INTRODUCTION

CLUB-FIRST is a group of students and some technical experts who put in their ideas together for improving and researching in science & technology. In concern of projects and variety of competitions around the world like IIT TECHFEST, Micro mouse, Robocop, and AAAI (American Association for Artificial Intelligence.) Robot Competitions like Kephera, AUVS (Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems), FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) etc. The main goal of these competitions is to improve the quality in science and engineering by bringing students together from various schools, universities, and business, thus letting an exchange of resources, clever ideas, problems and mutual needs, take place in a very interactive way. This club formed under the necessity of a platform to help the students shape their imaginations into practical form, learning the difficulty of integrating together sensing, control and acting by taking their own ideas to the stage of design and implementation. The club has been working for the last 4 years to improve such qualities in the students, and help them whenever they need, through personal interaction and some step forward workshops.

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The club wants to provide this type of facilities and form a team of creative students at yours institute through exam and some practical interviews, and joined your institute in our techno group. For this, we want to organize a practical demonstration and design seminar at your institute and hope to recognize a great technical response to achieve our goal. The CLUB FIRST is the technical club open to all the students, who are having the technical ideas but don¶t have any platform to implement it. The students want to do something but having no idea or proper guidance to achieve their thoughts. The students having the idea but doesn¶t have proper tools and working station to implement it. A CLUB where Students are free to Implement their Ideas and Rediscover the concept and apply them. The CLUB FIRST is formed, in respect to the earlier student¶s demand, those are passed through such conditions, points above. THE CLUB FIRST«  Provide a TECHNICAL PLATFORM for student to apply their Ideas & Create new.  To shape our dreams there is One Research lab well facilities with Necessary Tools, Small library, Computers & internet.  Provides Over all TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT for students, Updating with new technologies.

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 Providing a new Environment to develop their Imagination and Engineering Skills  The CLUB FIRST having a WORK STATION where students can work till late working hours.
The CLUB FIRST Organizing « Step Forward WORKSHOPS membership fee) MOTION MANUAL CONTROL ROBOT¶S EMBEDDED DESIGN (SYSTEM TOOLS) WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENY VLSI PROGRAMMING PLC¶S AERO MODELING, AEROCRAFTS EXTREME PROJECTS AUTO MOBILE ROBOT¶S

(excluding

LECTURES & SEMINARS (including membership fee)
Seminars and lectures will be conducted time to time Updating with new technologies Building new concepts & much more«.

TECHNICAL TOURS & COMPETITIONS (they do they pay) Competitions will be held after each workshop¶s
Hands on their Ideas, Practical approach & Creativity

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The CLUB FIRST WELCOMES YOU to come and Share your New Ideas to implement this SCHEME for Technical Development of students. In Brief:Robotics has come long way. Especially for mobile robots in the past, they were controlled by heavy, large and expensive systems that would not be carried and had to be link via cables. Today, however we can build small robots with numerous actuators and sensors that are control by inexpensive, small and light embedded computer system that are carried on-board. Also with the invent of cheaper wireless modules it has now become possible for multiple robots to communicate with each other and do a particular task also known as CLUB FIRST Techno edusolutions Pvt. Ltd. This workshop presents a unique combination of mobile robots, embedded system design and software programming. The main focus of this workshop is to introduce to the students various methods of communication that can be used to transfer data between multiple machines.

Who Should Attend? Engineering students who want to gain an insight into robotics but do not know where to start. These workshops will cover everything from development of autonomous robots , wireless communication of a robot with a PC to wireless communication of multiple robots with each other to understand there surrounding environment cumulatively and many more which are mention below« Workshops
"Knowing is not enough; We must apply." - Leonardo da Vinci Going with the philosophy of learning while you do, Club first brings you an array of workshops from a wide spectrum of fields. These

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hands-on sessions are ideal opportunities to enhance your skills under the guidance of experts. With workshops ranging from Special Effects in movies (SFX) to Ethical Hacking and from Haptics to Bioinformatics in the previous years, we promise you that there is something in store for everyone. Learn, explore and take back the experience of a lifetime!

WORKSHOP MATERIAL:1)

COMPUTER & MOBILE WIRELESS NAVIGATION SYSTEM  Introduction to basic electronics components(ROBOTICS)  Bread board assembling.  Embedded design tools.  Dancing robot (Voice controlled).  Interfacing TWS-434/RWS-434 high range wireless system with computer.  Interfacing TWS-434/RWS-434 high range wireless system with mobile.  Sensor switching obstacle detection.  Wireless computer data transmission.  DTMF reception from mobile and encoding.  Computer interfacing programming.  Industry automation through computer & Mobile.  Digital switching.  Real time clock interfacing. 2) ROBOMAKING & EMBEDDED SYSTEM:  Introduction to electronics & robotics  Hardware programming in C, C++

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different type of statement  Sequential circuit designs like counters. geared motors. magnetic & infrared  Control a DC motor: H-Bridge. behavioral and structural styles  Different style of processing. drivers & assemblies  Introduction to sensors: .  Different classes of FPGA (symmetrical.optical.  Programmable devices ( mask & field programmable)  FPGA & ASICS. register)  Subprograms (functions like conversion & resolution)  OOPS concepts & mealy and Moore machines 4) For MECHANICAL branch Basic CAD 3D modeling Reverse engineering Legacy data migration 2D to 3D conversion Software implementation Basic CAM Post processor development 6 . pulse width modulation 3) VHDL/VLSI  Introduction to VLSI/VHDL  Data. Embedded system classification & application  Architecture of 8051 microcontroller & programming  Program of PLC in Assembly  Seven segment display using 8051 microcontroller  Actuators. row bases  Different units of microprocessor (ALU. CPU modeling. DC motors & stepper motors  Study of robotics parts. flip-flop etc. flow.

