Hochschule Emden/Leer Faculty of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering

Seven Improvement Tools

Study course: Lecture: Submitted by:

Technical Management Quality Management Systems Monica Posada (Matr.-No.5025888) Adeel Rao (Matr.-No.5006747) Daniel Orrego (Matr.-No.7001406) WS 09/10 Prof.Dr.-Ing.Werner Kiehl Dicember 2010

Semester: Lecture by: Date:

Seven improvement tools
Monica Posada, Adeel Rao, Daniel Orrego

TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Introduction·························································································1 Flow chart····························································································1 2.1 Definition·······················································································1 2.2 Application Area··············································································2 2.3 Example························································································2 2.4 Advantages and disadvantages··························································2 Check Sheet·························································································3 3.1 Definition·······················································································3 3.2 When to Use a Check Sheet······························································3 3.3 Procedure·····················································································3 3.4 Example························································································4 3.5 Advantages and disadvantages··························································4 Scatter Diagram·····················································································4 4.1 What is it·······················································································4 4.2 How to use it··················································································5 4.3 When to use it and not to use it···························································5 4.4 Why to use it··················································································6 4.4.1 Advantages············································································6 4.4.2 Limitations··············································································6 4.5 Example························································································6 Histogram·····························································································6 5.1 Definition·······················································································7 5.2 Application Area··············································································7 5.3 How to use it·················································································7 5.4 Example·······················································································8 5.5 Advantages and disadvantages··························································8 Pareto Analysis······················································································8 6.1 Definition·······················································································8 6.2 When to Use it················································································9 6.3 Procedure·····················································································9 6.4 Advantages and disadvantages························································10 Fishbone Diagram················································································10 7.1 What is it·····················································································10 7.2 How to use it·················································································10 7.3 When to use it and not to use it·························································11 7.4 Why to use it·················································································11 7.4.1Advantages············································································11 7.4.2Limitations·············································································11 7.5 Example······················································································11 8. Control Chart························································································12

Adeel Rao.2 Approach·····················································································15 9.2 8.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. Brainstorming·······················································································14 9.1 Introduction···············································································15 10.1 8. Daniel Orrego Introduction··················································································12 Monitoring Process········································································12 Description of control charts·····························································13 Control charts for variables······························································13 Control charts for attributes·····························································14 9.5 .3 8.2 Approach··················································································16 11.4 8.3 Order of events·············································································15 10. Conclusion···························································································16 References APPENDIX 8. Mindmap······························································································15 10.1 Introduction··················································································14 9.

1 Pareto Diagram··············································································9 7.1 Simple flowchart··············································································1 2.Fishbone Diagram··········································································12 8.2 Cost minimisation·········································································16 . Daniel Orrego Table of figures Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 2. Adeel Rao.1 Cost optimisation··········································································16 11.2 Production process flowchart·····························································2 4.1 Control Chart················································································13 9.2 Scatter Diagram··············································································6 5.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada.1 Scatter Diagram Data·······································································6 4.2 Brainstorming: sorted·····································································15 11.1 Histogram······················································································8 6.1.1 Brainstorming: unsorted·································································15 9.

Control chart.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. [1] 2. with others repeatedly point to the fact that Japanese industrial workers are among the worlds finest in their level of education and quantitative skills. Ishikawa states that as much as 95 percent of quality related problems in the factory can be solved with seven fundamental quantitative tools. 1 . in the following text. Flowchart 2. each with their own repertoire of boxes and notational conventions. Scatter diagram 4. Check sheet 3. whom. Adeel Rao. and their order by connecting these with arrows. We will describe and explain these tools. Pareto analysis 6. Based on his long experience in Japanese industry. and denoted as a rectangular box) A decision (usually denoted as a diamond) There are hundreds if not thousands of different types of flowcharts. Fishbone diagram 7. Daniel Orrego 1. Introduction Over 30 years. Histogram 5. Consequently. The two most common types of boxes in a flowchart: • • A processing step (usually called activity.1 Definition A flowchart is a schematic representation of an algorithm or a stepwise process. showing the steps as boxes of various kinds. These tools are: 1. Japanese have studied and practiced what they call “Total Quality Control” and one of the leaders in this movement has been Kaoru Ishikawa. Flowchart 2. one of the critical features of the Japanese approach to quality control is its focus on quantitative methods on the factory floor.

