sources
where the fault arc resistance may be comparable to line impedance. The degree
of expansion depends upon the source to line Impedance (Zs/ZL) ratio, being
more at higher Zs/ZL ratio. The relay, thus provides enhanced resistive
coverage when the source is weak or the source impedance is high.
8.2.2.3 Offget MHO Characteristic
The offset MHO characteristic encloses the origin providing a small coverage for
faults behind the relaying point as shown in FYg.8.2.2.2(a).
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The relay is then said to be having a reverse offset. A forward offset, / on the
contrary sets the characteristic away from the origin.
The offset MHO characteristic is used for Zone 3 (when provided with reverse
offset) primarily as a back up against Busbar faults. Forward offset is used for
producing certain specially shaped characteristics as indicated in K_q. 8
described later.
8.2.3 Reactance Characteristic (FYg. 8.2.3. a)
The reactance characteristic is represented by a line parallel to the Resistive Axis
while ZLLO represents the line impedance, XR represents the setting Reactance.
The reactance characteristic is ideally suitable for short lines because of its high
resistive coverage. The characteristic is however, non directional and requires to
be monitored by some directional characteristic, as shown by the dotted MHO
circle in Fig.8.2.3a) when used for distance protection.
Besides the above standard characteristics, there are some shaped characteristics
to cover special applications. These are described below.
8.2.4 Lenticular Characteristic (Mg. 8.2.4a)
The characteristic is called lenticular because of its lens shape. While it provides
the required coverage along the line impedance angle, the resistive coverage is
restricted.
The characteristic is suitable for long over loaded lines and is often used for
Zone 3 where load encroachment problem may be encountered. The lenticular
characteristic invariably has a small reverse coverage.
8.2.5 Figure 8 Characteristic(Fig. 8. 2. Sa)
The characteristic is produced by two offset MHO circles, the lower one having
a small reverse offset where as the upper circle having a forward offset. The
composite characteristic looks like the figure of 8 and hence the name. Here
again the characteristic limits coverage along the resistive axis.

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The characteristic is thus less prone to load encroachment and hence applied for
long lines, evacuating bulk power.
8.2.6 Quadrilateral characteristic (Fig. 8.2.6a)
The characteristic is of the shape of a quadrilateral and fully directional. Both
the resistive and reactive reaches are independently adjustable.
The characteristic is, therefore, ideally suitable for very short lines, requiring
high fault resistance coverage.
8.3. Zones of Protection
Conventional distance relays have normally 3 zones of protection namely an
instantaneous zone 1 and time delayed zone 2/zone 3. Correct coordination
between distance relays on adjacent lines in a power system, is achieved by
judiciously selecting the reach and time settings of the various zones. Typical
reach and time settings for a 3 zone scheme is shown in Fig. 8.3. 0(a).
Associated tinle delays Zt - Inst, Z2-t2, Z3-t3.
The settings criteria for various zones is given below:
Zone 1 - 80 - 85% of the protected Section
Zone 2 - Protected section + 50% of shortest adjoining Section or
120% of the protected section whichever is greater.
Zone3 - Protected section + Longest adjoining section.
The zone 1, being instantaneous, is set under-reaching with a margin of
about 15 - 20% to account for possible relay/CT/PT errors and inaccuracies in
the line impedance parameters. The zone 2 is primarily intended to cover the
last 15-20% of the protected section, and hence is set to over-reach the remote
busbars bars with similar margin, to account for possible under-reaching due to
relay/CT/PT errors. The Zone 2 covers up to 50% of the shortest adjoining
section and ensures that it does not overlap with the zone 2 of adjoining section,
thus ding coordination problem. However, if the shortest adjoining
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section is too short, compared to the protected section, the margin against
possible, under-reaching may not be adequate. In such an eventuality, the zone 2
can be set to cover 120% of the protected section.

