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Content of handbook
ESC

CONTENT
1. Introduction 2. Defi nition of basic concepts and calculational formulas 3. Cutting grades Pramet 3.1 Grades with MTCVD coating 3.2 Grades with PVD coating 3.3 Uncoated grades 3.4 Comparative table - MTCVD grades Comparative table - PVD grades (for turning) Comparative table - PVD grades (for milling) 4. Choice of turning tool 4.1 Tool holder choice 4.2 Choice of cutting insert 4.3 Choice of chip former 4.4 Choice of cutting conditions Tables 4.5 Turning of recesses, parting, CTP system for copying and recessing turning 4.6 Threading 5. Choice of milling tool 5.1 Choice of milling cutter 5.2 Choice of cutting insert 5.3 Choice of cutting conditions Tables 5.4 Special milling technology 6. Drilling 6.1 Procedure for optimum tool choice 6.2 Choice of cutting conditions Tables 6.3 Drilling of holes with larger or smaller diameter than nominal drill diameter 6.4 Practical recommendations 6.5 Use of cutting fluids at drilling with cutting inserts 6.6 Troubleshooting 7. Wear of cutting inserts 7.1 Types of wear 7.2 Mechanisms of wear formation 7.3 Some wear types and recommended measures for their removal 8. Classifi cation of machined materials and tables of equivalents Category of materials 8.1 Table of equivalents - group P 8.2 Table of equivalents - group M 8.3 Table of equivalents - group K 8.4 Table of equivalents - group N 8.5 Table of equivalents - group S 8.6 Table of equivalents - group H 8.7 Hardness conversion table 2

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 15 19 24 25 43 46 53 56 57 58 70 74 74 75 78 82 83 84 85 86 88 92 93 96 97 98 99 99 100

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GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES

WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS

CHOICE OF DRILLING

CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL

CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL

CUTTING GRADES PRAMET

3

DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS

ESC

The Handbook for machining with cemented carbide tools PRAMET is determined for workers of technological divisions, technologists, programmers, machine operators. It is instrumental towards the basic for choice of optimum tools, working and cutting conditions for turning, milling and drilling by means of tools with indexable cutting inserts Pramet. These tools are delivered in a wide assortment of shapes, dimensions and grades of cutting inserts, before all coated inserts, but also uncoated ones. A condition for effective utilization of these tools, that means an achievement of maximum cutting performance for solution of concrete technological problems, are reliable basic documents which make possible to reach this objective under minimum machining costs. At using tools in engineering practice before all we encounter a wide range of materials to be machined. The tools are also applied under various engagement conditions, i.e. beginning with fine machining, through finishing machining, up to heavy roughing. With regard to this considerable conditions variability, we believe that it is necessary to provide technologists a systematically arranged complex of some basic pieces of knowledge concerning the machinability of engineering materials and wear of cutting edges of tools with indexable cutting inserts made from cemented carbide (hereafter only Inserts).

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2

GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES

WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS

CHOICE OF DRILLING

CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL

CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL

CUTTING GRADES PRAMET

DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS

1.

Introduction

min -1] [mm] Feed It is a motion which is made by tool or workpiece.n [m.min -1] v c = cutting speed D = mill diameter n = number of tool revolutions CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 2. by tool at milling and by workpiece or tool at drilling.D. Cut surface Surface being created on workpiece by main and adjoining cutting edge and creates passage between the surface to be machined and already machined surface. its speed is given in mm/rev or in mm/min and also in mm/tooth. Cutting speed It is a vector sum of all speeds – but because of simplicity we take as cutting speed the speed of main rotary motion which is done by workpiece at turning. Defi nition of basic concepts and calculational formulas . f fot = min [mm. CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL [1.min -1] n = number of spindle revolutions [1.rev -1] fmin = feed per minute [mm.min -1] v c = cutting speed D = drill diameter (drilled hole diameter) n = number of tool or workpiece revolutions [m.min -1] [mm] [1.rev-1] n ESC 3 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES Feed per revolution WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS v c = cutting speed [m. of workpiece revolutions [1.min -1] Sometimes Fmin means feed speed Vf Machined surface New created surface originated by removal of material layer.min-1] 1000 [m.min -1] D = machined surface diameter [mm] n = numb.min -1] fot = feed per revolution [mm. vc = π.ESC Turning Operation chart Milling Drilling To be machined surface Surface from which material layer is removed and changed into chips.

tooth-1] z fz fot fmin n z fz = feed per tooth [mm.tooth-1] z n. A = fot . D [mm] 2 CHOICE OF DRILLING or at enlargement of a hole pre-bored to diameter d ap = D-d [mm] 2 Herewith.ESC Turning Feed per tooth Milling Drilling Not indicated (fz = fot) fz = fot fmin = [mm. the cross-section of removed material layer is understood. Cutting depth a p (a e) CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL at boring into full material ap = Axial cutting depth a p is measured in direction of cutter of axis of revolution Radial cutting depth a e (width of milled surface) is measured in the surface normal to the cutter axis. ap [mm 2] fot = feed per revolution a p = cutting depth A = chip cross-section [mm.tooth -1] feed per revolution [mm.rev -1] [mm] [mm 2] ESC 4 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS Chip cross-section CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 2.min -1] number of spindle revolutions [1.tooth -1] fot = feed per revolution [mm.min -1] = number of teeth [1] fz = fot [mm.rev -1] feed per minute [mm. Defi nition of basic concepts and calculational formulas . its amount is one of factors having the infl uence on the load character of cutting edge and on the absolute intensity of cutting force.rev -1] [mm] [mm2] A = fz . ap [mm 2] fot = feed per revolution a p = cutting depth A = chip cross-section [mm.rev -1] z = number of teeth [1] Infeed is a motion by which the tool is set into working position for a certain cutting depth a p . ap [mm 2] fz = feed per revolution a p = cutting depth A = chip cross-section [mm.z = = = = feed per tooth [mm. a e respectively.tooth -1] [mm] [mm2] A = fot .

1 3.3 0.40 roughness Ra [ µm] 2.0 3.7 3.fot2 R max = [µm] re Medium roughness of machined surface R a Ra = feed f [mm.8 2.7 1.6 0.1 4.0 1.10 0.6 2.8 1.1 15.8 1.4 5 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES 0.88 [µm] re0.9.4 2. It can be calculated from equation Not indicated Not indicated hm = fz sin κ r 57. ESC Defi nition of basic concepts and calculational formulas Turning Chip thickness Milling Drilling is decisive for intensity of specifi c cutting resistance and herewith also for power stress of cutting edge.7 3.2 4.9 5.6 3. the roughness of machined surface is mostly dependent on mutual position (axial run-out) of individual cutting edges of a cutter.7 7.2.4 - - - 1.35 2.2 0.4 0.0 1.65 1. its width b.9 1.1 14. furthermore.9 6.6 6. by cutting conditions and properties of machining materials.0 2.3 ae D.4 ESC 0.7 4.2 6.5 1.8 2.35 0.6 2.2 3.6 0.9 15. at the same feed and cutting depth. The curve illustrated this relation is a sinusoid.9 3.1 1. it is infl uenced by the cutting edge geometry (by the used insert grade). sin κr [mm] h max = fz D ap D [mm] [mm] = insert diameter Medium chip thickness The chip thickness h changes during one revolution depending on the engagement angle ϕ according to the relation hϕ = f z ⋅ sinϕ.3 0.7 WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS 43.9 11.6 9.1 5.2 1. respectively).0 7.4 2.3 8.25 0. Chip thickness depends on the cutting edge shape of insert (on the position of functional part of cutting edge.9 11.6 4.8 1.16 0.4 2.12 0.9 2.95 1. h = f .5 0.7 10. Not indicated CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL or for round inserts is calculated CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .0 5.30 0.arc sin CHOICE OF DRILLING ae D Roughness of machined surface Theoretical value of maximum surface unevenness 125.8 5.rev -1] rε 0.8 0.1 6.4 1.20 0. The maximum chip thickness f z is achieved in the cutter axis.2 1. is dependent on the approach angle magnitude of the main cutting edge κ r.2 0.2 7.6 0.97 At the face milling.9 1.4 5.fot1.

rev -1] index which represents the infl uence of chip thickness h (≈ feed f) on the magnitude of specific cutting resistance specifi c cutting resistance at feed ≈ chip thickness h = 1 mm [MPa] cutting speed [m.min -1] = lathe effi ciency usually 0.min -1] Q= Q ap ae f min = = = = [cm 3.ae.min -1] specifi c cutting resistance [MPa] correction factor for effective orthogonal rake angle γ 0 = cutting speed [m.7.min -1] f min = feed per a minute [mm.min -1] machine effi ciency usually 0.7-0. η Pc = kc1.75 = factor for infl uence of material to be machined k c1 = needed input [kW] drill or hole diameter [mm] feed [mm.D DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 2.8 factor for infl uence of material to be machined WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS a .kc.88 [mm] rε 0.min -1] Q = volume of removed material [cm 3.fmin.vc [cm3.ae.fmin [cm3.f. we distinguish the roughness in the radial direction (waviness). It is calculated from the following equation: Drilling R max = hmax = fe D = spacing feed (step) = cutter diameter [mm] [mm] The roughness in axial direction (in direction of axial cutter feed) is to be determined from the following empirical relation: Ra = 43.vc [kW] x vc = η = x = material factor x steel 20 cast iron 25 Al 100 material factor x steel 24000 cast iron 30000 Al 120000 material factor x steel 48 cast iron 60 Al 240 ESC 6 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES = needed input [kW] = cutting depth [mm] = feed [mm.10 4. the sort of machined material or so called the specifi c cutting resistance plays a very important role.9 fz rε = feed per tooth = radius of nose curvature [mm] [mm] Volume of removed material It is one of the leading criteria for the assessment of economy of cutting process.vc [kW] 24.min -1] = cutter miller effi ciency usually 0. Defi nition of basic concepts and calculational formulas .min-1] Q = fmin 4000 1000 CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL fz1. Pc = Pc ap f kc vc η x ap.v Pc = p c c [kW] 60.f.f.vc [kW] x Pc ap ae f min kc kγ vc η x = = = = = = Pc = ap.kγ [kW] 60.8 = factor for infl uence of material to be machined needed input [kW] axial cutting depth [mm] radial cutting depth [mm] feed per minute [mm. With decreasing chip thickness the specific cutting resistance increasses!!! To be simple we also quote formula for a rough calculation where the value of specific cutting resistance is not to be introduced. η Pc = ap.f1-c. on the cutter feed fe in radial direction.min-1] volume of removed material axial cutting depth radial cutting depth feed per a minute [cm 3.rev -1] = specifi c cutting resistance [MPa] = cutting speed [m.ae.min -1] D = drill or hole diameter [mm] Needed input of machine driving motor It is a limit criterion for optimizing with respect to the maximum possible machine utilization.0.min-1] Q ap f ot vc = = = = volume of removed material cutting depth feed per a revolution cutting speed [cm 3.k .fot.103.f [kW] x Pc D f c = = = = Pc = D. it can be calculated from the following equations: Q = ap. η CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL πD2 ap. which depends on the spacing size (on the step) –i. For the calculation of cutting performance.D.rev -1] [m.e.97 CUTTING GRADES PRAMET fe2 [µm] 4.106.min -1] [mm] [mm] [mm.min -1] [mm] [mm.ESC Turning Milling At vertical (recessing) milling.

6620 It can be also (conditionally) used for fi ne and fi nishing turning of hardened and stainless steels. carbon and alloy steels. Also convenient for machining of cast iron and stainless steels. 6640 5026 ESC 7 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES It is a grade with high wear resistance that is given by a specially developed substrate material and conceptually by a new coating sort. All-purpose grade for turning of steels with a wide application fi eld. WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET Material with the highest wear resistance from series 6000. we also recommend this grade for peripheral inserts of drilling tools.1 Grades with MTCVD coating Suitable for fi nishing up to semi-roughing turning of cast iron. Use for operations with a strong mechanical stress of cutting edge. DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 3 Cutting grades Pramet . 6630 It connects a good wear resistance with high toughness. Parting. recessing and copy turning (CTP) of common and stainless steels. This grade is primarily intended for machining of carbon and alloy steels and cast irons with medium and higher cutting speeds and medium feeds. Furthermore. Interrupted cut. rough skin of forgings and castings. Machining of stainless steels. CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL The toughest grade of series 6000.ESC 3.

but it can be also used for machining of common carbon steels and alloy steels and cast steels with higher and medium feeds. It can be also used for turning of alloys and cast irons upon the basis of Al and Cu. Furthermore. It is used at machining of common and stainless steels. where it is used both for internal and peripheral inserts. stainless and treated steels (HRC>55). Besides threading. 8040 In the field of milling it can be recommended as the fi rst choice for tools which are intended for machining of carbon steels and alloy steels. one of its main application fi elds is drilling. medium and higher speeds. it fi nds its use at turning and milling of cast irons and especially at heavy machinable alloys upon the basis of Ni. DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 3 Cutting grades Pramet . ESC 8 CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET Grade for fi ne up to semi-roughing turning of common. It is intended for inserts for threading. recessing and copy turning (CTP).2 Grades with PVD coating 8016 Furthermore. creep-resistant steels and also alloys by lower up to medium feeds. Machining of casting and forging skin.ESC 3. 8026 This grade has a predominant position for milling of stainless steels. In the fi eld of milling we recommend this grade for machining of both common. Co and Fe. It can be used for machining of cast irons and according to the sort of insert also for milling of Al and Cu or alloys of non-ferrous metals. especially because of its high operation reliability. parting. Convenient both for common and copy milling. WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES 8030 It is the toughest grade intended for extremely interrupted cuts and bad engagement conditions. This grade fi nds its very wide application fi eld. heat-resistant. furthermore for fi ne and fi nishing turning of stainless and high alloy steels and superalloys. for machining of heat-resistant and creep-resistant steels.

ESC 3. woods and plastics. S26 Basic uncoated grade for milling of steel. Machining with higher and medium speeds at light and medium milling. Machining al low cutting speeds and heavy roughing. non-ferrous metals. stainless. S30 S45 ESC 9 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES Milling of steels. malleable nodular cast iron. For roughing of workpieces with uneven cutting depth and unclean surface under more diffi cult conditions. DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 3 Cutting grades Pramet . semi-roughing of steel and cast steel. creep-resistant and heat resistant steels and special alloys.3 Uncoated grades Milling of grey cast iron. WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET HF7 Turning of grey cast iron. Medium milling of steels and cast steel with medium and lower cutting speeds at less favourable conditions. Al alloys. Machining with higher and medium speeds at light and medium milling. Turning of Al and Cu alloys and treated steels (HRC > 55). stainless and cast steel. malleable cast iron. H10 Finish-milling.

4 6630 6620 SECO TP05 T15M TX100 GC3005 GC3015 KC910 TP10 TP100 TX150 GC2015 GC3020 KC850 TP15 TP100 TP200 GC4015 GC4025 GC3025 KC9010 KC9020 KC990 CW2 13E GM10 HITACHI HC5000 (MG10) IC815 IC9015 IC848 CR7015 UC5005 MITSUBISHI U420 IC825 IC8025 IC8048 CR600 TP20 TP200 TP25 TP200 TP30 TP200 TP300 GC4035 GC2025 KC9040 CL4 CM2 CM3 TP35 TP300 COROMANT GC4025 GC2025 KC9025 KC950 GC4025 GC2025 KC935 KENNAMETAL GC4035 GC2025 CM4 KC9045 GC235 GC2035 HERTEL CP1 CPX ISCAR IC428 IC805 KYOCERA ESC 10 CUTTING GRADES PRAMET 6640 .3 ESC Cutting grades Pramet Comparative table of MTCVD-grades Comparative table of application fi elds of foreign cutting grades with grades of the basic series for turning DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS TP40 TP300 KC250 CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CM5 CM4 GM25 (MG25) IC656 IC9025 IC835 CR7025 U625 U610 UE6005 SAFETY AC05 SUMITOMO AC105 TELEDYNE NL25 Sr117 TIZIT Sr17 Gm517 T715X TOSHIBA T5020 HK150 WIDIA TN7005 VALENITE SV310 WTA13 WALTER WAP10 WTA23 WAP25 TN7015 SV315 V01 VN8 VN5 WAP20 WTA33 T7010 T7015 TN150 TN25M TN7015 SV235 SV325 (SV200) WTA43 WAM20 WAP30 WTA51 WTA53 V1N T822 TN200 T803 T7020 T813 T7025 TN250 TN350 TN7025 HK35 TN7035 Gm517 Gm520 Gm527 Gm537 T725X Gm540 AC105G AC15 MP37 MP26 Sr127 MP15 Sr137 Gm40 U510 OR1500 AC05A ORX AC10 AC108 AC2000 AC25 AC300 ON125 OR110 OR2500 UC6010 UC6010 UC6025 OR500 OR50 US735 CA225 IC635 IC3028 3.

4 Comparative table of PVD-grades Comparative table of application fi elds of foreign cutting grades with grades of the basic series for turning 8030 * = uncoated CP200 SECO CP200 CP25 GC1020 GC1010 KC732 KC730 CP200 CP25 GC1020 COROMANT GC1010 CP25 CP50 GC1020 GC1025 KC732 KC730 KC722 CP50 GC1025 CP50 GC1025 S6* S6* KENNAMETAL KC732 KC730 HERTEL HC843 HITACHI IC220 ISCAR IC220 HC843 HC844 IC220 IC308 PR630 KYOCERA HC843 HC844 IC250 IC308 PR630 PR660 UP20M UTi20T* KX15 KX20 CS5 PVA* PVA* HC843 HC844 IC250 IC328 IC354 PR630 PR660 UP20M HC844 IC228 IC328 IC354 PR660 UP20M STi40T* STi40T* STi40T* IC228 IC328 IC354 IC228 IC354 MITSUBISHI UTi20T* UTi20T* KX15 SAFETY EH510Z EH510 A30N* TELEDYNE TP21 SUMITOMO A30N* TP21 A30N* TP21 A30N* TIZIT AH110 TOSHIBA AH740 TTX* WIDIA VC927 UC907 VC902 WXK10 AH110 AH120 AH740 TTX* TTM* VC927 UC907 VC902 WXK10 S40T* AH110 AH120 AH740 TTM* S40T* GH330 AH120 S40T* GH330 AH120 GH340 S40T* GH330 GH340 S40T* GH340 TTM* TTR* UC905 VC902 WXM25 WXM35 TTR* UC905 TTR* TTR* GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES VALENITE UC905 VC902 WXK10 WALTER WXM25 WXM35 WXM25 WXM35 WK40* WXM35 WK40* ESC 11 WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING KX15 KX20 KX25 KX20 KX25 KX25 CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL KC720 KC722 CS5 KC720 KC722 CS5 KC720 CUTTING GRADES PRAMET 8016 8040 DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 3 Cutting grades Pramet .ESC 3.

4 Comparative table of PVD-grades Comparative table of application fi elds of foreign cutting grades with grades of the basic series for milling 8026 8016 F20M SECO F15M GC1015 COROMANT GC1015 GC1020 KC710 KENNAMETAL KC705M HERTEL CY15 HITACHI HC830 IC250 ISCAR IC220 IC910 KIENINGER CKA128 MITSUBISHI UP10H P25TiAlN POKOLM K10 OR725 SAFETY OR820 AC325 SUMITOMO KC130C EH10Z AH330 TOSHIBA EH20Z GH330 GH336 T221 TPC25 WIDIA VC905 VALENITE VC901 WALTER VC929 WXM22 VC928 WXP35 VC935 HCP25 T260 AC330 ACZ320 K50L P25TiAlN P25TiAlN P25TiAlN P40TiAlN P40TiAlN CKC128 UP20M M20 IC950 IC308 IC508 IC354 IC928 IC328 IC228 IC3028 HC844 KC709M KC732 KC730 KC730 KC740 CS5 CM2 CY25 CZ250 CY250 CS5 KC721M KC740 KC725M KCF22 CP20 F25M GC1020 GC1020 CP25 F25M F30M GC1020 GC1025 GC1025 GC1120 GC2030 KC720 GC2030 T60M F30M F40M 8040 F40M CP50 CUTTING GRADES PRAMET GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL ESC 12 DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 3 Cutting grades Pramet .ESC 3.

This system serves for the clamping of both negative and positive inserts without holes. it is different at individual tool manufacturers and suppliers). They perform the best and also the most frequent use at external turning operations. ESC 13 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 4 Choice of turning tool . adjustable holders.ESC 4. and naturally also for internal turning. By tightening this screw an insert is fi xed in the tool bed. both with chip formers and/or without them.This clamping system is mainly used for small cross-section tools. namely with both chip formers (pre-pressed. These holders are used almost exclusively for the external turning. In our case we have identifi ed under this marking tool holders that use the cutting resistance to clamp an insert into the self-locking bed. ISO S . under which there is still embedded a side-pressed chip former at some insert types. Especially at tools for internal turning it is replaced by the system S with benefi t. ISO X – This marking identifies tools with so called special clamping system (i. At present the clamping system C loses its importance. This clamping system is suitable mainly for holders with supposed enhanced dynamic load. ISO C . achieves the clamping. Alternatively this type of clamping can be also used for holders intended for internal turning of holes with larger diameters. In this case an insert is set onto a strong pin to which it is pressed by a clamp that is also fi xing at the same time the top of insert. The contact surface in the holder. Holders with this clamping system are used for both the external and internal surface machining.1 Tool holder choice 4. ground and side-pressed ones) and without them. going through an insert cone hole.e. The insert is pushed into the holder bed by a clamp from the top. ISO P . ISO G – This clamping system is used at tools for recess turning and at tools for copy turning (system CTP).1 Tool holder choice with regard to the clamping technique The PRAMET TOOLS offer includes tool holders. in the clamp and also in the insert is shaped in such a way that it hinders the insert displacing by a feeding component of cutting speed. turret heads and adjustable holders for external longitudinal. In this case a special screw. Tool holders with this clamping system of inserts ensure a reliable and exact clamping of an insert. copy turning. This solution is especially convenient because there is no obstacle for chip fl ow. ISO M – This system is used for the clamping of cutting inserts of the same type as that of the system ISO P.1. The insert clamping is achieved as a result of an angle lever that after tightening the screw presses the insert down to the holder bed. The insert is fi xed in the bed of a tool holder by a screw-held clamp. This clamping system is used for tools intended for parting and recessing. namely both fi nishing and roughing ones. Tool holders are classifi ed according to the inserts clamping system into six groups that are schematically illustrated in the following passage. designed for both external and internal turning (drilling). facing.This system serves for the clamping of negative inserts with cylindrical hole.

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4.1.2 Cross-section (square) choice of tool holder The choice of tool holder cross-section is given in most cases by possibilities of the machine tool; but in case where it is possible to carry out an optimum choice of the tool holder cross-section, we bring the following nomogram which makes possible to do an optimum choice of a tool holder cross-section with regard to used cutting conditions (feed and cutting depth) and holder overhang.

Cutting depth a p
[mm]

Feed f
[mm.rev -1]

Holder cross-section
[mm]

Holder overhang
CUTTING GRADES PRAMET
[mm]

An example for using the nomogram: In the fi rst step we connect the selected (or maximum) cutting depth a p (Point A) with selected (or again with maximum used) feed f (Point B). From the intersection of the central line and the connection of these two points (Point C), we draw an abscissa into the point that indicates the holder overhang (Point D). At the other axis from the right we read the convenient cross-section of tool holder (Point E).
GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES

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14

WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS

CHOICE OF DRILLING

CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL

CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL

DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS

4

Choice of turning tool

ESC

4.2

Choice of indexable cutting insert

4.2.1 Choice of basic shape of indexable cutting insert

4.2.2 Choice of size of indexable cutting insert The maximum allowable cutting depth a p max depends on the one hand on the main dimension of an indexable insert and also on the approach angle κ r under which the insert is clamped in a tool holder; naturally, it also depends on the functional characteristics of the pre-formed chip former. The maximum values of cutting depths a p max for turning with round inserts depending on the diameter d are mentioned in the following Table.

Ø d = I.C.
06 08

ap max
2,5
WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS

3,0 3,5 5,0 5,5 6,5 7,0

Shape and size of inserts RP, RC..., RN..

10 12 13 15 16 19 20 25 32

8,5 10,5 16,0

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15

GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES

8,0

CHOICE OF DRILLING

CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL

CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL

CUTTING GRADES PRAMET

DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS

4

Choice of turning tool

4
ESC

Choice of turning tool
DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET

In the following Table the maximum allowable values apmax for various shapes of cutting inserts and various angles κ r at turning are given.