A good flowchart should show all process steps under analysis by the quality improvement team. When planning a project.1 A simple flowchart representing a process for dealing with a broken lamp. To document a process. inspection and testing. [4] Figure2.2 A basic production process flowchart displays several paths a part can travel from the time it hits the receiving dock to final shipping. and shipping.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. To study a process for improvement. they help visualize what is going on and thereby help to find flaws. After completing this loop. Daniel Orrego Figure2. final testing.2 Application area Flowcharts are used in designing and documenting complex processes. suggest areas for further improvement. inspected. bottlenecks. Adeel Rao. To communicate to others how a process is done. the parts can be shipped as subassemblies after passing a final test or they can complete a second cycle consisting of final assembly. identify critical process points for control. painting. and help explain and solve a problem.3 Example The flowchart in Figure 2 illustrates a simple production process in which parts are received. When to use a flowchart: • • • • • To develop understanding of how a process is done. 2 . and sent to subassembly operations and painting. 2. or other non-obvious properties of a process. 2. Like other types of diagrams.

Daniel Orrego 2. etc. Test the check sheet for a short trial period to be sure it collects the appropriate 3 . Check Sheet 3. 5.1 Definition A check sheet is a structured. Adeel Rao. This is a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes. Develop operational definitions. Disadvantages of flowcharts: 1. 3. 4. 2. problem can be analysed in more effective way. 2. Set it up so that data can be recorded simply by making check marks or Xs or similar symbols and so that data do not have to be recopied for analysis. defect causes. Reproduction: As the flowchart symbols cannot be typed. • When collecting data from a production process. 3. reproduction of flowchart becomes a problem.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. Design the form. 3. defect location. Alterations and Modifications: If alterations are required the flowchart may require re-drawing completely. Effective analysis: With the help of flowchart. problems. 4. Decide when data will be collected and for how long.2 When to Use a Check Sheet • When data can be observed and collected repeatedly by the same person or at the same location. Decide what event or problem will be observed. Communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a process to all concerned. prepared form for collecting and analyzing data. Simplicity: A flowchart simplifies the maintenance of the procedural steps for a process. 2. 3. Proper documentation: Flowcharts serve as a good documentation. 3. defects.4 Advantages and disadvantages Advantages of flowcharts: 1. • When collecting data on the frequency or patterns of events. which is needed for various purposes. Label all spaces on the form.3 Check Sheet Procedure 1.

5 Advantages and disadvantages Advantages: • • • • • Easy to use. Effective way of displaying data. Can be used to substantiate or refute allegations Disadvantages: • If the categories have been meticulously defined and inserted in the check sheet. Can identify the root cause of a problem Provides structure for uniform data collection. many of the customers leaving without making purchases were courteously asked why this happened. 4 . other significant occurrences may be overlooked. 3. Daniel Orrego data and is easy to use.1 Check Sheet [2] 3.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. record data on the check sheet. When considering this problem a wide range of possible causes surfed. Thus. by Anderson and Fagerhaug): A book store located in a large shopping mall consistently achieved lower sales per day than budgeted. The difficultly in identifying the actual problem and how often it occurred make it difficult for the store personnel to implement any changes. but left without buying anything. and give a much clearer idea of where to start to improve the situation. 37 20 5 9 1 4 2 19 6 103 Table 3. Each time the targeted event or problem occurs. Adeel Rao. Cause of no purchase Could not find the item No offer to help Item sold out Item not carried Prices too high Line too long Wrong credit cards Poor lighting No place to sit Total number of causes Week 1 IIIII IIIII IIIII II IIIII IIIII IIII II III I I II IIIII II II 49 Week 2 IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII IIIII I III IIIII I III IIIII IIIII II IIII 54 Total number of Occurences. shown below.4 Check Sheet Example (Taken from Root Cause Analysis. 6. The responses were logged in a check sheet. The staff noted that quite a few customers came into the store to browse. during a two-week period.