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Zone 3 protection is intended as a backup against uncleared external faults and
hence set to cover the longest adjoining line. The zone 3 setting should,
however, be checked against possible load encroachment, particularly in case of
long heavily loaded lines.
8.4 Phase Sequence comparator for MHO characteristic
The MHO characteristic as shown in Fig. 8.2.2. l a) can be produced by using a
sequence comparator with inputs derived from the current and voltages from the
transmission line. The input for the measuring circuit for a plain MHO
characteristic are V (fault voltage) from the line V.T., and iz, from the replica
impedance "Z" fed with line current "I" through the current transformer. The
above inputs referred to a single phase system are shown in FYg. 8.4. 0(a).
The voltage IZ is a replica of voltage which would be presented to the relay for a
fault at a location equivalent to its reach point. The reach of the relay is set by
adjusting the relative magnitudes of V and I.Z. and the characteristic angle is set
by adjusting the phase angle of the Replica Impedance "Z". The measuring
circuit operates by deriving the signals VIZ and V-/-900 and feeding these to the
sequence comparator. If inputs V-IZ lags V @-900, the fault lies inside the
characteristic whereas if V-IZ leads V@-900 the comparator restrains since the
fault is external. Signal V-/-900 is known as the polarising signal which
provides a reference for comparing the lag or lead relationship of the other input
V-IZ. The MHO characteristic with the input signals is illustrated in Fig. 8.4.
0(b).
8.4.1 Principle of comparator
The above inputs V-IZ and V@-900 are sinusoidal quantities of power
frequency denomination. Since the sequence comparator compares only the lag
or lead relationship of the input signals, only phase angle information and not
arpplitude of inputs is important. The inputs are,

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therefore, filtered to remove the unwanted frequency components and then
squared, so that they retain the phase angle information of the original sinusoidal
inputs.
The squared input signals V-IZ and V@-900 =B and their variations are shown
in Fig. 8.4. 1. (a) and (b) for external and internal fault conditions.
To understand the operation of the comparator, the input square wave, A and B,
which have either a high or low value can be regarded as logic variables. If the
high and low state of the input signals is represented as B and ¯A¯B
respectively, there are four possible combinations of their state i.e. A B, A ¯B,
A¯B, and A¯B. If both signals have unity mark space ratio and equal time
periods, the four combinations will occur in a cyclic manner, with only two
possible variations.
If A leads B, the sequence would be A B, ¯AB, ¯A ¯ B and A¯B and if 'A' lags
¯B, the sequence would be A B, A¯B , ¯A¯B and A¯B.
The comparator has a logic circuit which examines the input signals at every
change of state to see which of the two sequence are Leing followed and
determines whether the same is progressing in a trip or restraint condition. The
circuit can identify a trip or restraint condition from a single change of state and
from any starting point from the cycle. However, a single change of state may
be deceptive, if the input signals are laden with noise, since noise signals may
alter the zero crossings and reverse the sequence momentarily. Greater security
is therefore obtained, if tripping is conditioned by a number of status changes
corresponding to a trip sequence. The comparator has a counter to determine the
number of status changes. Every acceptable change corresponding to a trip
sequence increments the counter while a change corresponding to restraint
condition decrements the counter to a minimum of zero. The criteria for
operation is usually a count of 3 or 4.
Referring to the _figure 8.4.2(a) and (b), the noise signals introduces an extra
pair of zero crossing one adding to the total count and the other subtracting.
After each such interference, the counter is in the same

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position as before. The comparator, therefore, renders inherent noise rejection,
8.4.2.Polarising input to the Comparator
The polarising input provides a reference for comparison for the other input. It
is, therefore, imperative that the polarising voltage is always available
irrespective of the location of the fault (close up) and the number of phases
involved.
This is achieved by supplementing the faulted phase input, with either the
healthy phase voltage or memory voltage. While healthy phase voltage would
maintain polarising reference for close up unbalanced faults, memory
polarization caters for symmetrical (3 phase) faults.
The healthy phase or memory polarization eventually produces resistive
expansion of the characteristic, thereby enhancing fault resistance coverage. The
memory signal is usually extended for a substantial length of time to enable
positive operation of the relay on close up three phase faults.
8.5.0 Additional Features of Distance Relays
The practical distance protection has several standard/optional features, these are
:-
i) Power Swing Blocking
ii) V.T. Supervision and
iii) Switch on to fault.
8.5.1 Power Swing Blocking
Power Swing characterized by cyclic changes in current, voltage and power, are
produced when the induced voltage of generators at different,, locations in an
interconnected system, slip relative to each other to adjust to the changes in power
transfers (in magnitude and direction) following system faults. The tandem
variations in voltage and current during a swing, presents a changing impedance
to a distance relay, with the impedance locus moving away from the load area
towards the relay characteristic. The distance relay, is therefore, prone for
operation
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during a swing and is required to be blocked, to allow the power system to return
to stable conditions, during recoverable swings.

