You are on page 1of 10

July 2, 2020

The Honorable Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the House


1236 Longworth H.O.B., Washington, DC 20515
The Honorable Kevin McCarthy, Republican Leader
2468 Rayburn House Office Building, Washington, DC 20515
The Honorable Mitch McConnell, Majority Leader
317 Russell Senate, Office Building, Washington, DC 20510
The Honorable Charles Schumer, Minority Leader
322 Hart Senate, Office Building, Washington, D.C. 20510

Re: Holding Police Accountable for Civil Rights Violations

Dear House and Senate Leadership:


This is an unprecedented moment in the history of our country, and decisive action must be taken to restore
faith in government and the police. The undersigned, more than 300 law professors, call upon Congress to
pass a pair of legislative reforms that will abolish qualified immunity and create vicarious liability for local
government entities whose officers violate constitutional rights. These reforms will not cure all our nation’s
problems with police violence, but they are among the most important and impactful things that Congress
can do today to improve accountability.

Section 1983, enacted originally in 1871 as the Ku Klux Klan Act, was intended to provide a civil remedy
under federal law for persons whose constitutional rights have been violated by state actors. In theory, the law
provides a vehicle for such persons to seek redress from both the officers as well as the local governments that
employ them. But the operative words are “in theory,” because the Supreme Court has drained the life from
this statute in two significant ways.

First, the Court has created a defense of “qualified immunity.” This defense makes recovery against an officer
very difficult, even when the officer has violated a person’s constitutional rights. The Court requires a showing
that the right violated is one that was “clearly established,” such that every reasonable officer would understand
that the conduct amounted to a constitutional violation. Most courts require a plaintiff to produce a case in
which the Supreme Court or Court of Appeals has held unconstitutional conduct involving virtually identical
facts. The requirement places an overwhelming burden on plaintiffs. It often results in “one free pass,” where
the officer who has violated a person’s constitutional rights is absolved of liability because there was no case
on point. Furthermore, the Court has compounded the injury of “one free pass” with the insult of a “continuing
free pass” by allowing courts to grant qualified immunity without ruling on the merits of plaintiffs’ claims,
thus insuring that no law becomes clearly established.

Second, the Supreme Court has created similarly insurmountable limits for a plaintiff who wants to sue the
local government employer for an officer’s unconstitutional conduct. Although the entity is not able to raise
qualified immunity, the Supreme Court held in a 1978 case, Monell v. Department of Social Services, that to
recover from a local government under Section 1983, the plaintiff must show that the wrongdoing was caused
by an official policy or custom. In most cases, a plaintiff would have to demonstrate a pattern of very similar
constitutional violations and show that policymakers had knowledge of such incidents and failed to address
the problem.
The defense of qualified immunity for the individual officers, combined with the heavy burden of proving an
official policy or custom in order to recover from the government employer, results in no redress for persons
whose constitutional rights have been violated. Congress should amend Section 1983, providing both that
individual defendants have no qualified immunity and that local government entities shall be held liable for
the unconstitutional acts of their officers.

Those who support qualified immunity argue that eliminating the defense will threaten to bankrupt officers
for making reasonable mistakes while doing their jobs. But the Supreme Court’s Fourth Amendment doctrine
already recognizes that officers often must take decisive action under quickly changing circumstances, and
already protects officers from liability when they make reasonable mistakes. Moreover, even if an officer is
found liable, he is almost certain not to face bankruptcy. Local government employers almost always agree
to pay settlements and judgments against their officers through indemnification agreements. But, where the
conduct is really egregious and/or in violation of the agency’s policy, the employer might refuse indemnification
or an insurer may deny coverage, leaving the plaintiff whose rights have been violated without a remedy.

This “loophole” would be plugged by amending Section 1983 to make local governments vicariously liable for
an employee’s constitutional violations. Replacing Monell with respondeat superior liability would mean that
when an officer commits a truly egregious violation—and most likely would be denied indemnification—
plaintiffs are still able to recover from the local government entity that gave that officer his badge and gun.