Maximum allowable cutting Shape and size of insert Lmax [mm]
VC VN DC DN KN TC TN 11 16 11 16 07 11 11 15 16 19 11 16 11 16 22 27 CC 06 09 12 CN 12 16 εr = 80° CN 19 25 12 16 εr = 100° WC WN SC SN 19 25 06 08 06 08 09 12 12 15 19 25 0,66L 0,5L 0,5L 0,66L 0,66L 0,66L 0,33L 0,25L 0,25L 2,8 4,2 2,8 4,1 2,0 2,9 2,9 3,9 4,7 4,7 3,6 5,5 3,6 5,5 7,3 9,1 4,2 6,4 8,5 8,5 10,6 12,7 16,5 8,5 10,6 12,7 16,5 3,3 4,4 3,3 4,4 6,3 8,4 8,4 10,4 12,6 16,8

edge length in engagement K r = 90°
2,8 4,2 2,8 4,1 2,0 2,9 2,9 3,9 4,7 4,7 3,6 5,5 3,6 5,5 7,3 9,1 4,2 6,4 8,5 8,5 10,6 12,7 16,5 3,3 4,4 3,3 4,4

apmax [mm]
K r = 75° = 105°
2,7 4,0 1,9 2,8 2,8 3,8 4,1 6,2 8,2 8,2 10,5 12,3 16,0 8,2 10,3 12,3 16,0 6,1 8,1 8,1 10,0 12,2 16,3

K r = 60° = 120°
2,4 3,7 1,7 2,5 2,5 3,4 3,9 3,9 4,8 6,4 7,9 -

K r = 45° = 135°
3,0 4,5 6,0 6,0 7,1 8,9 12,0

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16

2. For a selected combination of the feed and cutting depth we determine the insert thickness from the intersection at the central (inclined) axis for the interrupted or uninterrupted cut.1 Choice of optimum thickness of cutting indexable insert For determination of the thickness of a cutting indexable insert we again use a simple nomogram. We choose an insert with the nearest higher thickness. ESC 17 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 4 Choice of turning tool .2.ESC 4.

The larger value of rε enables the use of larger feeds.2. together with the insert tip angle ε r. namely with respect to the fact if it is a case of interrupted or continuous cut (Point C). but it also requires a higher stiffness of the system machine-tool-workpiece.2 Choice of insert tip radius The insert tip radius rε (the last group of two digits in the insert code according to ISO) should be chosen as large as possible. we subtract the size of tip radius on central axes. The larger the tip radius rε is. At less stiff workpiece there is a danger of vibrations generation by using inserts with larger tip radius rε . and for the selected cutting depth ap (Point B) (we select again the highest one). Its size. the bigger is the resistance to the plastic deformation – to a total tip destruction as a result of an exceeding the thermal stability limit of the insert material.4 ESC 4. ESC 18 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS Choice of turning tool . is given by the basic insert shape and has influence on the resistance of the cutting edge to plastic deformation of the tip.2. For the first choice of the insert tip radius the following nomogram can be used: Example for using the nomogram: For the selected or for the highest feed at which the given insert will operate (Point A).

20 1. then it comes to the chip contact only at facet. static and dynamic characteristics of machine tool.30 0.60 0. The maximum acceptable feed values f from the point of possibility of origin the cutting edge deformation depending on the radius rε for various indexable inserts with various shapes are mentioned in the following Table. Insert shape VC DC.72 0. DN KN TC.68 0.20 1.08 0. hence it cannot be formed see schematic drawing).02 1.60 0. SN CC.80 1. TN CC.4 CUTTING GRADES PRAMET GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL 0.44 2. depends before all on the width of stabilization facet x and its angle γ x . when x < a.20 0.0 rε = 1.5 rε = 0. ESC 19 DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 4 Choice of turning tool .68 - 0. x << a (see drawing).ESC At the choice of cutting depth it must be paid attention to the fact that the smallest used depth is the same or preferably larger than the radius of selected cutting insert.45 - 0.18 0.60 0. characteristics of cutting material.5 rε = 1.90 1.10 0.23 - 0. TN ε r = 80° Maximum acceptable feed f [mm. The maximum feed at which the chip former function ends. toughness and microstructure.15 0.04 - WC.36 0.56 0. The minimum feed at which the chip former starts to operate..34 0. thus practically of all factors of the cutting process which are decisive in their combination for generation of either short split transportable chip or continuous or bundled chip which quickly fi lls up the workspace of the machine and becomes an obstruction which practically hinders the machine work. cutting fl uid.09 0.72 0.6 rε = 2. cutting edge geometry.18 0.07 0.40 0.54 0.34 1. The thickness of the removed layer a (at approach angle κ r = 90° matches the feed) is distinctly smaller than the facet width x. fi rst it comes to too hard (excessive) forming (crushing) and by further increase in feed the chip already passes by the chip former without any influence on its shape (there is no forming).4 rε = 0.8 rε = 1. WN SC. The chip cannot enter the chip former.42 0. A certain type of chip former forms and breaks the chip only in a certain feed and cutting depth range.28 0.36 0.3 Choice of chip former The shape of removed chip depends on many factors. It is a case of characteristics of the material to be machined.30 0. With the tip radius increase.(f) the chip enters the chip former and is formed by it-incurved under a certain radius R (see drawing).2 rε = 1. depends at grooved chip former on the distance between the outgoing edge of a groove and cutting edge b and on the groove depth h.rev -1] rε = 0.2 rε = 0.15 0.90 0. If it is used a higher feed f (bigger thickness of removed layer a).17 0.. especially its frictional characteristics (at face).14 0. cutting conditions and the sort of chip former. of its strength. the roughness of machined surface goes down. CN ε r = 100° 4.

ESC 20 . For this reason the respective chip formers are outlined into complex series which enable the coverage of the range for most frequently used combinations cutting depth-feed (see the following Figure).4 ESC Choice of turning tool DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET The function of a certain type of the chip former is restricted only to a certain range of cutting conditions. and at the same time it is accepted that the functional ranges of respective members of this series overlap.

ESC ESC 4 Choice of turning tool The overview of chip formers system Pramet: 21 CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS .

ESC ESC 4 Choice of turning tool The overview of chip formers system Pramet: 22 CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS .

ESC ESC 4 Choice of turning tool The overview of chip formers system Pramet: 23 CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS .

4. semi-roughing.. hardness of machined material ……. In the first Table for the given group of materials to be machined we choose a combination material-chip former for an insert being chosen ahead (pages 25 – 42). Values of cutting speeds specifi ed in the Tables are valid for machining without application of cutting fl uids. CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES ESC The basic values of cutting speeds mentioned in the Tables for fine.kvT. finishing. T < 15 min or T > 15 min. Then in the following Tables we choose the starting cutting speed and possible corrections (for machine condition. If the hardness HB of workpiece differs from the basic hardness mentioned in the Table caption. semi-roughing and roughing turning are specifi ed for the cutting edge life T= 15 min (for heavy roughing there is cutting edge life T = 45 min). If a diverse value of tool life is required.kvX. 3. 2. We classify the given operation according to its character into a group (fi ne and fi nishing turning. the tabular value v c is multiplied by a coeffi cient k vT according to the Correction Tables which are quoted in the Tables for respective machinability groups.) (pages 25 – 42). 1. The following product then gives the resulting cutting speed: vT = vTtab. rouging or heavy roughing) (page 29).(kvM) 24 WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 4 Choice of turning tool .kvHB.4 Choice of cutting conditions In the following passage we try to facilitate the choice of a convenient tool and choice of starting (initial cutting conditions). the value v 15 is multiplied by a factor k vHB .ESC 4. In the fi rst step we classify the material to be machined into one of the six groups according to the ISO 513 (pages 92 – 99).

47 8030 6640 I II III I II III I II I ...3 [mm. forging interrupted cut casting.. TN22 I GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS - ESC ESC WORKING CONDITIONS TURNING FINE AND FINISHING TURNING f = 0.0 [mm] -1 PARTING AND RECESSING f = 0.rev ] ap = 4. 48 8030 47.4 ÷ 0.8 [mm.N SPMR SPGR SPUN SPGN TPMR TPGR TPUN TPGN II III I 8030 - I II I 6640 8030 I II I . forging interrupted cut casting.rev ] ap = 1...G .X KNUX II I II III I 8016 49 6620 49 8016 UM 6620 UM .rev ] ap = 0...2 [mm.2 ÷ 2.05 ÷ 0.0 [mm] INDEXABLE INSERT TYPE ACCORDING ISO -1 4 SEMI-ROUGHING TURNING f = 0.rev-1] THREADING Choice of turning tool - 25 .05 ÷ 0..Machined material main group ISO peripheral recesses and parting machined surface uninterrupted cut machined surface rolled product uninterrupted cut machined surface rolled product uninterrupted cut uninterrupted cut casting. 48 6640 8030 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 6620 R 6640 M 6630 NR 6620 74 6630 74 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 6630 R 6620 R 8040 HR I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 6630 HR 6640 HR I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8040 HR 6640 HR 8040 SR...U .T CCMW CCMT SCMW SCMT DCMW DCMT TCMW TCMT VCMW VCMT WCMW WCMT RCMW RCMT RCMX I II III I II III 6630 UM 8016 UM 8030 UM 6630 46 6630 47 6640 46. XR I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 6640 8030 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 6640 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 .rev ] ap > 10. forging interrupted cut casting.W P .0 [mm. forging interrupted cut face recesses and parting .M .N CNMA CNMM CNMG DNMA DNMM DNMG DNMU SNMA SNMM SNMG SNMX TNMA TNMM TNMG VNMU RNMA RNMM RNMG WNMA WNMM WNMG I II III I 8016 F 6620 F I II III I II 6630 F 8016 F 8030 F I II III I II 6620 M 8016 F 6630 NR 6620 72 6620 73 6620 UR 6620 47 6630 UR 6620 47 6630 47...5 ÷ 4. LFUX.X LFMX.2 ÷ 0.. TN16.. LCMX TN16E II TN11.0 [mm] -1 HEAVY ROUGHING TURNING f > 1.4 [mm.0 [mm] -1 ROUGHING TURNING f = 0.R .0 ÷ 10. 48 I II III I II I II III I II III 6630 M 6620 R 6630 NR 6630 72 6640 74 6630 UR 6630 47 8030 UR 6630 47 6640 47..A .

10 ap [mm] T..75÷0. peripheral recesses and copying (CTP) I II III I II III I II III I II III 1..80 0. (L.90 1. C..... W.84 0.85÷0.30 0.) 220 185 170 150 135 130 - Internal turning R.10 0..05 1. C.76 0..30 - - Threading - 26 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS ....93 Tmin 30 45 60 Fine and finishing turning Semi-roughing turning Roughing turning Heavy roughing turning Parting...00 0.18 1.. K.20 0..00 0.93 5.0 165 145 - CORRECTION FOR WORKPIECE HARDNESS 12 - HB 120 140 160 180 200 kvHB 1.15 0. C..) 315 280 270 215 190 175 145 130 - S.. 355 320 305 6630 R..12 1.30 0.30 0. W.71 Choice of turning tool CORRECTION FACTOR Forging and casting skin Insert shape Feed Cutting depth f [mm.....80 0.. K..15 0...... (L.00 Tmin 60 kvT 0.77 Face and internal recesses 0. 275 260 220 195 185 155 135 105 95 85 - V.. 290 275 235 210 195 165 145 110 100 90 - T.20 0.20 0.10 0.) 255 240 205 185 170 - S. D.80 1..90 0.80÷0. 320 300 260 230 215 180 160 - 14b HB = 180 9b ÷ 16b kvx 0.0 2..min-1] Interrupted cut Good machine condition Bad machine condition TOOL LIFE CORRECTION Tmin 10 15 20 kvT 1.20 0.40 0.00 1.. W.min-1] V15 [m. (L.10 1. 335 300 285 230 200 190 155 135 - V. K.min-1] V45 [m.82 0.Level ESC ESC Grade Range of feeds and cutting depth P 4 6620 S.80 0.20 0.10 1. D.95 HB 220 240 260 280 300 kvHB 0. D....05÷1.05 0. 235 195 185 160 145 135 120 110 85 75 70 - V.5 245 215 200 TOOL LIFR CORRECTION FOR HEAVY ROUGHING Tmin 30 45 kvT 1...86 0.. 390 350 335 270 235 220 180 160 - 6640 R..95 kvT kvT 0. 275 230 215 185 170 160 140 125 V15 [m.... 250 210 195 170 155 145 125 115 90 80 75 - T...40 0...rev-1] 0..85 0.60 0.70÷0.

76 Choice of turning tool CORRECTION FACTOR Insert shape Feed Cutting depth f [mm. D..30 0..20 0. 155 120 105 100 75 65 40 35 30 - Forging and casting skin V... 375 8030 R. W. (L.. D.. 350 - V..95 kvT kvT 0.20 0.18 1.20 0..20 0....10 ap [mm] T.85÷0..30 Threading - 27 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .80 0.80 0.80÷0. (L....60 0.30 0.. (L. K.10 1.80 1..40 0.) 135 115 95 90 - R... 235 225 215 210 180 160 145 125 115 80 70 65 165 155 135 V.05÷1..rev-1] 0.75÷0. S.95 HB 220 240 260 280 300 kvHB 0...30 0.40 0....10 0. Internal turning Interrupted cut Good machine condition Fine and finishing turning Semi-roughing turning I II III I II III I II III I II III 410 - 275 265 250 245 210 185 170 150 130 - 180 145 120 115 90 75 V15 [m.. peripheral recesses and copying (CTP) 12 - Face and internal recesses 0.00 0.. W.. S.10 0.15 0.77 Heavy roughing turning Parting.05 1.86 0. C.90 0.0 - CORRECTION FOR WORKPIECE HARDNESS HB 120 140 160 180 200 kvHB 1.) 220 210 200 200 165 150 135 120 105 180 165 155 140 110 105 100 90 - T..min-1] V15 [m.15 0...00 Tmin 60 kvT 0. C.80 0....0 - 2. K.. K.00 1.. 250 240 230 225 190 170 155 135 120 85 75 70 - 8040 R..00 Tmin 45 1.min-1] Bad machine condition TOOL LIFE CORRECTION Tmin 15 kvT 1... W.85 0.Level ESC ESC Grade Range of feeds and cutting depth P 4 8016 S.5 - TOOL LIFR CORRECTION FOR HEAVY ROUGHING Tmin 30 45 kvT 1..20 0.93 Roughing turning 5.82 0...min-1] V45 [m.70÷0.) 330 - T..12 1.05 0.90 1.. 165 130 110 105 80 70 45 40 35 - 14b HB = 180 9b ÷ 16b kvx 0.... C. D..

48 6640 8030 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 6630 NR 6630 DR 6630 R 6630 74 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 NR 6630 DR 8030 R I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 HR 6630 HR I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8040 HR 6640 HR 8040 SR..0 [mm] INDEXABLE INSERT TYPE ACCORDING ISO -1 4 SEMI-ROUGHING TURNING f = 0..X LFMX.8 [mm.A .N SPMR SPGR SPUN SPGN TPMR TPGR TPUN TPGN II III I 8030 - I II I 6640 8030 I II I .. LCMX TN16E II TN11.2 ÷ 0.X KNUX II I II III I 8016 49 8016 UM . forging interrupted cut casting..W M .G .U . XR I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 6640 8030 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 6640 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 .rev-1] THREADING Choice of turning tool - 28 .05 ÷ 0.rev ] ap > 10.rev ] ap = 0. forging interrupted cut face recesses and parting ..0 [mm] 1 ROUGHING TURNING f = 0.rev ] ap = 4..R ..Machined material main group ISO peripheral recesses and parting machined surface uninterrupted cut machined surface rolled product uninterrupted cut machined surface rolled product uninterrupted cut uninterrupted cut casting..0 ÷ 10.T CCMW CCMT SCMW SCMT DCMW DCMT TCMW TCMT VCMW VCMT WCMW WCMT RCMW RCMT RCMX I II III I II III 6630 UM 8030 UM 8030 UR 6630 46 6630 47 6640 46...2 ÷ 2.0 [mm. 47 8030 6640 I II III I II III I II I . TN22 I GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS - ESC ESC WORKING CONDITIONS TURNING FINE AND FINISHING TURNING f = 0.0 [mm] -1 PARTING AND RECESSING f = 0.2 [mm. TN16.. 48 8030 47...N CNMA CNMM CNMG DNMA DNMM DNMG DNMU SNMA SNMM SNMG SNMX TNMA TNMM TNMG VNMU RNMA RNMM RNMG WNMA WNMM WNMG I II III I 8016 F I II III I II 6640 F 8030 F I II III I II 6630 M 8030 M 6630 NR 6630 73 6630 74 6630 UR 8030 UR 6630 47 6630 47 6630 48 I II III I II I II III I II III 6630 M 8030 NR 6640 NR 6630 73 6630 74 8030 UR 6630 UR 6630 47 6630 47 6640 47.5 ÷ 4.4 ÷ 0.05 ÷ 0.4 [mm.M . forging interrupted cut casting.rev ] ap = 1.0 [mm] -1 HEAVY ROUGHING TURNING f > 1. forging interrupted cut casting. LFUX.3 [mm...

.93 Roughing turning 5.85 0..72 0. 265 195 145 140 105 80 75 55 45 20 15 10 - V...20 0.80 1..76 0...10 0.30 0..80 0.00 Tmin 60 kvT 0.80 0.. W. 225 210 175 160 150 125 110 - 8b HB = 180 ÷ 210 5b ÷ 11b kvx 0..00 1.min-1] Interrupted cut Good machine condition Bad machine condition TOOL LIFE CORRECTION Tmin 10 15 20 kvT 1.) 180 165 140 130 120 - S..90 1.00 0.85÷0.. - 6640 R.05 0.60 0. K.15 0.20 0.10 1.93 Tmin 30 45 60 Fine and finishing turning Semi-roughing turning I II III I II III I II III I II III 1.79 HB 270-300 300-330 330-360 360-390 kvHB 0.20 0..min-1] V45 [m. - V.66 0. K.10 ap [mm] T.... K. D... (L......20 0...40 0....18 1.75÷0. W..62 Heavy roughing turning Parting.) - S.70÷0...30 0. (L..min-1] V15 [m.10 1..15 0. C.. D. (L.40 0.Level ESC ESC Grade Range of feeds and cutting depth M 4 6620 S.80÷0...05÷1.71 Choice of turning tool CORRECTION FACTOR Forging and casting skin Insert shape Feed Cutting depth f [mm. 205 190 T. 195 180 150 135 125 110 95 50 45 40 - V.00 0.20 0.40 1.0 2.30 0.) 265 180 135 130 95 75 70 50 40 110 102 96 87 75 70 68 60 - Internal turning R.95 kvT kvT 0.......10 0.30 Threading - 29 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS ..5 160 145 135 TOOL LIFR CORRECTION FOR HEAVY ROUGHING Tmin 30 45 kvT 1.84 0.87 0...rev-1] 0... C. W. 280 205 155 150 110 85 80 60 50 25 20 15 - T. C.68 0. peripheral recesses and copying (CTP) 12 50 45 - Face and internal recesses 0. D. - 6630 R.0 115 100 55 CORRECTION FOR WORKPIECE HARDNESS HB <150 150-180 180-210 210-240 240-270 kvHB 1. 225 170 165 120 95 90 65 55 V15 [m..

00 0. T. R. W.80 1..20 0. S... (L.71 Choice of turning tool CORRECTION FACTOR Forging and casting skin Insert shape Feed Cutting depth f [mm.05 0.40 0.76 0.00 Tmin 60 kvT 0..10 1.. W.75÷0..30 Threading - 30 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .min-1] V15 [m.... 120 110 100 95 75 65 60 50 45 35 25 20 130 120 110 V..30 0.80÷0.87 0.... K.72 0. D.. D.min-1] V45 [m. D. K...5 - TOOL LIFR CORRECTION FOR HEAVY ROUGHING Tmin 30 45 kvT 1.10 ap [mm] T.95 kvT kvT 0.05÷1.10 1..68 0. 130 125 115 - V.18 1.10 0.62 Heavy roughing turning Parting.. S. 125 115 105 100 80 70 65 55 50 35 25 20 - 8040 R..rev-1] 0.00 1. W.0 135 125 - Semi-roughing turning 2..20 0.79 HB 270-300 300-330 330-360 360-390 kvHB 0.. Interrupted cut Good machine condition Bad machine condition Fine and finishing turning I II III I II III I II III I II III 125 120 110 - 155 150 140 - 140 125 115 110 90 75 70 60 55 - 95 75 70 60 55 50 40 35 - 120 95 90 75 70 65 55 50 V15 [m..70÷0..60 0.85 0.15 0.80 0.0 - CORRECTION FOR WORKPIECE HARDNESS HB <150 150-180 180-210 210-240 240-270 kvHB 1.66 0... K.30 0...) 110 100 90 88 70 60 55 45 40 105 95 91 82 75 67 64 55 - T.15 0.00 0. 140 8030 R.10 0...20 0.....min-1] TOOL LIFE CORRECTION Tmin 10 15 20 kvT 1. C..93 Roughing turning 5..80 0.. 110 85 80 70 65 60 50 45 35 30 25 - 8b HB = 180 ÷ 210 5b ÷ 11b kvx 0.93 Tmin 30 45 60 1.40 1. 105 80 75 65 60 55 45 40 30 30 25 - Internal turning V.20 0... C. C....84 0.20 0.85÷0.Level ESC ESC Grade Range of feeds and cutting depth M 4 8016 S.40 0.. peripheral recesses and copying (CTP) 12 - Face and internal recesses 0...90 1.30 0.

X LFMX.X KNUX II I II III I 8016 6620 46.05 ÷ 0.2 [mm. 47 I II III .3 [mm.2 ÷ 0. 47 I II III 8030 47 6640 46.5 ÷ 4.. 48 I II III 8016 6620 46..M . TN22 I GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS - ESC ESC WORKING CONDITIONS TURNING FINE AND FINISHING TURNING f = 0..0 [mm.0 [mm] INDEXABLE INSERT TYPE ACCORDING ISO -1 4 SEMI-ROUGHING TURNING f = 0.05 ÷ 0.N CNMA CNMM CNMG DNMA DNMM DNMG DNMU SNMA SNMM SNMG SNMX TNMA TNMM TNMG VNMU RNMA RNMM RNMG WNMA WNMM WNMG I II III I 8016 F I II III I II 6630 F 6640 R I II III 6620 M 6620 I II III 6630 M 6640 R I II III 6620 R 6620 I II III 6630 R 6640 R 8040 HR 6640 74 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 6630 HR I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 6640 HR 8040 HR I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 6640 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 6640 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 6640 72 6630 72 6630 UM 8016 I II I II III 6620 73 I II 6640 73 I II 6620 74 I II I II III I II III I II I .8 [mm..0 [mm] -1 PARTING AND RECESSING f = 0.0 [mm] -1 HEAVY ROUGHING TURNING f > 1. forging interrupted cut casting..rev ] ap = 1.0 [mm] -1 ROUGHING TURNING f = 0.0 ÷ 10..rev ] ap > 10.W K . LFUX.2 ÷ 2... forging interrupted cut casting.R .Machined material main group ISO peripheral recesses and parting machined surface uninterrupted cut machined surface rolled product uninterrupted cut machined surface rolled product uninterrupted cut uninterrupted cut casting.rev ] ap = 0.. forging interrupted cut casting...rev-1] THREADING Choice of turning tool - 31 . 47 8016 UM ..rev ] ap = 4. forging interrupted cut face recesses and parting . TN16. LCMX TN16E II TN11.A ..4 [mm..4 ÷ 0.T CCMW CCMT SCMW SCMT DCMW DCMT TCMW TCMT VCMW VCMT WCMW WCMT RCMW RCMT RCMX I II III I II III 6630 UR 6620 I II III 6630 UR 8016 I II III 8030 47 6630 47..N SPMR SPGR SPUN SPGN TPMR TPGR TPUN TPGN II III I 8030 - I II I 8030 6640 I II I 8030 6640 I II I 8030 6640 I II I .U .G .

260 245 235 195 175 160 135 120 80 70 65 - V.. D.80 0... D.00 1.03 1..25 1.. 275 260 250 205 185 170 145 125 85 75 70 - T.15 0.Level ESC ESC Grade Range of feeds and cutting depth K 4 6620 S.93 Tmin 30 45 60 Fine and finishing turning I II III I II III I II III I II III 0..40 1. peripheral recesses and copying (CTP) HB 150-180 180-200 200-220 220-240 240-280 280-330 260-300 300-360 360-450 1.86 0..20 0.15 0... D.75 Face and internal recesses 0..60 - 1.10 1.) 240 230 220 180 165 150 130 110 - S.80 0. 305 286 275 225 205 185 160 140 - CAST IRONS Grey.20 0... K.Sort of cast iron grey nodular creep-resist. 375 320 300 275 255 235 215 205 - 6640 R.25 1.95 0...min-1] V15 [m.15 1.30 0. nodular.00 0. malleable..30 0...10 0. W.min-1] Interrupted cut Good machine condition Bad machine condition TOOL LIFE CORRECTION Tmin 10 15 20 kvT 1.. W..30 MATERIAL CORRECTION Sort of cast iron grey nodular malleable creep-resistant kvM 1. 340 290 275 6630 R...20 0.85 0. 320 275 260 235 215 200 185 175 - V.08 1..) 175 155 150 120 100 90 75 65 110 100 90 80 80 70 65 60 - Internal turning R.76 0.00 0.85 - 1..71 Choice of turning tool Insert shape Feed Cutting depth f [mm.0 Semi-roughing turning 250 230 215 195 185 - TOOL LIFR CORRECTION FOR HEAVY ROUGHING Tmin 30 45 Workpiece hardness kvT 1. (L. C.95 0..min-1] V45 [m.0 2.40 0.00 0.5 1.00 Tmin 60 kvT 0..84 0... 220 195 185 150 125 115 95 80 V15 [m..) 300 255 240 220 200 190 170 165 - S.70÷0... C..60 0. 200 175 170 135 115 105 85 75 45 40 35 - T.rev ] -1 ap [mm] T.20 0.75÷0. creep-resistant and special cast iron CORRECTION FACTOR Forging and casting skin kvx 0.80 1...85÷0.10 1. K....85 0.80÷0..40 0..10 12 5.. 190 165 160 125 110 100 80 70 40 35 30 - V.40 Threading - 32 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS . Heavy roughing turning Parting..90 1.00 0. (L.05 0..05÷1.. (L..10 0..10 1. K..00 0..20 0..93 Roughing turning CORRECTION FOR WORKPIECE HARDNESS kvHB .30 0.95 kvT kvT 0. W.. C.