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The principle of power swing blocking is illustrated in Fig. 8. 5. 1 (a),.
Considering a Generator (represented by EG, XG) connected to a system
(represented by E., X.) through a transmission line (Impedance ZL), when the
angle of displacement between EG & @. widens, the impedance moves towards
the relay characteristic. The impedance locus is a perpendicular bisector of the
total impedance line (i.e. XG+ ZL +Z.) when EG = Es or takes a curvilinear path
when EG is either greater or less than E. and shown in Mg. 8.5. 1 (b).
The detection of power swing is achieved by monitoring the rate of change of
impedance or conversely the time required for the impedance locus to traverse
the impedance gap between the PSB characteristic and the outermost tripping
zone i.e., zone 3. If the time measured is less than the set time on timer "T", it is
considered as a, power swing and blocking is applied to the selected. zones (Mg.
8.5. 1 c).
Since power swing is a balanced 3 phase phenomena there is no residual current
during a power swing. However, if a residual current is detected, as would
happen during earth faults, following. a power swing, power swing blocking is
inhibited, using a neutral current level detector (NCD) as shown in the logic
diagram ( Mg. 8. 5. 1 d ). The blocking is effective as long as the impedance
locus stays within the "PSB" characteristic or until a set time delay, as required.
8.5.2 Voltage Transformer Supervision
Distance relays are primarily voltage restraint relays and would tend to operate
in the event of loss of V.T. supply due to say a blown off secondary fuse. The
condition is therefore, required to be guarded against, to prevent undesirable
operation on load. The V.T. supervision logic used in practical distance schemes
is explained below (Ref..Fig. 8.5.2).

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The VTs logic monitors either Zero Sequence or Negative sequence current and
voltage at the terminal of the relay. Discrimination between a primary system
fault and a blown off P.T. fuse or secondary wiring discrepancy is obtained by
blocking the distance protection only when zero or negative sequence voltage is
detected without the appearance of zero or negative sequence current, as shown
in the logic diagram.
When MCBs are used for controlling the VT supply, an auxiliary contact of the
same is used to block the protection on operation of the MCB. This is normally
done by cutting off the scheme d.c. supply through a normally open contact of
the MCB.
8.5.3 Switch on to fault (SOTP) Feature
As explained before, the polarising voltage signal is required for the distance
relay under all fault conditions for correct measurement and directional
discrimination. However, the polarising voltage signal may completely vanish
for a close-up 3 phase fault. The memory polarization where provided, will
certainly help to maintain the polarising signal provided the relay has seen a
prefault voltage before. However, when a dead line is energized with its
earthing clamps left inadvertently in position, after a maintenance shutdown and
if the associated distance protection is fed from line voltage transformers, the
memory polarization also will not help for obvious reasons. To guard against
such eventuality, parallel switch-on to fault (SOTF) trip logic is provided in all
distance relays as a standard feature, using voltage and current level detectors, as
illustrated in FYg.8.5.3 (a).
The SOTF logic is enabled only after the voltage and current level detectors of
all the 3 phases are in a de-energised status for a preset time interval, signifying
that the line is initially dead. When the line is energised subsequently with a
close-up 3 phase fault already existing, the current level detectors pickup (seeing
the fault current) without the voltage level detector picking up simultaneously.
The SOTF trip is thus activated after a short time delay of about 20 msec. The
time delay is provided to swamp possible difference in the response time of the
current

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and voltage level detector (the formal being faster) to permit healthy switching.
Besides, current/voltage level detector, any zone comparator operation during
the initial period of charging, activates SOTF trip, bypassing time delays
associated with the zone 2/zone 3 comparators.
8.6 Carrier Aided Schemes
The distance protection covers about 80-85% of the line in its instantaneous first
zone, the faults in the last 15-20% being referred to the delayed zone 2. Thus for
end section faults, the clearance is delayed from the farthest end. This situation
cannot be tolerated in an interconnected system for two reasons.
1. A delayed clearance from one end may cause instability in the system.
2. When the lines are equipped with high speed auto reclosing, a
nonsimultaneous tripping would defeat auto reclosing, since there is no
effective dead time to ensure de-energisation of the fault arc.
The practical distance relays are therefore, interlocked with a signaling channel
to transmit information about the system conditions from one end to other end to
accelerate tripping. The information transmitted can either be arranged to
initiate tripping (on internal fault) of the remote circuit breaker on block tripping
on external fault. The former arrangement is called as 'transfer trip' scheme
where as latter is termed as 'blocking' scheme.
A typical transfer trip, (under-reach) scheme logic is illustrated in Fig. 8.6. 0 (a
& b).
Referring to, Fig. 8.6. 0, for fault close to end 'B' the relay at end B will trip in
zone 1 and simultaneously initiate an inter trip signal to end 'A'. When the signal
is received at end 'A' and if the over-reaching zone 2 measuring element has also
operated, end 'A' will trip in 'Carrier Aided Trip' mode, resulting a near
simultaneous clearance of the fault from both ends.
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The different variations of carrier schemes are :-
> Permissive under-reach transfer trip (PUR)
> Permissive over-reach transfer trip (POR)
> Acceleration
> Blocking

