Relation between Female Literacy and Change in GDP per capita from base year 1991

Abdullah Azhar Ali Zulqarnain Asif Mahmood Siddiqui Maryam Osman Yusuf

NUST Business School


Acknowledgement First and foremost our sincere gratitude to God Almighty Who gave us the ability and the courage to complete this project on time. we would like to thank our families and dear friends who have been our strength during the entire period. who gave us the knowledge and the guidance to be able to complete this paper. Last but not the least. We extend our heartfelt recognition for Ms. We would like to sincerely thank Syed Mudassar Raza for helping us in the project. 1 . our course instructor. Saeeda Batool.

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Furthermore. For this purpose a hypothesis has been tested which is “Relation between change in GDP per capita and female literacy in Pakistan”. 2 . The results conclude that more than 90% of variance in the female literacy rate can be explained by the change in GDP per capita from the base year. the results also show that a unit change in GDP per capita from the base year 1991 will bring a 4.Abstract The purpose of this paper is to find the relation between female literacy and GDP per capita. To test the hypothesis a regression analysis has been conducted and the results show that there is a hundred percent significance between the two variables being studied.3% change in the literacy rate.

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lack of access to education due to infrastructure or family structural constraints is widespread.Section 1: Introduction The research paper is aimed establishing a concrete relationship between female literacy in Pakistan and the GDP per capita. A point to be taken into consideration is that the meaning of literacy gets changed in our country so that the figures could be altered even further. while at times they say a person who has reached 5th standard is a literate and once it was also believed that a person who could calculate is also a literate. There has been no primary research on the topic but secondary research has been carried out and information collected from various sources such as previously written research papers on female literacy.female literacy is almost half of the male literacy rate. they say who can read and write are literate. 1 . Moreover. it is a moment of concern too. Pakistanis around 50 %. Motivation to write this research paper is the fact that Pakistan is one of the few countries having an almost equal ratio of females to males in terms of population yet the female literacy rate is very low compared to the male literacy rate. China’s literacy rate is near 90% and India has reached 65%. Moreover. The recent census tallies in China and India show that Pakistan is substantially behind the two large Asian nations. Sometimes. Low income levels in Pakistan have been identified as a key factor to the hindrance of female literacy rate in Pakistan. Pakistan is still one of the few countries in which the gap between the male and female literacy ratio is very high. articles on the internet etc. this means we need to do better. Since we are carrying the research related to the last fifteen years so we will assume a literate person as someone who can read and write a simple letter in English. because we have lesser population and are not as huge as China and India.

while section four provides the results of the study and their discussion. 1 . while the second section carries a review of the existing studies on the topic. Section three comprises of the methodology. The last section of the paper concludes the study under consideration.The first section of the paper introduces the study.

The paper goes on to emphasize the importance of education indicators. Ghaus. it is imperative that the existing literature on this hypothesis be studied. However. The paper holds that despite the emphasis laid on 1 . Several other factors of regional variations are also discussed. The paper is a good attempt to highlight the status of the various provinces in the country. down to one. Khan (1997) examined the education sector of Pakistan. to determine what relationship these variables depict in other areas of the world. this review of literature is not solely limited to studies on female literacy.Section 2: Literature Review This paper seeks to establish a concrete relationship between female literacy in Pakistan and the percentage change GDP per capita since 1991 (the base year). as it will help guide policy efforts in order to improve their current circumstances. particularly female education in determining the overall level of social development. health and water supplies. Pasha & Ghaus (1996) examined the social development ranking of various districts of Pakistan on the basis of eleven indicators relating to education. Female literacy levels are the lowest in the world. which is an area vastly neglected by the governments in the past fifty years. Most of the education sought is not technical or scientific in nature. Sindh and Balochistan. Narrowing the scope from the eleven indicators. before studying the trends these variables have taken in Pakistan. The students generally see no relationship between education and higher earnings or social status in the society. The paper concludes that overall Punjab has the highest social development followed by NWFP. The paper also concludes that East Asian countries have progressed owing to education. There is also substantial evidence of variation within provinces. as male literacy is also studied in context with the topic of interest. Furthermore.

