Wireless / Mobile Networks

indigoo.com

MOBILE & WIRELESS
NETWORKS
OVERVIEW OF TECHNOLOGIES AND PROTOCOLS FOR
MOBILE AND WIRELESS NETWORKS

© Peter R. Egli 2015

Peter R. Egli
INDIGOO.COM
1/31
Rev. 4.40

Wireless / Mobile Networks

indigoo.com

Contents
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Wireless technologies overview
Radio technology
Radio technology problems
802.11 WLAN Wireless LAN
Public mobile networks
Satellite Internet Access
Wireless mobility
Mobile IP RFC2002

© Peter R. Egli 2015

2/31
Rev. 4.40

indigoo.com

Wireless / Mobile Networks
1. Wireless technologies overview (1/5)
Pow er cons. Applications / com m ents

F-Spectrum

Data rate

Range

WiMAX

Standard
IEEE
802.16a, d

Div.

75Mbps

6km

High

Mobile MAN (users w ith PDAs, nomads). Will probably be supplanted by LTE.

WRAN

IEEE
802.22

54MHz 862MHz

4.54 to 22.69
Mbit/s

<30km

High

WRAN is a new w orking group in IEEE for using TV frequency for broadband
access (w hite space spectrum). Work in progress.

WiBro

IEEE
802.16e

2.3GHz

1Mbps

<=1km

Low

South Korean competitor to WiMAX. Mobile (60km/h moving mobile devices).

GSM (2G)

Div.

850/1800/1900

14.4Kbps

15km

Low

2nd generation mobile telephony technology.

CDMA (2G)

Div.

N/A

2Mbps

15km

Low

G2 technology used in US and other countries (competitor to GSM).

EDGE (2.5G)

N/A

850/1800/1900
Mhz

384Kbps

15km

Low

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (2.5G); technology betw een G2 (GSM) and
UMTS (G3).

EUCH (2.5G)

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Enhanced Uplink Channel.

CDMA2000 (3G)

N/A

N/A

144Kbps

N/A

N/A

Competitor to UMTS

UMTS (3G)

Div.

N/A

2Mbps

15km

Low

Would-be successor to GSM. Slow adoption rate, but picking up speed.

N/A

3.1M bps down
1.8M bps up

N/A

N/A

Enhancement of CDMA2000, competes w ith HSDPA (counterpart in UMTS family).

Nam e

EV-DO (3.5G)

N/A

HSDPA (3.5G)

Div.

N/A

<20Mbps

N/A

N/A

High Speed Dow nlink Packet Access.

3GPP LTE

Candidate:
2.6GHz

160 Mbit/s (DL)
54Mbit/s (UL)

<30km

N/A

4G technology, potential successor to UMTS. Based on TCP/IP, no TDM. Low latency
(<5ms) for IP packets.

iMode

N/A

N/A

N/A

Low

Japanese packet service for mobile devices (GPRS).

VSAT
TETRAPOL

N/A
ETSI

N/A
N/A

N/A
~0.5Mbps
duplex
N/A

3000km
N/A

High
N/A

Very small aperture Satellite
Voice and data radio technology for public services (police etc.).

LTE (3.9G/4G)