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While inter-trip schemes (PUR, POR, Acceleration) are fast in operation,
blocking scheme has an intentional delay to allow for the blocking signal to be
received for. an external fault. However, blocking scheme does not suffer from
signal attenuation since the signal is transmitted over a healthy line unlike in
case of a transfer trip scheme where the signal is transmitted on a faulty line.
PAGE 128
CHAPTER - 9
CURRENT AND VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
9.1 Introduction
The magnitude of current and voltage in a power circuits are usually too high to
be handled by the secondary equipments like measuring instruments and relays.
The instrument transformers are therefore, used as input devices which produce
a scaled down replica of the primary input quantities within the required
accuracy, for connecting the secondary equipments.
While the instrument transformers used for measurement purpose handle steady
state,' quantities close to the rated values, those used for protection, handle fault
quantities which are affected by d.c. transients, harmonic distortions etc. The
performance requirements of the instrument transformers are therefore at
variance depending upon their applications.
9.2 Current Transformers
9.2.1 Equivalent Circuit and Vector Diagram
The equivalent circuit and vector diagram of a current transformer are shown in
Fig. 9.2.1 (a), (b).
9.2.2 C. T. Errors
a) Ratio Error
It is defined as the difference in magnitude of the primary and secondary current
expressed as a percentage of the primary current. Thus % Ratio Error = KnxIs -
Ip X 100
b) Phase Angle
This is the phase angle difference between the primary current and the reversed
secondary current vector.
c) Composite Error

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This is defined as the R.M.S value of the difference (Kn Is-Ip) integrated over
one cycle under steady state conditions expressed as a percentage of RMS
primary current. Thus
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Composite error Eo = 100 (I/T : ' ∫ (Kn IS - Ip)2 .dt
IP
Where T = Duration of 1 cycle.
IP, Is - Instantaneous values of Primary an d sec. currents.
Kn - Rated transformation ratio
Ip - Primary current (RMS)
9.2.3 Magnetising Characteristic of CT
The magnetising characteristic of a C.T. is a plot between the secondary applied
voltage and the corresponding magnetising current taken by the C.T. as shown in
Fig. 9.2.3.

The excitation curve can be divided into 4 regions. Ankle point, Linear region,
knee point and saturation. The knee point is defined as a point on the excitation
curve where a 10% increase in secondary EMF would cause 50% increase in the
exciting current.
9.2.4 Effect of Secondary Open Circuiting
The primary current of a C.T. is independent of its secondary loading. With the
secondary shorted (directly or through the connected burden) the counter flux
produced by the secondary keeps the core flux below the saturation level.
However, if the secondary gets open circuited with the primary carrying current,
the entire primary m.m.f. (ampere turns) is spent in magnetising the core,
producing high core flux. This results in increased secondary E.M.F. with the
voltage shooting up to very high value depending upon the primary current level
and the working/ saturation flux levels.
9.2.5 Classification of CTs
There are three basic types of CTs.
1) Measuring CTs
2) Protection CTs
3) Protection CTs for special Applications.