Pasha & Ahmed (1999) conducted a study examining Pakistan’s ranking in social development worldwide. the planners in Pakistan failed to allocate resources to it. This study identifies the causes of the poor state of affairs of the education sector. which has precisely been the case in Pakistan. the attitude of the feudal as well as the foreign educated elites led to the poor development of education in Pakistan. especially female education and should alarm the present government about taking some measures so that Pakistan may also benefit from the fruits of an educated population. The paper stresses on the need for developing education in Pakistan due to the challenges of the new millennium that are looming on the horizon. This study adds a new dimension to the social study of Pakistan as the foundation of the study is different from that of the previous two studies discussed. However. based on the established two-way link between social progress and sustainable economic growth. An improvement in social indicators leads to higher economic growth due to better labor world over. Hamid & Siddiqui (2001) analyzed the gender differences in demand for schooling. if improved economic development is not translated into social development then eventually economic growth suffers. There has been some economic growth. Pakistan has a very poor ranking in terms of human 2 . Female literacy remains way below that of the males. Studying the importance and state of social development in the Pakistani society at a global level and thus adding a new dimension to the study of Pakistan as a society. According to the study. A few years later. This research is a useful attempt to show Pakistan’s position in the global arena. To add to the sorry state. about 5% in the last decade but the effect on social indicators is not evident. infant mortality is high and other social indicators also do not present a very good picture. The study concludes that economic growth leads to revenues for the government and higher per capita income which translates into social development.

as it brings down the analysis to a more primary level. This study may be paramount in forming a proper policy for female education in Pakistan as the numerous socio-economic benefits associated with female literacy will be a major attraction for the governments. This paper completely transforms the canvas of study. women participation in the labor market and economic outcomes for developing 3 . where gender differences play a part in the determination of the literacy rates. women account for half of the world’s population yet they just receive one-tenth of the world’s income. The paper depicts the results of various human development indicators in the paper. In order to emphasize the importance of education. which include female and male enrolment. The study has led to greater emphasis on female literacy. Kingdon (2002) presents a study on the socio-economic benefits of female education and also identifies how female literacy can lead to social gains. It was a cross country study on the determinants of gender gap using data on industrial composition. it may be concluded that these gains are much higher than gains from male education. while gender differences in human development are also significant within and between other South Asian countries. The paper goes onto show. economic performance. Building upon previous studies with a fresh view.development indicators. ratio of enrolment with income etc. The paper also suggests some policy prescriptions in order to promote female education. using the data from rural and urban areas that despite a rise in female enrolment after the 90’s gender differences persist and income is the main factor affecting demand for education. Gupta (2002) studied the determinants of the female-male non-agricultural wage ratio in developing countries. Commenting on the recent research on the social gains from female education. According to the findings of the study. The paper concludes that perhaps due to a rise in poverty the enrolment at primary schools declined in 1990’s while it also shows that in the urban areas net enrolment ratio with income and the positive income effect is higher.

The study also concludes that higher the degree of industrialization. Female literacy is very important for the development of a nation. average years of schooling of adults. The study uses a two-staged regression analysis to validate the hypothesis that female literacy impact communication technology in a country and these in turn affect the state of democracy in the country. and life expectancy at birth. negatively affecting literacy. as it is an agro-based economy. the greater is the gender gap. This sector is especially important from Pakistan’s perspective. However. Women’s over representation in lower paying jobs in industrialized nations is an explanation of lower pay for women in these countries. besides the economic and the social conditions. The premise of studying this paper is to explain the wage differences for women employed in the agriculture sector. 95% of the world’s illiterate people live in 4 .nations. as explained by previous studies. The study concluded that higher female literacy and greater female labor market is activity is associated with a lower wage gap. and it also highlights how female literacy can affect the politics of the nation. Verner (2005) in his paper presents a model of literacy. This study ably highlights the importance of female literacy for one particular sector within a country’s economy. at times entire societies get educated. it was important to review this paper in order to support the argument being developed. It shows that the main determinants of worldwide literacy are enrollment rates. information technology and democracy and established a diversity in it which was affected by other economic and social factors. Taking a different direction from the existing studies. because of which. Clark (2003) studied the connection between female literacy. Income has a weak nonlinear effect. however. Though the paper does not directly relate to the topic of study. overlooking the importance of female literacy in the overall socio-political development of a nation can have negative effects. because when a female receives education she is able to transfer it on to her children and a trickledown effect is created.

