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CHAPTER THREE

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

¬  INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals with the process of obtaining the design specifications

of the wireless Frequency Modulated Transmitter with a frequency of

100MHz in a range of 100m under accurate conditions.

From the block diagram shown in FIG. 2.1, various circuit components

are now chosen and appropriate approximate values are now chosen to

match its properties as well as perform duties of the stages.

The entire system could be grouped into two major stages

(i) The Q1 stage consisting the oscillator, the audio amplifier and

the modulator

(ii) The Q2 stage which is made up majorly of the RF amplifier and

the antenna

¬   

ñne transistor is used as the audio frequency (AF) amplifier.

The Colpitt·s oscillator is used. It consist a transistor which amplifiers

the AF and the tank circuit for the generation of the carrier wave.

c 

The model of the oscillator used is shown in FIG. 3.1.

 

   
c
    

  

  

 c   



½            

¬ 
          

For a transistor to function as an amplifier it must be biased in the

forward active region. Theraja & Theraja, (2002). i.e.

(i) ase emitter junction must be forward biased (V  0.7v)

(ii) VC  0.3v

A C108 transistor with the stated configuration was used. A 9V DC

supply was used to power the entire system.

Direct and alternating current flow in this circuit. The direct current is

brought about by the 9V DC battery while the alternating current

generator is the carbon microphone.

c

÷algat (2007) stated that capacitors do not allow direct current through

them. Hence the DC equivalent of FIG. 3.1 is as shown in FIG 3.2 and

FIG 3.3.

 

 

 c

 c

 

    



 c

 

Now for the forward active mode,

V 0.7V, choosing Ic  5.5mA, f 200 Ic  f II  5.5mA/200

0.0275mA.

Applying Kirchhoff·s Voltage Law (KVL) to the collector-emitter loop

9 ² VC ² R2(Ic + I)  0 UUUUUUUU 

9 ² 3.5 ² 5.5275R2  0

R2  9 ² 3.5  0.995KŸ
5.5275

§ 1KŸ

c

Applying KVL to the base-emitter loop
9 ² R1I ² 0.7 ² R2(IC + I)  0 UUUUUUUUU 
R1  9 ² 0.7 ² 5.5275  99.83KŸ
0.0275

Value of R1 used in design  100 KŸ


Component CC in FIG 3.1 is a coupling capacitor.

¬     
In practical application, the carbon microphone (the alternating current

generation in FIG 3.1) accepts a large range of frequency. This must be

carefully screened to allow only the audio range (20Hz ² 20KHz) to be

amplified and transmitted.

Theraja & Theraja (2002) stated that by using various combinations of

resistors, inductors and capacitors, circuits can be made that have the

property or rejecting either low or high frequency or band of frequency.

These frequency selective networks are called a .

Filters are broadly of two types

(i) Active filters- which use transistors and op-amps in

combination with resistor, inductor and capacitor elements.

(ii) Passive filters- which consist only series-parallel combinations

of resistor, inductor and capacitor elements.



Theraja & Theraja (2002) further stated that there are four types of

passive filters- high-pass filter, low-pass filter, band-pass filter and

band-stop filter.

ñnly the high-pass and low-pass filter are used in this project work.

è     è  allows signals with higher frequency to pass

through while rejecting lower frequencies. The minimum frequency

which it allows to pass through is called cut-off frequency. There are

RC and RL high-pass filters. ñnly the RC high pass filter is used in

this project work.

è     è  allows only low frequency to pass through

but attenuates (to a higher or lesser extent) all higher frequencies.

The cut off frequency for LPF is the maximum frequency which it

allows to pass through. There are also RC and RL LPF. ut only the

RC LPF is used.

CC is a coupling capacitor and forms a HPF with R1.

For effective coupling, Grob (1977) states that the reactance of the

capacitor, X CC should be less than or equal to 10% of the resistance, R 1.

XCC < R1; but R1  100KŸ

Let XCC  10KŸ and a  20Hz (cut off frequency for the HPF)



ut XCC  1  10KŸ
2ȝaCc

Cc  1  1 a  0.796 x 10 -6F
2ȝaXCc 2ȝ x 20 x 10 x 10 3

 0.796µF

Chosen value of CC  1µF.


C1 also forms a low pass filter with R1.

XC1 < 10%R1

ut R1  100KŸ, hence letting X C1  10KŸ and using a cut off frequency

for the LPF  20KHz,

XC1  1
2ȝaCc
C1  1 i
2ȝ x 20 x 10 x 10 x 10 3
3

 0.796 x 10 -9F
The design value chosen for C1  1nF.
÷imilarly,

XC4 < 0.1R2, R2 1KŸ, a  100MHz

XC4  0.1Kš

C1  1 i  15.9 x 10 -12F § 16pF


2ȝ x 100 x 10 6 x 0.1 x 103
Design value of C4  18pF.

c

¬  ¬
          

   è
   

At oscillation, C2 and C2 are voltage devices. C 2, C3 and L serve as

oscillation frequency determining network for the colpitt oscillator. The

equivalent circuit is shown in FIG. 3.4

C2 C3


L   ¬ 


C  C2C3 ; where C equivalent capacitance of the tank circuit.