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9.2.5.1 MeasuringCTs(GovernedbyIS2705-1992PartII)
Measuring CTs are specified in terms of -
Accuracy class
VA Rating
ISP (Instrument Security Factor)
Typical Illustration : Class 1. 0, VA- 15, ISF-3
Standard Error Class - 0. 1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 3 and 5
The errors are specified between 5-120% of rated current and 25-100% of rated
burden connected. Higher errors are permitted at lower currents.
Typical Illustration : Class 1.0 CT will have a ratio error of + 1% for 100-
120% of rated current, +1.5% ratio error at 20% of rated current and +3% ratio
error at 5% of rated current.
9.2.5.2 Protective CTs (Governed by IS2705-1992 Part 111)
Protection CT ratings are specified in terms of class, accuracy limit factory
(ALP) and VA rating.
Typical Illustration: 5P 1 0, 15 VA
Standard Error Class/ALF/VA ratings are as follows :-
Error Class 5P, 1 OP, 15P
ALP 5, 10, 15, 20, 30
VA rating 5, 10, 15, 30
Errors are specified at rated current and ALP times rated current with rated
burden connected.
Typical Illustration: 5P10/ 15VA CT will have a Composite Error of +5% at 10
times rated current and a ratio error of +1% at rated current with rated connected
burden of 15VA.
For a given CT, VA and ALP are inversely related. For example, if connected
burden is less than rated, ALP would increase.
Co-relation between ALF/VA/Output Voltage and Knee Point Voltage.

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Output Voltage at ALF
VALF = ALF x ALF x VA / Is
Voltage Developed by CT at ALF
V - (Is x RcT) x ALF + (ALF x VA) / Is
Knee Point Voltage
Vk = 75 - 80% of VALF
When Is = CT secondary Rated Current
VA = Rated Burden (Volt Amps)
RcT= CT secondary Resistance
While selecting 5P/10P class CTs for IDMT overcurrent / Earth fault relays, following
should be borne in mind.
i) The CTs should have optimum ALF/VA Rating, so that they do not saturate up to
at least 20 time current setting. This may be achieved by selecting low burden
relays or by selecting a ratio of appropriate high value.
ii) Overrated CTs having high VA rating and ALF, may produce high secondary
currents during severe faults (in excess of 20 times setting) that my cause thermal
stressing of the relay current coils and eventual failures.
9.2.5.3Protection CTs for Special Applications
5P/ 10P class CTs are used for Non-balanced protections like IDMT overcurrent,
Earth fault relays. However, for balanced protection like circulating current
differential, where balance is required between the associated CTs with close
tolerance, the characteristic requirements cannot be conveniently expressed in
terms of 5P/ 10P class CTs.
For such applications, current transformers of class PS are used. These
are specified in terms of -
PAGE 134
i) Knee point voltage (Vk)
ii) Magnetising current (Im) usually at knee point voltage or a percentage
thereof
iii) CT secondary resistance (RcT)

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For class PS, CTS, the turns ratio errors are limited to 0.25% which helps in
maintaining balance between the protection systems during maximum through
fault condition.
Incidentally, 5P/ 1 OP class CTs are sometimes provided with deliberate turns
rafto correction to maintain accuracy within specified limits at ALF and hence
are unsuitable for such special applications.
Typical Illustration of class PS CTs specifications.
Ratio 100/1A
Vk > 100 Volts
lm < 30 milliamps at Vk/2
RCT < 1. 0 ohm
9.2.6 Core Balance CT (CBCT)
CBCT are used for sensitive earth fault protections where the required sensitivity
cannot be obtained using residual CT connections or by the use of CT on neutral
earth connection.
In case of residual connection, the phase CTs primary rating is based on the full
load rating of the circuit. Besides, the unbalance produced due to unequal errors
in the phase CTs prohibits the use of very sensitive setting on the earth fault
relays.
The. CBCT on the contrary, are excited by the primary residual current since the
core encloses all the 3 phases and hence do not have a high primary rating. Thus
sensitivities down to 0.5 Amps primary or better can be obtained. When used
for 4 wire systems, the CBCT core encloses the neutral, besides the phases.
Thus high earth fault sensitivity can be obtained irrespective of the single phase
unbalance.
T'ypical CBCT arrangement is shown in Fig. 9.2.6.

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Following parameters are required to design a CBCT
> Minimum Primary Earth fault current required to be detected (e.g. 1A, 2A
etc)
> Minimum Pickup setting of the sensitive earth fault relay (e.g. 10 m Amps)
> Ohmic burden of the relay at minimum pickup current.
> To & Fro lead resistance between CBCT and Relay
> Outer Diameter of the Cable (to determine CBCT Window size).
Typical Applications
> Sensitive Earth fault protection of motors
> Sensitive earth fault protection of non-effec+,ively grounded systems
> Sensitive earth fault protections of ungrounded system (based on
unbalanced capacitive current detection).
9.2.7 Typical CT Requirements for Various Protections
Some typical CT requirements are given below for general guide lines.
A) High impedance Circulating current differential schemes.
Vk > 2 IF (RcT + 2RL) Volts
Where RCT = CT secondary winding resistance
2RL = Two way lead resistance of the farthest CT in the parallel group.
IF = Maximum through current up to which relay should remain stable
(referred to CT secondary)
For Transformers
IF = Maximum through fault current limited by leakage impedance of
transformers.
For Busbar
IF = Maximum through fault current limited to switchgear breaking capacity.
For Generators
IF = Maximum through fault current limited by sub transient reactance (Xd") of
the generator.
PAGE 137
For Motors
IF = Maximum starting current (about 6 x full load current for
D.O.L.Motors).