Sindh lags behind in case of rural areas and NWFP in case of females. The results also show that economically backward areas have low literacy level. while in the latter only one. The results displayed a strong positive correlation between GDI and real GDP per capita in Turkey. The analysis indicates that more than 75% of the districts in the country are under-represented in terms of literacy levels. education. This model is helpful in that it will allow the government to see which factors have been important globally and which ones will be important from the Pakistani perspective in determining the state of the education sector of Pakistan. there is a positive correlation between male/female life expectancy and 5 . In the former.developing countries and about 70% are women. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to calculate the correlation between the Gender related Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) in these countries. In order to examine the situation of gender inequality and female literacy in other parts of the world. the country ranked first. Similar to the study carried out by Ghaus. A lot of effort is required to bring these areas at par with other areas of the country. in Norway all components and GDI. is being researched upon. In general. The UNDP is actively involved in developing measures to examine gender based inequalities and in this study. while in Niger. Female illiteracy rates are particularly high in Sub-Saharan Africa and African countries do not have a high literacy rate when controlling for other factors. a study conducted on Turkey was reviewed. The difference between the two studies lies in the variable being considered for the rankings of the various parts of the nation. and are unable to play their role in the development of human capital of the country. Pasha & Ghaus in 1996. eleven social indicators were considered. Kiziaslan & Kiziaslan (2007) in their study compared the position of gender inequalities in the world and in Turkey. last and Turkey are compared. Hussain & Qasim (2005) in their paper attempt to identify areas that are still lagging behind other parts of the country in terms of literacy levels.

yet they are socially and economically discriminated against. which is Pakistan’s neighbor. It can be said that gender inequalities will always display disparities in various terms. Rao & Reddy (2008) studied the gender discrimination in education for India. This study attempts to define the state of affairs in India. This paper highlights the importance of female literacy and attempts to change the thought process of the people in favor of educating females. where dimensions on female literacy were studied. Using a multivariate probit model. This is a fairly well attempted research that allows a fairer comparison of the Pakistani scenario with a country that is near the European Union.GDI. one of the most developed blocs of countries. The study is modeled in the context of the various institutional and familial arrangements prevalent in the different areas of the country. It also holds that women are equally comparable to men as opposed to the popular notion that they are not as competent as males. Kambhapati & Rajan (2008) studied the contribution of Indian girls to the rural economy through their household chores and involvement in the labor market. Concentrating the study on India. The paper also analyzes the theory of justice and cooperative conflict in context of gender discrimination in the country. Women make up half of India’s population. the paper examines status of female literacy in AP and suggests measures to improve the situation. The paper suggests that female literacy should be seen as a source of economic development and not as a waste of resources. The paper also concludes that GDI and women’s share in administrative and technical jobs have a positive correlation. the study finds that the best possible outcome for girls is in the districts where female literacy is high because here the probability of schooling increases while the probability of work decreases. The study specifically focused on the situation in Andhra Pradesh. 6 . The paper identifies that in order to calculate GDI and GEM values it is necessary to differentiate several other factors such as differences in rural-urban scenario. Furthermore. Coming to South East Asia.

domestic violence experiences. India has high interstate disparity as is evident from the figures from Kamrup and Tinisukia which despite 7 . However. Becker & Woessmann (2008) in their paper state that Martin Luther urged each town to have a girls’ school so that girls would learn to read the Gospel. as women in Assam have a lower status as compared to the average Indian woman elsewhere. employment. which helps lay the foundation to establish a link between GDP per capita and female literacy. In 2008. freedom of speech and expression etc. are used to measure empowerment through secondary data. Various indicators such as access to education. household decision making. a study for the state of women was conducted for the Indian province of Andhra Pradesh. The first Prussian census of 1816.The study also holds that the probability of girls going to school decreases as the number of younger siblings increases. show that the larger share of Protestants decreased gender gap in basic education. It will still take a long time before the populace begins to accept female education as an important part of development. Nayak & Mahanta (2009) attempted to analyze the status of women and their empowerment in Assam. women is Assam have a better status in terms of financial autonomy and domestic violence experienced. In a completely different setting and time. However. while in Pakistan the situation is quite adverse. Similar results are found for the gender gap in literacy among adults in the 1871 census. evoking a surge of building girls’ schools in Protestant areas. a state in India. The study holds that gender does play a part in development process in the state. while the opposite holds true in case of presence of elder female siblings. This shows that the world has accepted the importance of female education. Enhancing on that. if older male siblings are present. The paper ably attempts to explain how Indian girls are making a positive contribution towards the Indian economy. the study concludes that as compared to the average Indian woman elsewhere. the probability of going to school for female children reduces.

