United Roman Empire

Constantinian dynasty (306–363)
Emperor until

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Emperor from

Death

Constantine "the Great" Greek: Κωνσταντίνος Α' Μέγας (Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus)

son of the AugustusConstantius Chlorus

27 February c.280

19 September 324 Proclaimed "Augustus"of the western empire upon the death ofConstantius Chlorus on 25 July 306 AD and later united the whole empire

22 May 337

Constantius II Κωνσταντίνος Β' (Flavius Iulius Constantius)

second son of Constantine I

7 August 317

22 May 337 Inherited Eastern third of Roman Empire upon his father's death

5 October 361 died of illness on campaign

Julian "the Apostate" Ιουλιανός (Flavius Claudius Iulianus)

grandson of Constantius Chlorus, cousin ofConstantius II

May 332

5 October 361 Proclaimed by his army in Gaul, became legitimate Emperor upon the death of Constantius

28 June 363 killed on campaign against Persians

[edit]Non-dynastic

(363–364)
Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death

Picture

Jovian Ιοβιανός ( Flavius Claudius Iovianus)

Guards' Captain amongst Julian's Eastern forces

c.332

28 June 363 Elected by the army upon Julian's death

17 February 364 Died on journey back to Constantinople

Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty (364–457)
Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death

Valentinian I Βαλεντιανός( Flavius Valentinianus )

Officer under Julian and Jovian

321

26 February 364 Elected by the army uponJovian's death

17 November 375 Died of cerebral haemorrhage

Valens Βάλης ( Flavius Iulius Valens )

Minor soldier of the Roman army, brother of Valentinian I

328

28 March 364 Appointed by his brother

9 August 378 Killed at the Battle of Adrianople

Gratian Γρατιανός ( Flavius Gratianus )

Son of Valentinian I, nephew of Valens

18 April/23 May 359

9 August 378 Inherited rule of the East upon the death of Valens

19 January 379 Appointed Theodosius I as Emperor of the East

25 August 383 Assassinated during the rebellion of Magnus Maximus

Theodosius I "the Great" Θεοδόσιος Α' ο Μέγας (Flavius Theodosius )

Aristocrat and military leader, brother-in-law of Gratian

11 January 347

19 January 379 Appointed by Gratian

17 January 395 old age

Eastern Roman Empire under the Theodosian dynasty (395–457)
Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death

Arcadius Αρκάδιος ( Flavius Arcadius )

Son of Theodosius I

377/378

17 January 395 Upon the death of Theodosius I

1 May 408

Theodosius II Θεοδόσιος Β' ( Flavius Theodosius )

Son of Arcadius

10 April 401

1 May 408 Upon the death of Arcadius

28 July 450 Riding accident

Pulcheria Πουλχερία ( Aelia Pulcheria )

Daughter of Arcadius, sister of Theodosius II

19 January 399

28 July 450 Upon the death of Theodosius II

July 453

Marcian Μαρκιανός ( Flavius Valerius Marcianus )

Soldier, politician, husband of Pulcheria

396

450 Upon his marriage to Pulcheria

January 457 Gangrene contracted on a journey

Leonid dynasty (457–518)

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Emperor from

Emperor until

Death

Leo I "the Thracian" Λέων Α' (Flavius Valerius Leo )

Soldier

401 Dacia

7 February 457 Chosen by Aspar, commander-in-chief of the army

18 January 474 Died of dysentery

Leo II Λέων Β' ( Flavius Leo )

Grandson of Leo I

467

18 January 474 Succeeded his grandfather Leo I

17 November 474 Died of an unknown disease, possibly poisoned

Co-emperor: 9 February 474 Roman general of Appointed by his Zeno Isaurian origins; son-inson Leo II Ζήνων ( Flavius Zeno ) c.425Zenonopolis,Isauria law ofLeo I, father Sole Emperor: 17 (Born Tarasicodissa) of Leo II November 474 Succeeded upon the death of Leo II

9 January 475 Deposed by Basiliscus, brother-in-law of Leo I

9 April 491

Basiliscus Βασιλίσκος ( Flavius Basiliscus )

Army General; brotherin-law of Leo I

9 January 475 Seized power from Zeno

August 476 Deposed by Zeno

476/477

Roman general of Zeno, restored Isaurian origins; son-inΖήνων ( Flavius Zeno ) law ofLeo I, father (Born Tarasicodissa) of Leo II

c.425

restored August 476 Having deposed Basiliscus

9 April 491

Anastasius I Αναστάσιος Α'( Flavius Anastasius )