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For Shunt Reactors
IF = Maximum charging current of the reactor.
For Short Feeders
IF = Maximum through fault current for fault at remote end busbar.
B) Biased Differential Relay
Vk > K I (RCT + 2RL),
Where I = Relay Rated Current
K = Constant specified by the manufacturer'usually based on
conjunctive tests. (The constant is usually chosen to ensure positive
operation of highest differential unit on severe internal fault with extreme
CT saturation).
C) Distance Protection
vk > (1 +X/R)IF (Zr + RCT + nRL
Where X / R = Primary system reactance/resistance ratio
(To account for the d.c. component of the fault current)
IF = Maximum CT secondary current for fault at zone 1 reach
point.
Zr = Relay ohmic burden
RCT = CT secondary Resistance
nRL = Lead Resistance (one way for phase fault Since n = 1) (two
way
for earth fault since n = 2)
9.2.8 Choice of CT Secondary Rating
5A Secondary
i) Preferred where lead burden is insignificant (e.g. CTs used in Indoor
switchgear cubicles w-Lth closely located relays OR where primary
ratings are very high say 10,000/5A).
ii) Comparatively low peak voltage when secondary gets open.
iii) Fine turns ratio adjustment is not possible when primary rating is low
particularly for Bar primary CTs (e.g. 25/5A).
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1A Secondary

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i) Preferred when CTs axe out door and lead burdens are high.
ii) Comparatively high peak voltage when secondary is open.
iii) Fine turns ratio adjustment possible.
9.3 Voltage Transformers
9.3.1 Equivalent Circuit and VectQr Diagram
The equivalent circuit and vector diagram of a voltage transformer are shown in
Fig. 9. 3. 1 (a), (b).
9.3.2 V. T. Errors
Ratio Error : Ratio error is defined as -
% Ratio Error = Kn. Vs - Vp x100
Vp
Where Kn = Nominal Ratio of V.T.
Phase Angle Error: (0)
Phase angle error is the phase difference between the reversed secondary output
voltage (-Vs) and the primary applied voltage (Vp).
9.3.3 Voltage Transformer Classi .ftcation There are 3 types of VTs
i) Metering VTs
ii) Protection VTs
iii) Residual VTs
The VTs are usually specified in terms of
- Voltage Ratio
- Accuracy Cliss
- Rated VA Burden
- Rated Voltage factor
Typical Illustration
11 KV/ √3 V, 110/ √3 V, class 1.0, VA 50
VF - 1.2 continuous / 1.5 for 30 seconds.

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9.3.3.1 Metering VTs (Governed by IS3156 Part II-1992)

Class % Ratio Error Phase Angle Reference Conditions


Error(Minutes)
Voltage 80 - 120%
0.1 + 0.1 +5
Burden 25 - 100%
0.2 + 0.2 + 10

0.5 + 0.5 + 20

1.0 + 1.0 + 40 P.F. 0.8 Lag


Frequency - Rated
3.0 + 3.0 Not Specified

9.3.3.2 Protection VTs (Governed by IS3156 Part III-1992)


Class % Ratio Error Phase Angle Reference Conditions
Error(Minutes)
3P +3% + 120 Voltage 5% to voltage
6P + 10 % + 240 factor times rated voltage
Burned 25 - 100%
P.F. 0.8 Lag
Frequency - Rated

9.3.3.3 Residual VTs


Class % Ratio Error Phase Angle Reference Conditions
Error(Minutes)
5 PR +5% + 200 Voltage 5% to voltage
10 PR + 10 % --- factor times rated voltage
Burned 25 - 100%
Frequency - Rated
P.F. 0.8 Lag