where the gender inequality in Turkey was studied. one fast moving to development. In 2008. Both the studies show the situation of gender inequality in two different parts of the world. As per evidence from earlier studies. Lutz & McGillivray use panel data from Sub Saharan Africa and other Arab countries and Bond Arellano estimations to study gender inequality and growth. In some districts. Government has made efforts to promote education but the situation is still not very promising as there is no awareness regarding the importance of women empowerment. The study empirically analyzes the impact of two indicators. indicating that trade-induced growth may be accompanied by greater inequalities.having a higher per capita GDP have not been able to minimize the gender gap. gender inequality in literacy seems to have an additional but positive effect. the efforts made will translate into long term growth. on growth. Furthermore. In the Arab countries. the paper highlights that the more open the economy. 8 . while the other classified in the poorest states of development. namely ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education and the ratio of 15-24 year old literate females to males. on the other hand. A study was conducted in Turkey. The study concludes that gender inequalities in literacy have a significantly negative effect that is robust to the changes in the specifications. have a female literacy rates have a higher number of women participating in the labor force. The study is a good attempt to present the circumstances in both parts of the world. female enrolment is below fifty percent as even the educated women look towards baseless cultural practices and are not forward looking. this result is even more pronounced. These indicators are associated with the Millennium Development Goals. The paper is good attempt to highlight how a different province in India is contributing to the development of its womenfolk. Furthermore. in 2007. for not only the province but the entire country. Despite these findings. districts with higher literacy have a higher proportion of female main and marginal workers and low proportion of non-workers.

However. the two variables being studied are female literacy and the change in GDP per capita from the base year 1991. minimal researcher interference will be there. as the observations are made in their natural environment. i. as it will seek to recognize whether economic condition will impact female literacy or not. It will be carried out in noncontrived settings. 1 . as the study pays close attention to all possible variables that may affect female literacy. The GDP per capita in 1991 is equated to 100 and then the subsequent trends have been calculated. In the study female literacy being the dependent variable and change in GDP per capita from the base year being the independent variable. since the data collected spans over a range of years. The basis of this belief is that the greater income available for the household. this variable shall be defined by the trend of the GDP per capita from the base year of 1991. Female literacy rate shows the percentage of females who are literate out of the total female population of the country. literature also suggests that female literacy helps determine the socio-economic situation of the country. GDP per capita is the income of an individual in the country.Section 3: Methodology The study seeks to establish a link between the GDP per capita and the female literacy rates in Pakistan. Since all research is secondary in nature and pertains to information obtained from the population of Pakistan in their natural work setting. the decision maker will be willing to spend it on educating the females of the house. Furthermore. The study is going to be testing a hypothesis. therefore. It shall be a longitudinal study. is economic condition a factor responsible for explaining the poor levels of female literacy in Pakistan. for the purpose of this study. ample literature exists that suggests that the income of a household is a determinant of female literacy.e. It will be a field study. For this. Additionally.

therefore. with the female literate population as the focused group. the Economic Survey of Pakistan.Since it is a macro level analysis. Census of the Pakistani population and other pertinent journals and publications will be considered for data. government level resources and data will be used. 2 . which will then help us come to pertinent conclusions with regards to the hypothesis. Primarily. A regression analysis will be carried out between the dependent and the independent variable to establish the correlation coefficient.

As per the data obtained regarding female literacy. The following graphs show the trend for the Female literacy rates and the GDP per capita between 1991-2006. which shows the sorry state of affairs in this sector.043*change in GDP per capita from the base year 1 .906 + 0.1 Results Pakistan is a developing nation and has therefore been struggling with keeping its economy afloat. The governments have been facing numerous issues therefore have not been able to give this sector its due attention. in a span of 16 years. the following regression equation was obtained: Female literacy rate = 21. Figure 1: Trend in Female Literacy Rates for Pakistan (1991-2006) Figure 2: Trend in GDP per Capita (1991-2006) After conducting a regression analysis for the female literacy rate and the change in GDP per capita from the base year 1991. it has grown by a mere 17% percent.Section 4: Results & Discussion 4.

The R value for the regression is 0. The third column shows the adjusted R-squared value (0.Table 1: Model Summary Adjusted R Model 1 R . Therefore. The reason for determining the adjusted R-squared value is to explain the variation in the dependent variable as more predictors are added to the model.902) which is a more honest version of the R-squared value. the adjusted R-squared is quite near to the R squared value which shows that the independent variable explains the variation in the dependent variable quite accurately. also known as the coefficient of determination.e. The next column of the table shows the R square value. In this particular scenario. the change in GDP per capita from the base year (1991.9063=100%) and the female literacy are strongly. i.902 Std. Error of the Estimate 1.953 which means that the two variables. positively correlated.953 R Square .87516 Table 1 shows the model summary for the regression run between the concerned variables.9% of the variance in the female literacy rate in Pakistan can be explained by the change in GDP per capita from the base year (1991).909 Square . The closer the R value is to 1. 90. the stronger the correlation between the variables. in this case. Rs. shows the proportion of the variance in the dependent variable that can be explained by the independent variable. Table 2: Coefficients 1 .