© Peter R. Egli 2015

3/31
Rev. 4.40

Competitor of WirelessHD. Low cost variant of 802.6Mbps 1Mbps N/A 8m 30m High Low Medium WiBree / BT Proprietary (Dynastream) 2. Standard in progress. IEEE 802. Based on UWB radio technology. Applications / com m ents Low (by Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephony.45MHz ISM N/A 1.11n w ith higher throughput. Industry initiative by HW vendors (Atheros. To supplant 802.11ad WLAN HiperLAN HiperLAN2 UWB WHDI WirelessHD WirelessHD 1.0 WiGig WiGig CWUSB Wireless USB WirelessHD 1. keyboards).45MHz ISM 5GHz 2. Uses 802. Nokia et. Now defunct First 802. TDMA.11 57-64GHz 3GBbps 10m N/A Wireless PHY and MAC layer for use in HD WVAN (Wireless Video Are Netw ork) WLL IrDA BlueTooth WiBree ANT+ IEEE 802.15. Derived from Bluetooth. Mostly used for remote controls.40 . IEEE 802. Egli 2015 Wireless Local Loop.15.6 GHz (US) 24GHz (China) 5GHz <57Kbps 30m Very low <480Mbps <3Gbps 10m 30m N/A High? 2. Ultra low pow er radio technology for w atches.11a WLAN IEEE 802.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 1. Consumer market (mice.45MHz ISM 1Mbps 10m Very low 2. Well established design) Nam e Standard F-Spectrum Data rate Range DECT ETSI 1800-1900MHz 552Kbps 100m N/A IrDA BlueTooth N/A Visible light 2. Wireless technologies overview (2/5) Pow er cons. Home entertainment.11ac WLAN IEEE 802. Ultra Wide Band.thisisant. Competitor of WirelessHD. Infrared. PDAs. medical.3a WHDI 1.11n WLAN IEEE 802. Pretty complex technology. targets very low pow er applications. in w idespread use.).11. Home entertainment.11b WLAN IEEE 802.15.45MHz ISM 2.com. Forthcoming standard.0. sensors etc.3c WirelessHD N/A Hom eRF IEEE 802. transmission needs line of sight.11b.11g WLAN IEEE 802.1-10.11MAC 1.al. European competitor to 802. 4/31 Rev.0 IEEE 802. High data rates w ith MIMO technology.45MHz ISM 2. Apps: consumer. possibly based on Wigig standard.11.45MHz ISM 5GHz 60GHz 5GHz 3GBbps 20Mbps <54Mbps <11Mbps <54Mbps 100-200Mbps <1Gbps <7Gbps 54Mbps 10m 150m 100m 100m 100m 100m N/A <10m 100m N/A N/A High High High High High High High Wireless PHY and MAC layer for use in HD WVAN (Wireless Video Are Netw ork) Was competitor to 802. 4.11 Phy standard. Industry initiative (Sony et. Integrated in bluetooth standard in 2007 as ULP (Ultra Low Pow er). Very high BW for PANs.indigoo. See w w w . Enhancement to 802.al.0. sports & w ellnes (w atches etc.4GHz 3.).).4/5/60GHz <8m <7Gbps <480Mbps N/A 10m High? N/A 57-64GHz 2.11 MAC for compatibility.3c © Peter R. USB cable replacement. Discontinued in 2006.

com Wireless / Mobile Networks 1.15.56MHz. Near Field Communication. Low band: 3.4.9GHz 128KBit/s 100m Low (by design) ZigBee alternative from Microchip. ISO/IEC 17568 IEEE 802. Wireless technologies overview (3/5) Nam e RFID NFC Standard ZigBee MiWi IEEE 802.40 .indigoo. Hub and spoke netw ork topologies. 4. Low proximity high throughput technology. ZigBee standard Transferjet F-Spectrum IEEE 802.45GHz 868MHz (Eu) 915MHz (US) 375 Mbps <10cm N/A 128KBit/s 100m Low (by design) Control and monitoring (sensors). 433MHz) ISO/IEC 18092 ECMA 340 ETSI TS 102 190 13. 2. Target applications: Medical (transceiver close to human body). low cost (licenses!) alternative to ZigBee. 860 EPCglobal Gen2 MHz to 960 ISO/IEC 18000 MHz . Aimed at applications w here BlueTooth is too complex and has too much pow er consumption.5GHz High band: 6. No certification required. MiWi Wireless Body Area Netw orks IEEE 802.. 4.45GHz ISM ISM bands. Traffic signal to vehicle etc.15. w ireless access to serial numbers etc.4 radio.45GHz. 5/31 Rev.780nm) Pow er cons.15. Egli 2015 Visible light (380 . <10MBit/s <3m (low data rate) Extremely low Low rate: <266KBit/s High rate: <96MBit/s A few meters Low Div. Applications / com m ents Radio Frequency ID tags.56MHz ECMA 398. (13.15. very low bandw idth and distances.4.15. 135kHz. Requires certification.7 © Peter R. Uses IEEE 802. 2. & Act. Applications w ith increased EMC immunity requirements. Huge market in the offing.48GHz 2.6 Short-Range Wireless Optical Com m unication Data rate Range 100KBit/s 1m Zero < 212KBit/s 0 .5GHz-9.20cm Pass. Wireless Body Area Netw ork (BAN) standard.5GHz-4.