Several bills that have been introduced in Congress seek to abolish qualified immunity. We the undersigned
endorse these proposals, as well as the proposal by Senator Braun (R-IN) to replace Monell with respondeat
superior liability.

CC:
The Honorable Jerrold Nadler, Chairman, House Committee on the Judiciary
2132 Rayburn House Office Building, Washington, DC 20515
The Honorable Jim Jordan, Ranking Member, House Committee on the Judiciary
2056 Rayburn House Office Building, Washington, DC 20515
The Honorable Lindsey Graham, Chairman, Senate Judiciary Committee
290 Russell Senate Office Building, Washington, DC 20510
The Honorable Dianne Feinstein, Ranking Member, Senate Judiciary Committee
331 Hart Senate Office Building, Washington, DC 20510
SIGNED

Karen Blum Bernadette Atuahene Tanya Bartholomew


Professor Emerita and Research Professor of Law Professor of Practice
Professor of Law IIT, Chicago-Kent College of Law University of Denver Sturm
Suffolk University Law School & American Bar Foundation College of Law

Joanna Schwartz Charles I. Auffant Amber Baylor


Professor of Law Clinical Professor of Law Associate Professor of Law
UCLA School of Law Rutgers University School of Law Texas A&M Law

Richard L. Abel Debra Austin Jack M. Beermann


Connell Distinguished Professor of Professor of the Practice Professor of Law and Harry Elwood
Law Emeritus and Distinguished University of Denver Sturm Warren Scholar
Research Professor College of Law Boston University School of Law
UCLA School of Law
Michael Avery Valena Beety
Haim Abraham Professor of Law Emeritus Professor of Law
Assistant Professor Suffolk University Law School Arizona State University Sandra Day
University of Essex School of Law O’Connor College of Law
Katharine K. Baker
E. Tendayi Achiume University Distinguished Monica C. Bell
Professor of Law Professor of Law Associate Professor of Law
UCLA School of Law Chicago-Kent College of Law & Sociology
Yale Law School
Nadia B. Ahmad Asli Bali
Associate Professor of Law Professor of Law Colin Black
Barry University School of Law UCLA School of Law Assistant Professor of Legal Writing
Suffolk University Law School
Alison Anderson W. David Ball
Professor of Law Emerita Professor John Bliss
UCLA School of Law Santa Clara University School of Law Assistant Professor of Law
University of Denver Sturm
Penelope Andrews David Baluarte College of Law
Professor of Law Associate Clinical Professor of Law
New York Law School W&L Law School Elizabeth Bloom
Teaching Professor
Claudia Angelos Susan A. Bandes Northeastern University
Clinical Professor of Law Centennial Professor of Law School of Law
New York University School of Law Emeritus
DePaul University College of Law Elizabeth Bluestein
Cindy Thomas Archer Associate Clinical Professor
Clinical Professor of Law Stuart Banner and Exec Director of Social
LMU Loyola Law School, Norman Abrams Distinguished Justice Law Clinic
Los Angeles Professor of Law Loyola Law School Los Angeles
UCLA School of Law
Marianne Artusio Eric Blumenson
Assoc. Professor of Law, Retired Rachel E. Barkow Research Professor of Law
Touro College, Jacob D. Fuchsberg Vice Dean and Segal Family Suffolk University Law School
Law Center Professor of Regulatory Law and
Policy, Faculty Director, Center on Ivan E. Bodensteiner
Preston K. Ascherin the Administration of Criminal Law Professor of Law Emeritus
Adjunct Associate Professor of Law NYU School of Law Valparaiso University School of Law
USC Gould School of Law
Margaret Martin Barry Stacey L. Bowers
Jeffery Atik Visiting Professor Associate Professor of the Practice
Professor of Law American University Washington University of Denver Sturm
Loyola Law School - Los Angeles College of Law College of Law
William Boyd Rosanna Cavallaro Beth A. Colgan
Professor of Law Professor of Law Professor of Law
UCLA School of Law Suffolk University Law School UCLA School of Law