201 Model 1 (Constant) Change in GDP per capita from base year 1991 (1991 GDP per capita=100) B 21.807 . This is statistically significant as the significance is equal to 0.070 Beta t Sig.e. if the GDP per capita in a particular year is the same as that in the base year. all else held constant. represents the constant. the height of the regression line as it cuts the Y-axis. Bound 19.043 which indicates that a unit change in GDP per capita from the base year will change the female literacy rate by 4.Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients 95% Confidence Interval for B Lower Upper Bound 24. i.050 a. Error 1. as the name indicates.035 . that were beyond the scope of this study. the B equals 0. Dependent Variable: Female literacy rate for Pakistan Table 2 shows the coefficients that will help construct the equation relating the female literacy rates and the change in GDP per capita from the base year and depict the strength of the relationship between the concerned variables. The first variable in the column is Constant which. thus are known as unstandardized coefficients .611 20. The first column of the table shows the predictor variables (constant and the change in GDP per capita from the base year). This 2 . shows the coefficients in their natural form. As per this table. i.004 . then this figure (21.953 11.906 Std.The B in this column shows the values for the regression equation that will help predict the relationship between the dependent and the independent variable. The reason for this low percentage is that female literacy is not only a function of the change in GDP per capita from the base year. The std.e. error column shows the standard errors associated with the coefficients.043 .000 . but is determined by numerous other variables.470 .000 . also known as the Y intercept.3%. The second column of the table.906%) will show the literacy rate in that year.

The higher the value of this beta. then the coefficient will not be significant.3% impact on the female literacy. For instance. i.035 and 0. Similarly. Beta shows the standardized coefficient. i.611 and 24. since independence have failed to allocate adequate resources to it. Over the years. the constant is significantly different from 0 at the alpha level of 0.000. In this case. This study has been conducted with the view of establishing a 3 . while the significance is 0 for both the constant and the change in GDP per capita from the base year.e.201 which means that the constant is significant. then the percent change in GDP per capita will have a 95.953. The last two columns of the table show the upper and the lower bounds for the constant and the change in GDP per capita for the population. which was 13% of the total government expenses. the Beta value is 0. the higher will be the t-value. Discussion Female literacy in Pakistan has always been a neglected area. 4. which shows that if both the variables are standardized. these are the coefficients that would be obtained if all the parameters in the regression were standardized. The t-value for the independent variable is 11. The governments. the highest spending on education sector was in 2003-2004. a minimal percentage of the total government expenditure has been spent in this sector. Confidence intervals are related to the p-values.e. This shows a 95% confidence interval for the coefficient.05 which shows that the coefficient is significant. the interval for the constant ranges between 19.05.47. Similarly. These results show that the coefficient for the independent variable is statistically significant at the alpha level of 0.value is used to test whether the parameter is significantly different from 0 and obtaining a tvalue. during the last 12 years. the interval for the change in GDP per capita from the base year ranges from 0.005.05 because its p-value is 0.807 while that for the constant is 20. In this case. which is smaller than 0.2. if the confidence interval includes 0.

they neglect education. therefore this study will be equally applicable here. Furthermore. water and shelter.3% change in the female literacy rate. As studied by Kambhapati & Rajan (2008) the number of girls attending schools decreases as the number of younger siblings’ increases. there is evidence from previous studies discussed in Section 2 of the paper. the study highlights that girls are considered to be appropriate to attending to the household affairs rather than gaining education. Therefore.concrete relationship between the change of GDP per capita since 1991 and female literacy in Pakistan. Therefore. there is the problem of low female literacy.e. culture and values. The study considered the impact of the change in GDP per capita from a base year. which further translates into more poverty. This suggests why the literacy rates are low. The most important factor contributing to the lack of female literacy in Pakistan is poverty. may directly and indirectly affect the female literacy rate. i. therefore. Furthermore. Pakistan has not been able to bank on the link between the two variables. however. since social development is not present. a unit change in the GDP per capita on that from 1991 will lead to a 4. share the same history. Since Pakistan and India both lie in the same region. Those in the rural areas especially do not rank female education as important in the household budget. A large number of population lives below the poverty line. In the current scenario. there exists a strong positive correlation between the two. Much of the population is involved in providing for the basic needs of their families. 2 . Another determinant of female education is the level of awareness within the society. however. education is not a priority in their list. without access to the bare essentials such as food. The rural class of Pakistan views girls as fit for doing household chores. As per Pasha & Ahmed (1999). social development and economic growth are interconnected. As per the results obtained above. it does not help the nation in achieving high growth rates of GDP per capita. which suggest that some variable.