4 10b/s to 1kb/s Up to 40km Very low LoRaWAN Proprietary 10b/s to 10kb/s Up to 40km Very low Weightless-W Proprietary N/A Long range High Weightless-N RPMA Proprietary Proprietary 868MHz 54MHZ 862MHz (TVWS) 868MHz (Eu) 900MHz (US) 2.) 9. Applications / com m ents Low Home appliances. LPWAN: Wireless technology for IoT sensor netw orks (alternative to costly 3G. roller shutter etc.9959). 868MHz 908.nanotron.indigoo. Designed for robustness (crow ded frequency bands). 902MHz N/A N/A Low Home automation (light.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 1. w w w . sensors.15. 6/31 Rev. LPWAN technology by OnRamp Wireless.4 MAC LPWAN: Wireless technology for IoT sensor netw orks (alternative to costly 3G. RFID technology for w orldw ide conformance and interoperability. 868MHz.40 . EN13757-3 868MHz 16. Based on IEEE 802.42Mhz (US) 868MHz (Eu) 2. 4G netw orks). Wireless version of M-Bus. Egli 2015 Pow er cons. LPWAN: Wireless technology for IoT sensor netw orks (alternative to costly 3G. Wireless technologies overview (4/5) Nam e Standard F-Spectrum Data rate Range EN13757-4. 4G netw orks) developed from Weightless-W to better suit requirements of IoT.4GHz ISM 10b/s to 10kb/s N/A Up to 40km <30km Very low Very low Wireless-MBus io-hom econtrol io-homecontrol Z-Wave NanoNet enOcean DASH7 Wireless HART SigFox Z-Wave Alliance Proprietary ISO/IEC 14543-3-10 ISO/IEC 180007 © Peter R. 4G netw orks).15.4KBit/s 15m-25m Low Wireless electrical pow er meter connectivity.com No pow er sensors (energy harvesting). TV Whitespace technology (TVWS). MAC and PHY layers standardized by ITU-T (G.45GHz ISM 315MHz (US).4GHz 868MHz (Eu) 902MHz (US) 250 kbits/s 1000m 30m (indoor) 100m (outdoor) See 802. 4.6KBit/s 100KBit/s N/A 100m N/A Low (by design) N/A 120KBit/s N/A None (energy harvesting) 433MHz 200 kbit/s IEC EN 62591 ETSI GS LTN 003 2.

22 WRAN 0.75G) 384KBps UMTS (3G) HSDPA (3.5G) CDMA 10Kb/s 15km RFID ~0B/s <1m 0.4 / ZigBee WPAN / HAN 128Kb/s 100m 0.1 0.15.11g) <150m 500Mbps (802.indigoo.3a UWB WPAN 110-480Mb/s 10m DECT TDMA 552Kb/s 0. Wireless technologies overview (5/5) Bandwidth [Mb/s] 1000 PAN / HAN 100 10 1 IEEE 802.1 VSAT Satellite Kb/s…Mb/s >300km CDMA2000 EDGE (2.40 .11n) 100m IEEE 802.16 WiMAX WMAN 75Mb/s 1-6km >>100 users GSM (2G.11b) <20Mbps 30Mbps (802.1 BlueTooth ~100 users WPAN 723Kb/s 10m 0.001 IEEE 802. HSCSD) GPRS (2. 4.15.15.01 Personal Area Network MAN: Home Area Network WAN: Local Area Network © Peter R. Egli 2015 0.0001 Metropolitan Area Network Wide Area Network MAN IEEE 802.01 WAN IEEE 802.11a) HomeRF 5Mb/s (802.001 LAN PAN: HAN: LAN: 1 10 Range [km] 100 7/31 Rev.5G) 2Mbps / 15km IEEE 802.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 1.11b WLAN/WiFi 54Mb/s (802.

modulation and coding. protocols). 2. Hardware: Better batteries. processors with higher performance. And: Radio is more and more becoming a software technology (DSP. 4. Spread spectrum makes the signal less susceptive to interference and noise. dynamic resource allocation. DSPs with higher perf. radio bandwidth remains limited. 8/31 Rev. less power consumption.com 2. The signal interferes less with other signals due to lower power level. 3.  Reuse of spectrum through spread-spectrum: Despite the trend that newer technologies use higher frequencies. Original signal © Peter R. The receiver reconstructs signal.40 .Wireless / Mobile Networks indigoo. Application: Adaptive QoS (Quality of Service). 4. The spread signal is immune against a jamming signal. Radio technology  Technological drivers of radio technology: 1. Egli 2015 The signal is „spread“ over the frequency spectrum. Link: Better / more sophisticated antennas. Network: Mobility support. Spread spectrum is a technology used to distribute the signal over a wide frequency range.

Radio technology problems (1/2) Radio networks differ from wired networks in a number of aspects. Reliability of wireless connections: Wireless networks suffer from interference. Both STA1 and STA3 may start sending at the same time thus causing contention at STA2. This means that wireless networks need protection (strong encryption) right from the start.indigoo. Eavesdropping: Wireless networks are inherently open to eavesdropping. Thus wireless connections are less reliable.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 3. 3. Egli 2015 9/31 Rev.40 . Wireless protocols on layer 1 (physical) and 2 (data link) have to be augmented with the necessary functions to address these issues. reflections. Hidden station problem: A wireless station STA3 does not „hear“ STA1 (hidden station). 1. 4. © Peter R. STA1 STA2 STA3 2. New (wireless) routing protocols can be used to provide multipath routing for better reliability. dropouts etc.