Erin Braatz Jennifer M. Chacón Frank Rudy Cooper


Assistant Professor of Law Professor of Law William S Boyd Professor of Law
Suffolk University Law School UCLA School of Law University of Nevada Las Vegas

Alvin Bragg Erwin Chemerinsky Roberto L Corrada


Visiting Professor and Co-Director, Dean, Jesse H. Choper Professor of Law
Racial Justice Project Professor of Law University of Denver Sturm
New York Law School Berkeley School of Law College of Law

John C. Brittain Alan Chen Avidan Y. Cover


Olie W. Rauh Professor of Law Professor of Law Professor of Law
University of the District of University of Denver Sturm Case Western Reserve University
Columbia School of Law College of Law School of Law

Rebecca Brown Julie Cheslik Kimberle Crenshaw


The Rader Family Trustee Associate Professor of Law Distinguished Professor of Law
Chair in Law UMKC School of Law Promise Institute Chair in
University of Southern California Human Rights
Gould School of Law Gabriel J. Chin UCLA School of Law
Edward L. Barrett Jr. & Martin
Samantha Buckingham Luther King Jr. Professor Catherine Crump
Clinical Professor and Director, University of California, Davis Assistant Clinical Professor
Juvenile Justice Clinic School of Law UC Berkeley, School of Law
Loyola Law School - LA, LMU
Jeremiah Chin David B. Cruz
Sande L Buhai Assistant Professor of Law Newton Professor of
Clinical Professor St. Thomas University School of Law Constitutional Law
Loyola Law School University of Southern California
Tuneen Chisolm Gould School of Law
Christine Butler Assistant Professor of Law
Practitioner in Residence Campbell University School of Law Christopher E. Czerwonka
Suffolk University Law School Special Professor of Law
Sumi Cho Maurice A. Deane School of Law,
Nancy Chi Cantalupo Professor of Law Hofstra University
Associate Professor of Law DePaul University College of Law
California Western School of Law Julie A. Dahlstrom
Richard Chused Clinical Associate Professor
Aaron H. Caplan Professor of Law Boston University School of Law
Professor of Law New York Law School
Loyola Law School Los Angeles Loletta Darden
Brietta Clark Associate Clinical Professor of Law
Alexander M. Capron Professor of Law Suffolk University Law School
University Professor Loyola Law School, Loyola
University of Southern California Marymount University, Los Angeles Angela J. Davis
Gould School of Law Distinguished Professor of Law
LaToya Baldwin Clark American University College of Law
Ann E. Carlson Assistant Professor
Shirley Shapiro Professor of University of California, Los Angeles Sharon Dolovich
Environmental Law School of Law Professor of Law
Faculty Co-Director, Emmett UCLA School of Law
Institute on Climate Change Stephen Cody
and the Environment Assistant Professor of Law Nancy E. Dowd
UCLA School of Law Suffolk University Law School UF Distinguished Professor and
David Levin Chair in Family Law
Gilbert Paul Carrasco Michael Coenen University of Florida Levin
Professor of Law Professor of Law College of Law
Willamette University Law School Seton Hall University School of Law
K.K. DuVivier Eric M. Freedman Joseph W. Glannon
Professor of Law Siggi B. Wilzig Distinguished Professor of Law
University of Denver Sturm Professor of Constitutional Rights Suffolk University Law School
College of Law Hofstra Law School
Jonathan Glater
Maurice R. Dyson Barry Friedman Professor of Law
Professor of Law Jacob D. Fuchsberg UCLA School of Law
Suffolk University Law School Professor of Law
New York University David Glazier
Ingrid Eagly School of Law Professor of Law
Professor of Law Loyola Law School Los Angeles
UCLA School of Law Craig B. Futterman
Clinical Professor of Law Nicole B. Godfrey
Blake Emerson University of Chicago Law School Visiting Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor of Law University of Denver Sturm
UCLA School of Law Alexi Freeman College of Law
Associate Professor of the Practice
Kathleen Engel University of Denver Sturm Dwight Golann