does not mean causality. but gaining weight does not indicate that one is growing up. but does not prove. each sample will contain one of each variable. Step 3: Determine the highest and lowest values of each group of variables. Adeel Rao. however. This will help determine the scale of both the horizontal(X) axis and the vertical(Y) axis. It does not prove that one variable causes another one.  It can be used to examine the relationship between two causes. The value of Y increases slightly as the value of X increases. For instance. while growing taller might cause one to weigh more. Step 5: Interpret the data: Scatter diagram will generally show one of six possible correlations between the variables: Scatter Diagram Types of Correlation Strong Positive Correlation Interpretation The value of Y clearly increases as the value of X increases. Step 4: Draw the diagram  Draw an (X) and (Y) axis of equal lengths and label them from left to right and bottom to top with values that will include all data points.  Plot all data points on the diagram. Step 2: Collect data: Gather as more as possible paired samples of data. The scatter diagram illustrates the strength of the correlation between the variables. SCATTER DIAGRAM 4.2 When to use it  It can be used to show relationship between two effects to see if they might result from a common cause. 4. Strong Negative Correlation The value of Y clearly decreases as the value of X increases. Weak Positive Correlation 5 .3 How to use it Step 1: Determine which two variables are to be plotted on the diagram. For example.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. analyzing a scatter diagram of the relationship between weight and height would lead one to believe that the two variables are related. Daniel Orrego 4. This relationship. This correlation can point to. a causal relationship.1 What is it The scatter diagram shows the relationship between two variables acting continuously on the same item. 4.

4. but the relationship is not easily determined.4. 4. In other words. Daniel Orrego Weak Negative Correlation The value of Y decreases slightly as the value of X increases. Adeel Rao.  Save time to determine the relationship between two variables.4 Why to use it 4. Scatter Diagram 6 .1 Advantages  It can show the relationship between two variables which is difficult to find the relationship.5 Example Situation: The new commissioner of the American Basketball League wants to construct a scatter diagram to find out if there is any relationship between a player’s weight and her height.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. the taller a player is the more she tends to weight.2 Limitations  Have to collect a large of data for clearly show the relationship.  It is easy to find which correlation of two variables through interpreting the tendency from the diagram. There is no demonstrated connection between the two variables Complex Correlation No Correlation Table 4. [10] According to this scatter diagram. there does seem to be a positive correlation between a player's weight and her height.1 Types of Correlation 4. some expert suggests that at least 30 paired samples of data should be gathered. 4. Figure X2. The value of Y seems to be related to the value of X.

Daniel Orrego Figure 4. When seeing whether a process change has occurred from one time period to another. [5] 5.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. histograms can display specification limits to show what portion of the data does not meet the specifications. When you wish to communicate the distribution of data quickly and easily to others.1 Scatter Diagram Data 5. When analyzing what the output from a supplier’s process looks like. What distinguishes the histogram from a check sheet is that its data are grouped into rows so that the identity of individual values is lost. When analyzing whether a process can meet the customer’s requirements.3 How to use it 7 . A histogram is the most commonly used graph to show frequency distributions. Adeel Rao.2 Application area Commonly used to present quality improvement data. When you want to see the shape of the data’s distribution. When used in process capability studies. When determining whether the outputs of two or more processes are different. especially when determining whether the output of a process is distributed approximately normally. histograms work best with small amounts of data that vary considerably. [5] 5.2 Scatter Diagram Figure 4. HISTOGRAM 5. When to use a histogram: • • • • • • • When the data are numerical.1 Definition A histogram is a frequency distribution shows how often each different value in a set of data occurs.