Palace official ("Silentiarius"); son-inlaw of Leo I

c.430 Durres,Albania

11 April 491 Chosen by Ariadne, widow of Zeno

9 July 518

Justinian dynasty (518–602)
Emperor until

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Emperor from

Death

Justin I Ιουστίνος Α' (Flavius Iustinus )

General, commander of the City Guards under Anastasius I

c.450 Bederiana(Justiniana Prima), Serbia

July 518 Elected by army and people upon the death of Anastasius I

1 August 527

Justinian I the Great Ιουστινιανός Α' (Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus)

Nephew and heir of Justin I

482/483Tauresium(Taor),Macedonia

1 August 527 Inherited the throne on the death ofJustin I

13/14 November 565

Justin II Ιουστίνος Β' (Flavius Iustinus Iunior)

Nephew and heir of Justinian I

c.520

14 November 565 Inherited the throne on the death ofJustinian I

5 October 578

"Comes" of the Tiberius II Constantine Excubitors, friend and Τιβέριος Β' (Flavius adoptive son of Justin Tiberius Constantinus) II

c.520

5 October 578 Became full Emperor on the death ofJustin II

14 August 582 possibly poisoned by Maurice

Maurice Μαυρίκιος (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius)

Commander-in-chief of Cappadocian origins; son-in-law of Tiberius II

539 Arabissus,Cappadocia

14 August 582 Succeeded upon the death of his father-inlaw Tiberius II

November 602 Forced to abdicate by Phocas

27 November 602 Executed byPhocas

Non-dynastic (602–610)
Emperor until

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Emperor from

Death

Phocas Φωκάς (Flavius Phocas )

sub-altern in the Balkan army, leader of rebellion; deposed Maurice

?

November 602 Seized power in a rebellion against Maurice

610 Executed by Heraclius

Heraclian dynasty (610–711)
Emperor until

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Emperor from

Death

Herakleios (Ηράκλειος, Hērakleios) Heraclius (Flavius Heraclius)

son of Exarch of Africa Heraclius the Elder, who were of Armenian Origin. ; DeposedPhocas

c.575

5 October 610 Seized power in a rebellion against Phocas

11 February 641

Constantine III (Ηράκλειος (νέος) Κωνσταντίνος, Herakleios Néos Kōnstantinos) Constantine III ( Heraclius Novus Constantinus )

eldest son of Herakleios

3 May 612

11 February 641 Succeeded to throne withHeraklonas following death ofHerakleios

24/26 May 641 Tuberculosis, allegedly poisoned by Martina

Heraklonas (Κωνσταντίνος Ηράκλειος, Kōnstantinos Herakleios)Heraclianus (Constantinus Heraclius)

younger son of Herakleios

626

11 February 641 Succeeded to throne withConstantine III following death of Herakleios

c.641 September Presumed 641 to have Deposed died in by Senate exile

Constans II (Κώνστας Β', Kōnstas II); born Herakleios Constantine (Ηράκλειος Κωνσταντίνος, Herakleios Kōnstantinos ); called "Constantine the Bearded" (Κωνσταντίνος Πωγωνάτος, Kōnstantinos Pogonatos) Constans II (Constantus II); born Heraclius Constantine ( Heraclius Constantinus ); called "Constantine the Bearded"

7 son November of Constantine III 630

641 Made co-Emperor byHereklonas, sole emperor in that same year

15 September 668 Assassinated, possibly on the orders of Mezezius

Mezezius

Usurper Emperor

Unknown

668

669

Constantine IV (Κωνσταντίνος ∆', Kōnstantinos) Constantine son of Constans II (Constantinos)

652

15 September 668 succeeded following murder ofConstans II

September 685 Died of dysentery

Justinian II Ιουστινιανός Β'

son of Constantine IV

669

Co-emperor in 681, sole emperor in 685.

695 Deposed December by military 711 revolt

Leontios Λεόντιος

Usurper Emperor

Unknown

695

698 Deposed by military revolt

705

Tiberios III Τιβέριος

Usurper Emperor

Unknown

698

705 Deposed by a Bulgariansupported revolt

705

Justinian II Ιουστινιανός Β'

son of Constantine IV

669

705

711 Deposed December by military 711 revolt

Non-dynastic (711–717)
Emperor from

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Emperor until

Death

Philippikos Φιλιππικός

A general of Armenian origins; deposed Justinian II

Unknown

December, 711

3 June 713 Deposed by a military revolt

Later in the 8th century

Anastasios II Αναστάσιος Β'

a bureaucraut, imperial secretary for Philippikos

Unknown

June 713

November 715 Deposed by a military revolt

718

Theodosios III Θεοδόσιος Γ'