 Introduction to basic aero dynamic effects used in.  Design helicopter also in same engine and remote.  Flight your glider up to 2km range.  Hands on design your own IC Engine Powered Glider.  Balsa wood glider kit assembling.  Design many types of models in glider. 7 .NC tool path generation Tooling and fixtures design 5 axis tool path generation High speed machining Specialized machining ADVANCED CAD/CAM Products:NX Solid edge Technomatix Plant simulation FEMAP Imageware Nastran Teamcenter Rob cad PDMS interface ISO piping Moldex3D 5) IC Engine Based Remote Controlled Glider with junior pilot certification of CLUB FIRST Flying Club. of methods of aero spacing models.  Learn no.  Learn about no of technologies used in DRDO and air force.  To stunt on air as your imaginations are flight. using balsa wood & operate through remote controlled.

 Participate aero modelling competitions like IIT Techfest. with servos motor. Maintaining centre of gravity in glider.in general. Texas throttles U. y Simple engine based steering controlled car. All of this type of vehicle is made in factories with their spares.  Placing ailerons. but in the field of science and technology and engineer wants to modified a vehicle else one design a complete vehicle with their requirement with fully perfection and dreamed in looking.A. The vehicle may be low capacity but full fill our requirement in a low cost. vehicles are common and everyone wants to have it. etc 6) Automobiles Introduction. But the vehicle are made in common purpose like light vehicle.  How to design your glider with air friendly. CLUB FIRST Aero fest.  Fuel used in IC engine and their chemical ratio. sports vehicle.S.  Enabling high range wireless radio controlled remote system.  Giving complete aero dynamic effect to your glider with remote control. y Ic Engine based remote controlled car. heavy vehicle.  Making fully air resistant plane body. party purpose vehicle. family purpose vehicle.  Enabling your glider with internal comb unction engine. 8 . modified vehicle etc. elevator and Fuse lass.

1. Design flash media Design photo shop web templates. 9 . bipeds and their control. this workshop will provide you with a fully equipped board useful to create your own designs of the next generation of humanoids. 5. which has 4 degrees of freedom! Right from the very fundamentals of the theory behind humanoids. The controlling of the hand and also other applications of this hand into humanoid making. 2. 8) y y y y y y WEB DESIGNING Image editing Text editing Java script & html language Design your own website. The workshop consists of working on the kit and coding. The aim of this workshop is to introduce participants with the concepts of Humanoid making. 3. Introduction to the theory of Humanoids making and creating a 3D model of the Humanoid hand 4. The workshop would be divided into three days.7) Humanoid Club first gives you a chance to learn the basics of designing and creating a robotic arm.

MAHARASHTRA Seminar on y Web designing y Search engine optimization y Wireless navigation system. (computer & mobile wireless navigation system) BAPURAO DESHMUKH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. SELUKATE. MAHARASHTRA 10 . Workshop on y Industry automation via computer & mobile y A surrogate. SEVAGRAM. MAHARASHTRA Seminar on y Traffic poling & accident avoiding technology in vehicle y IC engine based remote controlled glider. We have organised seminars and workshops on various topics (mention above) in many engineering colleges:SURESH DESHMUKH COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.y Host your site at network provider & server. y Robot making & embedded system Workshop on y A theme on Surrogate (computer & mobile wireless navigation system) y A theme on Web Designing(website designing. INZAPUR. web hosting & search engine optimization) OM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

I. ALWAR Seminar on y VLSI/VSDL (chip designing) Workshop on y Wireless communication & real time clock interfacing APEX COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.Seminar on y solar tracking system y Hydron Collider Workshop on y Web designing y Search engine optimization RAJASTHAN INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY. MAHARASHTRA Seminar on 11 . SITAPURA.A. JAIPUR Seminar on y Communication between two gadgets & sensor technology Workshop on y Surrogate (Computer & mobile wireless Navigation System) JAWAHARLAL DARDA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY. M. YAVATMAL. JAIPUR Seminar on y Computer & mobile wireless navigation system & SIDDHI VINAYAK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

Micro mouse. workshops. We also prepared the students for national level competition such like IIT TECHFEST. JAIPUR Seminar on y Broadcast systems. competition & technical tours in engineering colleges. nexus SVNIT (Surat) etc and they got lots of prize there.y Wireless technology & sensor based gadgets STAINI MEMORIAL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY. roboveda (Hyderabad). cordless system & wireless technology Rest of these colleges we have also established our club & organized various seminars. 12 .

design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and increase the reliability and performance. is designed to be flexible and to meet a wide range of end-user needs. The key characteristic. a general-purpose computer. (Each radar probably includes one or more embedded systems of its own. For example. however. is being dedicated to handle a particular task. benefiting from economies of scale. Physically. even though they involve mainframe computers and dedicated regional and national networks between airports and radar sites. such as a personal computer (PC).) Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks. embedded systems range from portable 13 . Embedded systems control many devices in common use today Embedded systems are controlled by one or more main processing cores that are typically either microcontrollers or digital signal processors (DSP). By contrast. air traffic control systems may usefully be viewed as embedded. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. which may require very powerful processors.EMBEDDED SYSTEM An embedded system is a computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions often with real-time computing constraints. Some embedded systems are mass-produced.