80 1.84 0...05÷1.min-1] V45 [m.76 0. W.85÷0.71 Choice of turning tool Insert shape Feed Cutting depth f [mm..10 1..80 0...95 kvT kvT 0.40 0.....00 Tmin 60 kvT 0. D.10 0. K..85 - 1..10 0.. 260 230 - 8030 R...60 0.93 Roughing turning CORRECTION FOR WORKPIECE HARDNESS kvHB . 160 150 - S..Sort of cast iron grey nodular creep-resist.00 0.25 1..) 130 120 100 90 80 70 70 65 60 50 - R. peripheral recesses and copying (CTP) HB 150-180 180-200 200-220 220-240 240-280 280-330 260-300 300-360 360-450 1.86 0.90 1..0 Semi-roughing turning - TOOL LIFR CORRECTION FOR HEAVY ROUGHING Tmin 30 45 Workpiece hardness kvT 1.75÷0...40 0.. 145 135 - T.rev ] -1 ap [mm] T.30 0.. malleable.. - T.93 Tmin 30 45 60 Fine and finishing turning I II III I II III I II III I II III 0.. nodular.08 1. - Internal turning V.15 1...10 1.00 0.80 0.. - R. D.95 0.30 0. K..80÷0.15 0... (L.20 0.75 Face and internal recesses 0.20 0.. 245 215 - V. Heavy roughing turning Parting.40 Threading - 33 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .min-1] V15 [m..10 1..85 0.5 1.. 285 255 - CAST IRONS Grey. V15 [m..15 0.70÷0.00 1.0 2... C. D.60 - 1.20 0.40 1. (L.00 0.95 0.00 0.30 MATERIAL CORRECTION Sort of cast iron grey nodular malleable creep-resistant kvM 1.min-1] Interrupted cut Good machine condition Bad machine condition TOOL LIFE CORRECTION Tmin 10 15 20 kvT 1.85 0. 135 125 150 130 120 V.05 0..00 0..30 0.20 0..Level ESC ESC Grade Range of feeds and cutting depth K 4 8016 S... creep-resistant and special cast iron CORRECTION FACTOR Forging and casting skin kvx 0.25 1. C. K.10 12 5.03 1. C. W.) 230 200 - S..... W.20 0.

TN16. forging interrupted cut casting...N CNMA CNMM CNMG DNMA DNMM DNMG DNMU SNMA SNMM SNMG SNMX TNMA TNMM TNMG VNMU RNMA RNMM RNMG WNMA WNMM WNMG I II III I I II III I II I II III I II III 8030 I II I PKD I II III I II PKD I II III PKD I II III I II III 8016 74 HF7 74 8016 Al HF7 Al I II I II III 8016 8030 47..rev-1] THREADING Choice of turning tool - 34 .0 [mm] INDEXABLE INSERT TYPE ACCORDING ISO -1 4 SEMI-ROUGHING TURNING f = 0..05 ÷ 0. LCMX TN16E II TN11. 48 I II III I II I 8030 47.X LFMX.4 ÷ 0.T CCMW CCMT SCMW SCMT DCMW DCMT TCMW TCMT VCMW VCMT WCMW WCMT RCMW RCMT RCMX 8016 Al HF7 Al PKD 8030 47 8016 I II III I II III .A ... TN22 I GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS - ESC ESC WORKING CONDITIONS TURNING FINE AND FINISHING TURNING f = 0. forging interrupted cut casting. forging interrupted cut casting.2 ÷ 2. LFUX...rev ] ap = 1. forging interrupted cut face recesses and parting ..2 ÷ 0.R ..0 [mm] -1 PARTING AND RECESSING f = 0.rev ] ap = 4.G .Machined material main group ISO peripheral recesses and parting machined surface uninterrupted cut machined surface rolled product uninterrupted cut machined surface rolled product uninterrupted cut uninterrupted cut casting...4 [mm.0 [mm.X KNUX II I II III I .. 48 8016 8016 Al HF7 Al 8016 74 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I I II III I II I II III I II III I II I I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 8016 72 HF7 73 8016 Al HF7 Al PKD 8016 8030 47 I II I II III I II III 8016 73 HF7 74 8016 Al HF7 Al PKD 8030 47 8016 I II I II III I II III .0 [mm] -1 ROUGHING TURNING f = 0..5 ÷ 4.rev ] ap > 10.0 ÷ 10.2 [mm.rev ] ap = 0.M .05 ÷ 0.W N .0 [mm] -1 HEAVY ROUGHING TURNING f > 1.3 [mm..8 [mm.N SPMR SPGR SPUN SPGN TPMR TPGR TPUN TPGN II III I 8030 I II I 8030 I II I 8030 I II I .U .

. - Choice of turning tool Insert shape Feed Cutting depth f [mm. W.rev-1] 0.05÷1.min-1] V15 [m...20 0.30 Threading - 35 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .60 0.75÷0... K.20 0.40 0. - T...min-1] V45 [m.95 4 8016.10 0.. heat-treated HB = 100 Al alloys with amount Si > 12% N Al alloys Cu alloys CORRECTION FACTOR Forging and casting skin kvx 0. D.) 650 550 450 400 500 450 360 320 - R..40 0.20 0.20 0.10 0..30 0. 400 350 250 V...15 0.00 1. - R..6 PCD Semi-roughing turning 2. W.. C. W.8 0..0 400 300 - kvN 1.. (L..6 1..7 Heavy roughing turning Parting.... K.85÷0...85 0..Level ESC ESC Grade Range of feeds and cutting depth Al alloys wrought.90 1. - S.0 kvN 2..80 1. D.min-1] Interrupted cut Good machine condition Bad machine condition Al alloys Material Al alloys wrought non-hardened HB 60 Al alloys wrought hardened HB 100 Al alloys cast non-hardened HB 75 Al alloys cast hardened HB 90 Al alloys cast non-hardened HB 130 >12% Si Fine and finishing turning I II III I II III I II III I II III 1. D... 700 650 600 550 480 400 400 350 300 - PCD R. 900 800 750 750 HF7 S. - Internal turning V.20 0.... 850 600 550 700 550 500 500 450 400 - T.15 0.70÷0. C...80 0. - V..9 0. peripheral recesses and copying (CTP) 12 - Face and internal recesses 0.15 0.10 ap [mm] T....5 600 550 450 Cu alloys material Brass for automatic machine (>1% Pb) Brass HB 90 Electrolytic bronze Cu Roughing turning 5. C.30 0. 8030 S.80÷0. V15 [m.80 0.30 0.76 0..... K....0 0..

min-1] V45 [m.80 1.15 0.Level ESC ESC Grade Range of feeds and cutting depth Cu alloys .30 0.. D...40 0.00 1.30 Threading - 36 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS . W..95 4 8016.. peripheral recesses and copying (CTP) 12 - Face and internal recesses 0...5 350 300 350 Cu alloys material Brass for automatic machine (>1% Pb) Brass HB 90 Electrolytic bronze Cu Roughing turning 5.30 0. K.70÷0....85÷0. - R..6 1. W.7 Heavy roughing turning Parting.. (L.. - S.60 0. K.rev-1] 0.76 0.. D. - V. C.15 0.20 0.10 ap [mm] T..80÷0.0 300 250 - kvN 1.05÷1. W..30 0. C... 500 450 400 400 HF7 S.10 0.0 kvN 2.min-1] Interrupted cut Good machine condition Bad machine condition Al alloys material Al alloys wrought non-hardened HB 60 Al alloys wrought hardened HB 100 Al alloys cast non-hardened HB 75 Al alloys cast hardened HB 90 Al alloys cast non-hardened HB 130 >12% Si Fine and finishing turning I II III I II III I II III I II III 1...........min-1] V15 [m.8 0.0 0.80 0. K. - Internal turning V..9 0..brass HB = 100 N Al alloys Cu alloys CORRECTION FACTOR Forging and casting skin kvx 0.. V15 [m... - T.6 PKD Semi-roughing turning 2.15 0..20 0..85 0.80 0.20 0. - T.20 0.90 1..75÷0... 8030 S..) 250 200 150 100 200 180 140 100 - R. D.10 0. C.20 0. 400 360 300 350 300 250 300 270 250 - Choice of turning tool Insert shape Feed Cutting depth f [mm. - R..40 0.... 300 250 220 V..

. forging interrupted cut casting.0 [mm] -1 HEAVY ROUGHING TURNING f > 1..05 . LCMX TN16E II TN11. forging interrupted cut face recesses and parting .0 [mm] INDEXABLE INSERT TYPE ACCORDING ISO -1 4 SEMI-ROUGHING TURNING f = 0.. 61 I II III 8030 47 6640 47.0. LFUX.4.2 [mm.05 ÷ 0.rev ] ap = 4.0..Machined material main group ISO peripheral recesses and parting machined surface uninterrupted cut machined surface rolled product uninterrupted cut machined surface rolled product uninterrupted cut uninterrupted cut casting. forging interrupted cut casting.3 [mm.5 .U .4 ..0 [mm. forging interrupted cut casting...0.2 .rev-1] THREADING Choice of turning tool - 37 ..R .2.10.0 [mm] -1 ROUGHING TURNING f = 0. TN16..M .2 .rev ] ap = 0.0 [mm] -1 PARTING AND RECESSING f = 0.4 [mm..W s .X LFMX.. TN22 I GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS - ESC ESC WORKING CONDITIONS TURNING FINE AND FINISHING TURNING f = 0.T CCMW CCMT SCMW SCMT DCMW DCMT TCMW TCMT VCMW VCMT WCMW WCMT RCMW RCMT RCMX 8030 UM I II III 8030 UR I II III 8030 UR I II III 6630 46 6640 47.8 [mm.A ..0 .X KNUX II I II III I .G ... 61 I II III 8030 47 6640 47..N SPMR SPGR SPUN SPGN TPMR TPGR TPUN TPGN II III I 8030 I II I 8030 I II I 8030 I II I . 61 I II III .rev ] ap = 1.rev ] ap > 10.N CNMA CNMM CNMG DNMA DNMM DNMG DNMU SNMA SNMM SNMG SNMX TNMA TNMM TNMG VNMU RNMA RNMM RNMG WNMA WNMM WNMG I II III I I II III I II I II III I II III 8030 I II I 8030 F I II III I II 6640 NR 8030 NR I II III 8030 NR 6640 NR I II III 6640 NR 8030 NR I II III 8030 NR 6640 NR I II III I II I II III I II III I II I I II III I II I II III I II III I II I I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 I II III I II I II III I II III I II I 8030 6640 73 I II 6640 73 I II 6640 74 I II I II III I II III I II I .

Level Hardness Ni [HB] Hardness Co [HB] Hardness Fe [HB] Heavy roughing turning Parting..... D..95 kvT kvT 0.90 320 0..75-0. T.10 0... - 8030 R. 45 35 30 28 23 28 23 18 Internal turning V.0 60 50 45 20 2.76 0.60 0.00 1.20 0.70-0...rev-1] 0..83 350 0. S..min ] 230 1..70 5. S. (L.....80 0. C. peripheral recesses and copying (CTP) 0.92 300 1..30 0. K.. K.00 0.15 0..20 0.95 280 0.30 0..25 Sort of alloy Ni alloy Co alloy kvN 1.80 1.90 1100 0.20 0.. C.. Fe and Ti CORRECTION FACTOR Forging and casting skin kvx 0. W.00 900 1. Interrupted cut Good machine condition Bad machine condition Fine and finishing turning Semi-roughing turning Roughing turning I II III I II III I II III I II III 53 45 40 35 25 - 65 55 50 45 33 45 40 35 60 50 45 40 35 40 33 28 44 33 28 26 20 - 55 44 40 33 28 35 28 22 V15 [m. 50 40 35 30 25 30 25 20 Creep-resistant alloys on basis of Ni.5 40 30 40 CORRECTION FOR SORT OF ALLOY Sort of alloy Ti alloy Fe alloy kvN 2.30 V15 [m..... D...00 0.05 450 2.71 Choice of turning tool Insert shape Feed Cutting depth f [mm. W. 50 43 35 30 25 33 28 23 V.05 200 1...90 1.05-1.84 320 0.10 1.. D.20 0.85-0.05 0. Co.20 0...30 1.10 12 - - - - - 20 15 10 30 25 20 20 20 18 15 15 - - - - - - kvHB kvHB kvHB kvHB V45 -1 [m.00 240 0. R. C.50 250 1..30 0.85 0..0 35 30 CORRECTION FOR WORKPIECE HARDNESS 38 .84 0...80-0...00 250 1.40 0.80 ap [mm] T...00 280 0.10 0. K. W. 56 47 42 38 28 38 33 28 V.93 Tmin 30 45 60 1.15 0.30 180 1.min-1] Threading - GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS Hardness Ti [Rm] ESC ESC Grade Range of feeds and cutting depth S 4 8016 S.40 0...min-1] TOOL LIFE CORRECTION Tmin 10 15 kvT 1.) 48 40 33 28 23 - T.14 200 1. 55 45 40 35 30 35 30 25 8040 R.79 Face and internal recesses 0.

80 ap [mm] T. D. Co.76 0. C.. - T.79 Face and internal recesses 0. V15 [m.20 0.00 0.05 0. - T...00 0.. D.0 20 15 CORRECTION FOR WORKPIECE HARDNESS kvHB 230 1.min-1] kvHB kvHB kvHB Hardness Ti [Rm] ESC ESC Grade Range of feeds and cutting depth S 4 HF7 S....95 kvT kvT 0.60 0.30 0. C.20 0.95 280 0.30 180 1.80 1.90 1.. 40 30 25 20 20 23 18 10 V. - R..40 0.70-0....20 0.. K.10 0.30 Threading - 39 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .00 1. - S.84 320 0.10 0.. - R.10 12 - - - - - - - - - - - V15 [m..85 0.20 0. W.rev-1] 0.....84 0. C.75-0.80 0.15 0. 50 40 35 30 25 28 25 18 S.min-1] V45 [m..83 350 0. D...30 0..10 1.....50 250 1.. 45 35 30 Creep-resistant alloys on basis of Ni.05 200 1.. peripheral recesses and copying (CTP) I II III 0....40 0. K.00 250 1.15 0.min-1] Interrupted cut Good machine condition Bad machine condition TOOL LIFE CORRECTION Tmin 10 15 20 kvT 1.70 Roughing turning 5.90 1100 0.00 900 1.85-0.90 320 0. - Internal turning V.92 300 1.05 450 2..30 1. - V..00 280 0...0 Semi-roughing turning 2.71 Choice of turning tool Insert shape Feed Cutting depth f [mm.5 27 22 25 CORRECTION FOR SORT OF ALLOY Sort of alloy Ti alloy Fe alloy kvN 2.05-1.. W.80-0. Fe and Ti CORRECTION FACTOR Forging and casting skin kvx 0.30 0.14 200 1.00 240 0.. K. - R.25 Sort of alloy Ni alloy Co alloy kvN 1..20 0.Level Hardness Ni [HB] Hardness Co [HB] Hardness Fe [HB] Heavy roughing turning Parting..93 Tmin 30 45 60 Fine and finishing turning I II III I II III I II III 1... W.

...rev-1] THREADING Choice of turning tool - INDEXABLE INSERT TYPE ACCORDING ISO 40 ..4.X LFMX.60 HRC HARDENED CAST IRON > 500 HB GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS - ESC ESC WORKING CONDITIONS TURNING FINE AND FINISHING TURNING f = 0.0 [mm] -1 PARTING AND RECESSING f = 0.10.0 [mm] -1 ROUGHING TURNING f = 0.0 [mm.A .T 8030 UM 8030 UR I II III 8030 47 8016 I II III I II I I 8030 8030 I II I I > 500 HB TREATED STEELS TN11.05 .60 HRC HARDENED CAST IRON 6620 8016 6620 UM 6620 47 8016 6620 8030 8030 I II III I II III I II I I H .3 [mm.. LFUX.2.60 HRC II III I .8 [mm. forging interrupted cut face recesses and parting I . TN22 55 ...05 ÷ 0.W .60 HRC II III HARDENED CAST IRON 6620 8016 F PKBN PB0 PKBN PB0 6620 I II III I I I II 8030 M 8030 PKBN PB2 PKBN PB2 8030 I II III I I I II I II III I I I II I II III I II III I II I I I II III I I I II I II III I II III I II I I I II III I I I II I II III I II III I II I I I II III I I I II I II III I II III I II I I I II III I I I II I II III I II III I II I I I II III I I I II I II III I II III I II I I 8030 8030 I II III I I I II I II III I II III I II I I 8030 8030 I II III I I I II I II III I II III I II I I 8030 8030 400 .rev ] ap = 0.0 [mm] -1 4 SEMI-ROUGHING TURNING f = 0..4 [mm. forging interrupted cut casting.. LCMX TN16E 55 .rev ] ap > 10.N SPMR SPGR SPUN SPGN TPMR TPGR TPUN TPGN TREATED STEELS 55 .U .4 .60 HRC II III TREATED STEELS .0 ..X KNUX II CCMW CCMT SCMW SCMT DCMW DCMT TCMW TCMT VCMW VCMT WCMW WCMT RCMW RCMT RCMX I TREATED STEELS 55 . TN16.G .0.N CNMA CNMM CNMG DNMA DNMM DNMG DNMU SNMA SNMM SNMG SNMX TNMA TNMM TNMG VNMU RNMA RNMM RNMG WNMA WNMM WNMG TREATED STEELS 55 .2 [mm.2 . forging interrupted cut casting..0..WORKPIECE MATERIAL Machined material main group ISO peripheral recesses and parting machined surface uninterrupted cut machined surface rolled product uninterrupted cut machined surface rolled product uninterrupted cut uninterrupted cut casting.0.500 HB HARDENED CAST IRON I I I > 500 HB ..5 .rev ] ap = 1.R ..2 .rev ] ap = 4.M . forging interrupted cut casting.0 [mm] -1 HEAVY ROUGHING TURNING f > 1..

.. peripheral recesses and copying (CTP) 12 - Face and internal recesses 0.60 0.7 1 0.. D..00 1.) 20 10 15 8 - Internal turning R. 56 42 42 38 - V..min-1] V15 [m...20 0..0 PCBN 1 1 0. - S.. D. C.70÷0...10 0.05 0... W.80÷0.rev-1] 0. 60 45 45 40 - T.10 0.85 0...80 0..85÷0.95 Choice of turning tool Insert shape Feed Cutting depth f [mm...20 0. 8030 Fine and finishing turning I II III I II III I II III I II III MATERIAL CORRECTION Material Hardness HRC 55-60 HsH 55-70 HsH 75-80 1...40 0. 52 38 38 28 45 40 30 V.5 40 - Roughing turning 5. C...80 1... 56 42 42 38 - V. - S.20 0..20 0..min-1] V45 [m.15 0... 60 45 45 8016 R. 55 40 40 30 - T.. 70 50 50 45 - Treated steels Hardened cast iron CORRECTION FACTOR Forging and casting skin kvx 0.30 Threading - 41 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .15 0. W.40 0. 60 45 45 35 V15 [m.20 0.75÷0. 70 50 50 45 - 8030 R......10 ap [mm] T. (L...30 0..5 - Semi-roughing turning 2. W.90 1..30 0.Level ESC ESC Grade Range of feeds and cutting depth H 4 6620 S. C.min-1] Treated steels Hardened cast iron Interrupted cut Good machine condition Bad machine condition 6620 8016.. K..05÷1..0 - Heavy roughing turning Parting..30 0.80 0.. D. K.. K.

- R.. V15 [m.......80 0..00 1.min-1] V45 [m.... 95 80 80 70 - R. - V.7 1 0. 120 100 100 90 - S.40 0..95 Choice of turning tool Insert shape Feed Cutting depth f [mm. 105 85 85 75 - V.20 0.20 0. - T. C........5 80 - Roughing turning 5.15 0..0 PKBN 1 1 0.. D. K...40 0.min-1] V15 [m....Level ESC ESC Grade Range of feeds and cutting depth H 4 PKBN S.. C.. D.90 1.30 0.. (L...30 0.20 0.80 1. C...85 0.30 Threading - 42 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .75-0.15 0. - S.. W..) - Internal turning R.10 0.. - V.10 ap [mm] T. - T.rev-1] 0.min-1] Treated steels hardened cast iron Interrupted cut Good machine condition Bad machine condition 6620 8016.70-0..80 0. K.85-0... W. D.20 0.80-0.30 0.05 0.10 0..20 0. 8030 Fine and finishing turning I II III I II III I II III I II III MATERIAL CORRECTION Material Hardness HRC 55-60 HsH 55-70 HsH 75-80 1...05-1.0 - Heavy roughing turning Parting..5 - Semi-roughing turning 2. W. K.60 0. 110 90 90 Treated steels Hardened cast iron CORRECTION FACTOR Forging and casting skin kvx 0.. peripheral recesses and copying (CTP) 12 - Face and internal recesses 0.

Technological possibilities of recessing and parting tools Pramet are schematically indicated in the following picture. CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 4 Choice of turning tool . Their characteristics and application are mentioned in Chapters 3. Furthermore. they are clamped either in fi rm holders or in holders with blade by means of cutting force in V-shaped bed in holder. CTP system for copying and recessing turning The tools manufacturing programme Pramet enables productive turning of shallow and deep radial and axial (face) recesses. This CTP system (Copy Turning Pramet) is in general used for copy turning.1 Cutting inserts grades for recessing.CTP system).5.2 (pages 7-8).35–020 SN or cutting inserts LCMX 020502TN up to 050502TN which are clamped into tool holders by a clamp from the top with fi xed radial position. recesses with round profi le with the possibility of a subsequent starting by longitudinal feed (in general copy turning . The cutting inserts LFMX 3. These inserts are clamped into tool holders for threads turning.ESC 4.1÷2.10–020 SN up to 6. 4.35–020 SN or cutting inserts VBD LFUX 030802TN up to 060802TN are also intended for parting. where B is recess width and T its depth). parting.1 and 3. The widths of recesses are in the range of B = 1. ESC 43 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING For turning of deep radial and face recesses (B: T≈1÷4.10–020 SN up to 6. For shallow recesses with small width (B: T≈max. These requirements are maximally fulfilled with Pramet grades 8030 and 6640.5 Turning of recesses.1). these tools are also delivered with cutting insert LCMX with radially fi xed position of clamped insert that is also clamped by the cutting force.15 mm. parting and copying (CTP) Cutting inserts grades for turning of recesses must have before all a good toughness and suffi cient wear resistance. Alternatively. Cutting inserts LCMX 030502MO up to 0605MO are used for recessing and subsequent starting (enlargement of recesses) by means of longitudinal feed. the inserts with three edges TN16E are intended for external recesses and inserts TN16N for internal recesses. we can use cutting inserts LFMX LFMX 3.

internal and face recesses and for parting are mentioned hereinafter in the overall Tables for turning.TR.15 0. .15 5 ÷ 5..20 range min. LCMX.15 0. TN16E.ESC 4.85 ÷ 2.0 ÷ 2.08 0.25 0. 0.06 0. 0.TN max.rev-1] Insert width [mm] initial (starting) 0.10 LFUX.08 0. the longitudinal axis of tool holder must be parallel with the rotation axis.09 0. 0.rev-1] Insert width [mm] initial (starting) 0.35 initial (starting) 0.13 0. N are mentioned in the following Table: Radial and recesses (LFMX.5.16 range min.25 0.10 0. N) feed f [mm.15 4 ÷ 4.23 0. 0.25 0.10 0.15 0. Provided that it comes to seizing at the internal wall of groove.05 0. These values are valid on condition that cutting liquid is applied.20 0.12 0. Because of vibration restriction of the system it is necessary to choose a tool holder with maximum cross-section and minimum overhang The longitudinal cutting insert axis must be normal to the workpiece rotation axis (at radial recesses) The cutting edge of the insert must be at height of the workpiece rotation with tolerance of ±0. LCMX.08 0. LFUX.30 1.the case A on the following page. In the reverse case there is a risk of an excessive friction of tool fl ank against recess walls.35 Insert The initial (starting) cutting speeds for turning of external.02 0.12 0. it is necessary to shift the cutting edge under the workpiece axis WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS Recommendations for practical turning of recesses and parting: CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 4 Choice of turning tool .15 6 ÷ 6.TL max. LFUX. If it comes to fl ank seizing at the external wall of holder.08 0.. the case A.10 0.15 0.1 mm The cutting liquid must be fed directly to the cutting edge in a suffi cient amount in order that it is provided an effi cient cooling.20 0.18 0. 0.18 0.12 LFMX. it is necessary to shift the insert cutting edge over the workpiece axis. Furthermore.1 ÷ 1.07 0.15 2÷3 3÷4 5 ÷ 6.02 0.30 0.08 0. but also to the holder under the cutting insert ESC 44 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES At turning of face recesses it is before all necessary to choose a suitable tool holder for a certain range of recess diameters.22 0.6 1.10 0. 0.08 0. LCMX) feed f [mm.30 2.08 0.12 max.2 Cutting conditions for recessing and parting tools The guide values of radial and axial feeds for turning with inserts LCMX and TN16E.20 range min.65 3 ÷ 3.08 0.13 0.5 The guide values of radial feeds for parting are mentioned in the following Table: Parting (LFMX.