a financial officer, tax collector in the Opsikian Theme

Unknown

May 715

25 March 717 Deposed by a military revolt

Later in the 8th century

Isaurian dynasty (717–802)
Emperor until

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Emperor from

Death

Leo III the Isaurian Λέων Γ΄ ο Ίσαυρος

General from Germanikeia,Commagene

c. 685

25 March 717

18 June 741

18 June 741

Constantine V "the Dungnamed" Κωνσταντίνος Ε΄ ο Κοπρώνυµος

Son of Leo III

July, 718

Co-emperor in 720, sole emperor in 741

14 September 775

14 September 775

Artabasdos Αρτάβασδος

Son-in-law of Leo III, Count of the Unknown Opsician Theme

Rival emperor from June 741/742

2 November 743

Later in the 8th century

Leo IV the Khazar Λέων ∆΄ ο Χάζαρος

Son of Constantine V

25 January 750

Co-emperor in 751, sole emperor in 775

8 September 780

8 September 780

Constantine VI Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ΄

Son of Leo IV and Irene

771

Co-emperor in 776, sole emperor in 780, until 790 under the regency of his mother, Irene of Athens

c. 797, though sources are August 797 contradictory on the subject

Irene of Athens Ειρήνη η Αθηναία

Wife of Leo IV, mother of Constantine VI

c. 752

Regent in 780–790, empress 31 October (styled "emperor") in her 802 own right from August 797

9 August 803

Nikephoros' dynasty (802–813)
Emperor until

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Emperor from

Death

Nikephoros I the Logothete Νικηφόρος Α΄ ο Λογοθέτης

General Logothete (finance minister)

Unknown

31 October 802

26 July 811

26 July 811

Staurakios Σταυράκιος

Son of Nikephoros I

Unknown

Co-ruler in 803, senior ruler in 811

2 October 811

11 January 812

Michael I Rangabe Son-in-law of Nikephoros I, brother-in-law Unknown Μιχαήλ Α΄ Ραγκαβέ of Staurakios

2 October 811

11 July 813

11 January 844

Non-dynastic (813–820)
Emperor from

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Emperor until

Death

Leo V the Armenian Λέων Ε'

Strategos of the Anatolic theme

c. 775

11 July 813

25 December 820

25 December 820

Constantine Κωνσταντίνος

Son of Leo V the Armenian, originally named Symbatios, co-emperor

c. 800– 810

25 December 813

25 December 820

Unknown

Phrygian dynasty (820–867)
Emperor from Emperor until

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Death

Michael II the Stammerer or the Amorian Μιχαήλ Β΄ ο Τραυλός/Ψελλός ο εξ Αµορίου

Strategos, son-in-law of Constantine VI

770

25 December 820

2 October 829

Theophilos Θεόφιλος

son of Michael II

813

2 October 829

20 January 842

Michael III Μιχαήλ Γ΄

son of Theophilos, until 855 under the regency of his mother and Theoktistos

19 January 840

842

23 September 867

Macedonian dynasty (867–1056)

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Emperor from

Emperor until

Death

Basil I the Macedonian Βασίλειος Α΄ ο Μακεδών

Imperial officer of Armenian origin, born in the Theme of Macedonia

c. 811

867

2 August 886

Leo VI the Wise Λέων ΣΤ΄ ο Σοφός

likely either son of Basil I or Michael III

19 September 866

886

11 May 912

Alexander (III) Αλέξανδρος Γ΄

son of Basil I

870

912

913

Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ ο Πορφυρογέννητος

son of Leo VI, until 945 he reigned under regents or senior co-emperors

9 September 905

15 May 908

9 November 959

Romanos I Lekapenos Ρωµανός Α΄ Λεκαπηνός

Admiral and father-in-law of Constantine VII, became senior emperor in 920 until his abdication in 944