or the systems controlling nuclear power plants. to very high with multiple units. Complexity varies from low. and is thus appropriate to call "embedded". even systems. peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. Moreover. handheld computers share some elements with embedded systems such as the operating systems and microprocessors which power them. to large stationary installations like traffic lights. factory controllers.devices such as digital watches and MP3 players. but they allow different applications to be loaded and peripherals to be connected. as most systems have some element of extensibility or programmability. "embedded system" is not a strictly definable term. In general. On a continuum from "general purpose" to "embedded". For example. 14 . with a single microcontroller chip. which don¶t expose programmability as a primary feature generally. need to support software updates. large application systems will have subcomponents at most points even if the system as a whole is "designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions".

RAM.A picture example of an embedded system. l abeled parts include a microprocessor. and flash memory HISTROY OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM 15 .

developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. via solid-state devices. Each flight to the moon had two. to the use of computer technology. When the Minuteman II went into production in 1966. computers were sometimes dedicated to a single task. At the project's inception.The first recognizably modern embedded system was the Apollo Guidance Computer. built using discrete transistor logic and a hard disk for main memory. the concept of programmable controllers evolved from traditional electromechanical sequencers. developed by 16 . They ran the inertial guidance systems of both the command module and LEM. and the computer could also test the missile. Over time however. One of the first recognizably modern embedded systems was the Apollo Guidance Computer. the D-17 was replaced with a new computer that used integrated circuits. but were far too large and expensive for most kinds of tasks performed by embedded computers of today. to make the missile more accurate. to reduce the size and weight. The crucial design features of the Minuteman computer were that its guidance algorithm could be reprogrammed later in the program. Without this program. In the earliest years of computers in the 1940±50s. and was the first volume use of them. It was the Automatics D-17 guidance computer. Computer for the Minuteman missile in 1961. integrated circuits might never have reached a usable pricepoint. increased this risk. The use of the then new monolithic integrated circuits. saving cable and connector weight. the Apollo guidance computer was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project.

released in 1961. An early mass-produced embedded system was the Automatics D-17 guidance computer for the Minuteman missile. most of the common previously 17 . the Apollo guidance computer was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project as it employed the then newly developed monolithic integrated circuits to reduce the size and weight. In 1978 National Engineering Manufacturers Association released a "standard" for programmable microcontrollers. including almost any computer-based controllers. the Intel 4004. When the Minuteman II went into production in 1966. and event-based controllers.Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. At the project's inception. embedded systems have come down in price and there has been a dramatic rise in processing power and functionality. the D-17 was replaced with a new computer that was the first high-volume use of integrated circuits. numerical. By the mid-1980s. such as single board computers. This program alone reduced prices on quad nand gate ICs from $1000/each to $3/each[citation needed]. As the cost of microprocessors and microcontrollers fell it became feasible to replace expensive knob-based analog components such as potentiometers and variable capacitors with up/down buttons or knobs read out by a microprocessor even in some consumer products. permitting their use in commercial products. The first microprocessor for example. was designed for calculators and other small systems but still required many external memory and support chips. It was built from transistor logic and had a hard disk for main memory. Since these early applications in the 1960s.

A general purpose and comparatively low-cost microcontroller may often be programmed to fulfill the same role as a large number of separate components. most of the complexity is contained within the microcontroller itself. Very few additional components may be needed and most of the design effort is in the software.external system components had been integrated into the same chip as the processor and this modern form of the microcontroller allowed an even more widespread use. The integration of microcontrollers has further increased the applications for which embedded systems are used into areas where traditionally a computer would not have been considered. which by the end of the decade were the norm rather than the exception for almost all electronics devices. CATEGORIES OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM 18 . The intangible nature of software makes it much easier to prototype and test new revisions compared with the design and construction of a new circuit not using an embedded processor. Although in this context an embedded system is usually more complex than a traditional solution.

These electrical signals are processed by the system and the appropriate electrical signals are produced and then they are for opening a valve. The output can be electrical signals to drive another system. 4. consumers electronics item etc fall into category. Stand-Alone Embedded System As the name implies.1. Stand-Alone Embedded System Real-Time System Network Information Appliances Mobile Device 1. They take input. 19 . 2. Embedded system used in process control. an LED display or LCD display for displaying the information to the users. stand-alone system work in stand-alone. A few embedded system used at home are shown in figure. 3. automobile. the input are from sensors that convert a physical entity such as temperature or pressure into its equivalent electrical signal. The input can be electrical signals from transducers or commands from a human being such as the pressing of a buttons. process them and produce the desired output. In a process control system.

Digital camera Television Air conditioner Cd player Stand-alone embedded system used at home 20 .

. regardless of system load. A real -time deadline must be met. a non-real-time system is one for which there is no deadline. which provide frameworks on which to build real-time application software. Real time system can also be classified. even if fast response or high performance is desired or preferred. The needs of real-time software are often addressed in the context of real-time operating systems. Real-Time System In computer science. is the study of hardware and software systems that are subject to a "real-time constraint"²i. The anti-lock brakes on a car are a simple example of a real-time computing system ² the real-time constraint in this system is the short time in which the brakes must be released to prevent the whee l from locking. By contrast.e. real-time computing (RTC). 1. where their deadline is relative to an event.2. Real-time computations can be said to have failed if they are not completed before their deadline. and synchronous programming languages. operational deadlines from event to system response. or reactive computing. A real time system may be one where its application can be considered (within context) to be mission critical. Hard real-time system 21 . Soft real-time system 2.