Power consumption of wireless devices: Wireless devices inherently suffer from a power problem (wireless = mobile = runs-onbattery). Egli 2015 10/31 Rev. Other technologies like 802. Usually a greater distance between the antennas requires more transmission power and thus increases the power consumption.4.). Medical) bands as defined by ITU-R (International Telecommunication Union – Radio). In recent years a number of new radio technologies emerged as a consequence of advances in technology (cheaper hardware. Limited bandwidth. Often wireless technologies (ZigBee 802. Bluetooth.15. Naturally many of these technologies (WLAN. thus the number of frequency license holders is limited.40 . new modulation technologies etc. need for frequency licensing: Every country has its own frequency plan that regulates the use or licensing of radio frequencies. DECT. GSM) are targeted at low power applications. Zigbee) use the (unlicensed) ISM bands.com 3. Radio technology problems (2/2) 4. This in turn means that interferences between different senders become a problem. most countries allow using the frequencies in the ISM (Industrial. Obtaining a license is costly. 5. In order to allow the use of certain frequencies without a costly and time consuming licensing process. Science.16 are not particularly suited for low-power applications.11 or WiMAX 802. © Peter R.Wireless / Mobile Networks indigoo. 4.

Egli 2015 11/31 Rev.g. Medical).11g: Up to 54Mbps. 48.11 networks use free frequency bands (ISM: Industrial.11b: Up to 11Mbps. 36. 802.com 4.40 .  802.11n enhancements) using 3-8 spatial streams with beam forming. simple (cheap) technology.11ad: Standard in progress by WiGig consortium. 12.Wireless / Mobile Networks indigoo. in data centers (5-10m).11ad is targeted at bridging short distances with wireless links. but fixed with WPA Wired Protection Access) Relatively low bandwidth for data (compared to wired networks) Electromagnetic interference with other devices (Bluetooth) Simple installation.11 WLAN Wireless LAN (1/10) WLAN technology:  802. 18.  Different 802.11 Pros and Cons: Mobility Flexible configuration Relatively cheap Weak security (WEP Wired Equivalent Protection. 802. 802. 802. even higher throughput (<7Gpbs).11 standards: 802. 54 Mbps (5 GHz band). 9. 4. Thus everybody can run 802. 802. uses multi-path transmission for better signal recovery at the receiver).11n: <600Mbps (MIMO=Multiple In Multiple Out antenna technology. Science.11ac: Forthcoming standard for higher throughput (802. 24. 802. but high skills needed for exploitation of full potential of technology © Peter R. e.11 devices without licensing a frequency band.11a: 6. 802.

4.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 4.11: Ad-hoc mode: No access points.11 WLAN Wireless LAN (2/10) Operation modes of 802. STAs communicate directly with each other. DS: Distribution System (wired LAN) STA (STAtion) AP: Access Points STA (STAtion) Handover IBSS: Independent Basic Service Set BSS: Basic Service Set (Single cell) ESS: Extended Service Set (Multiple cells) © Peter R.40 . Egli 2015 12/31 Rev.indigoo. Infrastructure mode: Usage of access points interconnected with wired LAN. 802.

indigoo.11 MAC 802. The different WLAN standards use different modulation techniques (OFDM. 802. 802.11g OFDM&DSSS 2.11ad WiGig 60GHz. IP (Internet Protocol) LLC 802.11 PHYs © Peter R.11 WLAN Wireless LAN (3/10) 802.11 MAC: The MAC layer controls the media access (see below).11n OFDM 802. LLC: LLC (Logical Link Control) is not part of the WLAN stack.40 . <54Mbps 802. <11Mbps 802.4/5GHz. 4.11b DSSS 2.11 Physical layer: The physical layer is concerned with modulation / demodulation.4GHz. 1Gbps Draft standard 802.11ac 256QAM 5GHz.11a OFDM 5GHz.11 WLAN stack 802. DSSS. <54Mbps 802.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 4. but is often used to provide a generic access layer to the lower (link) layers. QAM). <7Gbps Draft standard 13/31 Rev. <600Mbps 5GHz.11 protocol stack: 802. Egli 2015 802.