• Interpret the data. The class interval is the width of each class on the X axis. a minimum of 50 data points. A sample of 50 from the production line was construction of the histogram that the majority of resistors length between 4 and 6mm. Example manufactures small resistors of 5mm. It is calculated by the following formula: Class interval = Range / Number of classes • Determine the class boundary.5 Advantages disadvantages and 8 . or samples.1 Histogram Sample size 0-50 51-99 100-250 No of classes 5-7 8-10 10-15 5.4 Company X with a length resistors taken for the (Figure 5. A histogram's shape shows the nature of the distribution of the data. Range = Largest point . They are the largest and smallest data points that can be included in each class. as well as central tendency (average) and variability.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. • Data points need to be divided on the X axis into classes. that the manufacturing process 5. • Calculate the number of data points (frequency) that are in each class. • Calculate the size of the class interval. need to be collected • Calculate the range of the sample data: The range is the difference between the largest and smallest data points.1). Daniel Orrego • Data collection: To ensure good results. Table 5. Table 5. Adeel Rao. • Draw the Histogram and plot the data. [6]. Figure 5.1 Rules of thumb for class selection.smallest point. It is clear have a That means is correct.1 below lists some of the rules of thumb for determining the number of classes to use with respect to the number of collected data points.

20% of your sales-force produces 80% of your company revenues. Adeel Rao.2 When to use it. He observed that 20 percent of the population controlled 80 percent of the wealth in Italy during his time." The same observation was made for more people in other areas of study. and it’s used to identify the issues that cause a large amount of your quality problems.categorical data. • Histograms are thus not recommended for data measured on a continuous scale 6. who used pareto’s principle "in observing that 29% of something is responsible for 80% of the results. a "graph for showing frequency distributions. a 90th-century Italian economist. The 80/20 rule can be applied to almost anything: 80% of customer complaints arise from 20% of your products or services. The idea that by doing 20% of the work you can generate 80% of the benefit of doing the whole job. Pareto Analysis "The Pareto principle is named after Vilfredo Pareto. 20% of a systems defects cause 80% of its problems. The tool provides a route to group and organize your data in a way that you focus your time and resources in the most important problems. which illustrate how often each unique value in a set of data occurs" {Webber 2007 #12: 137}. Or in terms of quality improvement. like Josep Juran a quality manager pioneer in 1930. The 80/20 rule has been known ever since as the Pareto Principle" {Webber 2007 #12: 127} 6. 80% of delays in schedule arise from 20% of the possible causes of the delays.1 Definition A Pareto chart is a specialized histogram.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. Daniel Orrego Advantages of histogram: • Histograms are quite useful for depicting large differences in shape or symmetry. Disadvantages of histogram: • Histograms cannot be used for more precise judgments such as depicting individual values. 6. • Histograms are excellent when displaying data which have natural categories or groupings . It uses the Pareto Principle also know as the 80/20 rule. a large majority of problems (80%) are produced by a few key causes (20%). This is also known as the vital few and the trivial many. Pareto ordering is used to guide corrective action and to help the project team take 9 . Pareto Analysis is a statistical technique in decision making that is used for the selection of a limited number of tasks that produce significant overall effect. 20% of your products or services account for 80% of your profit.