A soft real-time system on the other hand will tolerate such lateness.. Hard real-time systems are used when it is imperative that an event is reacted to within a strict deadline.g. Such strong guarantees are required of systems for which not reacting in a certain interval of time would cause great loss in some manner.ultimately.Hard and soft real-time systems A system is said to be real-time if the total correctness of an operation depends not only upon its logical correctness. omitting frames while displaying a video). The classical conception is that in a hard real-time or immediate real-time system. a car engine control system is a hard realtime system because a delayed signal may cause engine failure or damage. Other examples of hard real-time embedded systems include medical systems such as heart pacemakers and industrial process controllers. Early video game systems such as the Atari 2600 and Cinematronics vector graphics had hard real-time requirements because of the nature of the graphics and timing hardware. in embedded systems. Hard real-time systems are typically found interacting at a low level with physical hardware. 22 . and may respond with decreased service quality (e. For example. this may cause a critical failure of the complete system. but also upon the time in which it is performed. especially damaging the surroundings physically or threatening human lives (although the strict definition is simply that missing the deadline constitutes failure of the system). the completion of an operation after its deadline is considered useless .

Soft real-time systems are typically used where there is some issue of concurrent access and the need to keep a number of connected systems up to date with changing situations. is sufficient for system loads of less than 100% [1]. if a network server is highly loaded with network traffic. ignoring the overhead of context switching. Live audio-video systems are also usually soft real-time. The flight plans must be kept reasonably current but can operate to a latency of seconds. such as an Adaptive Partition Scheduler assist in managing large systems with a mixture of hard real-time and non real-time applications. a massive supercomputer executing a scientific simulation may offer impressive performance. but this is not always the case. Conversely.In the context of multitasking systems the scheduling policy is normally priority driven (pre-emptive schedulers). for example software that maintains and updates the flight plans for commercial airliners. which. For example. Other scheduling algorithms include Earliest Deadline First. no further performance gains are necessary. 23 . New overlay scheduling systems. Real-time and high-performance Real-time computing is sometimes misunderstood to be high-performance computing. its response time may be slower but will (in most cases) still succeed. violation of constraints results in degraded quality. but the system can continue to operate. yet it is not executing a real-time computation. once the hardware and software for an anti-lock braking system has been designed to meet its required deadlines. Furthermore.

and the faster an unconstrained chess program runs. can fall into either category. meeting the deadline is assumed not to be necessary.) are typically small and compartmentalized (limited in effect) but are not catastrophic failures. Some kinds of software.Hence. and is therefore a real-time computation. For instance. the most important requirement of a real-time system is predictability and not performance. however. it fails as a real-time computation²while in the other scenario. such as the FTSE 100 Index. the sooner it will be able to move. 24 . This example also illustrates the essential difference between real-time computations and other computations: if the tournament chess program does not make a decision about its next move in its allotted time it loses the game²i. In a real-time system. timeouts.e. Therefore. the better its moves will be. In both of these cases. a slow-down beyond limits would often be considered catastrophic in its application context. high performance is desirable: the more work a tournament chess program can do in the allotted time. such a network server would not be considered a real-time system: temporal failures (delays. etc.. but a chess program that is allowed to run indefinitely before moving is not. a chess program designed to play in a tournament with a clock will need to decide on a move before a certain deadline or lose the game. such as many chessplaying programs.

when used in AH (Authentication Header) mode. Not only are there network applications. FTP. e. SNMP. LDAP. There are kernel modules to help handle many (though not all) of the application layer protocol when using NAT. H323. the FTP server will not be able to contact the client to provide the data. which requires only outbound TCP connections. Networked Information Application Network address translation is beautifully invisible when it works. which break when NAT is involved but also network layer protocols. but. IRC. This underscores the importance of determining if NAT is the best solution for the problem. FTP is the classic example. If the network address translation device doesn't manipulate this data. Within the FTP control channel (usually established to destination port tcp/21) the client and the server exchange IP address and port information. Some network applications.x kernel series (which is not covered here). such as IPSec in AHmode simply cannot be used with NAT. Linux has supported modules which inspect and manipulate packet contents on particular types of packets when used with NAT or masquerading.3. IPSec is a standards-based network-layer security protocol commonly used in VPNs and IPv6 networks. but some protocols.g. but has adverse effects on some protocols. make use of embedded IP information in the application layer protocol or data stream.0.. This results in a more NAT friendly and firewall friendly protocol. There are many different ways to use IPSec. Passive mode FTP provides the possibility for a network layer. because the connections are initiated from the client. Since the 2. NAT will break IPSec functionality. 25 .

and hybrid vehicles are increasingly using embedded systems to maximize efficiency. Telecommunications systems employ numerous embedded systems from telephone switches for the network to mobile phones at the end-user.Variety of embedded systems Embedded systems span all aspects of modern life and there are many examples of their use. such as microwave ovens. all of which use embedded devices for sensing and controlling. Consumer electronics include personal digital assistants (PDAs). GPS receivers. Automobiles.and wireless-networking that can be used to control lights. are including embedded systems to provide flexibility. induction motors and DC motors ² are using electric/electronic motor controllers. videogame consoles. Home automation uses wired.. 26 . DVD players. mobile phones. etc. Advanced HVAC systems use networked thermostats to more accurately and efficiently control temperature that can change by time of day and season. Many household appliances. digital cameras. surveillance. New airplanes contain advanced avionics such as inertial guidance systems and GPS receivers that also have considerable safety requirements. Computer networking uses dedicated routers and network bridges to route data. audio/visual. mp3 players. Transportation systems from flight to automobiles increasingly use embedded systems. security. and printers. electric vehicles. efficiency and features. washing machines and dishwashers. Various electric motors ² brushless DC motors. climate.