9.3.4 Rated Voltage Factor (IS3156 Part I-1992)


Sr. No. System Earthing Rated Voltage Rated Time
Factor
1 Effectively Earthing 1.2 Continuous
1.5 30 Seconds
2 Non-Effectively earthed system 1.2 Continuous
(with Automatic Earth fault 1.9 30 Seconds
tripping)
3 Isolated Neutral or Resonant 1.2 Continuous
Earthed system (without 1.9 8 Hours
Automatic Earth fault tripping)

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Vts used in non-effectively earthed systems have high voltage factor since in the event
of an earth fault in one of the phases, the healthy phase voltage may rise to phase value
(i.e. 3 times phase to neutral voltage) as shown in Fig. 9.3.4
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9.3. 5 V. T. Connections
There are 3 types of connections
1. V-V
2. Star/Star
3. Star/Open delta
9.3.5.1 V-V Connection
This connection is generally used for measurement and for those protections
which do not require phase to neutral voltage input(2 V.Ts are used). Primary of
the V.Ts is connected in V.(i.e. one V.T. primary across R-Y phases and the
other across Y- B phases), with identical V. connection for the secondary. In
this connection zero sequence voltage cannot be produced.
9.3.5.2 Star-Star connection
Either 3 separate single phase VTs or a single 3 phase, 3 limb VT is used. Both
primary and secondaries are connected in star with both star neutrals solidity
grounded. Each primary phase limb is thus connected between phase to earth of
the supply circuit and replicated similar phase to earth voltage on the secondary.
Star/Star connection enables both phase to phase as well as phase to neutral
distribution of the connected burdens.
9.3.5.3 Star/Open Delta Connection
The primary windings, are connected in star with star neutral solidly grounded
and the secondaries are connected in series to form an open delta connection as
shown in Fig. 9.5.3. This type of connection is called residual connection and
requires either 3x single phase VTs or a suitable 3 phase 5 limb VT.
The residual connection is used for polarising directional earth fault relays or for
earth fault detection in non-effectively grounded or isolated neutral system.
PAGE 144
CHAPTER - 10
DIGITAL RELAYING
10.0 Introduction
Protection scheme basically consists of protective relay and circuit breaker (i.e.
Switching Circuit). Out of these two, protection relay plays an important role
and therefore, it is known as brain behind the above scheme. It is the relay

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which senses the fault, determines the location of the fault and then sends
tripping command to the proper Circuit Breaker by closing its trip coil. There
has been continuous development and improvement in the theory, design and
operating principle of the protection scheme. From electromechanical relay of
induction type in the beginning now we have digital relaying scheme using on-
line microprocessor/mini computer. The idea being to develop a relay having
1. Less Burden : (If the burden of a C.T. is high, its magnetic core gets
saturated, result being secondary 0/P is not linearly proportional to primary
quantity and relay may maloperate).
2. High Speed : (If the fault is cleared quickly, not only the transient
stability limit of the system is improved but also permanent damage to the
equipment is avoided. Risk of fire or risk to the personnel is avoided).
Hence, during 1960 with the advent of digital computer, digital relaying
becomes a reality, by developing several algorithm to realize different protection
function using digital computer. But because of large size and cost of the
computer only software package to realize different protection scheme were
developed. During carlyl986, with the arrival of microprocessor and mini-
computer, digital relaying using on line microprocessor/mini computers were
developed. These relaying schemes have several merits like
> Lower Burden
> Much faster in operation
> No contact problem
> Much less maintenance
PAGE 145
> Data Acquisition Capabilities
> Multi-protection functions using standard hardware
> These relays do not operate due to external causes.
> These schemes are highly flexible (by simple software programme, relay
setting and characteristic can be changed).
> Possesses self-checking facilities.

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Digital relaying scheme is being proposed for the entire components of electric
power system and apparatus viz. synchronous machines, busbar, transformer,
feeder, EHV/ UHV transmission lines (Fig. 1 0. 1 (a)
10.1 Application along with basic circuit
a) Differential Protection for Generator
In which current entering a phase winding is compared with current leaving the
same phase winding at the other end either in phase or in magnitude.
For tripping ( I 1 -I2 > S(I1+I2) / 2
To realize differential protection using microprocessor/mini computer, a sample
and hold circuit is used where a definite number of signal samples are chosen per
cycle and fed to microprocessor or mini computer which has a programme to
detect abnormal condition in the memory and issue a trip signal (Ref. Kg. 1 0. 1
(b).
For differential protection, In the memory of microprocessor, with the help of a
software programme second harmonic content of the sample current is obtained.
The presence of second harmonic content above a threshold value is an
indication of an inrush condition.
b) Stator Earth Fault
Stator Earth Fault can be determined in the same way. With the help of Current
Transformers connected in each phase winding the armature current is
monitored. In the microprocessor, these currents are transformed to the
sequence currents and because of the different component current, type of fault
can be determined.