According to them.Thirdly. the education sector has been neglected by the governments in the past. especially in the rural areas. some of which have been cited here. In case of private schools in the urban areas. it is inadequate for the girls to be sent for acquiring education. Studies have been conducted in the past. this is not the only factor that affects 2 . it has become clear that there is a link between GDP per capita changes and the female literacy rates. However. where it is seen as a quite a lucrative profession. Most importantly. the situation is quite different. lack of proper monetary and non-monetary benefits and the lure of better jobs. an act contrary to the teachings of Islam. the attitude of the feudal and the foreign educated elites of the nation have played a detrimental part in the development of the education sector of Pakistan. Fourthly. The influence of the local mullah of the mosque on the lives of the rural population is yet another factor contributing to the illiteracy. Female literacy levels in Pakistan are the lowest in the world. the lack of qualified teaching staff is another reason for poor development of female literacy in Pakistan. Many people shy away from teaching in government schools and colleges owing to the poor reputation of the schools. According to the study conducted by Khan (2007). The strong influence of the Taliban on the northern areas of Pakistan and the province on NWFP specially has proved to be detrimental to the education of women in these areas. lack of female education in Pakistan can be attributed to a lack of schools within close proximity of homes. that show that female education and economic development have a two-way link. This is also reflected in the meager amounts of public spending made on education. where the girls are denied schooling owing to the lack of a school within close proximity of the home. This phenomenon specially holds true for the rural areas. The study also highlights that many people in Pakistan do not seek technical or scientific education which hampers the development of the country. After a discussion of the results and survey of existing studies.

According to the results of the findings. Other factors (both quantifiable and non-quantifiable) such as awareness. more than 90% variation in the level of female literacy in Pakistan is explained by the change in GDP per capita from the base year. The government has to design policies aimed at improving the overall literacy level in general. The government needs to allocate a higher proportion of the budget to the education especially in case of the rural areas because majority of our population lives in rural areas. access of schools near homes also exist. per capita income is only one factor. Thirdly. we have considered data for only 15 years. Firstly.female literacy. the definition of a literate person has changed over the previous years. Then the government should create awareness amongst the people living in the rural area about the importance of females getting educated especially in terms of the impact it would have on the 2 . there are limitations to our research. However. with the level of female literacy and observed that education in our country is to a great extent dependant on the income level of the household. Section 5: Conclusion The research attempted to find a correlation between GDP per capita as defined by the change in GDP per capita from a base year 1991. the fact remains that GDP per capita income is possibly the strongest factor affecting female literacy in our country. However. as there are numerous other determinants which influence the female literacy in Pakistan. and the female literacy level in particular which is considerably less compared to the male literacy rate. Secondly.

social and economic development. There is a lot of effort required on the part of the government in order to improve the female literacy as well as literacy on the whole. There needs to be proper policy formulation and then its implementation and monitoring is of utmost importance. 3 . The government needs to have a proper check on the government schools because they are not given due attention because of which the staff as well as the students do not take it seriously.

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What factors influence world literacy? Is Africa different? [Online] http://ideas. M. 1056-1061. 38 (4). Pakistan’s ranking in Social Development: Have We Always Been Backward? Journal of the Pakistan Development Review. 75-89. (2008). & Kizilaslan. Journal of Development Studies.S. [Online] http://ideas.• Kambhampati.A Study in Gender Discrimination in Education. [Online] http://www.A. Women Empowerment in Assam. 1309-1341. D. (2009). Journal of Applied Sciences Research. N. • Kizilaslan. Gender Inequality and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa and Arab Countries. & Mahanta. 44 (9). Gender Inequalities in the World and in Turkey. 3 (10). • M. • Verner. H. & Rajan. R.B.html. (2008). Status of Women: Dimensions of Female Literacy in Andhra Pradesh . P.repec. & Reddy. B.afdb. (2005). • A. 739-754. • Pasha. (1999).html.repec.G & Ahmed. (2007). U. The 'Nowhere' Children: Patriarchy and the Role of Girls in India's Rural Economy.PDF. . 4 (1). & McGillivray. M. Journal of Public Administration. P. • Lutz.

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