4 Advantages and disadvantages 10 .Seven improvement tools Monica Posada.1 Pareto Diagram This is a simple example of a Pareto diagram using sample data showing the relative frequency of causes for errors on websites. Add a cumulative percentage column to the table. 5. This point on the x-axis separates the important causes on the left and less important causes on the right. the most important cause first. Arrange the rows in the decreasing order of importance of the causes. Join the above points to form a curve. Of the things you do during your project. 3. only 20% are really important. Plot with causes on x-axis and cumulative percentage on y-axis. Figure6. Draw a line at 80% on y-axis parallel to x-axis. 7. Then drop the line at the point of intersection with the curve on x-axis. Identify and focus on those things first. i. Plot (on the same graph) a bar graph with causes on x-axis and percent frequency on y-axis.3 Procedure. 4. 6. It enables you to see what 20% of cases are causing 80% of the problems and where efforts should be focused to achieve the greatest improvement. Form a table listing the causes and their frequency as a percentage. 6. The 80/20 rule can be applied to almost anything: Seven steps to identifying the important causes using Pareto Analysis: 1. Those 20% produce 80% of your results. but don't totally ignore the remaining 80% of causes.e. Daniel Orrego action to fix the problems that are causing the greatest number of defects first. 6. 2. The value of the Pareto Principle for a project manager is that it reminds you to focus on the 20% of things that matter. Adeel Rao.

 Draw a line as the spine of the fish to connect to its head across the middle.  List the categories of major factors which cause the effect. Step 2: Draw the structure of a fishbone diagram  Draw the effect in the ‘head of the fish’ at right side. a Japanese quality control statistician. Step 3: Identify the major cause categories and connect them to the backbone of the fish. Because the design of the diagram looks like the skeleton of a fish. Adeel Rao. 11           .1 What is it Dr. it also gives you a score showing how severe the problem is. Pareto analysis not only shows you the most important problem to solve.  Check the list against the following standard patterns[3]:  Typical production process categories Machines – facilities and equipment Methods – how work get done Materials – components or raw materials People – the human factor  Typical service process categories: Policies – higher level decision rules Procedures – steps in a task Plant – equipment and space People – the human factor  Other typical categories: Environment – work culture. Therefore. Disadvantages • Work on the group with the highest score and dismiss the rest of the causes. it may be referred to as a cause and effect diagram. 7.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. it is also called Ishikawa diagram. Fishbone Diagram 7. 7. Due to the function of the fishbone diagram. Ishikawa. organizational structure. invented the fishbone diagram.2 How to use it Step 1: Identify and clearly define the Effect to be analyzed. logistics Measurement – calibration and data collection Step 4: Identify sub-causes for each of the major categories  Identify as many causes or factors as possible and attach them as sub-branches. it is often referred to as the fishbone diagram. The fishbone diagram is used to explore all the potential or real causes that result in a single effect. Daniel Orrego Advantages • • By doing 20% of work you can generate 80% of the advantage of doing the entire job.

3 When to use it and not to use it It may be helpful to use the fishbone diagram in the following cases:  To analyze and find the root cause of a complicated problem  When there are many possible causes for a problem  If the traditional way of approaching the problem(trial and error. It has been used successfully in business and industry.  No special equipment is needed. 7.  The causes identified require verification of some kind.  There is a strong sense of involvement in resolving problems and in ownership of results.4 Why to use it 7.  The technique results in a graphic representation of the relationships that exist between effects and their causes. Step 5: Identify potential root causes and take corrective actions  Analyzing each cause can eliminate causes one by one  Selecting the most probable root cause for corrective action  Assigning a priority to root causes for improvement (Pareto Diagram can be used here to prioritize the causes) 7.  The problem is simple or is already known.1 Advantages  Fishbone diagram is adaptable to analyze a variety of causes of problems.2 Limitations  Although groups can quickly determine potential causes.5 Example To diagram the causes relating to a car’s getting poor gas mileage. Normally we should assembly a team to carry out the diagram. fishbone does not usually clarify sequences of causes. Adeel Rao. [3] 7.4. trying all possible causes. the fishbone diagram is not applicable to every situation. Daniel Orrego and sub-sub-branches of the major branches. [9] 12 . So here are a few cases in which we should not use the fishbone diagram.  Group can usually complete the work in a session lasting 1 to 2 hours.  Participators need little training to complete the procedure. 7.4.  The team has experts who can fix any problem without much difficulty.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. and so on) is very time consuming Of course.

