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Surface Integration

Eddie Wilson
RE.Wilson@bristol.ac.uk

Department of Engineering Mathematics


University of Bristol

Surface Integration – p.1/??


Integration in the plane
y
x
S

Sfrag replacements

f (x, y)δS
ZZ X
f (x, y) dS = lim f (x, y)δS.
S

Surface Integration – p.2/??


Double integration and its order
y
x
S

PSfrag replacements

R 
' f (x, y) dy δx
δx
ZZ X Z  
f (x, y) dS = lim f (x, y) dy δx ,
S
Z Z 
= f (x, y) dy dx.

Surface Integration – p.3/??


Double integration and its order
y
x
S
PSfrag replacements
δy

R 
' f (x, y) dx δy

ZZ X Z  
f (x, y) dS = lim f (x, y) dx δy ,
S
Z Z 
= f (x, y) dx dy.

Surface Integration – p.3/??


Formulae for surfaces
Examples in the plane
2 2 2

C := (x, y, z) such that x + y ≤ a , z = 0
x, y ≥ 0, z = 1.

Surface Integration – p.4/??


Formulae for surfaces
Examples in the plane
2 2 2

C := (x, y, z) such that x + y ≤ a , z = 0
x, y ≥ 0, z = 1.

Fully 3D examples:
z = x2 + y 2 , x, y ≥ 0,
z = xy
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a 2

Surface Integration – p.4/??


Formulae for surfaces
Examples in the plane
2 2 2

C := (x, y, z) such that x + y ≤ a , z = 0
x, y ≥ 0, z = 1.

Fully 3D examples:
z = x2 + y 2 , x, y ≥ 0,
z = xy
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a 2

How to write so that 2D nature is clear? c.f. curves

Surface Integration – p.4/??


Parametric representation
IDEA: create two extra parameters which trace out
surface. Write all coordinates in new parameters.
Examples:

Surface Integration – p.5/??


Parametric representation
IDEA: create two extra parameters which trace out
surface. Write all coordinates in new parameters.
Examples:
BEFORE: x2 + y 2 = a2 .
AFTER: x = a cos θ, y = a sin θ, z = t,
θ ∈ [0, 2π), t ∈ (−∞, +∞).

Surface Integration – p.5/??


Parametric representation
IDEA: create two extra parameters which trace out
surface. Write all coordinates in new parameters.
Examples:
BEFORE: x2 + y 2 = a2 .
AFTER: x = a cos θ, y = a sin θ, z = t,
θ ∈ [0, 2π), t ∈ (−∞, +∞).

BEFORE: x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a2 .
AFTER: x = a sin θ cos φ, y = a sin θ sin φ, z = cos θ,
θ ∈ [0, π], φ ∈ [0, 2π).

Surface Integration – p.5/??


Parametric representation
IDEA: create two extra parameters which trace out
surface. Write all coordinates in new parameters.
Examples:
BEFORE: x2 + y 2 = a2 .
AFTER: x = a cos θ, y = a sin θ, z = t,
θ ∈ [0, 2π), t ∈ (−∞, +∞).

BEFORE: x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a2 .
AFTER: x = a sin θ cos φ, y = a sin θ sin φ, z = cos θ,
θ ∈ [0, π], φ ∈ [0, 2π).

BEFORE: z = xy , x ≥ 0
AFTER: x = t1 , y = t2 , z = t1 t2 ,
t1 ≥ 0, t2 ∈ (−∞, +∞).
Surface Integration – p.5/??
Principle of surface integration

S
2

1
z

0
−1 1
−0.5 0.5
0 0
Sfrag replacements 0.5 −0.5
1 −1 y
x

ZZ
f (x) dS =?
S

Surface Integration – p.6/??


Principle of surface integration

S
2

1
z

0 x
−1 1
Sfrag replacements
−0.5 0.5
0 0
0.5 −0.5
area δS 1 −1 y
x

ZZ X
f (x) dS = lim f (x) δS
S

Surface Integration – p.6/??


Infinitesimal surface element

δS =?

r(t1 + δt1 , t2 + δt2 )


frag replacements
r(t1 , t2 + δt2 )

δS
∂r r(t1 + δt1 , t2 )
' δt2
∂t2
∂r
r(t1 , t2 ) ' δt1
∂t1

Surface Integration – p.7/??


Infinitesimal surface element
 
∂r ∂r
n δS = × δt1 δt2
∂t1 ∂t2
r(t1 + δt1 , t2 + δt2 )
frag replacements
r(t1 , t2 + δt2 )

δS
∂r r(t1 + δt1 , t2 )
' δt2
∂t2
∂r
r(t1 , t2 ) ' δt1
∂t1

Surface Integration – p.7/??


Infinitesimal surface element

∂r ∂r
δS =
× δt1 δt2
∂t1 ∂t2
r(t1 + δt1 , t2 + δt2 )
frag replacements
r(t1 , t2 + δt2 )

δS
∂r r(t1 + δt1 , t2 )
' δt2
∂t2
∂r
r(t1 , t2 ) ' δt1
∂t1

Surface Integration – p.7/??


R
How to calculate I = S f (x) dS

Surface Integration – p.8/??


R
How to calculate I = S f (x) dS
1: Express surface in parametric form:

r = r(t1 , t2 ) for a1 < t1 < b1 , a2 < t2 < b2 .

Surface Integration – p.8/??


R
How to calculate I = S f (x) dS
1: Express surface in parametric form:

r = r(t1 , t2 ) for a1 < t1 < b1 , a2 < t2 < b2 .

2: Find area of infinitesimal element:



∂r ∂r
dS = × dt1 dt2 .
∂t1 ∂t2

Surface Integration – p.8/??


R
How to calculate I = S f (x) dS
1: Express surface in parametric form:

r = r(t1 , t2 ) for a1 < t1 < b1 , a2 < t2 < b2 .

2: Find area of infinitesimal element:



∂r ∂r
dS = × dt1 dt2 .
∂t1 ∂t2

3: Work out standard double integral:


Z b2 Z b1
∂r ∂r
I= f (r(t1 , t2 )) × dt1 dt2 .
a2 a1 ∂t 1 ∂t 2

Surface Integration – p.8/??


Flux integrals
Let u(x) be a velocity field.

δA δS = cos θ δA
PSfrag replacements
n
θ

Surface Integration – p.9/??


Flux integrals
Let u(x) be a velocity field.

δA δS = cos θ δA
PSfrag replacements
n
θ

ZZ
Flow rate through S = u · n dS,
S
Z b2 Z b1  
∂x ∂x
= u(x(t1 , t2 )) × dt1 dt2 .
a2 a1 ∂t1 ∂t2
Surface Integration – p.9/??
Coming soon . . .
Stokes theorem
How to relate line and surface integrals
Green’s theorem in the plane

Conservative forces
Path independence of work integral
Curl-free force fields

Gauss divergence theorem


How to relate surface and volume integrals
Flux integrals and conservation laws
Pressure integrals and resultant forces
Surface Integration – p.10/??