c. 870

17 December 920

16 December 944

15 June 948

Romanos II Porphyrogennetos Ρωµανός Β΄ ο Πορφυρογέννητος

son of Constantine VII

15 March 938

November 959

15 March 963

Nikephoros II Phokas Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκάς

married Theophano, Romanos II's widow, regent for Basil II

c. 912

16 August 963

969

John I Tzimiskes Iωάννης Α΄ Κουρκούας ο Τσιµισκής

brother-in-law of Romanus II

c. 925

11 December 969

10 January 976

Basil II the Bulgar-Slayer Βασίλειος Β΄ ο Βουλγαροκτόνος

son of Romanos II

958

10 January 976

15 December 1025

Constantine VIII Κωνσταντίνος Η΄ ο Πορφυρογέννητος

son of Romanos II

960

15 December 1025

15 November 1028

Zoe Ζωή η Πορφυρογέννητη

daughter of Constantine VIII

c. 978

15 November 1028

June 1050

Romanos III Argyros Ρωµανός Γ΄ Αργυρός

Zoe's first husband

968

15 November 1028

11 April 1034

Michael IV the Paphlagonian Μιχαήλ ∆΄ ο Παφλαγών

Zoe's second husband

1010

11 April 1034

10 December 1041

Michael V the Caulker Μιχαήλ Ε΄ ο Καλαφάτης

Michael IV's nephew

1015

10 December 1041

20 April 1042

24 August 1042

Theodora Θεοδώρα

daughter of Constantine VIII

984

20 April 1042

1042

after 31 August 1056

Constantine IX Monomachos Κωνσταντίνος Θ΄ Μονοµάχος

Zoe's third husband

c. 1000

11 June 1042

11 January 1055

Theodora Θεοδώρα

daughter of Constantine VIII

984

11 January 1055

after 31 August 1056

Non-dynastic (1056–1057)
Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death

Michael VI Bringas or Stratiotikos Μιχαήλ ΣΤ΄ Βρίγγας ο Στρατιωτικός

Court bureaucrat, military logothete

Unknown

September, 1056

31 August 1057

c. 1059

Komnenid dynasty (1057–1059)
Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death

Isaac I Komnenos Ισαάκιος Α΄ Κοµνηνός

commander of the field army in Anatolia

c. 1005

5 June 1057 as rival emperor, sole emperor since 31 August 1057, abdicated in 1059

22 November 1059

c. 1061

Doukid dynasty (1059–1081)
Emperor until

Picture

Name

Status

Birth Emperor from

Death

Constantine X Doukas Κωνσταντίνος Ι΄ ∆ούκας

General, nominated as his successor by Isaac I Komnenos

1006

24 November 1059

22 May 1067

Michael VII Doukas Μιχαήλ Ζ΄ ∆ούκας

Son of Constantine X, co-emperor in 1059, until 1071 under regents 1050 or senior co-emperors

22 May 1067

24 March 1078

1090

Romanos IV Diogenes Ρωµανός ∆΄ ∆ιογένης

General, married Eudokia Makrembolitissa, Constantine X's widow

1032

1067

1071

1072

Nikephoros III Botaneiates Νικηφόρος Γ΄ Βοτανειάτης

Strategos of the Anatolic Theme

1001

31 March 1078

10 December 1081

Komnenid dynasty (1081–1185)
Emperor from Emperor until

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Death

Alexios I Komnenos (Αλέξιος Α' Κοµνηνός)

Nephew of Isaac I, military commander

1048

4 April 1081

15 August 1118

John II Komnenos (Ιωάννης Β' Κοµνηνός o Καλοϊωάννης)

son of Alexios I

13 September 1087

1118

8 April 1143

Manuel I Komnenos (Μανουήλ Α' Κοµνηνός ο Μέγας)

son of John II

28 November 1118

1143

24 September 1180

Alexios II Komnenos (Αλέξιος B' Κοµνηνός)

son of Manuel I

14 September 1169

1180

October 1183

Andronikos I Komnenos (Ανδρόνικος Α' Κοµνηνός)

nephew of John II

c. 1118

1183

2 September 1185

Angelid dynasty (1185–1204)
Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death

Isaac II Angelos (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος)

great-grandson of Alexios I

September 1156

1185

1195

January 1205

Alexios III Angelos (Αλέξιος Γ' Άγγελος)

brother of Isaac II

1153

1195

1203

1211

Isaac II Angelos (Ισαάκιος Β' Άγγελος)

great-grandson of Alexios I

September 1156

1203

1204

January 1205

Alexios IV Angelos (Αλέξιος ∆' Άγγελος)

son of Isaac II

1182

1203

1204

Nikolaos Kanabos (Νικόλαος Καναβός)

25 January 1204

5 February 1204

Alexios V Doukas (Αλέξιος Ε' ∆ούκας)