Research Professor of Law College of Law Professor Emeritus and Research
Suffolk University Law School Professor of Law
Fanna Gamal Suffolk University Law School
Sam Erman Binder Teaching Fellow
Professor of Law UCLA School of Law Laura E. Gomez
USC Gould School of Law Professor of Law
Charlotte Garden UCLA School of Law
Jelani Jefferson Exum Associate Professor
Philip J. McElroy Professor of Law Seattle University School of Law Mark A. Graber
University of Detroit Mercy Regents Professor
School of Law Brandon L. Garrett University of Maryland Carey
Professor of Law School of Law
Jeffrey Fagan Duke University School of Law
Isidor and Seville Sulzbacher Kenneth W. Graham, Jr.
Professor of Law Adam Gershowitz Professor of Law (Emeritus)
Columbia Law School Hugh & Nolie Haynes Professor UCLA School of Law
of Law
Marc Falkoff William & Mary Law School Linda Sheryl Greene
Professor of Law Evjue Bascom Professor
Northern Illinois University Llewellyn Joseph Gibbons University of Wisconsin Law School
College of Law Distinguished University
Professor of Law Ariela Gross
Ian P. Farrell University of Toledo John B. & Alice R. Sharp Professor
Associate Professor of Law & History
University of Denver Sturm Christopher Gibson University of Southern California
College of Law Professor of Law Gould School of Law
Suffolk University Law School
Andrew Guthrie Ferguson Aya Gruber
Professor of Law Lauren Gilbert Professor
American University Washington Professor of Law University of Colorado Law School
College of Law St. Thomas University
School of Law Vivian E. Hamilton
Shawn E. Fields Professor of Law
Assistant Professor of Law Myriam Gilles William & Mary Law School
Campbell University School of Law Professor of Law
Benjamin N. Cardozo Ayesha Bell Hardaway
Laurel E. Fletcher School of Law Assistant Professor of Law
Clinical Professor of Law Case Western Reserve School of Law
Berkeley School of Law Betsy Ginsberg
Clinical Professor of Law Stephanie Roberts Hartung
Kris Franklin Benjamin N. Cardozo Teaching Professor
Professor of Law School of Law Northeastern University
New York Law School School of Law
Kim Hawkins Jill Horwitz Susan Keller
Professor of Law Vice Dean for Faculty and Professor of Law
New York Law School Intellectual Life and Western State College of Law
Professor of Law
Christopher Hawthorne UCLA School of Law Kathleen Kim
Clinical Professor and Director, Associate Dean for Equity
Juvenile Innocence & Fair Bryan D. Hull Inclusion & Professor of Law
Sentencing Clinic Professor of Law LMU Loyola Law School Los Angeles
Loyola Law School - Los Angeles LMU Loyola Law School,
Los Angeles Sung Hui Kim
Sean Hecht Professor of Law
Evan Frankel Professor Elizabeth M. Iglesias UCLA School of Law
of Policy and Practice Professor of Law
UCLA School of Law University of Miami School of Law Kit Kinports
Professor and Polisher Family
Jennifer S. Hendricks Danielle C. Jefferis Distinguished Faculty Scholar
Professor of Law Assistant Professor of Law Penn State Law (University Park)
University of Colorado California Western School of Law
Richard Klein
César Cuauhtémoc Jalila Jefferson-Bullock Bruce K. Gould Distinguished
García Hernández Associate Professor of Law Professor of Law
Associate professor of law Duquesne University School of Law Touro Law Center
University of Denver
Jamila Jefferson-Jones Russell Korobkin
Luz Herrera Associate Professor Richard C. Maxwell
Professor University of Missouri Kansas City Distinguished Professor
Texas A&M University School of Law UCLA School of Law
School of Law
Kari L. Johnson Ellen Kreitzberg
Helen Hershkoff Professor of Research and Writing Professor of Law
Herbert M. & Svetlana Wachtell Chicago-Kent College of Law Santa Clara University
Professor of Constitutional
Law and Civil Liberties Paula C. Johnson Margaret Kwoka
New York University Professor of Law Professor of Law
School of Law Syracuse University College of Law University of Denver