(see below) Control: RTS. The general 802. obsolete (WEP replaced by WPA2). Used for power management.11 frame structure looks as follows: Field length (bytes) 2 2 FC Dur PV Protocol version=0 6 Address Type 0=Management 1=Control 2=Data x Type specific fields To DS Sub-type From More Retry Power More mgt.40 . 14/31 Rev. WEP bit. Set to 1 if strict ordering of frames is used. WEP Order 0 for management and control frames.: Retry: Power mgt: More data: WEP: Order: 1 indicates that this is a fragmentation frame Set to 1 if this is a retransmission frame Power management bit Indicates that >= frames are available.11 frame structure depends on the frame type (see below). Probe etc. CTS. Set for data frames (see below) Management: Beacon. Receiver’s MAC address Distribution System (wired or wireless „backbone“ of WLAN) Frame Control © Peter R. 802.11 WLAN Wireless LAN (4/10) 802. Egli 2015 More frag.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 4. Ack Data: No subtypes (always =0) Dur: Address: DS: FC: Time in microseconds that the sender needs for sending the frame.indigoo. data DS frag. 4.11 frame structure: The 802.

Probe request frame j. it sends probe request frames. Disassociation frame h. Management frame structure: 2 2 FC Len 6 Address 1 6 6 2 x Address 2 Address 3 Seq Mgt.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 4. e. Authentication frame: b. Reassociation request frame f. Probe response frame © Peter R. Response of an AP to an association request. Beacon frame i. Sent by STA when it roams to another AP.indigoo. 4.40 . STA requests AP to allocate resources for communication.g. info Management frame suptypes: The management frames are basically used for associating a STA to an AP (procedure see below). Reponse from an AP to a probe request frame. Association request frame d. 15/31 Rev. 802. Egli 2015 Basic authentication. Management frame: Management frames are used to establish and maintain communication. Response from the new AP to the reassociation request. based on MAC-address.11 WLAN Wireless LAN (5/10) 802. AP periodically sends beacon frames with its identity. Reassociation response frame g. When the STA is not associated to an AP.11 frame types (1/3): 1. STA requests disassociation from AP. a. Association response frame e. Deauthentication frame c. STA sends deathentication frame to terminate communication.

com 4.11 WLAN Wireless LAN (6/10) 802. Egli 2015 16/31 Rev.11 frame types (2/3): 2. 802.Wireless / Mobile Networks indigoo. Control frame: Control frames are optional and are used for assisting in the delivery of data frames between stations. 4.40 . Control frame structure: 2 2 FC Len 2 6 Tx address RTS (Request To Send) frame 6 Rx address 2 FC Len Rx: Tx: Rx address 2 FC Len 2 6 CTS (Clear To Send) frame 6 Rx address Ack frame Receiver Transmitter © Peter R. Control frames are used in a handshake procedure in the CSMA/CA protocol (see below).

2 additional MAC addresses are required in the WLAN frame header.11 frame types (3/3): 3.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 4. Client to Client AP to Client Client to AP AP to AP © Peter R. The DS bits indicate the meaning of the different addresses fields as follows: Destination = MAC address of final destination node. Egli 2015 To DS From DS Addr. Sender & receiver: Sending and receiving AP’s MAC addresses. 4. 3 Addr. Source STA AP AP STA 17/31 Rev.40 . Address 4 (6 bytes) if frame is an APAP frame. Source = MAC address of original sending node.indigoo. 1 0 BSSID Receiver 1 1 Addr. 0 0 0 1 Dest. 1 Dest. Data frame structure: 2 2 FC Len 6 Address 1 6 6 2 Address 2 Address 3 x x Payload Seq Optional field Data frame addresses and DS bits: Since data frames may be transported between APs over a wired distribution system. WEP parameters (4 bytes) if data is WEP-protected.11 WLAN Wireless LAN (7/10) 802. 802. 2 Source BSSID Source Sender Addr. Data frame: Data frames carry user data. N/A Dest. Data frames are acknowledged and retransmitted if they are lost. 4 BSSID N/A Source N/A Dest.

40 . Unlike in wired Ethernet. Before sending check if the air is free (nobody else is sending). 802.11 tries to avoid them. 4. At the same time monitor the own data on the line.11 WLAN MAC uses CSMA/CA Collision Avoidance: Collisions are costly and difficult to detect in radio networks. 802. AP grants air interface with CTS frame. AP sends ACK to finish transaction. Before sending check if the line is free (nobody else is sending). 18/31 Rev. there is a collision (another device is sending at the same time). the monitoring of the own data is useless since the power level of the sender itself is much higher than the power level of another sender. STA1 sends data.3 Ethernet MAC uses CSMA/CD Collision Detection: 1. 1. Egli 2015 AP The CTS/RTS procedure is usually only used for small frames. STA2 „hears“ RTS and refrains from sending any frames during requested time interval. In case of a collision wait some time (backoff time) and restart at 1.11 MAC (Media Access Control) differs from 802.3 (Ethernet) MAC: 802.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 4. STA1 requests air interface by sending an RTS frame containing the amount of data to be sent (time interval). 3.indigoo. If the data is scrambled. 2. If the air is free send the data. 3. In addition a sender can not detect collisions at the receiver due to the “hidden station” problem. 2. If the line is free send the data. Optionally the sender can reserve the air medium for the transmission of a frame with the (optional) RTS/CTS procedure (Request To Send / Clear To Send) as follows: STA1 STA2 RTS CTS Data ACK © Peter R.11 WLAN Wireless LAN (8/10) 802. thus 802.