In addition to commonly described embedded systems based on small computers. Wireless sensor networking. makes use of miniaturization made possible by advanced IC design to couple full wireless subsystems to sophisticated sensors. electronic stethoscopes for amplifying sounds. These motes are completely self-contained. WSN. MRI) for non-invasive internal inspections. a new class of miniature wireless devices called motes are quickly gaining popularity as the field of wireless sensor networking rises. and will typically run off a battery source for many years before the batteries need to be changed or charged. Enabling people and companies to measure a myriad of things in the physical world and act on this information through IT monitoring and control systems. and various medical imaging (PET.Anti-lock braking system (ABS). Medical equipment is continuing to advance with more embedded systems for vital signs monitoring. traction control (TCS) and automatic fourwheel drive. Electronic Stability Control (ESC/ESP). CT. 27 . SPECT.

PC Engines 28 .

graphic or character LCDs (for example popular HD44780 LCD) with a simple menu system. USB.User Interface Embedded system text user interface using MicroVGA Embedded systems range from no user interface at all ² dedicated only to one task ² to complex graphical user interfaces that resemble modern computer desktop operating systems. Simple embedded devices use buttons. Some systems provide user interface remotely with the help of a serial (e. Handheld systems often have a screen with a "joystick button" for a pointing device. and selection involves the natural behavior of pointing at what's desired.g. Ethernet) connection. simplifies BSP. In spite of the potentially necessary proprietary client software and/or specialist cables that are needed. allows to build rich user interface on the PC. C. A more sophisticated devices use graphical screen with touch sensing or screen-edge buttons provide flexibility while minimizing space used: the meaning of the buttons can change with the screen.g. therefore needing no bespoke software to be installed. LEDs. 29 . avoids the cost of a display.) or network (e. A good example of this is the combination of an embedded web server running on an embedded device (such as an IP camera or a network routers. RS-232. The user interface is displayed in a web browser on a PC connected to the device. this approach usually gives a lot of advantages: extends the capabilities of embedded system. I² etc.

such as: Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232. RS-422. BDM Port. SPI. 30 . Compact Flash etc. RS485 etc. Timers: PLL(s).Peripherals Embedded Systems talk with the outside world via peripherals.. Lon Works. Controller Area Network. ICSP. Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units Discrete IO: aka General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog (ADC/DAC) Debugging: JTAG. etc. SSC and ESSI (Enhanced Synchronous Serial Interface) Universal Serial Bus (USB) Multi Media Cards (SD Cards. Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C. ISP. BITP DP9 port.) Networks: Ethernet.

Systems built in this way are still regarded as embedded since they are integrated into larger devices and fulfill a single role.Ready made computer boards PC/104 and PC/104+ are examples of standards for ready-made computer boards intended for small. Examples of devices that may adopt this approach are ATMs and arcade machines. When a System-on-a-chip processor is involved. mostly x86-based. NetBSD. there may be little benefit to having a standardized bus connecting discrete components. In certain applications. 31 . Sometimes these boards use non-x86 processors. physically smaller or have other attributes making them attractive to embedded engineers. where small size or power efficiency are not primary concerns. Linux. The advantage of this approach is that low-cost commodity components may be used along with the same software development tools used for general software development. which contain code specific to the application. These often use DOS. However. Boards such as the VIA EPIA range help to bridge the gap by being PC-compatible but highly integrated. the components used may be compatible with those used in general purpose x86 personal computers. and the environment for both hardware and software tools may be very different. most ready-made embedded systems boards are not PC-centered and do not use the ISA or PCI busses. QNX or VxWorks. low-volume embedded and ruggedized systems. or an embedded real-time operating system such as MicroC/OS-II.

One common design style uses a small system module. many of these software layers are included. In the RTOS category. These modules can be manufactured in high volume. the availability of the additional software components depends upon the commercial offering. external flash memory for storage. TCP/IP. and also included storage capabilities like FAT and flash memory management systems. If the embedded devices have audio and video capabilities. In the case of the monolithic kernels. These components consist of networking protocol stacks like CAN. The module vendor will usually provide boot software and make sure there is a selection of operating systems. Gumstix product lines are a Linux-centric example of this model. and combined with much lower volume custom main boards with application-specific external peripherals. Additional software components In addition to the core operating system. holding high density BGA chips such as an ARM-based System-on-a-chip processor and peripherals. then the appropriate drivers and codecs will be present in the system. perhaps the size of a business card. 32 . and HTTPS. usually including Linux and some real time choices. many embedded systems have additional upper-layer software components. HTTP. by organizations familiar with their specialized testing issues. FTP. and DRAM for runtime memory.