Randy Hertz Thea Johnson Renée M. Landers


Professor of Clinical Law Associate Professor of Law Professor of Law and Faculty
New York University Rutgers Law School Director, Health and Biomedical
School of Law Law Concentration and MS in Law:
Vida B. Johnson Life Sciences Program
Steven J. Heyman Associate Professor of Law Suffolk University Law School
Professor of Law Georgetown Law
Chicago-Kent College of Law, Máximo Langer
Illinois Tech Sam Kamin Professor of Law, Faculty Director
Professor of the Criminal Justice Program
John Quentin Heywood University of Denver UCLA School of Law
Associate Professor/Law Librarian
American University Washington Alexis Karteron Jennifer E. Laurin
College of Law Associate Professor of Law Wright C. Morrow
Rutgers Law School Professor of Law
Stephen Hicks The University of Texas
Professor of Law Eileen Kaufman School of Law
Suffolk University Law School Professor of Law Emerita
Touro Law School Rogelio Lasso
B. Jessie Hill Professor
Judge Ben C. Green Cherish Keller UIC-John Marshall Law School
Professor of Law Professor of Legal Writing,
Case Western Reserve Director of Appellate Advocacy
University School of Law Chicago-Kent College of Law
Stevie Leahy Kevin Lynch Jon Michaels
Assistant Professor Associate Professor Professor of Law
Northeastern University University of Denver Sturm UCLA School of Law
School of Law College of Law
Eric J. Miller
Rana R. Lehr-Lehnardt Timothy E. Lynch Professor and Leo J. O’Brien Fellow
Associate Teaching Associate Professor of Law LMU Loyola Law School, Los
Professor of Law University of Missouri-Kansas City Angeles
University of Missouri—Kansas School of Law
City School of Law Rodney K. Miller
Solangel Maldonado Assistant Clinical Professor of Law
Nancy Leong Eleanor Bontecou Professor of Law University of Missouri-Kansas City
Professor of Law Seton Hall University School of Law School of Law
University of Denver
School of Law Suzette Malveaux Michael Mireles
Provost Professor of Civil Professor of Law
Douglas B. Levene Rights Law University of the Pacific, McGeorge
Professor-from-Practice University of Colorado School of Law
Peking University School of
Transnational Law David Marcus Jennifer L. Mnookin
Professor of Law Dean and Ralph and Shirley
Benjamin Levin UCLA School of Law Shapiro of Law
Associate Professor of Law UCLA School of Law
University of Colorado Law School Terry A. Maroney
Professor of Law and Professor of Viva R. Moffat
Rosalie Levinson Medicine, Health, and Society Professor of Law
Senior Research Professor Vanderbilt University University of Denver Sturm
Valparaiso University School of Law College of Law
Sara Mayeux
Kate Levine Associate Professor Margaret Montoya
Associate Professor of Law Vanderbilt Law School Professor Emerita of Law
Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law University of New Mexico
Audrey G. McFarlane School of Law
Jeffrey M. Lipshaw Assoc. Dean Faculty, Research
Professor of Law & Development, Dean Julius Samantha A. Moppett
Suffolk University Law School Isaacson Professor of Law Professor of Legal Writing
University of Baltimore Suffolk University Law School
Leah Litman School of Law
Assistant Professor of Law Suzanna K. Moran
University of Michigan Law School Ben McJunkin Professor of the Practice of Law
Associate Professor of Law University of Denver Sturm
Aaron Littman Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law, College of Law
Binder Clinical Teaching Fellow Arizona State University
UCLA School of Law Hiroshi Motomura
Tracey L. Meares Susan Westerberg Prager
Stephen Loffredo Walton Hale Hamilton Professor Distinguished Professor of Law
Professor of Law Yale Law School UCLA School of Law
City University of New York
School of Law M Isabel Medina Lumen N. Mulligan
Ferris Family Distinguished Earl B. Shurtz Research
Karen Pita Loor Professor of Law Professor of Law
Clinical Associate Professor of Law Loyola University New Orleans University of Kansas
Boston University School of Law College of Law School of Law