response Ack Data Ack © Peter R. Egli 2015 19/31 Rev. request Ack Assoc.40 .11 registration with an access point (1/2): Unlike Ethernet. 802.indigoo. WLAN stations register with an access point.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 4. AP STA Probe request frame Probe request frame 1 Probing / scanning 2 Authentication (exchange pattern depends on authentication scheme) 3 Association 4 Data exchange Beacon or probe response frame Auth. 4. request Ack Assoc.11 WLAN Wireless LAN (9/10) 802.

N. Lost frames are retransmitted.11 registration with access point (2/2): 1. STA informs AP of its supported data rates. Passive scanning (client waits for AP’s beacon frames sent in regular intervals). AP allocates buffers and other data structures for the communication with the STA.: All frames are acknowledged with WLAN. 802. Possible authentication schemes: a. 2.B. 3. © Peter R. PSK (Pre-Shared Key) with WEP (deprecated).Wireless / Mobile Networks indigoo. Egli 2015 20/31 Rev. 802. b. Association: STA enters the service set serviced by the AP. Authentication: STA authenticates with AP. c. (Optional) active scanning (probe request frames) or b. Send / receive data: STA starts sending and receiving data (direct or with RTS/CTS mechanism). The user then selects to which AP to associate based on the SSID (beacon contains the SSID). Open (no authentication).40 .11 WLAN Wireless LAN (10/10) 802. 4. Probing / scanning: The STA attempts to find an AP through: a.1X EAPOL (EAP Over LAN) used with WPA / WPA2.com 4. 4.

3. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution.5G technology: Enhancement of UMTS for higher speeds in Network-to-mobile direction. All services are IP-based (no TDM-based voice service anymore). packet service for GSM (2G) networks. 3G technology: Incompatible with 2G and thus requires new network infrastructure. 3. Global System for Mobile Telecommunication. UMTS successor. 2.Wireless / Mobile Networks indigoo. 2G technology: 2nd generation (digital cellular networks).5G technology: addition to GSM service.75G technology: Sometimes also seen as a 3G technology. High Speed Downlink Packet Access. 4G technology.g.40 . Does the same as GSM so adoption rate is slow (but picking up lately). enhancement (data rates) of GPRS service (mainly software based. Long Term Evolution. EDGE is actually a step between GPRS and UMTS. High Speed Uplink Packet Access. competitor to WiMAX. 2. “Natel A – C” in Switzerland).75G technology: Further enhancement (higher speeds in mobile-to-network direction) of UMTS and HSDPA service.com 5. 1G technology: 1st generation mobile cellular networks. Generalized Packet Radio Service. © Peter R. can be deployed in existing GPRS networks with software upgrades). 4. Public mobile networks (1/4) Evolution of mobile networks and technologies: AMPS GSM GPRS EDGE UMTS HSDPA HSUPA LTE Analog Mobile Phone Service (e. Mainly a software based improvement over plain UMTS. Universal Mobile Telecommunication System. Egli 2015 21/31 Rev.

.).40 .Customer management (IP address assignment etc. sender + receiver. . 22/31 Rev. Public mobile networks (2/4)  2G / 2. HLR BTS Cell PSTN MSC BTS Visitor Location Register: Database with mobile devices that are currently attached to this MSC.Control of multiple Base Stations. 4. .Tunnel endpoint (GTP protocol) . Gateway GPRS Support Node: . .Acts as a phone switch. Mobile Mobile Switching Center: .indigoo. .Similar to MSC.Similar to a HA in Mobile IP.Similar to an FA in Mobile IP.Tunnel endpoint (GTP protocol). GMSC BSC VLR Cell Tunnel Mobile BTS Cell BTS Cell BTS © Peter R. Base Station Controller: .Control of radio interface.Selection of appropriate GGSN based on APN from mobile device. . . but APN packet-oriented (does packet routing). .com Wireless / Mobile Networks 5.End user authentication and billing. Home Location Register: Central database of all customers of an operator. antenna.5G / 3G networks: Base Transmission Station (“Base Station”): Cell .Gateway (router with NAT) to Internet or customer Intranet. .Route calls through GMSC (even mobile-to-mobile calls). Egli 2015 BSC SGSN Internet GGSN Serving GPRS Support Node: with .Control of handover (moving from cell to cell).Control of time slots on radio interface.