and debuggers to develop embedded system software. 33 . They might also use libraries for both the host and target. EICASLAB. Utilities to add a checksum or CRC to a program. assemblers.or FlowStone DSP to simulate the mathematics. which eliminates developing DSP routines as done in DSPnano RTOS and Unison Operating System. Custom compilers and linkers may be used to improve optimization for the particular hardware.Tools As for other software. Another alternative is to add a real-time operating system or embedded operating system. they may also use some more specific tools: In circuit debuggers or emulators (see next section). so the embedded system can check if the program is valid. embedded system designers use compilers. MathCad Mathematica. An embedded system may have its own special language or design tool. developers may use a math workbench such as Scilab / Scicos. For systems using digital signal processing. However. MATLAB / Simulink. or add enhancements to an existing language such as Forth or Basic. which may have DSP capabilities like DSPnano RTOS.

higher level tools and operating systems are migrating into machinery where it makes sense. For example. cell phones.Software tools can come from several sources: Software companies that specialize in the embedded market Ported from the GNU software development tools Sometimes. OSGi or Embedded Java is required so that the thirdparty software provider can sell to a large market. personal digital assistants and other consumer computers often need significant software that is purchased or provided by a person other than the manufacturer of the electronics. 34 . an open programming environment such as Linux. In these systems. development tools for a personal computer can be used if the embedded processor is a close relative to a common PC processor As the complexity of embedded systems grows. NetBSD.

Forth and Basic) External debugging using logging or serial port output to trace operation using either a monitor in flash or using a debug server like the Remedy Debugger which even works for heterogeneous multicore systems. providing full control over all aspects of the microprocessor. This allows the operation of the microprocessor to be controlled externally. An in-circuit emulator replaces the microprocessor with a simulated equivalent. a hardware device that connects to the microprocessor via a JTAG or Nexus interface. An in-circuit debugger (ICD).g.Debugging Embedded debugging may be performed at different levels. and allowing debugging on a normal PC. depending on the facilities available. 35 . using the simple shell provided by the embedded operating system (e. From simplest to most sophisticated they can be roughly grouped into the following areas: Interactive resident debugging. allowing all of it to be controlled and modified. but is typically restricted to specific debugging capabilities in the processor. A complete emulator provides a simulation of all aspects of the hardware.

Because an embedded system is often composed of a wide variety of elements. the embedded system design may wish to check the data traffic on the busses between the processor cores. 36 . for instance. debugging a software. which requires very low-level debugging. An increasing number of embedded systems today use more than one single processor core. co-processor). In such a case. view the code running in the processor. FPGA. A common problem with multi-core development is the proper synchronization of software execution. with a logic analyzer. The view of the code may be as assembly code or source-code.(and microprocessor-) centric embedded system is different from debugging an embedded system where most of the processing is performed by peripherals (DSP. and start or stop its operation.Unless restricted to external debugging. the programmer can typically load and run software through the tools. at signal/bus level. For instance. the debugging strategy may vary.

navigational beacons. automated sales and service. Examples include space systems. funds transfer and market making. or it is too inaccessible to repair. switches or buttons are avoided. train signals. to recover from errors²both software bugs such as memory leaks. undersea cables. safety-critical chemical factory controls. and automobiles. A variety of techniques are used. factory controls. reactor control systems. Specific reliability issues may include: The system cannot safely be shut down for repair. engines on single-engine aircraft. "Limp modes" are less tolerable. and unreliable mechanical moving parts such as disk drives. and also soft errors in the hardware: watchdog timer that resets the computer unless the software periodically notifies the watchdog 37 . The system must be kept running for safety reasons. sometimes in combination.Reliability Embedded systems often reside in machines that are expected to run continuously for years without errors. bridge and elevator controls. and in some cases recover by themselves if an error occurs. bore-hole systems. The system will lose large amounts of money when shut down: Telephone switches. Examples include aircraft navigation. Often backups are selected by an operator. Therefore the software is usually developed and tested more carefully than that for personal computers.

This encapsulation keeps faults from propagating from one subsystem to another. Interrupt controlled system Some embedded systems are predominantly interrupt controlled. or privileged-level system software. Immunity Aware Programming Embedded software architectures There are several different types of software architecture in common use. the software simply has a loop. improving reliability. This may also allow a subsystem to be automatically shut down and restarted on fault detection. This means that tasks performed by the system are triggered by 38 . Simple control loop In this design. so that a compromised software component cannot interfere with other subsystems. The loop calls subroutines.subsystems with redundant spares that can be switched over to software "limp modes" that provide partial function Designing with a Trusted Computing Base (TCB) architecture ensures a highly secure & reliable system environment An Embedded Hypervisor is able to provide secure encapsulation for any subsystem component. each of which manages a part of the hardware or software.

different kinds of events. ³wait´. The programmer defines a series of tasks. This method brings the system close to a multitasking kernel with discrete processes. by simply writing a new task. Cooperative multitasking A nonpreemptive multitasking system is very similar to the simple control loop scheme. or adding to the queue-interpreter. after the interrupt handler has finished. except that the loop is hidden in an API. When a task is idle. these tasks are executed by the main loop. or by a serial port controller receiving a byte. ³yield´. and each task gets its own environment to ³run´ in. it calls an idle routine. An interrupt could be generated for example by a timer in a predefined frequency. but this task is not very sensitive to unexpected delays. Later. usually called ³pause´. The advantages and disadvantages are very similar to the control loop. etc. 39 . These kinds of systems are used if event handlers need low latency and the event handlers are short and simple. except that adding new software is easier. Sometimes the interrupt handler will add longer tasks to a queue structure. ³nop´ (stands for no operation). Usually these kinds of systems run a simple task in a main loop also.

