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Eddie Wilson

RE.Wilson@bristol.ac.uk

University of Bristol

Integration in the plane

y

x

S

Sfrag replacements

f (x, y)δS

ZZ X

f (x, y) dS = lim f (x, y)δS.

S

Double integration and its order

y

x

S

PSfrag replacements

R

' f (x, y) dy δx

δx

ZZ X Z

f (x, y) dS = lim f (x, y) dy δx ,

S

Z Z

= f (x, y) dy dx.

Double integration and its order

y

x

S

PSfrag replacements

δy

R

' f (x, y) dx δy

ZZ X Z

f (x, y) dS = lim f (x, y) dx δy ,

S

Z Z

= f (x, y) dx dy.

Formulae for surfaces

Examples in the plane

2 2 2

C := (x, y, z) such that x + y ≤ a , z = 0

x, y ≥ 0, z = 1.

Formulae for surfaces

Examples in the plane

2 2 2

C := (x, y, z) such that x + y ≤ a , z = 0

x, y ≥ 0, z = 1.

Fully 3D examples:

z = x2 + y 2 , x, y ≥ 0,

z = xy

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a 2

Formulae for surfaces

Examples in the plane

2 2 2

C := (x, y, z) such that x + y ≤ a , z = 0

x, y ≥ 0, z = 1.

Fully 3D examples:

z = x2 + y 2 , x, y ≥ 0,

z = xy

x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a 2

Parametric representation

IDEA: create two extra parameters which trace out

surface. Write all coordinates in new parameters.

Examples:

Parametric representation

IDEA: create two extra parameters which trace out

surface. Write all coordinates in new parameters.

Examples:

BEFORE: x2 + y 2 = a2 .

AFTER: x = a cos θ, y = a sin θ, z = t,

θ ∈ [0, 2π), t ∈ (−∞, +∞).

Parametric representation

IDEA: create two extra parameters which trace out

surface. Write all coordinates in new parameters.

Examples:

BEFORE: x2 + y 2 = a2 .

AFTER: x = a cos θ, y = a sin θ, z = t,

θ ∈ [0, 2π), t ∈ (−∞, +∞).

BEFORE: x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a2 .

AFTER: x = a sin θ cos φ, y = a sin θ sin φ, z = cos θ,

θ ∈ [0, π], φ ∈ [0, 2π).

Parametric representation

IDEA: create two extra parameters which trace out

surface. Write all coordinates in new parameters.

Examples:

BEFORE: x2 + y 2 = a2 .

AFTER: x = a cos θ, y = a sin θ, z = t,

θ ∈ [0, 2π), t ∈ (−∞, +∞).

BEFORE: x2 + y 2 + z 2 = a2 .

AFTER: x = a sin θ cos φ, y = a sin θ sin φ, z = cos θ,

θ ∈ [0, π], φ ∈ [0, 2π).

BEFORE: z = xy , x ≥ 0

AFTER: x = t1 , y = t2 , z = t1 t2 ,

t1 ≥ 0, t2 ∈ (−∞, +∞).

Surface Integration – p.5/??

Principle of surface integration

S

2

1

z

0

−1 1

−0.5 0.5

0 0

Sfrag replacements 0.5 −0.5

1 −1 y

x

ZZ

f (x) dS =?

S

Principle of surface integration

S

2

1

z

0 x

−1 1

Sfrag replacements

−0.5 0.5

0 0

0.5 −0.5

area δS 1 −1 y

x

ZZ X

f (x) dS = lim f (x) δS

S

Infinitesimal surface element

δS =?

frag replacements

r(t1 , t2 + δt2 )

δS

∂r r(t1 + δt1 , t2 )

' δt2

∂t2

∂r

r(t1 , t2 ) ' δt1

∂t1

Infinitesimal surface element

∂r ∂r

n δS = × δt1 δt2

∂t1 ∂t2

r(t1 + δt1 , t2 + δt2 )

frag replacements

r(t1 , t2 + δt2 )

δS

∂r r(t1 + δt1 , t2 )

' δt2

∂t2

∂r

r(t1 , t2 ) ' δt1

∂t1

Infinitesimal surface element

∂r ∂r

δS =

× δt1 δt2

∂t1 ∂t2

r(t1 + δt1 , t2 + δt2 )

frag replacements

r(t1 , t2 + δt2 )

δS

∂r r(t1 + δt1 , t2 )

' δt2

∂t2

∂r

r(t1 , t2 ) ' δt1

∂t1

R

How to calculate I = S f (x) dS

R

How to calculate I = S f (x) dS

1: Express surface in parametric form:

R

How to calculate I = S f (x) dS

1: Express surface in parametric form:

∂r ∂r

dS = × dt1 dt2 .

∂t1 ∂t2

R

How to calculate I = S f (x) dS

1: Express surface in parametric form:

∂r ∂r

dS = × dt1 dt2 .

∂t1 ∂t2

Z b2 Z b1

∂r ∂r

I= f (r(t1 , t2 )) × dt1 dt2 .

a2 a1 ∂t 1 ∂t 2

Flux integrals

Let u(x) be a velocity field.

δA δS = cos θ δA

PSfrag replacements

n

θ

Flux integrals

Let u(x) be a velocity field.

δA δS = cos θ δA

PSfrag replacements

n

θ

ZZ

Flow rate through S = u · n dS,

S

Z b2 Z b1

∂x ∂x

= u(x(t1 , t2 )) × dt1 dt2 .

a2 a1 ∂t1 ∂t2

Surface Integration – p.9/??

Coming soon . . .

Stokes theorem

How to relate line and surface integrals

Green’s theorem in the plane

Conservative forces

Path independence of work integral

Curl-free force fields

How to relate surface and volume integrals

Flux integrals and conservation laws

Pressure integrals and resultant forces

Surface Integration – p.10/??

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