Christy E. Lopez Ndjuoh MehChu Erin Murphy


Professor from Practice Associate Professor of Law Professor
Georgetown Law Seton Hall University School of Law New York University
School of Law
Gerald P. Lopez Juan Ernesto Mendez
Professor of Law Professor of Human Rights Justin Murray
UCLA School of Law Law in Residence Associate Professor
Washington College of Law - New York Law School
American University
Sheldon H. Nahmod Katherine Pérez Deborah A. Ramirez
University Distinguished Visiting Professor of Law Professor of Law
Professor Emeritus Loyola Law School Northeastern University
IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law School of Law
Andrew Perlman
Jyoti Nanda Dean and Professor of Law Robert K. Rasmussen
Associate Professor Suffolk University Law School J. Thomas McCarthey Trustee
Golden Gate University Chair in Law and Political Science
School of Law Govind Persad USC Gould School of Law
Assistant Professor
Victor Narro University of Denver Sturm Teressa Ravenell
Core Faculty - Public Interest College of Law Associate Dean for Faculty
Law Program Research and Development &
UCLA School of Law James E. Pfander Professor of Law
Professor of Law Villanova University Charles Widger
Alexandra Natapoff Northwestern Pritzker School of Law
Professor of Law School of Law
Harvard Law School Cynthia Reichard
Tomar Pierson-Brown Senior Lecturer in Law
Ira Steven Nathenson Clinical Assistant Professor of Law Indiana University Maurer
Professor of Law University of Pittsburgh School of Law
St. Thomas University School of Law School of Law
Jeffrey Renz
Luke Norris Michael Pinard Clinical Professor of Law (Retired)
Assistant Professor Francis and Harriet Iglehart Alexander Blewett III School of Law
University of Richmond Law School Professor of Law and Co-Director,
Clinical Law Program Kim D. Ricardo
Sean D. O’Brien University of Maryland Francis King Professor of Law
Professor Carey School of Law UIC John Marshall Law School
UMKC School of Law
Stephen Plass Song Richardson
Michael A. Olivas Professor of Law Dean
Wm B. Bates Distinguished Chair St. Thomas University UC Irvine School of Law
in Law (Emeritus) School of Law
University of Houston Law Center Kathleen Ridolfi
Maria Ponomarenko Professor
Chrystin Ondersma Associate Professor of Law Santa Clara University
Professor of Law University of Minnesota Law School
Rutgers Law School Ira P. Robbins
Judith Popper Professor of Law
Brian Owsley Clinical Professor of Law American University Washington
Assistant Professor of Law UMKC Law School College of Law
UNT Dallas College of Law
Nicole Buonocore Porter Ruthann Robson
Diane Orentlicher Professor of Law Professor of Law & University
Professor of Law University of Toledo College of Law Distinguished Professor
American University Washington City University of New York (CUNY)
College of Law Samantha C. Pownall School of Law
Visiting Associate Professor of Law
Brandon Paradise New York Law School Daria Roithmayr
Associate Professor of Law and Professor of Law
Professor Dallas Willard Scholar John F. Preis University of Southern California
Rutgers Law School Professor and Associate Dean ‘ Gould School of Law
University of Richmond
Seema N. Patel School of Law David Rossman
Clinical Director, East Bay Professor of Law
Community Law Center (EBCLC) Edward A. Purcell, Jr. Boston University Law School
Berkeley Law Joseph Solomon
Distinguished Professor
New York Law School
Laura Rovner Martin A. Schwartz Don C. Smith
Professor of Law & Director, Professor Emeritus of Law Associate Professor of the
Civil Rights Clinic Touro Law Center Practice of Law
University of Denver University of Denver
College of Law Eric Segall