Egli 2015 Um BSS (PCU) Gb SGSN Gn GGSN Gi 23/31 Rev. RFC5213).com Wireless / Mobile Networks 5.40 . Public mobile networks (3/4)  GSM protocol stacks: The data service (TCP/IP) on GSM networks requires a rather complex protocol stack to achieve transparent mobility (handover between radio cells).25 IP / X. Application IP / X. LTE may use a different approach based on PMIPv6 (Proxy Mobile IPv6.indigoo.25 SNDCP SNDCP GTP GTP LLC LLC UDP/ TCP UDP/ TCP RLC RLC BSSGP BSSGP IP IP MAC MAC Frame Relay Frame Relay L2 L2 GSM RF GSM RF L1bis L1bis L1 L1 MS © Peter R. 4.

html?lang=de LTE features: . LTE provides far greater bandwidths.High bandwidths (< 100Mbps) .: First release of LTE is “only” 3.admin.Low latency (5ms) .com 5.High spectral efficiency (3-4 times that of UMTS / HSPA) N. see above) . 4.9G as it does not fully meet the 4G criteria (all IP).Mobility support (< 500km/h.bakom.Wireless / Mobile Networks indigoo. © Peter R. Egli 2015 24/31 Rev. First version of LTE still supports TDM services.40 . even for moving mobile devices: Source: http://www.B. Public mobile networks (4/4) LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the 4th generation of mobile networks to replace G3 networks.ch/dokumentation/Newsletter/01315/02251/02261/index.

LEO .11b APs with wired distribution system (Ethernet) Access router Satellite modem 25/31 Rev. 4.40 . e. KU-band satellite (leased transponder) (Orbits: GEO .indigoo. radio). Panasonic exConnect for Internet access & GSM phone service aboard long-haul flights.g.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 6.5Mbps upstream Phase array antenna for satellite uplink (mounted on plane’s roof top) To antenna NOC: GEO: LEO: AP: Network Operating Center Geostationary Orbit Low Earth Orbit Access Point © Peter R. Satellite Internet Access  Satellite Internet access is relatively cheap to deploy in areas where wired Internet access is difficult or impossible (remote areas).  A satellite system is usually optimized for one-way transmission (TV. Downlink bandwidth is much cheaper than uplink bandwidth. Egli 2015 Ground station with NOC (Network Operating Center) and Internet connection Onboard installation 802.2000km) 5Mbps downstream 1.  Satellite access is also possible for moving hosts.39000km.

Works only for and within specific wireless technologies. 3. Network layer (L3): Examples: Mobile IP MIP RFC2002 (see below). once a day). Proxy MIP RFC5213. thus applications are unaware of changes of network attachment (handover). 2. No changes to clients (mobile nodes) needed. 4. e. © Peter R. Application layer (L5-L7): Examples: SIP registrations. Transparent to transport protocols. Disruptive (an open connection will be dropped).40 . DHCP or PPPoE for obtaining IP address. DNS/dynDNS. Wireless mobility  Mobility not only means obtaining an IP address dynamically (PPP. Egli 2015 26/31 Rev.g.11r Fast Roaming (not widely used) or GSM/CDMA.Wireless / Mobile Networks indigoo. Changes in OS for mobile nodes required. Allows to roam between access points (handover). Mobility means that a mobile host is always reachable irrespective of its current location (location transparency). Works for different wireless technologies. thus only suited for quasi-static attachment to network using PPP. No changes to clients (mobile nodes) needed.  Mobility (location transparency) can be implemented at: 1. Datat link layer (L2): Examples: IEEE 802.com 7. DHCP).

WLAN BSS) / Home Network Cell (e. Mobile IP RFC2002 (1/5)  Mobile IP model: Cell (e.g. WLAN BSS) / Foreign Network CN Visitor List Tunnel (IP in IP) Transmission Network (wired or wireless) Home address (fix) MN Handover (moving from cell to cell) = change of ‚point of attachment‘  HA acts as an ‚anchor point‘  MN has always a relationship to HA (is registered with HA).g.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 8. Egli 2015 CoA (tunnel endpoint address) Home address (fix) Colocated CoA MN MN: Mobile Node HA: Home Agent FA: Foreign Agent CoA: Care of address (c/o) BSS: Basic Service Set (radio cell) CN: Correspondent Node (is either Mobile or stationary) 27/31 Rev.40 .indigoo.  FA acts as tunnel endpoint. 4.: Mobile IP is not specifically restricted to wireless networks. © Peter R.  N.B.