The first one relies on inspection after production and the second one on inspection during production. Detailed information is provided in the report “Statistical Process Control” of Group No. 3.1. otherwise correction is needed. How often and how much to inspect? 13 . Basically quality assurance can be distinguished in “acceptance sampling” and “statistical process control”.1 Introduction Quality control is required to ensure that (production) processes are performing in an acceptable manner. [11] 8. Adeel Rao. 8.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada.2 Monitoring Process Monitoring (inspection) can be done at three different points: • Before production: Used to make sure that all inputs are acceptable • During production: Used to make sure that transformation/conversion of inputs into outputs is acceptable • After production: Used to make sure that all outputs are acceptable The basic idea of inspection is to collect data which can be used to determine whether items conform to a standard. CONTROL CHART This report covers just the basics of control charts. Accordingly the following issues are important: 1. Fishbone Diagram 8. No further action is required. when the results are acceptable. This can be done by using statistical techniques to monitor the process output. Daniel Orrego Figure7.

[11] Figure 8. the amount of inspection is optimal. At what points (where) within the process? • Raw materials: Saving costs for goods which do not meet the required quality • Before a costly operation: Do not monitor items in a lab which are already defective • Before a irreversible process: Pottery can be reworked prior to firing • Before a covering process: Painting. Inspection of variables or attributes? Variables are measured data. On-site or centralized inspection? On-site inspection is used for products such as ships. for example the amount of products passing a measure point. 4. Plating • Finished products It is more expensive to replace or repair already delivered products 3. because those can not be taken into a laboratory.3Description of control charts Control charts are time-ordered plots of sample statistics and used to distinguish between random and non-random variability. Daniel Orrego High-volume and low-cost products such as wooden pencils do not require many inspections. whereas centralized inspection in a lab is used for items such as medical products. food and so on. 2. One example of control chart is presented on the right side. • Low volume and high-cost products such as aircraft require many inspections because of the high cost of mission failure as well as the risk to human safety.and c-chart) and two are used for variables (mean.and rangechart). Adeel Rao.1 Control Chart • 14 .Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. When the sum of passing defectives and costs of inspection is minimized. [11] 8. Two types are used for attributes (p. Assemblies. because production processes are generally very reliable and the cost associated with passing defectives is quite low. Basically there are four different types of control charts. typically on a continuous scale (length of nails) and attributes are counted data.

4 Control charts for variables As mentioned above. The mean chart using the Upper-control-limit (UCL) and Lower-control-limit (LCL). which are sensitive to shifts in the process mean.and c-charts are used to observe attributes. The control limits (p-chart) can be calculated by using the following formulas: UCL p = p + z p * (1 − p ) n and LCL p = p − z p * (1 − p ) n While the control limits for a c-chart can be calculated by using the following formulas: UCL c = c + z c and LCL c = c − z c where p and c Number of defectives 15 . can be constructed by using the following formulas: U L = x + zσx = x + A2 R C and L L = x − zσx = x − A2 R C The range control chart. which are counted rather than measured. The range charts observes the dispersion and the mean charts the central tendency of a process. Daniel Orrego 8. Adeel Rao.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. faults). which is sensitive to change in process dispersion. A p-chart is for data consisting of two categories (pass or fail. range and mean charts (also known as “x-bar”) are used to observe variables. errors. the p.5 Control charts for attributes As mentioned above. can be constructed by using the following formulas: U CL R = D4 R and LC L R = D3 R where Average of sample means x: z : Standard normal deviate Standard deviation of distribution of sample means σ x : A2 Given factor for x-bar-chart : D3 Given factor for lower control limit (R-chart) : D4 Given factor for upper control limit (R-chart) : R : Average of sample ranges [11] 8. operate or do not operate) whereas a c-chart is appropriate when the number of occurrences per unit of measure can be counted and non occurrences cannot be counted (scratches.