son-in-law of Alexios III

1140

5 February 1204

12 April 1204

December 1205

Laskarid dynasty (Empire of Nicaea, 1204–1261)
Emperor until

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Emperor from

Death

Constantine Laskaris Κωνσταντίνος

Defender of Constantinople

Unknown

Claimant emperor in 1204

c. 1205

c. 1205

Λάσκαρης

Theodore I Laskaris Θεόδωρος Α΄ Λάσκαρης

Brother of Constantine Laskaris, son-in-law of Alexios III

c. 1174

proclaimed 1205, crowned 1208

1221

1221

John III Doukas VatatzesΙωάννης Γ' ∆ούκας Βατάτζης

son-in-law of Theodore I

c. 1192

December, 1221

3 November 1254

3 November 1254

Theodore II Laskaris Θεόδωρος Β' Λάσκαρης

son of John III, grandson of Theodore I

1221/1222

proclaimed 4 November 1254 crowned 1255

18 August 1258

18 August 1258

John IV Laskaris Ιωάννης ∆' Λάσκαρης

son of Theodore II

25 December 1250

18 August 1258

25 December 1261

c. 1305

Palaiologan Dynasty (restored to Constantinople, 1261–1453)
Emperor until

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Emperor from

Death

Michael VIII Palaiologos Μιχαήλ Η' Παλαιολόγος

Great-grandson of Alexios III, grandnephew of John III by marriage

1223

1 January 1259 as co-emperor, senior emperor since 25 December 1261

11 December 11 December 1282 1282

Andronikos II PalaiologosΑνδρόνικος Παλαιολόγος

Son of Michael VIII

25 March 1259

nominal co-emperor in September, 1261, crowned in 1272. Senior emperor on 11 December 1282

24 May 1328

13 February 1332

Michael IX Palaiologos Μιχαήλ Θ' Παλαιολόγος

Son of Andronikos II

17 April 1277

co-emperor in 1281, crowned in 1294/1295.

12 October 1320

12 October 1320

Andronikos III PalaiologosΑνδρόνικος Γ' Παλαιολόγος

Son of Michael IX

25 March 1297

co-emperor in 1316, rival emperor since July, 1321. Senior emperor on 15 June 1341 15 June 1341 24 May 1328.

John V Palaiologos Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος

Son of Andronikos III

18 June 1332

Emperor in 15 June 1341

8 February 1347

16 February 1391

John VI Kantakouzenos Ιωάννης ΣΤ' Καντακουζηνός

A maternal relative of the Palaiologoi

c. 1292

rival emperor on 26 October 1341, senior emperor on 8 February 1347.

4 December 1354

15 June 1383

Matthew Kantakouzenos Ματθαίος Son of John VI, brother-in-law Καντακουζηνός of John V

c. 1325

co-emperor on 15 April 1353, rival emperor since 4 December 1354.

December, 1357

between 1383 and 1391

John V Palaiologos Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος

Son of Andronikos III, son-inlaw of John VI

18 June 1332

co-emperor in 1347, rival emperor in 1352. Senior Emperor on 4 December 1354

12 August 1376

16 February 1391

Andronikos IV PalaiologosΑνδρόνικος ∆΄ Παλαιολόγος

Son of John V, grandson of John VI

2 April 1348

co-emperor c. 1352, Senior Emperor on 12 August 1376

1 July 1379

28 June 1385

John V Palaiologos Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος

Son of Andronikos III, son-inlaw of John VI

18 June 1332

Senior Emperor on 1 July 1379

14 April 1390

16 February 1391

John VII Palaiologos Ιωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος

Son of Andronikos IV

1370

Co-emperor from 1376 to 1379, senior emperor on 14 April 1390.

17 September 1390

22 September 1408

John V Palaiologos Ιωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος

Son of Andronikos III, son-inlaw of John VI

18 June 1332

Senior Emperor on 17 September 1390

16 February 1391

16 February 1391

Manuel II Palaiologos Μανουήλ Β' Παλαιολόγος

Son of John V, grandson of John VI, brother of Andronikos IV

27 June 1350

Co-emperor in 1373, Senior Emperor on 16 February 1391

21 July 1425

21 July 1425

Andronikos V PalaiologosΑνδρόνικος Ε' Παλαιολόγος

Son of John VII

c. 1400

co-emperor c. 1403

c. 1407

c. 1407

John VIII Palaiologos Ιωάννης Η'

Son of Manuel II

18 December 1392

Co-emperor c. 1416, sole emperor on 21 July 1425

31 October 1448

31 October 1448

Constantine XI PalaiologosΚωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Παλαιολόγος

Son of Manuel II, brother of John VIII

8 February 1405

6 January 1449

29 May 1453 29 May 1453

Palaiologan Dynasty (claimants in exile)
Emperor from Emperor until

Picture

Name

Status

Birth

Death

Demetrios Palaiologos ∆ηµήτριος Παλαιολόγος

Son of Manuel II, brother of John VIII and Constantine XI

c. 1407

1453

1460

1470

Thomas Palaiologos Θωµάς Παλαιολόγος

Son of Manuel II, brother of John VIII and Constantine XI

c. 1409

1453

12 May 1465

12 May 1465

Andreas Palaiologos Ανδρέας Παλαιολόγος

Son of Thomas

c. 1453

12 May 1465

1502

1502

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