The “starting” cutting speeds are mentioned in Tables being presented in one of foregoing chapters that were dedicated to the choice of cutting speeds for turning tools. CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 4 Choice of turning tool . Recommended range of radial and axial feeds and cutting depths for CTP tools with various diameter of round heads of inserts are mentioned in the following graphs.ESC At the face recessing it must be also put particular stress on the location of a tool into the axis. otherwise it can come to the tool friction against the workpiece and to the subsequent damage. ESC 45 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL The multiple-function system of tools CTP (Copy Turning Pramet) signifi cantly extends the programme for turning tools. but also the temperature reduction of the bottom part of tool holder with the bed for insert. These tools enable longitudinal and face turning and copy turning of surfaces with various shapes. It is very important to use cutting fl uid with a considerable cooling effect. The abundant cooling must safeguard the temperature reduction of cutting edge. By one tool with tool holder of common recessing tool with a cutting insert clamped from the top it is possible to carry out the turning of parts with complicated surfaces. the cutting fl uid must be fed to the cutting edge in a suffi cient amount.

.. The choice can be carried out according to the following Table.. + SIL ESC 46 ..4 ESC Choice of turning tool Threading Threading technique choice DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET 4...6. i.1 According to the workpiece shape and lathe type the basic turning technique is chosen. Typical threading techniques TURNED THREAD INSERT + HOLDER SENSE OF SPINDLE DIRECTION TOOL FEED DIRECTION EXTERNAL THREAD RIGHT TN. + SEL EXTERNAL THREAD LEFT TN.ER... + SER EXTERNAL THREAD LEFT TN. the feed direction and the sense of spindle rotation to produce a right external or internal thread...EL.....6 4...EL.......NR.. + SEL INTERNAL THREAD RIGHT TN.....ER. + SIR INTERNAL THREAD LEFT TN...NL.. + SER EXTERNAL THREAD RIGHT TN..... or a left external or internal thread as the case may be.e...

... + SIR ESC 47 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES INTERNAL THREAD LEFT WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING EXTERNAL THREAD LEFT TN. + SER CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 4 Choice of turning tool ...NL.EL......ER.. + SER INTERNAL THREAD RIGHT TN.. + SEL EXTERNAL THREAD LEFT TN... + SEL EXTERNAL THREAD RIGHT TN.EL... + SIL TN.....ER.NL...ESC Complementary threading techniques TURNED THREAD INSERT + HOLDER SENSE OF SPINDLE DIRECTION TOOL FEED DIRECTION EXTERNAL THREAD RIGHT TN...............

5* PI22+1.5 PI16+4.22 SEL-S ..22 SIL .5 PI22S-0.5 PE16S+2.5 PI16S+3..5 PE16ZZ PI16ZZ - Note: All holders have the angle of inclination λ = 0.22 SEL .5 PE22+2.5 PI22S+4. .5°). ..5 PE16S-1.5 PE22-1.5 PE16S+4..5° and tool holder SER 22..5 PE22S-0.. . it is necessary to embed under the cutting insert a special reduction shim.. The angle of inclination can be changed by means of a removable shim. .5° Shim 0. In accordance with the thread diameter on the horizontal axis of graph and thread pitch on the vertical axis... .4 ESC Choice of turning tool Choice of angle of inclination of indexable insert λ and reduction shim DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING Positive Angle of inclination λ Threading tool Negative 4...5 PE22S+3.5 PE22+0..5° -1..5 PE16S+0.5 PI22-1.5°.5* PE16+0.5 PI16S+0.5 PI16-1.5 PE16-1.5º.....5 PE16S-0.5 PI16+2..5 PI22+2.22 SIR .....5 PI22S+2.16 SIR .5 PI22+0..5 PI16-0. ...5 PE22S+0. .5 PE22+4..5* PI16S+1.5 PE16+1. .22 SER-S . . . EXAMPLE Thread turning d = 80 mm and thread pitch p = 4 mm by means of cutting insert being clamped in the holder SER 22..5 PI16S-0.5 PI16S+4. These shims enable using e.16 SIL ..5* PE16S+1..5 PE16S+3. whereby the necessary insert angle of inclination λ is achieved.. .5 PI22S-1.. the required angle of inclination of cutting insert λ is determined.5* PE22S+1...5 PE22S+4.. In the graph we determine the required angle of inclination λ = 0.5° For parting inserts (TN16. 2. 4.5 PE16-0.5 PI22S+3.5° 3.16 SEL-S .5° 2.. 1..22 SIL . .5 PI16S+2..6.5 PI22S+0.2 All holders of threading tools PRAMET TOOLS have a constant angle of inclination (insert tilt) λ = 1.5 for required angle of inclination λ = 0. For the achievement of a necessary angle of inclination λ which is close to the helix angle ω given by the thread diameter and its thread pitch..16 SEL ...5 PI16+3. Technique for shim choice: 1.16 SER-S .5* PI22S+1.. In accordance with the required angle of inclination the reduction shim for respective tool holder is chosen according to the following Table...22 SIR .5 PE16+2.5 PI16S-1.. In the Table there are mentioned shims with negative inclination angle λ.5* PI16+1.5 PE22+3.22 PE16+4.16 SER . Its adherence is a condition for distortionless thread profi le and also for uniform wear of both insert cutting edges.5° 1. In the Table we determine the reduction shim PE 22 + 0..5 PE22S-1.5 PE22-0.5° (the intersection of both values lies in the fi eld marked by λ = 0.5 PE22S+2.5 PE16+3.16 SIL . .5 PI22+4. ... 2..16 SIR .5 PI22+3. The following graph serves for the choice of a convenient shim under thread cutting insert for threading the thread with diameter of d and thread pitch p.. ZZ) SER .. see the Table and graph ESC 48 CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET .g. . the right hand tool holder also for turning the left thread on condition of the opposite feed direction of a tool.5 PI22-0. .5* PE22+1.5° -0.5 PI16+0. ..

a starting cutting speed according to the foregoing Tables is chosen. Side infeed – reduces the insert nose heat load and consequently the wear. H. 4. side infeed . Alternating radial and side infeed – it is recommended with large pitch and materials that tend to generate long and firm chips.g. N. These values should be seen as guide-starting ones that can be modified according to concrete experience.5 mm for producing of trapeze threads. S. It sets higher requirements to programming of machine tool. ESC 49 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 4 Choice of turning tool .6. K.Figure b. It is used for threads with pitch p >1. Radial infeed – is the simplest and most frequently used threading technique. It is convenient for threads with small pitch (p <1. H). namely radial infeed –Figure a.Figure c and alternating radial and side infeed – Figure d. methods and infeed rate For removal rate of the whole thread profile. Its advantage is more uniform removal distribution to both sides and consequently. N. With higher feeds this technique can produce vibrations. more uniform wear of insert’s edge. M.6. It improves the chip shape and chip disposal. S. side infeed with inclination of 3-5° . K. The radial infeed is convenient for materials giving during machining short chips and materials that tend to harden in cold state – e. sort of material to be machined and thread pitch.5 mm). austenitic stainless steels and low-carbon steels. Infeed range and number of engagements – it depend on the thread pitch. M.ESC 4. For various types of threads it is possible to choose them using the next presented Tables.4 Choice of cutting speed In accordance with the group of machined material (material groups P. The infeed is perpendicular to the workpiece rotation axis – the material is removed on both sides of the profi le.6.5 Chip parting. there are four various infeed techniques.3 Choice of cutting insert grade Cutting inserts for threading are made of an universal grade 8030 with PVD coating whose properties enable a productive thread manufacturing in all material groups P. Its disadvantage is that the right hand cutting edge touches the right fl ank profi le which causes uneven wear and quality deterioration of machined surface of the right fl ank profi le. 4. Side infeed with inclination 3-5° – it eliminates the side friction caused by the side infeed. The choice of respective infeed technique depends on the lathe type. With this technique the chip formation is favourable and cutting edge wear is even.

48 0.10 0.12 0.20 Table a 0.4 ESC ISO thread .15 0.13 0.11 0.12 0.10 ISO thread .26 0.15 0.17 0.12 0.18 0.12 0.18 0.25 1.08 1.18 0.14 0.14 0.08 2.22 0.12 0.31 0.07 0.15 0.09 0.00 4.18 0.26 0.34 0.22 0.20 0.50 1.38 0.28 0.22 0.10 0.13 0.0 Radial infeed [mm] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0.11 0.08 2.11 0.16 0.20 0.15 0.16 0.49 0.31 0.20 0.75 2.43 0.13 0.15 0.12 0.15 0.50 5.12 0.11 0.10 3.18 0.12 0.21 0.19 0.34 0.08 1.77 0.16 0.09 0.18 0.0 Radial infeed [mm] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0.63 0.50 0.14 0.15 0.15 0.24 0.17 0.00 1.07 0.00 2.50 0.34 0.00 5.22 0.22 0.12 0.13 0.50 4.11 0.21 0.12 0.17 0.17 0. of infeed pitch [mm] 0.14 0.20 0.28 0.12 0.27 0.10 2.16 CUTTING GRADES PRAMET 0.15 0.24 0.11 0.19 0.08 0.80 0.12 0.41 Table b ESC 0.32 0.15 0.15 0.11 0.33 0.16 0.21 0.12 0.28 0.17 0.16 0.13 0.80 0.10 3.50 4.19 0.14 0.20 0.17 0.26 0.metric .72 50 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL 3.08 2.12 0.00 4.10 0.33 0.00 1.36 0.40 0.46 0.08 0.13 0.08 1.41 0.15 0.30 0.11 0.41 0.19 0.15 0.14 0.10 2.19 0.08 0.25 0.07 0.17 0.22 0.17 0.08 0.24 0.90 0.10 0.14 0.17 0.44 0.08 1.08 2.25 0.13 0.35 DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS Choice of turning tool .12 0.11 0.16 0.12 0.21 0.24 0.11 0.22 0.20 0.24 0.50 3.43 0.12 0.07 0.16 0.14 0.89 0.11 0.internal reduce cutting speed proportionally to increasing the thread pitch No.12 0.13 0.41 0.08 1.17 0.09 0.14 0.32 0.17 0.12 0.18 0.48 0.12 0.14 0.10 0.32 0.19 0.10 0.27 0.75 1.89 0.11 0.46 CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL 0.12 0.15 0.00 3.21 0.16 0.13 0.11 0.17 0.35 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.67 0.24 0.20 0.18 0.external reduce cutting speed proportionally to increasing the thread pitch No.12 0.13 0.27 0.20 0.17 0.22 0.16 0.14 0.10 3.09 0.14 0.11 0.23 0.25 0.15 0.17 0.14 0.20 0.37 0.94 0.25 0.38 0. of infeed pitch [mm] 0.11 0.22 0.18 0.14 0.13 0.14 0.41 0.28 0.32 0.13 0.00 3.25 0.10 0.10 0.14 0.30 0.32 0.75 2.07 0.18 0.10 0.34 0.50 6.10 0.19 0.12 0.50 6.21 0.23 0.14 0.11 0.10 0.21 0.14 0.21 0.22 0.25 0.18 0.15 0.20 0.10 0.13 0.11 0.12 0.metric .14 0.11 0.15 0.50 5.28 0.62 0.34 0.12 0.58 0.23 0.10 0.14 0.10 3.30 0.15 0.39 0.09 0.13 0.07 0.16 0.00 2.08 1.27 0.19 0.14 0.10 0.17 0.12 0.27 0.25 0.75 1.19 0.77 0.08 0.24 0.00 5.32 0.09 0.13 0.20 0.50 0.19 0.08 1.16 0.21 0.08 1.04 0.13 0.25 1.22 0.20 0.08 0.07 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.50 3.16 0.50 1.17 0.10 2.22 0.16 0.27 0.

15 0.48 0.12 0.08 1.08 1.17 0.14 0.08 1.19 0.30 0.86 0.15 0.93 0.16 0.78 0.22 0.19 0.21 0.17 0.10 0.11 0.26 0.08 2.23 0.12 0.13 0.20 0. of infeed pitch [threads/inch] 32 28 24 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4.38 0.16 0.13 0.17 0.11 0.22 0.44 0.34 0.11 0.32 0.10 0.24 0.19 0.12 0.08 0.09 0.26 0.16 0.22 0.26 0.12 0.23 0.17 0.14 0.30 0.22 0.28 0.65 UN thread .35 0.14 0.26 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.17 0.15 0.34 0.10 0.28 0.49 0.15 0.21 0.18 0.08 1.15 0.26 0.15 0.28 0.17 0.13 0.17 0.15 0.16 0.25 0.36 0.52 0.63 0.10 2.86 0.17 0.32 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.25 0.15 0.11 0.11 0.24 0.95 0.10 0.27 0.08 0.38 0.10 0.08 2.12 0.17 0.08 0.21 0.16 0.12 0.62 0.01 0.08 1.09 0.30 0.14 0.23 0.23 0.28 0.52 Table d ESC 0.12 0.17 0.08 2.10 0.18 0.26 0.19 0.14 0.25 0.13 0.12 0.13 0.16 0.14 0.11 0.12 0.41 0.12 0.11 0.15 0.20 0.15 0.28 0.15 0.5 4 Radial infeed [mm] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0.08 0.15 0.22 0.17 0.16 0.38 0.17 0.14 0.20 0.47 0.23 0.03 0.21 0.30 0.18 0.08 1.11 0.20 0.10 0.25 0.18 0.21 0.11 0.5 4 Radial infeed [mm] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0.10 0.20 0.external reduce cutting speed proportionally to increasing the thread pitch No.26 0.13 0.26 0.27 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.22 0.10 3.08 0.13 0.11 0.20 0.41 0.35 0.19 0.15 0.45 0.30 0.44 0.12 0.22 0.11 0.13 0.16 0.17 0.16 0.44 0.43 0.17 0.20 0.10 0.71 0.36 0.14 0.66 0.12 0.35 0.12 0.10 0.16 0.11 0.26 0.17 0.13 0.14 0.12 0.16 0.19 0.11 0.12 0.21 0.17 0.15 0.16 0.27 0.12 0.24 0.83 0.59 0.10 2.internal reduce cutting speed proportionally to increasing the thread pitch No.11 0.10 3.17 0.11 0.18 0.10 0.10 0.27 0.22 0.13 0.10 3.15 0.19 0.10 0.12 0.08 0.36 0.08 1.27 0.16 0.26 0.18 0.19 0.93 0.22 0.11 0.11 0.24 0.11 0.20 0.09 0.16 0.10 3.17 0.15 0.14 0.21 0.15 0.10 3.12 0.13 0.18 0.08 1.15 0.08 0.66 0.12 0.13 0.20 0.10 0.12 0.15 0.79 0.08 1.20 0.18 0.24 0.13 0.27 0.14 0.22 0.12 0.14 0.27 Table c 0.11 0.66 0.14 0.12 0.08 0.26 0.18 0.20 0.23 0.13 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.10 0.14 0.12 0.24 0.10 0.13 0.08 0.08 0.19 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.40 0.12 0.10 0.14 0.17 0.13 0.33 0.23 0.11 0.18 0.96 51 .12 0.41 0.23 0.49 0.15 0.33 0.33 0.14 0.21 0.27 0.15 0.28 0.08 1.13 0.11 0.28 0.08 1.36 0.12 0.17 0.10 0.14 0.08 0.18 0.12 0.13 0.09 0.14 0.22 0.08 1.11 0.4 ESC Choice of turning tool DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET UN thread .32 0. of infeed pitch [threads/inch] 32 28 24 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4.18 0.14 0.20 0.42 0.12 0.08 1.10 2.18 0.16 0.19 0.18 0.15 0.20 0.08 1.19 0.17 0.13 0.

28 0.12 0.20 0.24 0.12 0.42 0.22 0.14 0.20 0.22 0.08 1.21 0.19 0.11 0.internal and external reduce cutting speed proportionally to increasing the thread pitch No.13 0.13 0.23 0.41 0.21 0.26 0.17 0.17 0.36 0.10 2.23 0.20 0.08 0.12 0.08 0.15 0.26 0.35 0.10 3.12 0.12 0.21 0.08 1.14 0.26 0.23 0.41 0.11 0.23 0.91 0.12 0.21 0.14 0.16 0.21 0.13 0.20 0.80 0.27 0.15 0.14 0.17 0.14 0.16 0.14 0.27 0.44 0.08 2.16 0.11 0.14 0.13 0.15 0.34 0.18 0.15 0.08 0.13 0.11 0.25 0.27 0.19 0.87 0.36 0.18 0.13 0.17 0.07 0.18 0.17 0.24 0.15 0.65 CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL 0.27 0.17 0.22 0.29 0.09 0.12 0.18 0.17 0.10 0.17 0.30 0. of infeed pitch [threads/inch] 32 28 24 20 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4.14 0.43 0.31 0.28 0.22 0.64 0.12 0.69 0.21 0.12 0.22 0.15 0.14 0.15 0.ESC Whitworth thread .21 0.12 0.18 0.11 0.19 0.13 0.22 0.24 0.32 0.15 0.16 0.14 0.33 0.18 CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 4 Choice of turning tool .28 0.14 0.16 0.54 0.13 0.12 0.27 0.08 2.14 0.12 0.19 0.36 0.47 0.12 0.13 0.15 0.20 0.19 0.20 0.87 0.34 0.08 1.10 3.44 0.10 0.12 0.12 0.28 0.15 0.19 0.23 0.30 0.41 0.10 ESC 52 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL 3.18 0.22 0.16 0.16 0.10 4.08 1.36 0.15 0.13 0.17 0.24 0.23 0.08 0.15 0.20 0.24 0.16 0.16 0.36 0.20 0.5 4 Radial infeed [mm] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 0.30 0.19 0.68 0.70 Table e 0.16 0.27 0.22 0.18 0.26 0.08 1.08 1.28 0.18 0.12 0.44 0.34 0.21 0.41 0.12 0.15 0.08 1.

In praxis we mostly proceed from a current warehouse stock.1 Type choice of milling tool with regard to the basic tool geometry and engagement conditions Place of the first contact with regard to the basic tool geometry ESC 53 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 5 Choice of milling tool . that is why at the end we concentrate on the choice of starting conditions which guarantee the optimum utilization of a milling tool.1.ESC 5. 5.1 Choice of milling cutter The following pages contain brief instructions how to proceed at tool choice for any milling operation.

ESC Nomograms for determination of milling cutter working geometry tan γo = tan γp . cos κ r tan λ s = tan γf . sin κ r . cos κ r CHOICE OF DRILLING ESC 54 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 5 Choice of milling tool . sin κ r + tan γf .tan γp .

ESC ESC 5.2 Choice of milling tool type with regard to the sort of machined material 5 Choice of milling tool 55 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .1.

e. Today this modifi cation of cutting edge is used at all cutting inserts without a facet (formerly the modifi cation F).e. Today it is used only exceptionally because it is replaced by version “S”. which are used for milling of nearly all material sorts (in general of materials classifi ed into groups P. S.2 5. a failure caused by a brittle break or so called micro-erosion.1 Choice of cutting inserts for milling Choice of cutting insert with respect to cutting edge design PRAMET cutting inserts for milling jobs are supplied in several versions of cutting edge. Cutting edge with facet (rake land) – the facet of width x and angle γ x increases the lip angle γ n close to the cutting edge and therefore also the cutting edge strength – its resistance against the mechanical load – i. in addition the rectifi cation has been carried out to round out the tool edge reinforced by a facet. H).Compared to the modifi cation T. With sharp cutting edge minimum distortion of the layer being removed is achieved. resistance against fragile failure or break of the whole cutting edge increases. K.it is recommended to use this insert for milling cutters that serve for machining Al alloys. M. corresponding to specifi c requirements which are set on cutting edge for milling of various materials.ESC 5. This modifi cation enhances the cutting edge resistance to mechanical failure at most. The cutting edge modifi cation distinctly infl uences tool functional properties. ESC 56 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 5 Choice of milling tool . Tool edge with protected cutting edge . N. The marking of this modifi cation is specifi ed at the eight fi gure of the respective ISO code in accordance with the standard ISO. built-ups are minimized as well as the level of cutting forces. By rectifying the cutting edge under some very small radius ρ its resistance to mechanical damage of cutting edge is achieved – i. Protected tool edge with a facet . The cutting edge strength is smaller compared with other modifi cations of cutting edge.2. Sharp cutting edge .it is a case of slightly rounded cutting edge to improve cutting edge’s micro-roughness.

If a diverse value of cutting edge T than 30 min. the value v 30 is multiplied by a factor k vHB. 8040 and 5026 are demonstrated in Tables presented in the section that refers to machined materials (Chapter 3 – pages 7 . replaced by the new grade 5026.10 mm.0.III. hardness of machined material ……. (kVM) It is necessary to point out that cutting speed calculated in this way is just an initial (starting) value for the determination of a basic level of cutting speeds for a given operation.ESC 5. The following product then gives the resulting cutting speed: vc = v30 . Varying cutting depth a p = 3 .8).1. casting and forging skin with minor defects and irregularities. 4. kVHB . is required. cutting depth a p < 2 mm (criterion f z is just an additional one). The substrate of grade 5026 is on the basis of WC+TaC+Co and also guarantees a high toughness thanks to a relatively high amount of cobalt. superalloys and very hard treated steels.0. 1. The Tables are replenished with correction factors k VX for the conversion of cutting speeds at milling with regard to a good or bad technical machine state. but to have the full picture they are classifi ed into the complementary assortment of the firm PRAMET. Its positive properties fi nd their expression in applications where a stress is put on a high productivity that means the use of high cutting speeds and also high feeds. We classify the given operation according to its character into a group (light. The overview of application fi elds and recommended use of grades 8016. (pages 58-68). 2. Feed range f z = 0. end milling. In the fi rst step we classify the material to be machined into one of the seven groups according to the PRAMET classifi cation (Chapter 8. In the following Tables we choose the starting cutting speed and possible corrections (for machine condition. Engagement conditions cannot be chosen quite optimally. kVT . uneven rough forging skin and uneven surface of burnt piece. the tabular value is multiplied by a coeffi cient k vT according to Table of correction factors for tool life. Rough skin of castings with surface defects. copy milling. The meaning of uncoated grades fell down very strongly. Light milling – one interruption per a revolution. 8026. As an example can be the milling of dies and moulds made from tool steels with the strength of Rm = 900 ÷ 1400 MPa. pre-machined workpiece surface. The current grades of series 8000 have an outstanding cutting edge strength which enables to implement designing solution of cutting inserts with very high positive geometry – with rake angles γ 0 = 20 ÷ 25° for milling of carbon and alloy steels with enhanced strength. they are marked as I . kVX .2 Choice of cutting insert grade At present the current series of grades with PVD coatings PVD 8016. Above all the machinability dispersion of machined material. Medium milling – one up to two interruptions during one tool revolution. They signifi cantly enlarge the application of Pramet’s milling cutters also for milling of austenitic. medium or heavy milling). cover most of operations for face milling.2.) (pages 58-68). In these Tables there are several options for every group of machined materials. If the hardness HB of workpiece differs from the hardness mentioned in the Table caption. In the fi rst Table for the given group of materials to be machined. favourable engagement conditions. which can spread at high-grade steels over two machinability. Higher thermal stability limits can be utilized at operations with high milling performance where the cutting (cooling) fluid cannot be used. the fi ne-grained substrate is used..40 mm/tooth and cutting depth a p = 2 .3 Choice of cutting conditions CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING In the following passage we try to facilitate the choice of a convenient tool and choice of starting (initial) cutting conditions. page 92). their application virtually prevails at all milling cutters delivered by Pramet. For achievement of high wear resistance. Adverse engagement conditions (negative values of engagement angle).25 mm/tooth. is quite often a reason for the necessity of some cutting speed correction if a relatively exact observance of economical tool life is required. Owing to these properties an excellent wear resistance together with high operation reliability characterizes the grade 5026. its wear resistance is amplifi ed by a coating deposited by the MTCVD method which is deposited under medium temperatures which guarantees a substantially higher toughness in comparison with the formerly used CVD method. stainless and creep-resistant steels. of surface of forgings and castings without any larger defects and unevenness. 8026 and 8040.30 . 5. Heavy milling – more than two interruptions during one tool revolution. Workpiece surface nature – rolled material skin. For these cases they bring a sharp and strong cutting edge with relatively large positive rake angles. ESC 57 CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 5 Choice of milling tool . Top feed rate f z = 0.4 mm. we choose a combination material + modifi cation of cutting edge for an insert being chosen ahead. 3.