[13] 9. [13] The following two pictures (FIGURE XY) show the result of a brainstorming process unsorted on the left side and sorted on the right side. Within this step the already mentioned four basic rules are applied. which can be collected/noted on a blackboard.1 Introduction Brainstorming. although researchers have not confirmed its effectiveness. Adeel Rao. In the first main part of the process all participants are asked for their ideas concerning the topic. Unusual ideas are welcome 4. Nowadays brainstorming is a popular technique. [12]. 16 . thereby it is unimportant whether they are experts or not. a group creativity technique developed in 1930s by Alex Faickney Osborn. is often used to find as many ideas as possible for a solution to a certain problem. The technique is used areas of operations such as courtship/advertisement. product development or construction.3 Order of events First of all a group consisting of 5-20 people is required. Daniel Orrego : n: [11] Sample size 9 BRAINSTORMING 9. for example by a moderator or leader.2 Approach According to [12]. In the second main part all ideas needs to be evaluated and unimportant ideas can be sorted out. Consequently the amount of ideas can be reduced and a structured. [12]. [13] Brainstorming is based on four basic rules to reduce the social inhibitions in groups. Combine and improve ideas 9. These are: 1. for instance. No criticism 3.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada. In the next step the problem needs to be identified and explained. Focus on quantity 2.

Those main branches then again have several subbranches which are also described by words.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada.1 Braimstorming: unsorted Figure 9. Daniel Orrego Figure 9. that it is very important to find problems concerning the product as soon as possible. Furthermore they can be used to show the relationships between different words and ideas. figure XX shows the importance of finding the right amount of quality tests. Adeel Rao. 11. Mindmaps have been used for centuries for problem solving by engineers or learning by educators. Around the centre are several main branches which contain at least one word or a picture which is related to the key word in the centre.2 Approach Mindmaps start with the key word or a picture in the middle.2 Braimstorming: sorted 10 MINDMAP 10. These words are directly related to the main branch and indirectly to the centre word. for instance. problem or key word. 17 . 10. Conclusion All mentioned tools can be used to improve the quality of products directly or at least indirectly. As one can see.1 Introduction Mindmaps are diagrams and used to structure and visualize ideas around a central idea. whereas figure YY shows.

html.pdf [10] The example is taken from the following website http://deming.2 Cost minimisation [1] K.eng.wikpidia. EMRA.org/wki/mindmap [15] http://en.byu. 1998 [4] http://www.html.wikpidia.com/library/content/c010527a.org/wki/mindmap . Histogram [6] http://class.org/wki/brainstorming [14] http://de.wikpidia. [2] http://personnel.1 Cost optimisation References Figure 11.edu/mfg340/lessons/seventools/histograms.gov/NR/rdonlyres/F974E25A-E77D-48B6-8435-0265CEE8D72C/0/ CheckSheet. NJ: Prentice-Hall.pdf [3] Fishbone (Cause-and-Effect) Diagram. In: Production/Operations Management [12] http://de.asq. Quality improvement [5] http://www.asp [8] Fishbone (Cause-and-Effect) Diagram.wikpidia.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada.org/wki/brainstorming [13] http://en.htm [11] William J.org/learn-about-quality/data-collection-analysistools/overview/histogram.html Histograms [7] http://www.isixsigma.Ishikawa.ky. Adeel Rao.clemson.com/cause_effect_articles/howto_cause_effect. Stevenson (1996). 1998 [9] The example is taken from the following website http://www. EMRA. What is Total Quality Control? The Japanese Way.com/mddi/archive/98/04/012. Daniel Orrego Figure 11.saferpak.edu/pub/tutorials/qctools/scatm.et.devicelink. Quality Assurance. Englewood Cliffs.

Daniel Orrego . Adeel Rao.Seven improvement tools Monica Posada.

APPENDIX .

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