C2 + C3
C


L   ¬   ! "
è#$  !  

At resonance, Xc  XL.

Hence 1  2ma
2ma
a  1 a
2m 
For the chosen frequency of 100MHz;
100 x 10 6  1 a
2m 

2   1.59 x 10 -9 (Hz)-1.



For high frequency such as this, C should be as low as possible, but to

maintain a relatively high gain factor, X L should not be too low; also for

RF, C3 should be between 4pF²10pF. Grob (1977).

Let C  24pF.

2w  1.59 x 10 -9 (Hz)-1.


L (1.59 x 10-9) a   0.10132µH
25pF

¬ ¬   

The Q2 stage is the RF amplifier stage. It consist basically, a transistor

biased in the forward active region and the antenna.


! 
R4

R5

  ¬ %     


 &' 

 R4

 !

½  

½
½


¬ ¬ 
    

Design specification for the RF stage is


 

i. VCC  9V
ii. Chosen operating point: Ic  12.5mA, VC  0.8V
iii. f  200, V  0.7v

Taking the collector-emitter loop of FIG. 3.7

9 ² R4(I + IC) ² VC - R5(I + IC)  0 UUUUU 

9 ² 0.8  (R4 + R5)(I + IC)

R4 + R5  0.653KŸ.

Letting R4  R5

Then R4  R5  326Ÿ

Design values of R4 and R5  320 Ÿ.

Taking the collector-base-emitter loop:

9 - R4(I + IC) ² R3I ² V ² R5(IC + I)  0

R3  9 ² 0.7 ² (0.653)(12.563)  1.53KŸ


0.063
Design value chosen for R3  1.5KŸ.

C5 couples the RF output of stage 1 to stage 2.

The RF frequency  100MHz, R4  320 Ÿ

XC5 < 0.1R4.

Taking XC5 32 Ÿ

C5  1 1 F  15.9pF § 16pF
2m x 100 x 10 6 x 32

!

Value of C5 used  18pF.

¬ ¬     

Theraja & Theraja (2002) states that the minimum antenna length should

be (p/4).

Radio waves are electromagnetic waves and hence have velocity of 3.0 x

108 m/s. (Ugwuanyi, 2006).

V  fp, target frequency of transmission  100 MHz.

Therefore, p  3 x 108  3m.


100 x 10 6

Hence, length of antenna  ¾  0.75m  75cm.

Length of antenna used for design  75cm.

¬     
 (()   
   
  >
 
    !  
c
 #      
c
   

    " !

 c      $


½ 
 

   

"

Component M in FIG 3.8 is the carbon microphone.

To prevent excess current from passing through the mic in practical

application, a resistor Rm is connected in the path of the DC supply.

The specified maximum current through the mic is 0.5mA.

Let the current allowed through the mic for precautionary reasons be

taken to be less than half of the stated maximum current, say 0.23mA.

Then from ñhm·s law, Rm  9/0.23

 39KŸ.

Design value of Rm used is 39KŸ.

C6 is included in the design to take to earth signals which are greater

than the required 100MHz say 110MHz and above.

XC6 < 0.1 R5, R5  320 Ÿ.

From the foregoing,

C6  1/(2ȝ x 110 x 106 x 32)  33.53MHz

Chosen value for C6  30pF.

÷ince the output of the oscillator stage is coupled to the RF amp through

the common positive, C7 helps to prevent the RF signal from being

sucked back. It also stores charges from the battery and helps to

maintain a relatively steady voltage over the entire system even as the

battery dies.

 

XC7  0.1R4, R4  320Ÿ.
Following the steps as before
C7  49.7pF
Design value  50pF.
Finally, where the calculated values of the components could not be
obtained, an appropriate approximate value of the component was used
for the design.
¬         
*      
'  
       
 +#
1 M I(max)  0.5
 
2 Rm 39KŸ 39KŸ
3 R1 99.83KŸ 100KŸ
4 R2 0.995KŸ 1KŸ
5 R3 1.53KŸ 1.5KŸ
6 R4 326 Ÿ 320 Ÿ
7 R5 326 Ÿ 320 Ÿ
+ 
8 Cc 0.796µF 1µF
9 C1 0.796nF 1nF
10 C2 25Pf 24pF
11 C3 10pF 10pF
12 C4, C5 16pF 18pF
14 C6 33.53pF 30pF
15 C7 49.7pF 50Pf
# 
16 Q 1, Q 2 C 108
###
17 A 75cm 75cm
!++ 
18 DC ÷upply 9V
#,! 
19 L 0.101µH 4 turns
  
20 K