CNM 563.S 8026-E. APKX11..FN. III.EL. RDEX16.EN. II.. I.ER-F.16F LC20. RDET12.S 5026-E. III.S 8026 I. 8040 8040-S 8026-S 5026-S 8040-S 8026-S 8040-S 5026-S S45 -S 8040-S 5026-S S45 -S 8040-E.EN.S 8040-E..SR.EN.. I.. III. I. SEEN12.. II. III. SN.EN..SN SPEW12.SN II. SN SEET12.ESC ESC P Machining conditions for milling TOOL TYPE INSERT SHAPE light I. SPKN15. II..S 8016-E. 8040 8016 8040-S 8026-S 5026-S 8040-S 8026-S medium 5026 8026-E 8026 5026-S 8040-S 8026-S 5026-S 8040-S 8026-S 8040-E. III. SPUN25. ER-M APKX15.EN. III.SN SEER15.SN. I.S I.10F LC12.SN RDEX12.SN.FN. TPKR22.EN.SR.SN SPGN25. III.SL SPKR15.. III.. II. SEER12. I.SL SPUN25.. II.. SEEW12.EN.S SPKR12.SN RDET10. SPET12. RDEW08.EN.SN. I. III..ER-F. III.12F LC16.EL.....EN.S 8040-E.SN.. II.08F LC10. I. SN.SN RDEW12.. III.EN. I.ER-M APKT10.. I. II.EN.S 8026-E.SR..SR.. II. I.SR.. III. II. SN.. SPKN12...SN. APET15. III.EN. RPEX12. I.. III. SEMT09.S 5026-E. III. I.ER.. II..SN. II. SEEN15.. II. II.SN.20F I. III. III. SNHQ 12 II... SNHN 12-EN. I. SNHN 15-EN CNE 635. RDEX16.S SEET12. SDEW09.ER-M I. I. I. II. II.ER-F. SNKX12.SN RDET08. SDEX. SDET.S 8026-E. II.SN APEW15. I.ER..... SOMT 09 APKX11. II.SR. ER-M.SN. I. I. III. SR-R II.S 5026-E.SR.EN.. II. III. TPKN22. III. III. I.FN.SN RC08-RC32 LC08. ER-M APKX15.EN. III.. II. ER-M.ER TPKN22.ER SPET12.. III..S 8026-E. SR-R ADKT15.S 8026-ES 8016-E..RDEW10..S heavy 8026-E 8040 5 Choice of milling tool 58 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS . II.SR TPCN16.. II. 8016 8040 8026-S S26 -S 5026-S 8026-S 8016-S 5026-S 8026-S 8016-S 5026-S 8026-S 8016-S 8026-E. III..ER..ER-F.

2 0.40 1.32 40 .2 0.15÷0.95 0.50 0.35 0.80 0.50÷1..30 1. W75SP15.50 0... RDEW RC08-RC25 90° medium heavy light medium heavy SMORP12.00÷4.30 315 300 280 280 270 250 - W90TP22 F90TP16 TPKR TPKN TPCN LC08-20 RPEX.30 0.50 0.45 2.15÷0.05÷0..1÷0.25 0.72 RDEW 0802MO 75° medium heavy light Recommended feeds and cutting depths for tools with round indexable inserts Feed Milling cutter diameter [mm] 8 . finishing M.20 25 . SDEW SDET SDEX APEW.3 0.00÷4.50÷2.08÷0.4 0.35 0.25 0.12 0.89 0.5 0.90 0.00 0.50 0. W75SP12.12÷0.50÷2.63 80 . S75AP11 S75AP15 90° APKX APKT ADKT 75° Medium Roughing light medium heavy light 0. SPEW SNKX. SNKX CNE635.15÷0.08÷0. RDEX RDET.3 0.25÷0.15÷0.90 inserts APKX 1505PD ER-F APKX 1505PD ER-M APKX 1505PD ER-R fz [mm.23 1.20 Bad machine condition 0..3 CORRECTION VC Recommended feeds for inserts APKX inserts APKX 1103PD ER-F APKX 1103PD ER-M 5 Choice of milling tool Correction factor kvx fz [mm. W45SE15.70÷0.min-1] Working RecommenApproach conditions ded angle milling feeds fz light 75° medium heavy light 45° medium heavy light 0.18 1.15÷0.35 1..35 0.25 0.10÷0..1÷0.35 1.00 0.20 0.3 0.25 0. E(2)SRD K2 SRC.09÷0.12÷0.1÷0.125 Workpiece hardness correction fz ap fz RDEW 0803MO ap fz RDEW 1003MO ap fz RDEW 10T3MO ap fz RDEW 12T3MO ap fz RDEX 1204MO ap fz RDEX 1604MO ap fz RPEX 1204MO ap S45SE12.35 0. S90 SN12 SNHN.4 0. SMORD16 BSRD.5 0.1÷0.50÷1.1÷0.00 0. roughing W45SE123.1÷0.3 0.00÷4.81 0.12 0. E-SRD.4 0.80÷0.SSD09 SEET SEEW SPET.35 0. W60SP25.12÷0.95 F.82 0. CNM563 SNHQ12 Good machine condition 1.15÷0.08÷0..1÷0.05 1.25 5026 8016 8026 8040 S26 S45 330 315 290 315 300 280 315 300 280 315 300 280 315 300 280 315 300 280 315 300 280 315 300 280 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 255 220 185 255 220 185 255 220 185 255 220 185 255 220 185 255 220 185 255 220 185 255 220 185 255 220 185 235 200 170 255 220 185 180 200 180 200 180 200 180 200 180 200 180 200 180 200 180 200 180 180 165 200 180 165 145 165 145 165 145 165 145 165 145 165 145 140 65 65 65 65 65 65 Tool life correction Forging and casting skin 0.00÷2. S45SN12.50 0.00÷2.20÷0.50 2.35 0.13 1.08÷0.05÷0.30 0. W90SP25.25 0.15÷0.00 2.4 0.tooth-1] 0.05÷1. medium R.10÷0.1÷0.3 0.77 90° medium heavy Finishing S90AP11.1÷0. S90SP12 SSAP-A.15÷0.10÷0.86 0. SSAP S90SAP .08÷0.APET 45° medium heavy light HB 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 kvHB 1. K2-SLC 59 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .15÷0.2 0.15÷0.12 1.tooth-1] 0..1÷0.10÷0.15÷0.00 0..2 0..00 inserts 90° medium heavy light Cutting depth 10 .ESC ESC P Sort of tool Insert shape Choice of cutting speed vc v depending on feed fz Cutting speed v30 [m.12÷0.10÷0. S90AP15 SAP11 SAP15 SAP Modul S90AP11 S90AP15.00 0..50 W75SN12 W75SN15 S88CN.15÷0. SEER SEEN SPKN SPKR SPUN SPGN 60° medium heavy light Tmin 15 20 30 45 60 90 kvT 1.

III. I..E 8026-S 5026-S 8040-E.ER..SN RDEW12. TPKN22. ER-M.SN RDEX12. II.. SEEN15.S 8026-S 8040-E 8016-E 8040-E 8016 8040 I. II. I.12F LC16.SR. III.. SN.ER-F..ER-M I..EN. SPUN25. 8026 8040 8026-S 8040-E 5026-S 8026-S 8040-E 5026-S 8026-ES 8040-E..S 8016-E. III.S SPKR12. I.ER-F. III. CNM 563.EN. III.SR.SN APEW15. ER-M APKX15. II. SNHQ 12 II. II.ER. I.SN RDET08.. II.SR TPCN16. II. SNKX12.. TPKR22.EN. SN SEET12. II. III.EN.SN.S 8026-ES 8040-E. II. SN.. APKX11.. III.. SDEX.ER. APET15.20F I. III. II... I. SEEW12. III..ER-F.. RPEX12.EN..SR. SNHN 15-EN CNE 635..SN.08F LC10.FN. II..SN.10F LC12...EL.ER SPET12.EN. I.. SDEW09.ER-F.SN. II. I. II. I.EN. III..S 8026-E. I. RDEX16. SEEN12.. RDET12. RDEW08.. I.EL... SR-R II. SPKN12. I.. ER-M APKX15.. I.. II. III. III.SR. I. SN. III. II.EN.E 8026-S 8040-S.EN..E 8026-S 8040 I.FN. III. III. SPET12... III.E 8026-S 5026-S 8040-S. I. SNHN 12-EN. III... II.16F LC20.S 8016-E. III. II.SN RDET10. SPKN15.EN.SN SPGN25. I. SEER12.ESC ESC M Machining conditions for milling TOOL TYPE INSERT SHAPE light I.SL SPKR15.SN. I.SL SPUN25. III.SN.RDEW10... II.FN.SR.SN. II. SOMT 09 APKX11.SN II. III..EN. ER-M.ER-M APKT10. SDET. II.S 5026-S 8040-S.. II.S SEET12. II. III.ER TPKN22.SN RC08-RC32 LC08. I. SR-R ADKT15.EN. III.S 5026-S 8040-E..SN SEER15. I...SR. SEMT09.SN SPEW12. III. RDEX16..SR.EN. III.SN.EN. medium 8040 8026 8040-S.. heavy 8040 8040-S 8040-S 8040-S 8040-S 8040-S 8040-S 8040 - 5 Choice of milling tool 60 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS . I.S 8026-E..

SNKX CNE635..13 1.25 5026 8016 8026 8040 S26 H10 195 185 170 185 180 165 185 180 165 185 180 165 185 180 165 185 180 165 185 180 165 185 180 165 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 125 110 125 110 125 110 125 110 125 110 125 110 125 110 125 110 125 110 115 100 85 110 110 100 90 110 100 90 110 100 90 110 100 90 110 100 90 110 100 90 110 100 90 110 100 90 110 100 90 100 90 80 100 90 Tool life correction Forging and casting skin 0.08÷0.30 185 180 165 165 160 150 - W90TP22 F90TP16 TPKR TPKN TPCN LC08-20 RPEX.30 0.25 ÷ 0.12÷0.50÷1.3 0.00÷4..15÷0.APET 45° medium heavy light HB >150 150 ÷ 180 180 ÷ 210 210 ÷ 240 240 ÷ 270 270 ÷ 300 300 ÷ 330 330 ÷ 360 360 ÷ 390 - kvHB 1..00 2.25 0.00 0.12÷0.05÷1.1÷0..15÷0.15÷0. finishing M.25 0.08÷0.66 0.4 0.00 inserts 90° medium heavy light Cutting depth 10 ÷ 20 25 ÷ 32 40 ÷ 63 80 ÷ 125 fz Workpiece hardness correction ap fz RDEW 0803MO ap fz RDEW 1003MO ap fz RDEW 10T3MO ap fz RDEW 12T3MO ap fz RDEX 1204MO ap fz RDEX 1604MO ap fz RPEX 1204MO ap S45SE12.50 0.50÷1.2 0.1÷0.50 0.10÷0.05 ÷ 0.50 W75SN12 W75SN15 S88CN.15÷0. roughing W45SE123. W45SE15.50 2.5 0.12÷0.3 CORRECTION VC Recommended feeds for inserts APKX inserts APKX 1103PD ER-F APKX 1103PD ER-M 5 Choice of milling tool Correction factor kvx fz [mm. K2-SLC 61 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .SSD09 SEET SEEW SPET.72 0.1÷0..10÷0.09÷0..1÷0.40 1.35 1.1÷0.05 ÷ 0.08÷0.1÷0. SSAP S90SAP .1÷0.79 0.25 0.30 0.18 1.15 ÷ 0.25 0. RDEW RC08-RC25 90° medium heavy light medium heavy SMORP12..min-1] Working RecommenApproach conditions ded angle milling feeds fz 75° light medium heavy light 45° medium heavy light 0.15÷0.35 0.15÷0.50÷2. W75SP12.1÷0. W75SP15.50÷2.00 0.62 - 90° medium heavy Finishing S90AP11.15÷0.tooth-1] 0. E-SRD. SMORD16 BSRD.70÷0.4 0.12÷0.00÷4. S90 SN12 SNHN.35 0.90 inserts APKX 1505PD ER-F APKX 1505PD ER-M APKX 1505PD ER-R fz [mm.50 0.50 0.12 0.4 0.25 0.15÷0.2 0.35 0.87 0. S90SP12 SSAP-A. S75AP11 S75AP15 90° APKX APKT ADKT 75° Medium Roughing light medium heavy light 0.20 Bad machine condition 0..23 1.00 0.20÷0.1÷0.10 ÷ 0.68 0. SPEW SNKX..08÷0.15÷0.80÷0. RDEX RDET.95 F.89 0.00÷4.00 0.5 0.2 0. S90AP15 SAP11 SAP15 SAP Modul S90AP11 S90AP15.15-0..tooth-1] 0.50 0. W60SP25.00 0.1÷0.30 1.00÷2.08÷0. W90SP25.35 0.40 1.00÷2. SEER SEEN SPKN SPKR SPUN SPGN 60° medium heavy light Tmin 15 20 30 45 60 90 kvT 1.. S45SN12.81 0.3 0.35 0.72 RDEW 0802MO 75° medium heavy light Recommended feeds and cutting depths for tools with round indexable inserts Feed Milling cutter diameter [mm] 8 ÷ 12 0. E(2)SRD K2 SRC.3 0.2 0..20 0.4 0.10÷0.ESC ESC M Sort of tool Insert shape Choice of cutting speed vc v depending on feed fz Cutting speed v30 [m. medium R. CNM563 SNHQ12 Good machine condition 1. SDEW SDET SDEX APEW.10÷0.3 0.35 0.45 2.3 0.35 1.15÷0.

III..S 8026-E. SN SEET12. RDEX16. SN. II. I...SN SPGN25. RDEX16. 5026 8016-E 8026 5026-S 8016-S 8026-S 5026-S 8016-S 8026-S 8016-E. SOMT 09 APKX11.SR.ER-M I. II.... I. III. I. III. ER-M. SDET.. III.SR.EL. II. II.SL SPUN25.12F LC16..ER-F.SN SPEW12. SPUN25.EN.. III. III. SR-R ADKT15.SN.08F LC10. II.EN. SN. SDEW09.S 5026-S 8016-E. II.EN.SR.EN.. II. I.S 8040-E.SR. III.EN..S SPKR12.EN.ER-F.S 8026-S 8016-S 5026-S 8026-S 8016-S 8040 I. I. I. ER-M APKX15.EN.FN. SEEW12. SPKN15. SEMT09. I.ESC ESC K Machining conditions for milling TOOL TYPE INSERT SHAPE light I.. I..ER-M APKT10. III.SN. medium 5026 8016-E 8026 5026-S 8016-S 8026-S 5026-S 8016-S 8026-S 8026-E.S 5026-S 8026-E.ER-F. I. III.SN APEW15. APET15. III. III. I.EN.. CNM 563. III.FN. III. SPKN12..SN.SN... I.. APKX11.EN.S 8040-S 8026-S 5026-S 8040-S 8026-S - 5 Choice of milling tool 62 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .SR.RDEW10. SEEN15.20F I. II.S 5026-S 8026-E. II..EN. III..SN.. ER-M. SN.SN RDET08.SR..ER SPET12..S 5026-S 8026-E... I. SEER12. TPKN22. II. SR-R II.SN RDET10. II.SR. SNHN 15-EN CNE 635. I..EN. RDET12. heavy 8026-E 5026 8040 8026-S 5026-S 8040-S 8026-S 5026-S 8040-S 8040-E... RPEX12.SN RC08-RC32 LC08. ER-M APKX15. III. I.ER.EN. SNHN 12-EN.SR TPCN16. SEEN12.SN.SN RDEX12. SDEX.SL SPKR15.SN SEER15. II. II. III.SN RDEW12. I. I. RDEW08. II.S 8016-E. SPET12.ER TPKN22. III.SN.EN.... I. I.EN.. I... SNHQ 12 II...ER-F..S SEET12. III. III.10F LC12..ER.FN. SNKX12. III. III. III. III. TPKR22. II.. II. II. II.S 8016-S 8026-S 5026-S 8016-S 8026-S 8016 I.. III.SN.S 5026-S 8026-E....ER.EL. II.S 5026-S 8016-E.16F LC20. II...SN II. II.

50 0.25 0. S75AP11 S75AP15 90° APKX APKT ADKT 75° Medium Roughing light medium heavy light 0.08÷0...40 1. W60SP25.00 0.40 150 ÷ 180 180 ÷ 200 200 ÷ 220 220 ÷ 240 240 ÷ 280 280 ÷ 330 260 ÷ 300 300 ÷ 360 360 ÷ 450 Tool life correction Forging and casting skin 0. SMORD16 BSRD. APET HB kvHB grey nodular creep-res.00÷2.05 ÷ 0.30 0.12÷0.20 0.. SEER SEEN SPKN SPKR SPUN SPGN 60° medium heavy light 75° medium heavy light Recommended feeds and cutting depths for tools with round indexable inserts Feed Milling cutter diameter [mm] 8 ÷ 12 0.35 0. 45° medium heavy light 1.50 0.25 1.13 1..50 2.45 0.75 90° medium heavy Finishing S90AP11.05÷1.05 ÷ 0.00 2.00÷4.08 1..10÷0.15÷0.10÷0..50 0.30 0.35 1.08÷0.08÷0. E(2)SRD K2 SRC.50 0.95 0.30 0.15÷0.20÷0.40 CORRECTION VC Recommended feeds for inserts APKX inserts APKX 1103PD ER-F APKX 1103PD ER-M 5 Choice of milling tool Correction factor kvx fz [mm.50÷2.10÷0. SSAP S90SAP.12÷0.00 0.60 - 1.30 0.25 0.10÷0.12 0.. S90SP12 SSAP-A.00 0.25 1. SDEW SDET.ESC ESC K Sort of tool Insert shape Choice of cutting speed vc v depending on feed fz Cutting speed v30 [m.81 0.12÷0.89 0. SNKX CNE635.40 0..35 0.72 F.25 0. S90 SN12 SNHN.15÷0.00÷4.50÷1.00 0.00 0. RDEX RDET.25 5026 8016 8026 8040 S26 H10 380 330 290 350 315 270 365 320 285 370 330 290 380 340 350 315 280 380 340 380 340 260 240 260 240 260 240 260 240 260 240 260 240 260 240 260 240 260 240 240 220 260 240 250 235 200 250 235 200 250 235 200 250 235 200 250 235 200 250 235 200 250 235 200 250 235 200 250 235 200 230 215 200 250 235 200 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 90 100 145 145 145 145 145 145 145 145 145 Material correction Sort of cast grey nodular malleable creep-resistant kvM 1.20 Bad machine condition 0.50÷2.15÷0..min-1] Working RecommenApproach conditions ded angle milling feeds fz 75° light medium heavy light 45° medium heavy light 0.00÷4.25 0.00 0.10÷0.80÷0.90 inserts APKX 1505PD ER-F APKX 1505PD ER-M APKX 1505PD ER-R fz [mm.85 - 1.12÷0.15 1. SSD09 SEET SEEW SPET.95 0..25 0.30 0.35 0. E-SRD.23 1.00 inserts RDEW 0802MO 90° medium heavy light Workpiece hardness correction Cutting depth 10 ÷ 20 25 ÷ 32 40 ÷ 63 80 ÷ 125 fz ap fz RDEW 0803MO ap fz RDEW 1003MO ap fz RDEW 10T3MO ap fz RDEW 12T3MO ap fz RDEX 1204MO ap fz RDEX 1604MO ap fz RPEX 1204MO ap S45SE12.60 0.50÷1.86 0.40 0.08÷0.tooth-1] 0.25 0. SPEW SNKX.08÷0. S45SN12.15÷0.40 0.15÷0.50 W75SN12 W75SN15 S88CN.35 1.50 0.00÷2. S90AP15 SAP11 SAP15 SAP Modul S90AP11 S90AP15.10÷0.10 1.45 2.10÷0.03 1.10÷0.15÷0.15 ÷ 0.00 0.tooth-1] 0.70÷0. W90SP25.40 1.00 0.10÷0. finishing M. CNM563 SNHQ12 Good machine condition 1.40 0.30 0.09÷0.10÷0.30 0. roughing W45SE123. W75SP12. K2-SLC 63 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .10÷0.50 0. RDEW RC08-RC25 90° medium heavy light medium heavy SMORP12.40 0.50 0.. W75SP15.08÷0.15÷0.35 0.15÷0.10÷0.15÷0. SDEX APEW.35 370 330 345 305 - W90TP22 F90TP16 TPKR TPKN TPCN LC08-20 RPEX.85 0. medium R.30 0.10 ÷ 0.25 ÷ 0.95 Tmin 15 20 30 45 60 90 kvT 1.10÷0..30 0. W45SE15.30 1.10÷0.

.FN. APKX11..EN.. I.SN..SN..EN. III.. III. III. ER-M. SN.. SPKN12. III.EN. III.EN. II. II..ER SPET12.SL SPUN25. I. III. I. III.. RPEX12.. RDET12.SN SPEW12. medium 8016 8016-E H10-F 8016-E 8016-E 8016-E 8016-E H10-F 8016-E 8016 I. SPET12..SR.SN II. I.SR. RDEW08. III. SDET.SN SEER15.SR. SNHQ 12 II.EN.10F LC12. I.SN APEW15..ER-F. II. TPKR22. III. SEER12.. SNHN 12-EN... III.SR. III.FN.... SDEX. I.SN. SDEW09.. SR-R II.SN. SEEW12.SN.SN RDET08. I. II.12F LC16..EN. I.SN RDEW12. SR-R ADKT15. I.ER.EN. TPKN22.. SN SEET12.ER-F. I.. III.SN.SL SPKR15. SPKN15. III. SNHN 15-EN CNE 635. SEMT09.SN..ER-F. II... I.. ER-M.. SEEN12.. ER-M APKX15. I.. III.. SOMT 09 APKX11.EN.EN...EN. I.. III. ER-M APKX15. III. SEEN15. III.RDEW10.. III....ER-M APKT10..SN. I. II. heavy 8016 8016-E H10-F 8016-E 8016-E 8016-E 8016-E H10-F 8016-E 8016 - 5 Choice of milling tool 64 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS . III. II.08F LC10. I.ESC ESC N Machining conditions for milling TOOL TYPE INSERT SHAPE light I... III.SN RC08-RC32 LC08. SN.ER-F.SN SPGN25.ER..FN. III.ER TPKN22.20F I. II. II. I. APET15.ER-M I.SN RDET10.S SEET12. II. I.SR.EL. III.. II. II.. 8016 8016-E H10-F 8016-E 8016-E 8016-E 8016-E H10-F 8016-E 8016 I. I. RDEX16.EN. II.SR. SPUN25. II.EL. II. III.EN. II. II.EN. SN...SN RDEX12. I. SNKX12. II.SR TPCN16. RDEX16.S SPKR12.ER. II. CNM 563. II. III.SR. II.EN.16F LC20.

.4 0.25 inserts APKX 1505PD ER-F APKX 1505PD ER-M APKX 1505PD ER-R fz [mm. S75AP11 S75AP15 90° APKX APKT ADKT 75° Medium Roughing light medium heavy light Brass for automatic machines (>1% Pb) HB 110 Brass HB 90 Bronze electrolytic Cu 1..50 0.80 W90TP22 F90TP16 TPKR TPKN TPCN LC08-20 RPEX.13 1. SEER SEEN SPKN SPKR SPUN SPGN 60° medium heavy light 75° medium heavy light Recommended feeds and cutting depths for tools with round indexable inserts Feed Milling cutter diameter [mm] 8 ÷ 12 0.25 0.APET 45° medium heavy light 90° medium heavy Finishing S90AP11.25 0.90 0.00÷4.3 0. S90 SN12 SNHN.08÷0.1÷0..15÷0.25 0. RDEW RC08-RC25 90° medium heavy light medium heavy SMORP12. W75SP12. SMORD16 BSRD..3 0.00 inserts RDEW 0802MO 90° medium heavy light Cutting depth 10 ÷ 20 25 ÷ 32 40 ÷ 63 80 ÷ 125 Material correction Material Al alloys wrought non-hardened HB 60 Al alloys wrought hardened HB 100 Al alloys cast non-hardened HB 75 Al alloys cast hardened HB 90 Al alloys cast non-hardened (>12% Si) HB 130 fz kvM 2. CNM563 SNHQ12 Forging and casting.3 650 550 500 650 550 500 650 550 500 650 550 500 650 550 500 650 550 500 650 550 500 0.1÷0.15÷0.10÷0.50 2.10 ÷ 0.50÷2.09÷0.60 1. RDEX RDET. SSAP S90SAP .1÷0. K2-SLC 65 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .10÷0.25 0.90 Good machine condition 1.1÷0.50÷1.. E-SRD.00 0.1÷0.25 ÷ 0.95 330 280 250 330 280 250 330 280 250 330 280 250 330 280 250 330 280 250 330 280 250 330 280 250 280 250 230 330 280 250 Tool life correction Tmin 15 20 30 45 60 90 kvT 1.30 650 550 500 500 450 400 650 550 500 CORRECTION VC Recommended feeds for inserts APKX inserts APKX 1103PD ER-F APKX 1103PD ER-M 5 Choice of milling tool Al alloys 8016 HF7 600 500 450 600 500 450 600 500 450 600 500 450 600 500 450 600 500 450 600 500 450 600 500 450 450 400 350 600 500 450 - Cu alloys 8016 HF7 300 260 240 300 260 240 300 260 240 300 260 240 300 260 240 300 260 240 300 260 240 300 260 240 260 230 210 300 260 240 - Correction factor kvx fz [mm.40 1.08÷0.30 1.1÷0.tooth-1] 0.30 0.4 0.50÷1. S90SP12 SSAP-A. SDEW SDET SDEX APEW.12 0..35 0.1÷0.15÷0.1÷0.35 0.15÷0. W90SP25. medium R. SPEW SNKX.50÷2.35 0.05 ÷ 0.15÷0.2 0.3 0.70÷0.50 0.40 1.00÷2.20÷0.1÷0.SSD09 SEET SEEW SPET. W75SP15..12÷0.08÷0.00÷4.12÷0.05 ÷ 0.15÷0.00÷2.08÷0.35 0.ESC ESC N Sort of tool Insert shape Choice of cutting speed vc v depending on feed fz Cutting speed v30 [m.72 F.5 0.12÷0..81 0.23 1.00÷4.00 0.3 0.10÷0.5 0.00 0.min-1] Working RecommenApproach conditions ded angle milling feeds fz 75° light medium heavy light 45° medium heavy light 0.50 W75SN12 W75SN15 S88CN..tooth-1] 0.4 0.00 0.2 0.25 0.45 2.15÷0.. S45SN12.35 0.15÷0.1÷0.30 0. W60SP25.80÷0..50 0.12÷0. roughing W45SE123.35 0.2 0.15÷0.08÷0.10÷0.20 0.05÷1. skin 0.00 0. E(2)SRD K2 SRC. finishing M.60 PKD RDEW 12T3MO RDEW 1003MO ap fz RDEW 0803MO ap fz ap fz RDEW 10T3MO ap fz ap fz RDEX 1204MO 1.50 0.89 0.20 Bad machine condition 0.15 ÷ 0.2 0. S90AP15 SAP11 SAP15 SAP Modul S90AP11 S90AP15.00 0.15÷0.50 0. SNKX CNE635.70 RDEX 1604MO ap fz ap fz RPEX 1204MO ap S45SE12.40 1. W45SE15.15÷0.00 2..3 0.4 0.