com 8. Correspondent Node CA: Communication partner for MN. Foreign Agent FA: Establishes a tunnel with HA and forwards packets to/from MN from/to tunnel. dst IP. Egli 2015 28/31 Rev. Since a TCP connection is defined by the quadruplet {src IP. © Peter R. irrespective of his current location (handover/roaming even works during a call!). dst port} it is required that the MN retain its IP address when roaming (point of attachment changes). src port.). PDA. laptop. server aboard an airplane etc.  MIP objectives: Mobile IP (RFC2002) aims at making the location of machines transparent to applications. If a user moves around the application communication should not be disrupted (TCP connections remain open even though MN obtains new IP address = ‚session continuity‘). Mobile IP RFC2002 (2/5)  MIP components: 1.40 . Mobile Node MN: Any wireless appliance (handy. 2. CA is either a mobile itself or stationary. An FA is a special process running on a router. In a way mobile IP is similar to GSM where a user moves (roams) but can always be called from another phone. a CA needn‘t have any knowledge about Mobile IP. 4. 4. 3. A HA is a special process running on a router.Wireless / Mobile Networks indigoo. This in turn means that IP tunneling must be used. Home Agent HA: An MN registers with its Home Agent and informs it about its CoA.

HA and FA advertise their capability to act as HA/FA through broadcasts at regular intervals (agent advertisments every few seconds containing a list of CoAs. If NN does not want to wait for router advertisment it can request a CoA through broad. Egli 2015 29/31 Rev.Wireless / Mobile Networks indigoo. 2. also called beacons).40 . 4. © Peter R. Packets from MN to CN are either directly delivered (triangular routing) or the FA routes them back through the tunnel (‘reverse tunneling’). MIP Registration: MN registers CoA (endpoint address of tunnel that will be initiated by HA) with HA when it changes point of attachment (roams). A roaming MN is identified/addressed through this Home Address. MN Address: MN has fixed Home Address that never changes. MIP Agent Discovery: During agent discovery MN finds HA or FA. 4. Mobile IP RFC2002 (3/5)  How Mobile IP works: 1. MIP uses extensions to RFC1256 Router Advertisments.or multicast (agent solicitation). HA routing: HA adjusts its routing table to deliver (tunnel) packets destined to MN to make the connections to the MN transparent for applications.com 8. 4. 3.

The CoA is simply the IP address of the FA. The FA termates the tunnel. Mobile IP RFC2002 (4/5) Colocated CoA versus CoA: The FA either resides on the MN itself (colocated CoA) or on a dedicated device (shared CoA).40 . Colocated CoA: Mobile Node obtaines IP address through some external means (DHCP.com 8. decapsulates the tunnel packets (removes outer header) and delivers (routes. 1 IP address for multiple nodes FA required © Peter R. Multiple IP‘s required to support multiple mobile nodes 2. PPP) and uses it as tunnel endpoint address. Shared CoA: All MN‘s in a foreign network have the same CoA address. The MN itself terminates the tunnel. 4. 1. Egli 2015 30/31 Rev. No foreign agent required.Wireless / Mobile Networks indigoo. decapsulates the tunnel packets (removes outer header) and delivers the packet to the according MN. forwards) the packet to the application.

© Peter R. 4. 2 HA finds out that MN is not on home network but reachable through tunnel (routing entry) and sends packet to CoA (tunnel endpoint address of FA). 5a FA sends packet directly to CN (=„triangular routing“). Mobile IP RFC2002 (5/5)  Mobile IP routing / packet forwarding: 5b MN CN 1 5a 4 3 Home Network (LAN) 2 HA Internet FA Foreign Network CoA (tunnel endpoint address) 1 CN sends packet to MNs home address.com Wireless / Mobile Networks 8. Firewalls / packet filters along the way with ingress filtering thus may drop the packet.  N.indigoo.B. tunnel identification and MN-IP-address. Egli 2015 31/31 Rev. the problem with this approach is that the reply packet does not take a topologically correct route (packet with IP-source=MN-home address comes from FA). 5b Instead of directly routing the packet back to the CN the FA routes the packet back to the HA through the tunnel (=reverse tunneling). When MN leaves home network the HA sends gratuitous ARPs (with HA‘s link layer address in order to update the ARP caches of hosts in the home network). Thus FA‘s routing entries must consist of a combination of link layer address (MAC).: MN‘s home address may be private and thus not unique in the foreign network. 4 MN sends the reply back to the FA. HA performs proxy ARP to deliver L2 address on behalf of (absent) MN.40 . 3 FA delivers the packet to the MN.

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