Because of these complexities.Preemptive multitasking or multi-threading In this type of system. a low-level piece of code switches between tasks or threads based on a timer (connected to an interrupt). smaller systems often cannot afford the overhead associated with a generic real time system. semaphores or a non-blocking synchronization scheme. and access to shared data must be controlled by some synchronization strategy. This is the level at which the system is generally considered to have an "operating system" kernel. at least for large systems. and/or battery life 40 . Depending on how much functionality is required. such as message queues. it introduces more or less of the complexities of managing multiple tasks running conceptually in parallel. it is common for organizations to buy a real-time operating system. performance. allowing the application programmers to concentrate on device functionality rather than operating system services. due to limitations regarding memory size. As any code can potentially damage the data of another task (except in larger systems using an MMU) programs must be carefully designed and tested.

The operating system runs above the hardware. The same architecture is applicable to any computer including desktop computer. This hardware is loaded. It is not compulsory to have an operating system in 41 . The same architecture is application to any computer including a desktop computer. and the application software runs above the operating system. However. The software residing residing on the memory chip is also called the µfirmware¶. The software also consists memory chips onto which the software is loaded. there are significant differences.Overview of E edded System Architecture Hardware Operating System Application Software Every embedded system consists of custom-built hard ware built around a central processing unit (C U) . The embedded system architecture can be representation as a layered architecture cam be representation as layered architectures shown in fig.

the software will continue to run for long time and there is no need to reload new software. air-conditioner. In such a case. For application involving complex processing. Once the software is transfer to the memory chip. Now let us see the details of the various building blocks of an hardware of an embedded system.every embedded system. For small application such as remote control units. toys etc. there is no need to operating system and one can write only the software to the application. y Central processing unit (CPU) y Memory (read only memory & random access memory) y Input device y Output device y Communication interfacing y Application specific circuitry 42 . it is advisable to have an operating system. you need to integrate the application software with the operating system and the transfer the entire software onto the memory chip.

Simplified Hardware Architecture of an Embedded system 43 .

so. analog to digital converter etc. but there is the need to use many external components with them.1. Memory The memory is categorized as Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). Its main attraction is the on the chip itself. When power is switch on. 3. they make input from sensors or transducer to produce electrical signal that are in turn fedto other system. Central Processing Unit (CPU) The central processing unit can be any of the following: microcontroller. then the program is transferred to RAM and the program is execute. whereas ROM retains the contents even if the power is switched off. On the other hand. DSP is used mainly for applications in which signal processing is involved such as audio and video processing. there will be many other components such as memory. the firmware is store in the ROM. 2. serial communication interface. So. Many embedded system will have a small keypad when pressed one key to give a specific command. interacting with the embedded system is an easy task. Many embedded used in process control do not have any device for use interaction. A keypad may be used to input only the digit. 44 . the processer read the ROM. Input Device Unlike the desktop. There will be no keyboard or a mouse and hence. A microcontroller is a low cost processor. for small application. The contents of the RAM will be erased if power is switched off to the chip. a microcontroller is the best choice as the number of external components required will be very less. the input device to an embedded system has very limited capability. microprocessors are more powerful. microprocessors or digital signal processor (DSP).

RS422. Output Device The output device of the embedded system also has very limited capacity. depending on its application. A small Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) may also be used to display some important parameters. the embedded system are provided with one or a few communication interface such as RS232. Some embedded system will have a few Light Emitting Diode (LEDs) to indicated the health status of the system modules. or a visual indication of alarm.4. 5. 6. Application Specific Circuitry Sensors. IEEE 1394. Universal Serial Bus (USB). interact with other embedded system when we have to transmit to data to a desktop. To facilities this. Communication Interfaces The embedded system need to. 45 . Ethernet etc. transducers. The entities hardware was to be given power supply either through the 230 volts main supply or through a battery. RS485. special processing and control circuitry may be required for an embedded system. This circuitry interacts with the processor to carry out the necessary work. The hardware has to be designed in such a way that the power consumption is minimum.

military and so on. microwave ovens. wireless communication. Now however. different software needs to be written for each type of item by each manufactured. Most of the system used to be standalone embedded system. these system can be network through a variety of technologies. Office Automation products Product such as layer printer. each of these must be highly reliable and of low cost. fax machine. Another important feature of these items is that each uses different processors. transportation. industrial automation. refrigerators. television sets and so on are embedded system with varying processing power and memory requirement. 1. air conditioner. universal plug and play. Consumer Electronics Consumer electronics items such as toys. such as Bluetooth. CD player. office automation. data communication telecommunication.Application Area Nearly 99 percent of the process manufacture ends up in embedded system. They require an 8-bit processor with on chip memory and simple button for use interaction. biomedical engineering. 1. 46 . The embedded system market is one of the highest growth areas as these system are in market segmentconsumer electronics. scanner and LCD projectors fall into the category of office automation product. MP3 player. However. Therefore.

USB port. more typically. 47 . Digital Audio Players Pocket size MP3 players have recently become available and very popular.Office Automation 2. You can download MP3 music files from the internet onto your computer and then transfer these file to the flash memory of such an audio player by connecting the player to the computer via the parallel port or.

to transfer the digital video to a desktop computer through the host interface. Unlike other consumer items. 48 . Video game player are also very high-end embedded system. as they need to process video signal at a very fast rate. The software also need to be powerful in order to generate the necessary animation. The signal processing is carried out through the microprocessor with the associated control circuitry and codes. which presently includes feature such as automatic adjustments of focus exposure. The video signal from transducer (which cover real world image into an analog signal) is converted into digital format using an Analog-to-Digital converter (ADC).3. Both hardware and software requirement are very high for system. and high.resolution graphic display. these systems are 64bit processors. Still and moving picture digital camera are very high-end embedded system. Other peripherals include a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) and interface circuitry. flash on/off. Digital Cameras Digital cameras are becoming increasingly sophisticated.