II.E 8026-S 8040-S.S 8026-E. SN. SEMT09. III. SEER12.SL SPUN25. SEEN12. III. II. III.ER-F.. II. III.ER.EN..S 8040-S 8026-S 8040-S 8026-S 8040 - 5 Choice of milling tool 66 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .E 8026-S 5026-S 8040-E. SR-R II..SN. III...EL.EN. TPKR22.EN...SN RDET10.SN.. III.. I.SL SPKR15.SN. III.EN.EN. II.SR..FN. II..E 8026-S 5026-S 8040-S.. III.ER. SEEW12.S 8016-E.ER SPET12. RDET12. SEEN15..EN. III.. SPUN25.. heavy 8040 8040-S 8026-S 8040-S 8026-S 8040-E.FN.S 8016-E. ER-M.SN SPEW12.SN SPGN25..S 8026-E. II. SDEX.ER.ER-M APKT10.ER-M I.. RDEW08... SNKX12. III..S 8040-E. I..E 8026-S 8040 I. TPKN22.S SEET12..SN. III.SR. SNHN 12-EN. III. III.SN..SN APEW15.EN.SN RDEW12. I... ER-M APKX15.EN. SOMT 09 APKX11. SPET12. medium 8040 8026 8040-S..20F I.08F LC10. I.S 5026-S 8040-S.. SR-R ADKT15. I. II.EL.SN RDET08.S 8026-E.10F LC12.SN. II.EN. III.FN.SR TPCN16.ER-F. III. I. I. II.SN RC08-RC32 LC08.S 5026-S 8040-E. III. APKX11.S 8026-E. I. II..12F LC16. ER-M.RDEW10..SR. II...EN..SR.S 8040-E.EN.. SNHN 15-EN CNE 635.SR. III. I.EN. II. RDEX16.EN. II.ER TPKN22.16F LC20..S 8040-E.. SPKN12. APET15.ER-F. II. III. I. CNM 563. I. II. II.ESC ESC S Machining conditions for milling TOOL TYPE INSERT SHAPE light I. II. III. II. III.EN.ER-F..S SPKR12. SN. I.SN.S 8026-S 8040-S 8016-S 8026-S 8040-E 8016-S 8040 8016 I.. III. SN. RDEX16. I. I. II. I. SDET.SR..SN SEER15. SN SEET12. II.... 8040 8026-S 8040-S 8016-S 8026-S 8040-S 8016-S 8026-E. I..SN RDEX12.. III.. I. III. ER-M APKX15.SN.SR.S 8026-E. SNHQ 12 II. III. SPKN15. RPEX12. II.. SDEW09.SN II. I. I.

95 1. CNM563 SNHQ12 Good machine condition 1.50 0.00÷1.50 1. W90SP25.1÷0.08÷0..SSD09 SEET SEEW SPET. finishing M.15÷0.70÷0.05 ÷ 0.05÷1.20 Bad machine condition 0.25 1. RDEW RC08-RC25 90° medium heavy light medium heavy Rm kRm 2. E-SRD.50 0.10÷0.00÷2. S90SP12 SSAP-A.50 0. roughing W45SE123.25 1.20 1..30 1.70 75° medium heavy light Recommended feeds and cutting depths for tools with round indexable inserts Feed Milling cutter diameter [mm] 8 ÷ 12 0.84 0.00 0.25 8016 8026 8040 S26 H10 S45 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 45 40 45 40 45 40 45 40 45 40 45 40 45 40 45 40 40 35 45 40 40 35 40 35 40 35 40 35 40 35 40 35 40 35 40 35 40 35 35 30 40 35 Workpiece hardness correction Forging and casting skin 0.25 1.1÷0.25 0.00 0. SMORD16 BSRD.35 0.00÷1.00 0.35 0.00 inserts RDEW 0802MO 90° medium heavy light Cutting depth 10 ÷ 20 25 ÷ 32 40 ÷ 63 80 ÷ 125 HB 230 250 280 320 350 200 250 300 320 180 200 240 280 Strength 450 900 1100 kvHB 1.90 SMORP12.1÷0.00 0.1÷0.20 0.90 0. S90AP15 SAP11 SAP15 SAP Modul S90AP11 S90AP15.15÷0.09÷0.15÷0.00÷1.15÷0. SNKX CNE635.3 CORRECTION VC Recommended feeds for inserts APKX inserts APKX 1103PD ER-F APKX 1103PD ER-M 5 Choice of milling tool Correction factor kvx fz [mm. E(2)SRD K2 SRC.12÷0. K2-SLC 67 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .25 0. W75SP12.15÷0.30 0.50÷1.12÷0.00 1.2 0.25 ÷ 0.tooth-1] 0..25 0.50 0.20÷0.25 1.08÷0.25 0.1÷0.1÷0.12÷0..00÷1..92 0.10 ÷ 0.4 0.3 0.3 0..50 0.35 0.10÷0.00 0.12÷0.2 0.5 0. W60SP25.3 0.1÷0.15÷0. W45SE15..50 W75SN12 W75SN15 S88CN.4 0. S90 SN12 SNHN.1÷0.35 0.08÷0.15÷0. SPEW SNKX.95 Correction for sort of alloy F.30 1..15÷0.1÷0.15÷0.2 0..15 ÷ 0. W75SP15.35 0..30 1.3 0..tooth-1] 0.83 fz ap fz RDEW 0803MO ap fz RDEW 1003MO ap fz RDEW 10T3MO ap fz RDEW 12T3MO ap fz RDEX 1204MO ap fz RDEX 1604MO ap fz RPEX 1204MO ap S45SE12.14 1.20 0.Ni alloy S90AP11.00 0. SSAP S90SAP .05 1.3 0.15÷0.90 inserts APKX 1505PD ER-F APKX 1505PD ER-M APKX 1505PD ER-R fz [mm.25 0. SEER SEEN SPKN SPKR SPUN SPGN 60° medium heavy light sort of alloy Ti alloy Fe alloy Ni alloy Co alloy kvT 2.30 1.10÷0. S45SN12.4 0.00÷2.30 0.1÷0.00÷2.50÷1.25 0.15÷0..4 0.05 ÷ 0.50 0.10÷0.05 1.08÷0.2 0. S75AP11 S75AP15 Ti alloy Fe alloy Ti alloy ESC ESC S Sort of tool Insert shape Choice of cutting speed vc v depending on feed fz Cutting speed v30 [m.80÷0.08÷0.min-1] Working RecomenApproach conditions ded angle milling feeds fz light 75° medium heavy light 45° medium heavy light 0. SDEW SDET SDEX APEW.12 0. medium R.APET 45° medium heavy light 90° medium heavy Finishing 90° APKX APKT ADKT 75° Medium Roughing light medium heavy light 0.79 1.5 0.30 50 40 50 - W90TP22 F90TP16 TPKR TPKN TPCN LC08-20 RPEX. RDEX RDET.

SEMT09.ER...SN.EN. I.S 8016-E.SN. I..SN II. SEER12. II. SN.SN SPEW12. III. III. II.SN RDEX12. I. ER-M.EN.SN.S 8026-E. II. I. SR-R ADKT15. II...S SPKR12. II. SR-R II. RDEW08. heavy - 5 Choice of milling tool 68 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .08F LC10.ER. III. SEEN12.EN. SNHQ 12 II..SN.EN. I.ER-M I. III.. I.SL SPUN25. SDEW09. III..SR. RDET12.EN. ER-M APKX15.EN. I.ER-M APKT10. III. III.SN SPGN25.SN RDEW12.SN RDET08. II. SDEX.S 8016-E.. III....ER-F...ER-F. II.ER SPET12.. III. III... III.. RPEX12. III.SN.EL. I. SPET12... SPKN15. II. SPUN25. CNM 563. II. III..SN SEER15. I. I. SN. III.SN.... I. SDET. III.S 8026-S 8016-S 8026-S 8016-S I.. II.ER-F. II.20F I. SEEN15.SR.. I. III. SN SEET12. I.SR.SN.SR. III. II. III.EN.. TPKR22..EN. III. II.EL.S 8016-S 8026-S 8016-S 8026-S 8016 I.EN.ESC ESC H Machining conditions for milling TOOL TYPE INSERT SHAPE light I..EN. SNHN 15-EN CNE 635.10F LC12.. I. II. II. RDEX16. I.SN APEW15.. II.SR..SR. SPKN12. SNHN 12-EN. SOMT 09 APKX11. I. SN. TPKN22. II. II. APET15. 8016-E 8026 8016-S 8026-S 8016-S 8026-S 8016-E.RDEW10.. SNKX12.ER.SL SPKR15.16F LC20. APKX11.SR TPCN16. I.EN.S 8026-E. III. SEEW12.12F LC16... II.. III. RDEX16. III.ER TPKN22.EN. III..SN RC08-RC32 LC08.... I.ER-F.FN. medium 8026-E H10-E 8016-S 8026-S 8026-S 8016-S 8026-E.S SEET12..EN.FN.S 8026-E...EN.S 8016-E.SR. II.SN RDET10. I.FN. II. ER-M. ER-M APKX15..SN.. III.

12 0.12÷0.95 F.00÷1.15÷0.35 0. W90SP25.15 ÷ 0. S75AP11 S75AP15 90° APKX APKT ADKT 75° Medium Roughing light medium heavy light 0. W75SP15.15÷0. SEER SEEN SPKN SPKR SPUN SPGN 60° medium heavy light 75° medium heavy light Recommended feeds and cutting depths for tools with round indexable inserts Feed Milling cutter diameter [mm] 8 ÷ 12 0.50 0. CNM563 SNHQ12 Good machine condition 1.09÷0.1÷0.15÷0..30 45 35 40 30 50 45 - W90TP22 F90TP16 TPKR TPKN TPCN LC08-20 RPEX.1÷0. S90AP15 SAP11 SAP15 SAP Modul S90AP11 S90AP15.20÷0. W45SE15.80÷0.25 1. finishing M. S90 SN12 SNHN.5 0.00÷2.08÷0.05 ÷ 0.APET 45° medium heavy light 90° medium heavy Finishing S90AP11. S45SN12. S90SP12 SSAP-A.3 CORRECTION VC Recommended feeds for inserts APKX inserts APKX 1103PD ER-F APKX 1103PD ER-M 5 Choice of milling tool Correction factor kvx fz [mm.05 ÷ 0.30 0..10 ÷ 0. SSAP S90SAP .4 0.12÷0.25 8016 8026 8040 S26 H10 S45 45 35 45 35 45 35 45 35 45 35 45 35 45 35 45 35 35 30 35 30 35 30 35 30 35 30 35 30 35 30 35 30 35 30 30 25 45 40 25 20 Forging and casting skin 0.08÷0.SSD09 SEET SEEW SPET. W60SP25.50 0.ESC ESC H Sort of tool Insert shape Choice of cutting speed vc v depending on feed fz Cutting speed v30 [m.2 0.1÷0. RDEX RDET.00÷1.50÷1.50 0. E-SRD.35 0.35 0..3 0.50 W75SN12 W75SN15 S88CN.25 0. W75SP12.15÷0.12÷0.50÷1.tooth-1] 0.00÷1. SDEW SDET SDEX APEW.25 0.12÷0..00 inserts RDEW 0802MO 90° medium heavy light Cutting depth 10 ÷ 20 25 ÷ 32 40 ÷ 63 80 ÷ 125 fz ap fz RDEW 0803MO ap fz RDEW 1003MO ap fz RDEW 10T3MO ap fz RDEW 12T3MO ap fz RDEX 1204MO ap fz RDEX 1604MO ap fz RPEX 1204MO ap S45SE12. K2-SLC 69 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .2 0..10÷0.1÷0. E(2)SRD K2 SRC.min-1] Working RecommenApproach conditions ded angle milling feeds fz light 75° medium heavy light 45° medium heavy light 0.4 0.08÷0.15÷0.25 0.5 0.3 0. SPEW SNKX..20 Bad machine condition 0.1÷0.4 0.00 1.2 0.1÷0.70÷0.2 0.50 0. medium R.30 1.90 inserts APKX 1505PD ER-F APKX 1505PD ER-M APKX 1505PD ER-R fz [mm.1÷0.3 0.tooth-1] 0. SNKX CNE635.25 ÷ 0.3 0.10÷0.00÷1.15÷0.1÷0.3 0.50 0.30 0.10÷0...10÷0.15÷0.25 0..1÷0. SMORD16 BSRD. roughing W45SE123.08÷0..25 1.15÷0.50 0.20 1.25 0.05÷1.35 0.20 0.. RDEW RC08-RC25 90° medium heavy light medium heavy SMORP12.15÷0.25 1.08÷0.4 0.15÷0.25 0.15÷0..35 0.00÷2.20 0.00÷2.00 0.30 1.1÷0.

5 32 3. Entering the material under angle Ø mill [mm] αmax [°] 5 Ø mill [mm] αmax [°] 4 16 25 25 4 40 3.4. it can be also achieved very good quality of machined workpiece (the roughness in axial direction) depending on the chosen cutting conditions.ESC 5. or by using the milling cutters with round cutting inserts. CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL 20 4. ESC 70 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS It is mainly used for semi-roughing and fi nishing milling of vertical surfaces of deep cavities with a relatively high perpendicular accuracy.4 5.5 CUTTING GRADES PRAMET APKX 1103 PD APKX 1505 PD DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 5 Choice of milling tool .2 Recessing milling The waviness of the machined surface in radial direction depends on the slotting dimension – i. above all the feed per tooth f z and radius of the nose curvature rε of cutting insert.1 Special milling technology Descending milling Milling into material under an angle.5 APKX 1103 PD Recessing milling APKX 1505 PD Ø mill [mm] Ø mill [mm] aemax [mm] 4 aemax [mm] 7 16 25 20 4 32 7 CHOICE OF DRILLING 25 4 40 7 5.e. on the feed f e of the milling cutter in radial direction. In the following Table in the fi gure there are given the maximum acceptable angle of descent α max for face cutter millers PRAMET with cutting inserts APKX 1505PD and APKX 1103PD.4.

4 40 72 1. Similarly it is possible to machine external cylindrical or general surfaces.8 ESC 71 CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 5 Choice of milling tool .5 40 0. it is necessary to proceed from the radial cutting depth ae (see next Figure).8 48 2. APKX 1103 PD Milling by using circular and helical interpolation APKX 1505 PD smax [mm.3 Ramping Repeated ramping into depth a p with a subsequent starting is used for milling of closed cavities. In this case we speak about the external interpolation.5 20 32 1.5 30 2.4 78 1. which guarantees the observance of a certain optimum mean chip thickness h m .4.rev-1] 16 24 1.rev-1] Ø mill Ø d1 min [mm] [mm] smax [mm.4 Milling by using circular and helical interpolation CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING Milling with circular interpolation is used to increase the diameter of a hole or in general a cavity in workpiece.6 38 2.7 62 3.5 5. In combination with circular interpolation it is possible with this technique to mill closed cavities with various cross-sections and shapes.5 32 55 2. The maximum acceptable radial cutting depths ae for cutter millers with cutting inserts APKX 1103PD and APKX 1505PD are given in the following Table.5 32 0.4.rev-1] Ø d1 min [mm] smax [mm.min -1] and feed per tooth from the medium chip thickness hm .rev-1] Ø d1 min [mm] Ø mill Ø d1 min [mm] [mm] smax [mm. When calculating the feed speed v f [mm.2 48 4.5 16 25 20 0.5 apmax [mm] 0.5 25 0.5 25 42 1. at circular interpolation both values are related to the centre of the cutter. For determination of the feed per tooth f z . APKX 1103 PD Ramping APKX 1505 PD Ø mill [mm] Ø mill [mm] apmax [mm] 0.8 25 42 3. In combination with descent milling (ramping) it comes to helical interpolation in this case the internal surface is machined.ESC 5. therefore we speak about the internal circular or helical interpolation. For milling cutters PRAMET with cutting inserts APKX 1103PD and APKX 1505PD. the following Table gives on the one hand the minimum initial diameter of an increased hole D1 and maximum acceptable feed per revolution in axial direction for each cutter diameter mentioned in the Table. In case a special ramping cutter is used then the value a p max is limited by the length of cutting edge of peripheral cutting insert l.

d12 4(d2 .tooth-1] ae CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL or vice versa.D) [mm] a e = radial cutting depth d2 = resulting hole diameter d1 = initial hole diameter D = cutter diameter [mm] [mm] [mm] [mm] The feed per tooth for required optimum medium chip thickness h m is determined from the relation: fz = hm D [mm. the medium chip thickness h m for chosen feed f z is given by the relation: ESC 72 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING h m = fz ae [mm] D CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 5 Choice of milling tool .ESC The magnitude ae at circular interpolation is given by the following relation: ae = d22 .

at which the external initial diameter d 2 decreases to the resulting diameter d 1 by milling with a cutter with diameter of D. and therefore it is at milling by the circular interpolation smaller.50 % because of an impact elimination which can cause vibrations. b) then during entrance it is necessary to reduce feed and cutting speed by 30 . ESC 73 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES Fig. The medium chip thickness h m is dependent according to the above mentioned formula on the ratio a e /D. b WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 5 Choice of milling tool . the radial cutting depth is calculated according to the following relation: ae = d22 .d 1. a Fig. the larger radial cutting depth ae is achieved by milling of a tool with the same diameter D by means of internal circular interpolation than that by external interpolation.d12 4(d1 + D) [mm] At the same difference of diameters d 2 .ESC At the external circular interpolation. For the maintenance of a medium chip thickness in a certain range of optimum values it is necessary to choose higher feeds per tooth f z . especially at larger tool overhang. The gradual entrance (Fig. a) is more convenient from the point of continuous tool load. When choosing the direct entrance in radial direction (Fig.

stainless steels and cast iron and non-ferrous metals. The lowest values of cutting speeds at the level marked as „III“.. Chip formers 46. S. 48 can be also used for drilling of cast iron.. UD. Cutting inserts WCMT .1 Procedure for optimum tool choice Choice of insert grade and chip former For drills with cutting inserts Pramet. 47. for a different material hardness and also for the sort of alloy. N. furthermore at drilling holes which are interrupted by transverse holes and for drilling into inclined and generally uneven surfaces. K. recommended grade of internal and peripheral cutting inserts..: it is convenient to choose them in cases of reduced stiffness of the system machine-tool-workpiece. 47. Cutting inserts from grade 6640 with MTCVD coating show a high cutting performance and they are used as peripheral inserts for drilling of smooth uninterrupted holes into workpiece from carbon steels and also alloy steels and slightly machinable stainless steels and for drilling of cast iron. 6. M. from grades 6640 and 8030 have an optimum cutting efficiency.1 6. Recommended cutting speeds are specifi ed in 3 levels – marked with I.1.. It is above all a case of drilling of less tough workpieces by tools which are clamped for technological reasons with a longer overhang. the cutting inserts WCM . the range of cutting speeds and values of correction factors k VMB for machined materials with different hardness HB. that means a stabile clamping of a tough workpiece at minimum drill overhang and at machining with a rigid machine with a suffi cient power of driving motor and a suffi cient reserve of the torque. correspond to common machining conditions at a suitable stiffness of the system machine-tool-workpiece. II. The Tables also content the corrections of recommended cutting speeds v c .UM..ESC 6. Medium values of cutting speeds. They represent the medium level of “starting” cutting speeds in most cases of hole drillings in deeper cavities...UR. Expected tool life is T ≈ 20 min. marked as „II”. Chip former geometry of cutting inserts for drilling. It can be also used for drilling in the surface skin of castings and for drilling in inclined and generally uneven surfaces. Cutting inserts WCMT(X) . 46. 48 are an alternative solution for harder steels at higher feeds.. 45 are optimal for medium values of feeds at drilling of steels. III. marked as „I” correspond to “good” machining conditions at a high stiffness of the system machine-tool-workpiece. Cutting inserts from grade 8030 are all-purpose powerful and reliable inserts with PVD coating. The highest values of initial (“starting”) cutting speeds.2 Choice of cutting conditions for drilling with drills with inserts Pramet The recommended range of cutting speeds v c and feeds f for drilling of material groups P. H is given in the following Tables. It is convenient for peripheral and internal inserts for hole drilling into workpieces from carbon and alloy steels. ESC 74 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 6 Drilling . there are given the range of feeds for drills with various diameters D. Cutting inserts from grade 8030 are convenient for drilling of holes being interrupted by transversal holes and also for drilling of holes with another sort of interruption.

09 ÷ 0.79 75 CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 6 Drilling .20 240÷270 0.05 260 0.18 100 95 210÷240 0.ESC Material group Drill diameter Insert grade Internal Peripheral Feed Cutting speed HB 180 ÷ 200 D [mm] f [mm.62 51 ÷ 58 ESC 0.14 8030 M 31 ÷ 40 8030 II 0.rev-1] vc [m.10 21 ÷ 25 0.66 III 41 ÷ 50 0.00 330÷360 0.14 II 0.07 ÷ 0.11 ÷ 0.12 240 0.80 41 ÷ 50 0.13 ÷ 0.82 CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL 200 180 170 180 1.13 ÷ 0.rev-1] vc [m.07 ÷ 0.40 270÷300 0.18 300÷330 0.10 ÷ 0.13 240 I 120 1.16 130 120 180÷210 115 1.10 ÷ 0.min-1] Workpiece hardness correction HB kvHB HB kvHB 16 ÷ 20 0.08 ÷ 0.77 Material group Drill diameter Insert grade Internal Peripheral Feed Cutting speed HB 180 ÷ 210 D [mm] f [mm.18 51 ÷ 58 0.18 220 0.08 ÷ 0.00 280 0.95 300 0.12 ÷ 0.90 6640 (8030) 230 220 140 220 1.min-1] Workpiece hardness correction HB kvHB HB kvHB 16 ÷ 20 0.72 160 150 150÷180 140 1.16 190 III P 31 ÷ 40 8030 210 160 1.12 170 I <150 1.86 26 ÷ 30 0.10 21 ÷ 25 0.68 26 ÷ 30 0.10 ÷ 0.87 360÷390 0.20 200 0.

95 CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 6 Drilling .10 ÷ 0.18 8030 K 31 ÷ 40 6640 II 0.60 - 1.7 41 ÷ 50 0.min-1] 16 ÷ 20 0.08 1.22 III 350 300 Al alloys wrought hardened HB 90 Cu alloys Material Brass for automatic machines HB 110 Brass HB 90 310 260 kvM 1.12 slitiny slitiny Al 21 ÷ 25 0.08 ÷ 0.min-1] Workpiece hardness correction kvHB HB 150÷180 for grey cast iron 16 ÷ 20 0.06 ÷ 0.85 Material group Drill diameter Insert grade Internal Peripheral Feed Cutting speed AL and Cu alloys CORRECTION FOR SORT OF ALLOYS Al alloys CHOICE OF DRILLING GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS D [mm] f [mm.00 0.9 0.4 180÷200 200÷220 220÷240 240÷280 280÷330 260÷300 300÷360 260 250 175 26 ÷ 30 0.03 1.0 0.8 1.18 ÷ 0.0 0.15 ÷ 0.14 ÷ 0.rev-1] vc [m.25 Malleable cast iron 0.15 1.00 0.5 0.14 275 I 1.16 Cu Material Al alloys wrought non-hardened HB 60 kvM 2.95 0.10 kvHB for grey cast iron kvHB for special creep-resistant cast iron 21 ÷ 25 0.12 ÷ 0.40 1.04 ÷ 0.00 0.85 - 0.6 I 26 ÷ 30 0.23 51 ÷ 58 ESC 0.ESC Material group Drill diameter Insert grade Internal Peripheral Feed Cutting speed HB 220 ÷ 240 D [mm] f [mm.13 ÷ 0.86 0.20 160 150 120 III 41 ÷ 50 0.25 1.rev-1] vc [m.26 Bronze electrolytic Cu 76 CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL 51 ÷ 58 0.12 ÷ 0.04 ÷ 0.18 380 330 Al alloys wrought hardened HB 100 Al alloys wrought non-hardened HB 75 8030 N 31 ÷ 40 8030 II 0.22 110 95 Correction for sort of cast iron Sort of cast iron Grey cast iron Nodular cast iron kvM 1.6 1.10 1.14 ÷ 0.