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e.g. 1 If 11= 12=I0 -> LG fault
2 If I1 = I2, I0 = 0 -> L.L. fault
3 If I1 = I2, I0 = 0 -> LLG fault
4 If only I1 > threshold & -> I2 = I0 = 0 -> 3 phase fault
In conventional differential protection of a transformer having taps on the
windings, biasing is provided to take care of CT mismatch, CT errors under
dynamic conditions and at different tap Position. Because of this biasing relay
remains insensitive for low level winding fault.
In digital differential scheme Flow Chart of the programrne stored in the
memory of Cpu) (Fyg. 10.2), CT raisrnatch errors at each tap is pre- calculated
and a correction factor is calculated to be applied to CT secondary currents to get
true line currents. These correction factors for all the taps are stored in the
digital relay memory and transformer tap position is also monitored so that relay
sensitivity remains same on all tap position.
Id1 Power frequency component of differential current
It1 Power frequency component of through current
I0 Pick up current
B Bias
Relay operates, if Id1 > l0 and Id1 > B. It1.
To restrain relay from operation in case of magnetising in rush (when primary is
charged and secondary open circuit) I-IRF (I-Iarmonic Restraint Factor) is
calculated. If HRF is more than threshold, relay operation is restrained. Where
HRF = (II Harmonic component + V Harmonic Component)/ Fundarilental
frequency Component).
In case of magnetizing inrush II and V Harmonic content is more (16%). Thus,
digital differential relays has high speed and sensitivity for f internal faults and
stability on heavy through fault and magnetising inrush.

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10.2 PC based schemes for testing protective Relays
Digital relays can be tested with a personal computer. The benefits are
1. Repetitive test sequences in less time
2. Signals simulation with any desired level of harmonic and d.c.
distortions accurately and of different frequencies than supply
frequency.
3. Transient signals can be simulated easily.
4. Flexibility and ease of programming
5. Accurate and realistic testing of relays The scheme is as shown in Fig.
10.3. A PC AT 386/486 Computes, the sample corresponding to the
instantaneous values of the test signals (Digital) which is supplied to
Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) with interrupt occurring at the end
of inter sample interval. The number of sample per cycle can be 12, 16,
24, 36, 60. The DAC output waveform is a stepped waveform with
stepped waves with number of steps = number of sample selected per
cycle. These waveforms are smoothened and undesired harmonics are
filtered out. Then waveforms are amplified by power amplifiers to
generate relay test signals with nec essary test levels.
PC has Menu Driven Software; viz.
a) Calibration Menu
b) Relay Selection Menu
c) Type of test selection
Relay test programme is stored in CPU of PC and computer monitor the relay
trip status. After the test CPU generate relay characteristic plots.
10.3 Testing of a Distance Relay
a) Steady State Test
The main objective of the test is to obtain the trip characteristic of the relay for
differe nt reach setting as well as for different types of faults like phase to ground
fault and phase to phase fault.
The relay reach is set to desired value. Test starts by simulating voltage and
current signals with phase difference equal to zero between V & I of
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selected phases for which fault is to be simulated. The current signals of the
faulty phases and voltage signals of the healthy phases are maintained at rated
value. Then voltage signals of the selected faulty phases are decreased in steps
till relay operates. At this point, computer holds the present value of fault
voltage, current signals and phase difference between them and Z = v @(p is
calculated and signals I are again applied to the relay and operating time is
determined. Testing is repeated with different phase angles. All the values of R,
X &, (p are displayed on the monitor and also stored in the data file.
b) Dynamic Test
The objective is to determine the accuracy of the relay under transient fault
conditions. Transient data sample (voltage and current) are obtained from off-
line analysis of power system model and stored in the memory (e.g. 16
sample/cycle). These transient data signals are applied to the relay and its
accuracy is checked. Transient test data consists of voltage and current of steady
state prefault sample, fault transient and few cycles of post fault steady state
sample.
These PC based programmable relay test scheme is intended for off-line testing
of various protection equipments.

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