Di ital camera function blocks 49 .

2. LCD (liquid crystal display). the ADC (analog to digital converter) converts the analog signal into its equivalent digital signal. voltage. The function block diagram of an embedded system used in process control is shown in figure. LEDs ( light emitting diodes). The processor can process only digital signal. which is an electrical representation of a bit stream of 1s and 0s. For user interaction. sugar. These include pharmaceutical cement. current etc. Generally.99 percent. 50 . a USB port. The processor processes these signal using the signal using the software that residue on the memory chip . Today. high available system in which create embedded process and control system are capable of finding faults upto 99. a lot of industries use embedded system for process control. and a keypad are provided. we have designed fault tolerant. If the embedded system has to control another application. sensor or transducers are used to covert the physical entity into an electrical signal. exploration. Control System and Industrial Automation In this section. oil. a DAC (digital to analog converter) is used to convert the output digital signal to serial interface. RAM is used to store the volatile data. a transducer converts the voice or video signal into an equivalent electrical signal. In application such as those using or video. These control system component run fully protest in their own space. nuclear energy. electrical generator and system transmission. humidity. and an Ethernet port for connectivity to external system. pressure. They are also used for monitoring and controlling the temperature. The embedded system takes electrical signal as input.

Block Diagram of an embedded system for process control Application 51 .

EEG system.Industrial Automation 3. both at computation and communication level. scanners. Endoscopy etc. These equipment include blood pressure measuring device. The equipment include diagnostic equipment such as ECG. Actual embedded system for biomedical application with low power communication system and on the other hand. X-Ray. 52 . radiation. they have to be easily integration with more general distributed computing platforms where reliability and security issues have to be considered. Biomedical System Almost every medical equipment in the hospital is an embedded system.

and the C¶s secondary storage is used to store the ECG¶s records. which take ECG signals and process them: the C monitor is used for the display. is becoming available.C-based ECG and EEG equipment. which belong to a different type of embedded system. The C add-on cards include the processor and the associated circuitry for processing the signal. These system use C add-on card. Blood ressure Device 53 .

such as simultaneous audio and video reception and transmission.5G and 3G wireless network. paving the way for multimedia communication over the wireless network.bit processors are being used to enhance processing capabilities. However. but only since the last decade of the twentieth century There has been remendous progress in digital wireless networks. the mobile operating system embedded into them and the application software run above the operating system. while at the same time keeping the cost. and power consumption low. data rates in the range 64 kbps to 2 mbps are supported. video codes on the mobile device.4. The 2G (second-generation) wireless networks are capable of supporting voice services and data services only up to 14. the need for accessing data services is changing the design of mobile device radically. these system have an 8-bit microcontroller to carry out the processing of voice call protocols. 16-bit and 32. With the advent of third-generation (3G) wireless networks. The greatest challenge in this area lies in developing subscriber terminal that support high data rates. is used. 1. which support data rates up to 2Mbps. Currently. using mobile device we can carry out video conferencing as well to achieve this. multiple tasks need to be carried out simultaneously. and a custom-built chip that handles the voice processing. These device run a micro browser (a scaled -down version of conventional browsers such as Internet Explorer or Netscape) as well as the networking protocol software. Wireless Communications Wireless communication has been in use since the 1960. Moreover. Mobile Phone Mobile phone are used presently for voice communication generally. With the advent of 2. 54 . To achieve all this.4 kbps. size.

3. Similarly . palm operating system operating system. speakers. overhead projectors and air conditioners. 55 . Symbian operating system and they support the TCP/IP stack as well as application layer software such as POP3. For instance. The present trend is to incorporate a Java Machine and a micro-browser to interpret the applets and HTML. LCD projectors. Bluetooth device Bluetooth is low-cost radio technology designed to interconnect devices so that they can from a Personal Area Network (PAN). cellular phones. A Bluetooth system consists of small Bluetooth module (hardware) and Bluetooth software . The newest generation of Personal Display Assistant (PDAs) are extremely powerful and provide much better functionality. the MP3 player can download music from the desktop. The PC and the printer can communicate with each other over the radio link without the need for wires. including fax machine. home. When all device show here are Bluetooth-enabled. headsets. and even the car an be Bluetooth-enabled. XHTML and WML context. when the cell phone enters the vicinity of the laptop (about 10 meters. A printer can be Bluetooth-enabled by embedding the software in the printer and attaching the hardware module to the printer. Figure shows a Wireless Personal Area Network. which is the average range of Bluetooth device). Personal Digital Assistant The limitation of a mobile phone are obvious to anyone who uses one: it has a very limited display area and the keypad has very few keys. a number of devices used in the office. Similarly. they can from a network instantaneously. A PC can be Bluetooth-enabled by attaching the hardware module to the PC¶s USB or serial port and running the software on the PC. CD players. SMTP and HTTP. modems.2. Pocket PCs and palm operating system device belong to this category. These PDAs run an operating system such as Window CE. these two can from a network and exchange data without the need for wires to interconnection them.

Wireless personal area network 56 .

57 .CONCLUSION At last I want to say that this project of embedded system is very useful for every body & after this training I have learn various aspects & application.

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