15 30 25 51 ÷ 58 ESC 0.11 ÷ 0.10 8030 S 31 ÷ 40 8030 II 0. Co.12 25 15 Ni alloys 1.70 Material group Drill diameter Insert grade Internal Peripheral Feed Cutting speed Treated steels 46 ÷ 50 HRC D [mm] f [mm. Ti Correction on sort of alloy 16 ÷ 20 0.80 26 ÷ 30 0.08 21 ÷ 25 0.min-1] Creep-resistant alloys on basis of Ni.ESC Material group Drill diameter Insert grade Internal Peripheral Feed Cutting speed D [mm] f [mm.09 ÷ 0.08 ÷ 0.09 ÷ 0.min-1] 16 ÷ 20 0.15 45 40 35 III 41 ÷ 50 0.06 ÷ 0.10 65 I 60 55 50 26 ÷ 30 0.25 CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL 30 III 41 ÷ 50 0.rev-1] vc [m.04 ÷ 0.18 77 CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 6 Drilling . Fe.08 ÷ 0.06 ÷ 0.14 Co alloys 0.12 8030 H 31 ÷ 40 8030 II 0.00 51 ÷ 58 0.08 Sort of alloy kvHB 21 ÷ 25 0.rev-1] vc [m.06 ÷ 0.10 ÷ 0.09 80 I 75 60 Ti alloys 50 1.05 ÷ 0.12 40 Fe alloys 30 1.12 ÷ 0.

two differing cases must be distinguished: a) Stationary drill – it is used on turning lathe – the workpiece performs the main rotary motion. Both cases are shown in the following Figure. the tool usually does the feed b) Rotating drill – it is mostly used in machining centres where the drill performs the main rotary motion.ESC 6. b In the case according to the Fig.2x.1 Stacionary drill WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES At drill clamping it is necessary to maintain the insert edge position (tool tip) which shall be parallel with the axis of the transverse feed (infeed) of a machine. a.3 Drilling of holes with larger or smaller diameter than nominal drill diameter By means of misalignment of drills with cutting inserts we acquire the possibility to machine holes with a diameter (larger or smaller) differing from a nominal drill diameter. on the contrary in the Figure b.03 mm. it comes to the formation of a larger hole with the diameter of Do = Dc + 2x In the case according to the Fig. the holes of diameters in the range of 16 ÷ 59 mm can be drilled in this way. The magnitude of misalignment -x is before all restricted by the difference between the nominal drill diameter D c and the diameter of its body D 1 – thus by the clearance between a drilled hole and a drill body.3. It is generally accepted that the misalignment (displacement) of drill axis with nominal diameter D c towards the hole axis (axis of revolution) by the value + x or – x. Pre-adjustment of the position of drill body enables the tolerance reduction of drilled holes. thus larger or smaller one than the nominal drill diameter is. The possibility to drill holes with a diameter of D o that differs from the nominal drill diameter D c extends the application fi eld of drills with cutting inserts. a Fig. the drill was misaligned by a value of –x in direction towards the workpiece axis of revolution. Fig. and drill axis and hole axis have to be at the same line. the drill was misaligned by a value of +x (in direction of peripheral insert from the workpiece axis of revolution. From the technological point of view. results in a hole with diameter D o = D c ± 2 x . b. it comes to the formation of a smaller hole with the diameter of Do = Dc . The maximum allowable misalignment in the perpendicular direction to the misalignment direction is 0. the feed is mostly performed by drill or also by workpiece 6. At drills with cutting inserts Pramet. CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 6 Drilling . The misalignment has to be carried out in direction of tool tip. ESC 78 CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL In the Figure a. A larger hole diameter is achieved by the misalignment in direction of a peripheral cutting insert.

A/ Without misalignment ≈ drill axis in the hole axis D c .. overhang of internal edge over the drill axis [mm] It is usually accepted x Lo = x Lv then it is accepted x Lo + (x Lv ...x´Lv ..x´Lv) . drill diameter [mm] D o .. hole diameter [mm] x Lo .. both edges operate with a certain overlapping x p CHOICE OF DRILLING ESC 79 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 6 Drilling ...........ESC The maximum drill misalignment +x is for each drill diameter D c different..xp = 2x L ....... it depends on the dimension of a cutting insert – depending on the “effi cient length” tip x L of a cutting insert. the value x L is indicated in the following Figure....... Problems with the determination of maximum drill misalignment +x max are displayed in the following Figure.. At cutting inserts with shape WCMT which are used on drills Pramet. effi cient length of peripheral edge [mm] x Lv .....xp = Dc 2 Dc 2 In case without misalignment..... effi cient length of internal edge [mm] x´ Lv .. The maximum value +x can be determined for a certain drill diameter Dc from the condition that both drill edges must remove the whole hole material with an increased diameter of D o = D c + 2x...

that no material remains in the middle of the hole bottom which could cause stamping and practically could aggravate or disable a drilling (x´Lv < 0). and the data “B” for tools with a larger overhang and for a hole depth 3. Consequently. it is necessary to reduce the values x max with regard to the fact that the axis of revolution moves with an increasing misalignment in direction to the centre of the internal cutting insert and the edge length x Lv increases and it comes to a friction of machined material. It concerns the values for stationary drills.5D and larger.ESC B/ Misalignment by value of +x By drill misalignment +x. ESC 80 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET 2(x Lo + rε)+2(x Lv . the values of hole diameter D 0min and D 0max are also mentioned which can be achieved by the respective misalignment. Then it means according to the following Figure: for x Lo = x Lv = x L is accepted: xmax = (xL . a very unfavourable stress of cutting insert develops and a risk of its destruction increases.5D. where cutting inserts VBD WCMX 0302 and WCMT 0402 are applied. its effective length shortens consequently. the axis of revolution shifts in accordance with the Figures 4-9 along the internal edge. The data “A” are valid for smaller tool overhang and drills for hole depth 2. the effective length of each edge shortens by a value of radius of the nose curvature rε . for instance at drilling in an inclined concave or convex surface. The maximum misalignment value –x (D o < D c) is determined by the requirement that the tip of the internal cutting insert is not moved to the right direction from the axis of revolution. Maximum values +x max a -x max for different drill diameters with cutting inserts Pramet are given in the following Table.x´Lv-xmax) = Dc + 2xmax DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 6 Drilling . At drills with small diameters in the range of D c = 16 ÷ 25 mm. Simultaneously. At the same time the infl uence of the hole depth ≈ relation L/D of a drill must be taken into account.rε) - x´L Dc 2 4 It is necessary to reduce the maximum misalignment with regard to a possible drill springing-back (pressing off).rε . Furthermore.

25 0.6 2.25 0.3 19.6 48.2 0.75 1.0 32.1 3.25 0.7 1.55 1.3 49 49.5 34.7 0.9 1.5 53.2 0.2 56.95 0.25 0.1 16.75 0.4 39 39.7 59.8 31.6 19.2 0.25 0.5 42.25 0.1 53.85 2.05 0.85 1.6 23.5 37.6 20 20.25 1.5 18.6 16.95 1.7 2.8 52.05 39.45 2.6 24.2 0.9 0.5 30.3 56.6 1.15 x B +x 1.2 0.5 53.5 45.0 56.9 32.6 36 36.3 2.5 D0min 15.25 0.3 2.65 2.5 42.5 23.4 58.15 3.5 36.7 24.15 0.6 1.25 0.1 58.8 49.55 1.6 25.5 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Drill misalignment Range of diameters D0 -x 0.65 0.25 A D0max 18.5 30.25 0.25 0.7 20 20.8 50.3 59.1 19.35 1.5 1.3 54.5 28.5 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 ESC WCMT 080412 48 2.55 1.25 0.4 25.5 31.2 0.05 0.8 41.4 40.5 49.25 0.4 2.25 0.6 3.6 1.5 46.25 0.9 41.75 [mm] WCMX 030208EUD 1.8 21.7 39.6 18.25 0.75 1.2 47.7 54.25 2.25 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.6 40.6 VBD A +x 1.25 0.25 1.5 18 18.25 0.7 1.1 40.0 2.2 31.2 1.95 3.45 1.2 51.9 [mm] B D0max 18 18.5 50.3 40.5 56.2 0.1 29.5 17 17.5 48.25 0.65 3.6 22.6 55.8 0.25 0.2 23 23.25 0.9 50.25 0.8 26.5 41.0 0.5 52.5 2.5 33.4 2.9 19.25 0.ESC Drill diameter Dc [mm] 16 16.25 0.0 1.5 42.25 0.9 54.2 0.2 0.2 3.3 2.8 1.3 38 38.8 19.9 0.7 0.4 26.4 20.5 27.2 2.1 DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 6 Drilling .25 0.4 58.8 21.1 25.6 25.1 18.7 33.0 1.4 4.4 3.95 1.75 1.5 19 19.1 1.9 0.95 81 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING 38.8 59.8 52.4 51.85 0.2 42.5 57.8 38.25 0.4 1.9 1.25 0.9 0.3 2.0 0.9 2.25 0.25 0.15 3.2 51.1 17.8 57.5 2.3 37 37.5 40.9 0.7 57.25 0.0 1.8 30.4 53.2 1.6 51.5 32.5 35.2 19.4 32.25 0.85 0.3 3.9 55.0 2.2 53.5 18.7 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 WCMT 06T308 34 2.5 43.65 1.5 44.5 29.2 0.6 20.6 56.9 2.3 49.2 0.35 17.8 3.2 21.15 2.2 1.8 24.75 WCMT 050308E 2.5 26.5 47.0 0.35 1.15 1.5 51.5 55.4 20.6 21.1 1.5 WCMT 040208E46 1.2 0.5 54.1 58.5 CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET 1.6 37.5 31.85 1.

5D it is usually in the range of +0.2 ÷ 6. it is possible to improve the hole tolerance up to ± 0. Chucks of various products enable a misalignment in the range of around –0. ESC 82 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL 6. They can be also used for re-drilling of pre-drilled (coaxial) holes or also in cases of drilling other holes which are perpendicular or inclined to the axis of drilled hole. At the re-drilling of a pre-drilled hole the diameter of pre-drilled hole must not be larger than ¼ of drill diameter.1 mm.ESC 6. a hole pre-drilling (hole recessing) for threads including chamfering. Provided that a drill drills in an inclined concave. convex and generally uneven surface. at drills with 2D ÷ 2. by which it is possible to adjust intermediate diameters of holes up to the nearest higher standard diameter. At drilling of a hole with perpendicular or inclined axis towards the axis of another hole. By controlling the misalignment during drilling at stationary drills it is possible to carry out e. In the course of drilling it is necessary to reduce the feed by 50%.2 ÷ -0.4 mm. Otherwise there is a risk of drill defl ection (pressing off).4 Practical recommendations CUTTING GRADES PRAMET For misalignment of rotating drills it is necessary to use special eccentric chucks. Drills intended for the depth of hole > 3D and drills working with a large overhang require a planar entrance surface and a homogeneous workpiece. But in this case it is necessary to respect the recommendations mentioned for the two following Figures.g.4 µm.3. therefore it is necessary to reduce feed values to the level of 0. it is necessary to reduce the feed by 50 % up to the full drilling completion.2 Rotating drill For achievement of better roughness values of machined surface it is recommended to retain the speed at the level of double up to three-fold working feed during withdrawal the drill from the hole. Drills intended for the depth of hole up to 3D can be also used for drilling in inclined concave. DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 6 Drilling . The misalignment enables to compensate production tolerances of the drill body and cutting insert. by the diameter pre-adjustment on the machine.rev -1.05 . The roughness of machined hole surface usually achieves the values of R a = 3. At drills misalignment it comes to a specifi c balance disruption of radial components of the cutting force.1mm.0. the diameter of drilled hole must not be larger than ¼ of drilled hole diameter. The hole accuracy is dependent on the drill length.2 ÷ +1.1mm. convex and generally uneven surfaces. The same is accepted for drill exit after drilling a hole.

furthermore.23 0.min-1] Drill diameter Dc [mm] 2.34 0.32 0.22 0. thus of the diameter of a hole to be drilled. Water emulsions of emulsifying oils upon the petroleum basis are recommended for using as cutting fluids.5 D 16 ÷ 20 21 ÷ 25 26 ÷ 30 31 ÷ 35 36 ÷ 40 41 ÷ 45 46 ÷ 50 51 ÷ 55 56 ÷ 58 ESC Cutting fluid pressure P [MPa] Drill length Drill length 3. a small disc is created after drilling completion. and consequently on the material volume which is removed within unit of time.22 20 21 22 25 28 30 32 35 37 3.32 0.5 Use of cutting fl uids at drilling with drills with cuting inserts An extreme power and thermal edges load of indexable cutting inserts and a large quantity of chips which are generated in a closed compartment set above all high requirements for the quantity and pressure of a supplied cutting fluid.5 D 0. That is impossible to drill a sheet-metal pack by this type of tool.22 0. All these technological factors have above all the influence on the chip disposal from the cut place. The cutting fluid supply in a suffi cient quantity and the pressure of cutting fluid are necessary conditions for the reliable function of drills with cutting inserts.ESC Important notice! At drilling of a through hole in a rotating workpiece by the stationary drill. The quantity of cutting fl uid and its pressure depend above all on the drill diameter. the cutting fluid is usually supplied directly into the cut place.22 0. For the safety reason it is necessary to cover up the working spot.23 0. !!! 6.35 0.34 0.34 0.25 0. The cutting fluid supply in a sufficient quantity is a necessary condition for the reliable function of drills with cutting inserts. The recommended guide values for quantity of supplied cutting fluid Q l/min and pressure P in MPa are given in the following Table.5 D 28 30 31 34 36 38 40 42 45 2. on the drill position (drill in horizontal or vertical position) and on the function of chip former on the cutting insert.5 D 0.23 0.36 0. furthermore on the depth of drilled hole.24 0. Cutting fluid quantity Q [l. another no less important factor is the infl uence of properties of machined material. half-synthetic or synthetic emulsifying oils with usual concentration of 3 ÷ 5%. Naturally. The most important function of the cutting fl uid during drilling is the removal of generated chips from the cut place and furthermore lubricative and cooling functions. it springs out by a high speed.31 83 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 6 Drilling .33 0.

ESC

These values are valid for drills in the horizontal position. For drills in the vertical position it is necessary to increase the quantity and pressure of supplied cutting fluid by 40%. At a good function of chip former, the cutting liquid quantity and pressure can be reduced by 20-30%. On the contrary, when the chip generation is bad and there is a risk of crowding the grooves for chip disposal, the cutting fluid quantity and pressure must be increased by 40 ÷ 50%. At assessment of the right chosen cutting liquid quantity and pressure, its cooling impact cannot be forgotten. A large heat quantity generating by mechanical energy expended for drilling should be reliably taken away by cutting fluid.

It means in general that with increasing drill diameter the recommended quantity Q increases and recommended cutting liquid pressure slightly falls. In case that a Table with recommended values Q and P is not available, a very approximate rule is valid that the cutting liquid quantity Q in l.min -1. should numerically correspond to the drill diameter D c in mm.

Problem

Problem remedy

1. Low performance of machine driving motor (low twisting moment at spindle)

a) Reduce the cutting speed – reduce the spindle revolutions b) Reduce the feed

2. Excessive wear of edge of peripheral cutting insert

a) Reduce the cutting speed b) Choose more wear-resistant insert grade c) Increase the cutting liquid volume and pressure

a) Reduce feed during drilling (especially at an uneven entrance workpiece surface) 3. Crumbling – fragile failure of peripheral insert edge b) Choose a tougher insert grade c) Reduce the cutting speed d) Choose another geometry of chip former
CHOICE OF DRILLING

a) Choose a tougher insert grade c) Check the drill and workpiece clamping d) Choose another geometry of chip former
WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS

4. Crumbling – fragile failure of internal insert edge

b) Reduce the feed during drilling

a) Increase the feed 5. Continuous, badly formed chip b) Enhance the cutting speed and reduce the feed c) Choose another geometry of chip former

a) Increase the cutting fluid quantity and pressure 6. Crowding of short chips in disposal grooves b) Reduce the cutting speed c) Choose another geometry of chip former

ESC

84

GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES

CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL

CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL

6.6

Drills with cutting inserts - troubleshooting

CUTTING GRADES PRAMET

The fl owing chip should not be coloured as a result of heat. Provided that the fl owing chip has a blue shade or is straw-coloured, it is necessary to increase the cutting liquid quantity and the pressure. Otherwise there is a risk of reduction of edge longevity and drill body life.

DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS

6

Drilling

ESC

7.1

Types (sorts) of wear

The following Figure specifi es the wear types of the edge according to the standard ISO 3685 together with the identifi cation of their characteristic dimensions.

Sectional view A-A
CUTTING GRADES PRAMET

Kf = distance of crater wear margin KB = width of crater wear KM = distance of crater wear centre KT = depth of crater wear

Time relationship between the fl ank wear and face wear is displayed in the following Figure.

ESC

85

GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES

WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS

CHOICE OF DRILLING

CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL

CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL

DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS

7

Wear of cutting inserts

ESC

In a concrete case of machining there usually occur several wear types in parallel; but their growth with the machining time is not in progress with the same intensity. According to the machining conditions, one of the present wear types usually reaches a higher intensity in comparison with the others and it becomes decisive for the tool blunting and consequently it limits the tool life. For a certain tool couple tool material-workpiece material, the prevailing edge wear type is above all dependent on the applied cutting conditions, especially on the cutting speed and the feed. The dependence of the prevailing wear type on the feed f and cutting speed v is illustrated in the following Figure.

The wear type caused by abrasion of fl owing hard components of built-ups, prevails at the lowest values of cutting speed and feeds when there is a built-up edge. With increasing the cutting speed and feed, the cutting temperature is increasing; fi rst the fl ank wear becomes the prevailing wear type, furthermore the cratering, then the oxidation of incidental fl ank close to the tip and fi nally at the highest cutting speeds and feeds it comes to the cutting edge plastic deformation which practically indicates the exceeding of limit cutting values. At choosing feeds it is necessary to maintain the limit values depending on the angle insert’s nose r and radius of the nose curvature rε.

These types of tools blunting arise especially doe to a strong mechanical stress of the edge (i.e. the impacts during interrupted cut or as a consequence of preceding edge disruption due to thermal impacts). A fragile edge failure also occurs very often when the machined material contains hard inclusions (sand etc.). Mechanical edge damage is a type of blunting which occurs accidentally. It can occur at a sharp tool in the course of cut beginning as well as at a tool with a certain wear grade. Substrates of cemented carbide with high amount of cobalt, which increases their toughness, are more resistant to mechanical damage.

7.2

Mechanisms of wear formation

From the point of physical nature, the wear of tool edge due to abrasion is a result of the whole complex of effects including chemical and mechanical processes that proceed in contact surfaces with machined material and they fade into one anther and overlap. Two types of phenomena, namely mechanical and chemical ones, characterize the mechanism of a tool wear. At the mechanical wear type, it comes to the failure of surface and face by the impact of chip fl owing off and workpiece material in the cut area without any change of chemical composition of these surface layers of the cemented carbide. On the other hand at chemical wear type, to a large or small extent it first comes to the change of the chemical composition in the surface layer of tool material in the contact place chip-face and fl ank-cut area. By this change, the mechanical properties of surface layers of tool material are usually worsened and consequently also their resistance to wear due to abrasion. In other cases it comes to a direct diffusional dissolution of structural components of the cemented carbide.
ESC

86

GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES

WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS

CHOICE OF DRILLING

In addition to the mentioned wear types which to a large extent occur and proceed regularly, it comes at carbide tools very often to a mechanical edge failure either in the form of edge crumbling or a fracture of a part of edge or of the whole cutting insert.

CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL

CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL

CUTTING GRADES PRAMET

DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS

7

Wear of cutting inserts

or eventually with the machined material.ESC While the intensity of mechanical wear types is dependent on the temperature to the extent that it infl uences the ratio of the hardness of tool and machined material (HSK/Hobr) under conditions which exist in the contact. is the contact temperature of the toll with the workpiece. Microscopic. can be divided by the following manner: abrasion adhesion diffusion chemical wear types oxidation CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET mechanical wear types Under certain machining conditions. some components of cemented carbide react at higher cutting speeds either with the air from ambient atmosphere or with the cutting liquid which substitutes the air environment. Oxidation wear at higher cutting speeds. very hard parts cut the tool material similarly like abrasive grains at grinding. on the shape. Diffusion wear the atoms of tool or workpiece material diffuse one another and create on the one hand solid solutions and on the other hand chemical compositions. Abrasive wear is a mechanical wear type. all processes do not participate in the total wear alike. amount and occurrence frequency of abrasive particles and their hardness. The decisive factor. the one or the other process can prevail (according to the machining conditions). ESC 87 DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 7 Wear of cutting inserts . which determines the prevalence the type of wear process. For a certain couple machined material–cemented carbide. whose properties differ from the properties of the initial tool material. Processes. Adhesive wear is an abrasion caused by the adhesion effect (formation of micro-welds) between pure metal surfaces of cemented carbide and machined material which come each other in contact on the fl ank and on the face. the physical-chemical wear is above all dependent on the temperature of contact place and on the mutual chemical activity of both materials irrespective of the hardness ratio. which directly lead to the edge wear. This wear type depends on the total tool path with respect to the workpiece.

Reduce the cutting speed. . it comes to the effect for which the slang expression is ”fuzzing”.Use a coated or more wear-resistant cemented carbide grade. . Recommendation: . it is necessary to respect the following specifi ed recommendations.Increase the feed if it is smaller than 0. The interconnection of the oxidation groove with the face cratering becomes evident in an enhancement of the workpiece surface roughness.ESC 7.Use a coated or more wear-resistant cemented carbide grade. worsened surface roughness. . It is mainly caused by hardening of surface workpiece layers and burrs.Use a more wear-resistant cemented carbide grade.Apply a tougher cemented carbide grade.Use a coolant or increase the cooling intensity. bad chip forming or vibrations.Use another (more positive) type of cutting geometry. . use coated indexable inserts incorporating Al2O3 if it is possible.3 Some undesirable edge wear types and recommended measures for their removal Provided that some undesirable problems with application of tools with cutting inserts occur. Wear type FLANK WEAR Description and remedy CUTTING GRADES PRAMET CRATERING A characteristic wear which appears most distinctly on cutting inserts with plain face. . . use coated indexable inserts incorporating Al2O3 if it is possible. Recommendation: . Its impact (intensity) can be only reduced. This wear type occurs especially at austenitic stainless steels and at operations characterized by the variation of cutting depth. It originates as a result of wear mechanisms on the tool. ESC 88 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL It is one of the main criteria for characterization of the indexable insert operating life. DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 7 Wear of cutting inserts .Reduce the cutting speed. .rev-1 (at MTCVD coated grades). OXIDATION GROOVE ON THE SIDE FLANK it is one of the most meaningful criteria limiting the cutting insert operating life.Use a coolant or increase the cooling intensity.Choose a tool with a smaller approach angle. NOTCH FLANK WEAR it originates in the area of contact of the cutting edge with the workpiece surface. . but its occurrence is not limited only to this type of inserts. .Reduce the cutting speed. Recommendation: . Recommendation: .Use a coolant or increase the cooling intensity. for instance undesirable or excessive edge wear.1 mm.

Another consequence is the quality deterioration of machined surface. .Use a tool with different approach angle. Recommendation: .Use a more wear-resistant cemented carbide grade. furthermore. . . upon condition and especially upon the stiffness of the system machine – tool – machined workpiece. Recommendation: . .Use cutting inserts with larger nose angle. CHIPPING OF CUTTING EDGE In most cases they appear in combination with other wear types. . . . .Apply coated types of cemented carbides (especially PVD coating).Change the feed. . . Recommendation: .Reduce the feed while entering the cut.Use a tougher cemented carbide grade.ESC PLASTIC NOSE DEFORMATION the reason for this wear is the edge overloading in consequence of high cutting speeds and feeds.Use another cutting geometry (another chip former).Use another cutting geometry (reduce the feed and cutting depth). Recommendation: . When it is torn away. separately they are hardly identifiable. desist from cooling). .Use cutting inserts with larger nose angle. .Choose less intensive cutting conditions.Reduce the feed.Use cutting inserts with larger radius .Use a coolant with better anti-built-up-edge impact (if it is not available.Increase the cutting speed.Increase the feed. Recommendation: .Stabilize the cutting edge.Reduce the cutting speed. . it is also influenced by magnitude and type of wear and engagement conditions.Reduce feed while entering the cut.Choose less intensive cutting conditions . .Use a tougher type of cemented carbide.use another (more positive or sharper) cutting geometry.Use cutting inserts with larger radius of nose curvature. . BRITTLE FAILURE IN THE TIP AREA There are many reasons depending upon properties of tool material and workpiece material. the cutting edge can be slightly damaged.Use another cutting geometry. (another chip former). . . ESC 89 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 7 Wear of cutting inserts . .Use a tougher type of cemented carbide.Use a coolant or increase the cooling intensity. . BUILT-UP EDGE The chips from the machined workpiece stick on the tool nose. CHIPPING OF CUTTING EDGE (OUT OF ENGAGEMENT) CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL its reason is the unsuitable chip forming which at departing from the cut impinges on the cutting edge causing its mechanical damage. of nose curvature. It is a kind of micro-welded deposit on the cutting edge.

.Reduce the feed. but a too short. under which belong workpiece material. by a suitable cutting geometry (chip former). Undesirable phenomena Description and remedy UNSUITABLE CHIP SHAPE BURR FORMATION This is a very frequent phenomenon. cutting environment.Reduce the approach angle.Use cutting inserts with positive geometry. .Eliminate vibrations.Use cutting inserts with larger radius of nose curvature. cutting depth and. cutting conditions (especially the feed and cutting speed) and the stability of the system machine-tool-workpiece.Reduce the cutting speed. it cannot be always avoided. naturally.Use a tougher cemented carbide grade. Recommendation: . CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 7 Wear of cutting inserts .Optimize the type of cutting environment. WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL At present it is a criterion of the same importance as the tool life.Use cutting inserts with a sharp cutting edge (uncoated cemented carbide or PVD coated grade). especially at finishing operations with requirement for the surface roughness. continuous chip cannot be accepted for many reasons. Recommendation: . . A long (unshaped). . .Use cutting inserts with a suitable cutting geometry or a chip former. . . which is naturally affected by many factors. .Adjust feed and depth of cut according to the diagram. It is especially influenced by the workpiece material.Do not apply cutting fluids (compressed air should be applied for removing chips from the place of cut). . feed.Chose more suitable chip former according to diagram for chip forming.ESC COMB RACK CRACKS this phenomenon appears due to dynamic thermal load at interrupted cut. Recommendation: . Recommendation: . design and condition of the cutting edge.Enhance the cutting depth over the nose radius.Increase the cutting speed. The burr mainly originates at turning (machining) of soft steels and plastic materials. . ESC 90 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES LOWER MACHINED SURFACE QUALITY This phenomenon can be seen very often. ”crushed” chip is undesirable (it shows the overloading of the cutting edge and leads to the origin of vibrations). .

Eliminate vibrations.Reduce the feed.Use cutting inserts with a suitable cutting geometry or a chip former. .Use cutting inserts with a smaller radius of nose curvature.Use cutting inserts with larger radius of nose curvature. Recommendation: . . it is influenced by many factors. cutting environment. .Optimize the type of cutting environment. DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 7 Wear of cutting inserts .Check the workpiece clamping stability (or safeguard balancing). cutting condition (mainly feed and cutting speed) and stability of the system machine-tool-workpiece. CUTTING GRADES PRAMET Quality of machined surface – we meet this phenomenon mainly at finishing operations where the requirement on surface roughness is set. Minimize the power balance of cutting process by means of a suitable choice of cutting geometry and tool grade ( the sharpest and most positive tool). .Enhance the cutting depth over the nose radius.ESC DIMENSIONAL AND SHAPE INACCURACY OF WORKPIECE VIBRATION AND INSTABILITY ESC 91 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL It is a very frequent phenomenon. . the main reasons are an unbalanced workpiece and a high value of cutting forces. .Reduce the cutting depth.Optimize suitably cutting conditions (feed and speed).g. . . material of workpiece. style and state of tool edge. .Check the tool clamping stability (reduce the overhang). It also appears when turning long thin shafts.Increase the cutting speed. .Use a tool with the approach angle 90°. Recommendation: . . e.

grade 13 (13. 12 low and medium alloy steels.1.. Co. 0. 13.. Al and Cu alloys MII special creep-resistant alloys on the basis of Ni. (grades 17 and cast 4229…) carbon tool steels (19 1. This new classifi cation according to the standard ISO 513 is given in the following Table in comparison with the old Pramet’s classifi cation. Fe and Ti MIII treated steels. materials to be machined are here classifi ed into six groups where such materials are associated which cause the same load type (stress) of a cutting edge and thus also a similar wear type..ESC In past Pramet’s system used its own classifi cation of the machined materials.. 16 ferritic and martensitic stainless steels.) alloy tool steels (19 3 up to 19 8. grade 27 (42 27 …) non-magnetic and wear-resistant steels K N S H ESC KI grey cast irons. unalloyed and alloyed ones nodular cast irons malleable cast irons (42 24 …) (42 23 …) (42 25 …) KII non-ferrous metals. grades 14.. …) alloy steels. 11. stainless. grade 10. 15.60 92 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL M MI austenitic and ferritic-austenitic steels. NEW OLD PI carbon (unalloyed) steels.) carbon cast steel grade 26 (4226 …) P PII low and medium alloy steels.. namely into seven fundamental groups which proceed was corresponding with this new classifi cation according to the new proposal ISO 513. 19 3.. 19 2. creep-resistant and heat-resistant steels CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 8 Classifi cation of machined materials and tables of equivalents . hardness over 1500 MPa hardened steels HRC 48 .

UC12 C35 C45SW K990 K990 K995 K460 RU Russia GOST A III CF9SMn28 05kp St3Kp S285. XC38 C45 C54. MSt5 16G2. C16 35 45 50. 2C15 C35 C45 C55 2 CS 85 CT105 CT105 CT120 95MnWCr5 ISO RB50W 11SMn28 Fe360B Fe490 Fe 510 Fe 590 C10 C15E4. E335 C10 C15 C35 C45 C55 C85 C100KU C100KU C120KU 95MnWCr5KU D Germany DIN BSt420 S BSt500S 9 SMn 28 D6-2 USt 37-2 St 50-2 St 52-3 St 60-2 C10. 55 85 70G U101 U10-1 U13-1 9ChVG S Classifi cation of machined materials and tables of equivalents Sweden SS 2164 1912-04 1311 2172. E335 XC10. 1572-02 1650 1655 1880 P 12050 12060 12090 13180 19191 19192 19255 19314 2140 422630 422640 422650 C18D - 20-40 23-45 26-52 30-57 20-40M A48M1 E26-52-M 30M6M FeG400 FeG450 FeG49-1 FeG570 GS38 GS-45 GS52 GS-60 LII400 LII 400 LII 500 LII 600 GS38 GS-45 GS52 GS-60 15L-I 25 L 30L 45L2 1305 1606 93 422660 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS . Ck35 C 45. C10RR C18RR. Ck10 C 15. 17G1S STt6sp 08.E295 Fe 510 Fe590. 1151 EN FeB500 11SMn28 S235JRG1 E295 Fe 510 E335. XC18 C35.D St60F RC12. Ckl5 C35. 10 C15. G355 MSt6.ESC ESC 8. XC55 C90RR C105E2U C105E2U C120E3U 95MnWCrV5 1550. group P 8 CZ Main group Czech Rep.1 Machined materials. St5sp 17GS. St 50F St 510C. St6 10 35 45 55 85 65G N10E N10E N12 NMWV A Austria ÖNORM UC6 St 37F St 490. Ck45 C 55 C85E. Ck85 80Mn4 C105W1 C105W2 C125W 100MnCrW4 PL Poland PN St50B A10X St3SX St5. Fe590-2 2C10 C15E. ČSN 10425 10505 11109 11300 11373 11500 11523 11600 12010 12020 12040 EURO ISO F France IT Italy UNI Fe430B CF9Smn28 3CD5 Fe360BFU Fe 490. C16E4 C35E4 C60E4 C55E4 CS85 C105U U90U CT120 95MnWCr AFNOR FeE 40 S 250 E 24-2 A 50-2 E 36-3 A 60-2.

12 16NC6 35NCD6 13NiCr14 30NC12.ESC ESC Machined materials.05 Z10C24 90MV8 95MnWCrV5 C105E2UV1 Z200C12 Y60SC7 32CDV12-28 94 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS . 18 NC13 X20Cr13 Z30 C13 Z40C13 - 2258 2258 2127 2090 2230 2512 2541 2302 2304-03 2322 2140 - P 16343 16420 16440 17022 17023 17024 17042 17102 17153 19312 19314 19356 19436 19452 19541 5CrMo16 90MnV8 95MnWCr5 100V2 X210Cr12 30CrMoV12-11 TS37 90MnCrV8 95MnWCr TCV105 X210Cr12 32CrMoV12-28 Z10 CD5. group P 8 CZ Main group Czech Rep. 36CrNiMo6 Type4 Type5 Type6 AFNOR 38M S5 45S7 100C6 100 Cr6 16 M C 5 54SiCr6 E36W-A3 51CrV4 40CAD6.KV X16Cr26 90MnCrV8KU 95MnWCr5KU 102V2KU X205Cr12KU 30CrMoV12-27KU D Germany DIN 80Mn4 37MnSi5 46Si7 100Cr6 100 Cr 6 16 Mn Cr 5 54SiCr6 9CrNiCuP324 27MnCrV4 50 Cr V 4 41CrAlMo7 15CrNi6 34CrNiMo6 14NiCr14 31 Ni Cr 14 X20Cr13 X30Cr13 X39Cr13 12 Cr Mo 195 X8CrTi25 90MnCrV8 100MnCrW4 100V1 X210Cr12 58SiCr8 X32CrMoV33 PL Poland PN 65G 35SG 45S LH15 LH15 15HG 60S2 10H 50HF 38HMJ 15HN 34HNM 37HN3A 2H13 3H13 4H13 H18 H5M NMV NMWV NV NC11 WLM A Austria ÖNORM K720 K460 K760 K224 W320 RU Russia GOST 70G 35SG 50S2 Šch15 Šch15 18ChG 60S2ChA 50ChFA 38Ch2MJuA 12ChN2 12ChN3 38Ch2N2MA 12Ch2N4A 30ChN3A 12Ch13 30Ch13 40Ch13 95Ch18 15Ch5M 15Ch25T 9G2V 9ChVG Ch12 3Ch3M3F S Sweden SS - Classifi cation of machined materials and tables of equivalents EN 45Si7 100Cr 6 100Cr6 16MnCr5 S355JOWP 51CrV4 15NiCr6 34CrNiMo6 X20Cr13 X30Cr13 X39Cr13 ISO type3 Type 1-0 Type 1-0 Type 5 Fe 355 W-1A type 13 type3. ČSN 13180 13240 13250 14100 14109 14220 14260 15217 15231 15260 15340 16220 16320 EURO ISO F France IT Italy UNI 100Cr6 10Cr6 16MnCr5 48Si7 S355JOWP 51CrV4 41CrAlMo7 16CrNi4 18Ni14 35CrNiMo6 X20Cr13 30Ch13 X40Cr14 A16CrMo25 5KG.

group P 8 CZ Main group Czech Rep.1 X40CrMoV5.1 55NNiCrMoV6 X30WCrV9.3 45WCrV7 60WCrV7 HS18-0-1 HS6-5-2 C HS6-5-2-5 PL Poland PN WCL WCLV WLN WWV NZ2 NZ3 SW18 SK5M A Austria ÖNORM W300 W302 W502 W100 K450 K455 S200 S604 S705 RU Russia GOST 4Ch5MFS 4Ch5MF1S 5ChNM 3Ch2V8F 5ChV2SF 5ChV2S R18 R6M5K5 S Classifi cation of machined materials and tables of equivalents Sweden SS 2214 2710 2750 2723 EN X37CrMoV5-1 X40CrMoV511 55NiCrMoV7 X30WCrV93 45WCrSiV8 55WCrV8 HS18-0-1 HS6-5-2-5 ISO X37CrMoV51 40CrMoV5 X30WCrV9-3 50WCrV8 60WCrV8 HS18-0-1 HS6-5-2 C HS6-5-2-5 AFNOR Z38CDV5 X40CrMoV5 55CNDV7 Z30WCV9 45WCV20 55WC20 HS18-0-1 HS6-5-2 HC Z85WDKCV06 P 422709 422714 422744 422771 G-21Mn5 GS-17CrMo55 - - 35M5 15CD5-05M Z15CD505-M G22Mn3 G15CrMo55 GX15CrMo5 GS-20Mn5 GS-20Mn5 GS-17CrMo55 - L20G L20G L18HM - GS-21Mn5 GS-17CrMo55 - 35G 20GL 20ChMFL 20Ch5ML - 422895 - - - - AlNiCo44/5 - - Jun13dK24S - 422905 422920 422930 422940 G-X5CrNi19-10 - - Z12C13-M Z120M12M ZGCN18-10-N Z6CND18-12-M Z40CN25-20M GX12Cr13 XG120Mn12 G-X6CrNi2010 G-X2CrNiMo19 11 G X40CrNi2620 G-X12Cr13 G-X120Mn13 G-X5CrNi18-9 G-X6CrNiMo18-12 G -X40CrNiSi2520 LOH13 C120G13 LOH18N10M2 LH25N19S2 AoMn10 G-X6CrNiMo18-10 - 15Ch13L 110G13L 07Ch18N9L 07Ch18N10G2S2M2L 20Ch25N19S2L 2343 - 95 422952 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS . ČSN 19552 19554 19662 19721 19732 19733 19824 19829 19852 EURO ISO F France IT Italy UNI X37CrMoV51KU X40CrMoV511KU 55NiCrMoV7KU X30WCrV93KU 45WCrV8KU 55WCrV8KU HS18-0-1 HS6-5-3 HS6-5-2-5 D Germany DIN X38CrMoV5.ESC ESC Machined materials.

ESC ESC 8. ČSN 17240 17241 17246 17247 17248 17251 17253 17255 17341 17346 17352 17353 17436 17465 17618 *SAF 2304 * SAF 2507 EURO ISO F France IT Italy UNI X5CrNi18-10 X10CrNi 1809 X8CrNiTi1811 X6CrNiTi1811 X6CrNiTi1811 X16CrNi13 14 X6CrNi2520 X5CrNiMo1712 X5CrNiMo17 12 X5CrNiMo17 13 X6CrNiMo17 13 X53CrMnNiN21 9 X2CrNin23 4 X2CrNiMon25-74 X2CrNiMoN 22 5 3 D Germany DIN X5CrNi18-10 X12CrNi 18 8 X12CrNiTi189 X6CrNiTi1810 X6CrNiTi1810 X15CrNiSi20 12 X12NiCrSi36-16 X8CrNi25-21 X6CrNiMo1713 X 5 Cr Ni Mo 17122 X5CrNiMo17 13 3 X10CrNiMoTi1812 X40MnCr18 X53 CrMnNiN21 9 X120Mn12 X2CrNin23 4 X2CrNiMon25-74 X2CrNiMoN 22 5 3 PL Poland PN OH18N9 1H18N9 1H18N9T OH18N10T H20N12S2 H16N36S2 H25N20S2 50 H21G9N4 - A Austria ÖNORM X5CrNi18-10S X6CrNiTi1810KKW X6CrNiTi1810S X6CrNiTi1810KKW X5CrNiMo17122S X5CrNiMo 17122KKW X5CrNiMo17 13 3KW X6CrNiMo17 12 2KKW - RU Russia GOST 08Ch18N10 08Ch18N10T 08Ch18N10T 08Ch18N10T 20Ch20N14S2 20Ch23N18 XSCrNiMo 1712 55Ch20G9AN4 110G13L - S Classifi cation of machined materials and tables of equivalents Sweden SS 2333-02 2237-02 2237 2237 2361 2247 2343 2350 2183 2308 2328 2377 EN X5CrNi18-10 X10CrNiTi18-10 X10CrNiTi18-10 X6CrNiTi18-10 X15CrNiSi2012 X12NiCrSi35-16 X8CrNi25-21 X5CrNiMo17122 X3CrNiMo17-13-3 X10CrNiMoTi1812 X53CrMnNiN21 9 X2CrNin23 X2CrNiMon25-74 X2CrNiMoN 22 5 3 ISO Type 11 Type 15 Type 15 Type 15 Type H13 H17 H16 TS 63 Type 20 Type 20a Type21A Type 9 - AFNOR Z6 CN 18-09 Z6 CNT 18-10 Z6 CNT 18-10 Z6 CNT 18-10 Z 17CNS 20 12 Z12NCS37.11 Z7 CND 18-12-03 Y 6CNDT 17-12 Z 52 CMN 21.09 Y120M12 X2CrNin23 4 X2CrNiMon25-74 Z3CND 22-05Az M 96 * SAF 2205 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .18 Z8CN25-20 Z6CND17-13B Z6 CND 17. group M 8 CZ Main group Czech Rep.2 Machined materials.

300 Ft10 Ft20 Ft25 Ft30 G10 G20 G25 G30 GG10 GG20 GG25 GG30 Zl100 Zl200 Zl250 Zl300 GG100 GG200 GG250 GG300 SČ10 SČ20 SČ25 SČ30 0110-00 0120-00 0125-00 0130-00 K Malleable cast iron 422533 422536 422540 422555 B35-10 W35-04 W 40-05 P55-04 MN35-10 MB35-7 MB 400-5 MN 550-4 B35-10 GMN35 GMN 40 P 55-04 GTS35-10 GTW35-04 GTW 40-05 GTS 55-04 Zcc35010 Zcb35004 Zcb 40005 Zpc 55004 GTS-350 GTW-350 GTW 400 KČ35-10 KČ55-4 0815-00 - 97 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .3 Machined materials.ESC ESC 8. ČSN EURO ISO F France IT Italy UNI Nodular cast iron D Germany DIN PL Poland PN A Austria ÖNORM RU Russia GOST S Classifi cation of machined materials and tables of equivalents Sweden SS EN ISO AFNOR 422304 422307 422308 GJS-700-2 - 400-12 700-2 800-2 FGS400-12 FGS-700-2 FGS800-2 GS400-12 GS 700-2 GS800-2 Grey cast iron GGG40 GGG70 GGG80 Zs40015 Zs70002 Zs80002 GGG-700 - VČ40 VČ70 VČ80 0717-00 0737-01 - 422410 422420 422425 422430 - Gr. group K 8 CZ Main group Czech Rep.200 Gr.250 Gr.100 Gr.

5 AlMgSi1 AlMg2.8(A) AlCu4MgSi AlZn6MgCu AlMg1Si1Mn AlMg2 AlMg3.8MgCuCr P.AlMg2.AlCu4.5 AlMg2.Al 99. ČSN Cu 99.5Mn0.CuZn15 P.CuNi2Si P.5Mg1 GAlSi7Mg GAlSi8Cu3 GAlSi6Cu4 RU Russia GOST M00 Br0F6.4Fe P.5Si0.AlSi1MgMn P.5Cu G-AlSi5.4SiMnMg P.15 BrA5 BrAZN10-4-4 BrKMc3-1 BrKd1 BrS30 L 96 L85 L80 L70 L60 AD000 D1 V95 AD35 AlMg2 AlMg3 AMc AK8 Amc AlMg4 1915 AK7pc AK8M3 AK5M4 S Sweden SS CuSn6 CuZn15 CuZn20 CuZn30 CuZn40 AlSi1MgMn AlMg2.7Mn AlMn1 AlCu4SiMn AlMn1 AlMg4Mn AlMgSi0.95 CuNi2Si CuSn6 CuAl5 * * * * EURO ISO F France IT Italy UNI P.95B CuNi2Si CuSn6 CuAl5As CuAl10Ni5 Fe4 CuSi3Mn1 CuCd1 CuZn5 CuZn15 CuZn20 CuZn30 CuZn40 Al 99.AlZn4.5(A) AlMn1 AlCu4SiMg ALCu6Mn AlMn1 AlMg4 AlMgSi AlZn4.CuSi3Mn1 P.8 AlCuMg1 AlZnMgCu 1.AlMg3.AlMg2 AW.AlMg4.8 AlCu4Mg1 AlZn6Mg2Cu AlMgSi1Mn AlMg2 AlMg3 AlMn1 AlCu4SiMg ALCu6MnTi AlMn1 AlZn5Mg1 AlSi6Cu4 A Austria ÖNORM Cu-OF CuNi2Si CuSn6 CuAl5As CuAl10Ni5 Fe4 CuSi3Mn CuZn15 CuZn20 CuZn30 CuZn40 Al 99.5 P.5Mg1 * AlSi7MgTi * AlSi8Cu2Mn * AlSi5Cu4Zn 98 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .8 * CuPb30 CuZn5 CuZn15 CuZn20 CuZn30 CuZn40 AW-Al 99.AlCu4MgSI (A) AL-P7075 Al-P6082 AW.3 AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe) - CuZn5 CuZn15 CuZn20 CuZn30 CuZn40 Al 99.5Mg1 G-AlSi7MgTi G-AlSi8.5Mg1 AlSi7Mg AlSi9Cu3 AlSi6Cu4 Classifi cation of machined materials and tables of equivalents EN Cu-OF CuNi2Si CuSn6 CuAl5As CuAl10Ni5 Fe4 CuSi3Mn1 ISO Cu-OF CuNi2Si CuSn6 CuAl5 CuAl10Ni5 Fe4 CuSi3Mn1 CuCd1 AFNOR Cu-c1 CuSn6P CuAl6 CuAl9Ni5Fe3 CuZn5 CuZn15 CuZn20 CuZn30 CuZn40 1080A 2017A 7075 6082 5052 5754 3103 2014 3103 5086 6060 7020 A-S7G03 A-S9U3 Y4 A-S5UZ CuAl10Fe4Ni4 * CuSi3Mn1 * CuCd1 * CuPb30Fe * CuZn4 CuZn15 CuZn20 CuZn30 CuZn40 * Al 99.2Cu P.5 AlMg3 AlMn AlCu4SiMn AlMn1 AlMgSi0.5Mg1 G-AlSi7Mg G-AlSi9Cu3 G-AlSi6Cu4 PL Poland PN Cu99.5 AlZn4.AlMn1.7Mn P.4 Machined materials.AlMg2.8(A) AW .5 AlZn4.8 P.8 AlCuMg1 AlZnMgCu 1.CuZn30 P-CuZn40 P.5-0.5Mg1 Al-Si7Mg Al-Si8Cu3Fe Al-Si6Cu4Fe N * AlCu4Mg * AlZn6Mg2Cu * AlMg1Si1Mn * AlMg2 * AlMg3 * AlMn1 * AlCu4SiMg * AlCu6Mn * AlMn1 * AlMg4 * AlMgSi * AlZn4.AlCu4MgMnSi P-AlZn5.CuAl5 P-CuAl10Fe5Ni5 P.3 AW-AlMn1 2219 AC-AlSiMg0.5Cu D Germany DIN OF+Cu CuNi2Si CuSn6 CuAl5As CuAl10Ni5 Fe4 CuPb30 CuZn5 CuZn15 CuZn20 CuZn30 CuZn40 Al 99. group N 8 CZ Main group Czech Rep.2 P.4 P AlMg0.5 ALMgSi1 AlMg2.ESC ESC 8.AlMn1.5 AlMg3 AlMn AlCu4SiMg AlMn1 AlMgSi AlZn4.

5 TiAl6V4 TiAl6V4ELI PL Poland PN NiCu30 NiFe49Pr - A Austria ÖNORM - RU Russia GOST NMZMc28-2.ESC ESC 8.6 Machined materials. GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS CHOICE OF DRILLING CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS .5 Machined materials. group H 99 The equivalents are not mentioned because it is generally a case of heat-treated materials from other groups. group S 8 CZ Main group Czech Rep.5Mn Fe-Ni50 NC 20 TA NC 19FeNb NiMo16Cr16 NC22DNb KC20WN KC22WN T-A5E T-A6V - S INCONEL 617 INCONEL 718 NiMoCr15W (ALLOY C-276) NiCr22Mo9Nb (ALLOY625) CoCr23Ni10W7Ta4 Air Resist 213 Jetalloy 209 TiAl5Sn2.5 TiAl6V4 TiAl6V4ELI 8.16 NiCu32Fe1.5-1.5 El –437 B - S Classifi cation of machined materials and tables of equivalents Sweden SS - EN 330 ALLOY 59 INCONEL alloy 686 UNS N07080 NIMONIC alloy 90 (HEV 6) NIMONIC alloy 105 N06617 UNS N07718 UNS N10276 MAR-M509 5537C AMS 5772 AMS R54520 AMS R56400 AMS R56401 ISO NiCu30 - AFNOR Z12NCS35. ČSN INCOLOY 800 Ni70Cu30 NiFe17CuCr NiFe48 NiCr21Mo16Al NiCr21Mo16W NIMONIC 80A NiCrCo18Ti NiCo20Cr15MoAlTi EURO ISO F France IT Italy UNI F-3313 - D Germany DIN X12NiCrSi36 16 NiCu30Fe NiFe16CuCr NiFe47 CoCr20W15Ni CoCr22W14Ni TiAl5Sn2.

9 47.1 28.2 62.7 Hardness conversion table Breaking strength [MPa] BRINELL VICKERS ROCKWELL ROCKWELL Rm 285 320 350 385 415 450 480 510 545 575 610 640 675 705 740 770 800 820 850 880 900 930 950 995 1030 1060 1095 1125 1155 ESC HB 86 95 105 114 124 133 143 152 162 171 181 190 199 209 219 228 238 242 252 261 266 276 280 295 304 314 323 333 342 HV 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 255 265 275 280 290 295 310 320 330 340 350 360 HRB HRC Breaking strength [MPa] BRINELL VICKERS ROCKWELL ROCKWELL Rm 1190 1220 1255 1290 1320 1350 1385 1420 1455 1485 1520 1555 1595 1630 1665 1700 1740 HB 352 361 371 380 390 399 409 418 428 437 447 456 466 475 485 494 504 513 523 532 542 551 561 570 580 589 599 608 618 HV 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600 610 620 630 640 650 HRB HRC 37.2 55.1 24.7 55.2 31.5 45.5 1775 1810 1845 1880 1920 1955 1995 2030 2070 2105 2145 2180 51.8 41.5 36.4 27.8 56.7 38.7 98.1 99.1 54.6 44.6 43.7 85.7 CUTTING GRADES PRAMET DEFINITION OF BASIC CONCEPTS 8 Classifi cation of machined materials and tables of equivalents .8 50.7 56.3 56.7 81.6 CHOICE OF DRILLING 51.3 34.ESC 8.4 49.4 35.8 26.7 48.5 91.0 54.2 75.5 93.8 57.1 89.8 100 GRADE GROUPS EQUIVALENT TABLES WEAR OF CUTTING INSERTS 53.8 39.0 78.1 49.7 52.0 32.5 29.0 96.5 23.1 CHOICE OF MILLING TOOL CHOICE OF TURNING TOOL 42.8 40.8 87.3 53.1 46.3 57.3 46.2 33.7 71.3 66.5 95.

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