Ashe Family Chair Professor of Law Fred O. Smith, Jr.
Nantiya Ruan Georgia State College of Law Associate Professor of Law
Professor of the Practice of Law Emory University
University of Denver Sturm Jeffrey Selbin
College of Law Clinical Professor of Law Robert H. Smith
UC Berkeley School of Law Professor of Law
David Rudovsky Suffolk University Law School
Senior Fellow Andrew D. Selbst
University of Pennsylvania Assistant Professor of Law William Snape III
Law School UCLA School of Law Assistant Dean and Professor
American University, Washington
Stephen Rushin Elisabeth Semel College of Law
Associate Professor Clinical Professor of Law
Loyola University Chicago UC, Berkeley, School of Law Gemma Solimene
School of Law Clinical Associate Professor of Law
Seana Shiffrin Fordham University School of Law
Michael Rustad Professor of Philosophy Pete
Thomas F. Lambert Jr. Kameron Professor of Law and Roy Spece
Professor of Law Social Justice John D. Lyons Professor of Law
Suffolk University Law School UCLA School of Law University of Arizona James
E. Rogers College of Law
Natsu Taylor Saito Sarah Sherman-Stokes
Distinguished University Professor Associate Professor of Law Clyde Spillenger
and Professor of Law Boston University School of Law Professor of Law
Georgia State University UCLA School of Law
College of Law Jessica Silbey
Professor of Law Kirk J. Stark
Wyatt G. Sassman Northeastern University Barrall Family Professor of
Assistant Professor of Law School of Law Tax Law and Policy
University of Denver Sturm UCLA School of Law
College of Law Jay Silver
Professor of Law Daniel J. Steinbock
Eileen A. Scallen St. Thomas University School of Law Dean and Harold A. Anderson
Professor of Practice Professor of Law and
UCLA School of Law Linda Sandstrom Simard Values Emeritus
Professor of Law University of Toledo
Barry Scheck Suffolk University Law School College of Law
Professor of Law, Co-Founder,
Innocence Project Christopher Slobogin Joan Steinman
Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law, Milton Underwood Professor of Law Emerita,
Yeshiva University Professor of Law University Distinguished
Vanderbilt University Professor Emerita
Sarah Schendel Chicago-Kent College of Law,
Assistant Professor David Sloss Illinois Tech.
Suffolk University Law School John A. & Elizabeth H. Sutro
Professor of Law Robin Walker Sterling
Margo Schlanger Santa Clara University Associate Dean for
Wade H. and Dores M. McCree Clinical Education
Collegiate Professor of Law Brenda V. Smith Director, Bluhm Legal Clinic
University of Michigan Law School Professor of Law, Director and Clinical Professor of Law
of Project on Addressing Northwestern Pritzker
Peter H. Schuck Prison Rape School of Law
Baldwin Professor of Law Emeritus, American University,
Yale Law School Washington College of Law Nomi Stolzenberg
Darling Foundation Visiting Nathan and Lilly Shapell
Professor, Berkeley Law School Chair in Law
Distinguished Scholar in Residence, University of Southern California
NYU Law School Gould School of Law
Geoffrey R. Stone Michael Vastine Neil G. Williams
Edward H. Levi Distinguished Professor of Law Nathaniel R. Jones, Jr. Associate
Professor of Law St. Thomas University Professor of Law
University of Chicago School of Law Loyola University Chicago
Law School School of Law
Penny M. Venetis
Seth Stoughton Clinical Professor of Law, Lauren Willis
Associate Professor Director-Human Rights Clinic Professor of Law
University of South Carolina Rutgers Law School & William Rains Fellow
School of Law Loyola Los Angeles
Alicia Virani
Dean A. Strang Associate Director & Clinical Prof. Darryl C. Wilson, Esq.
Distinguished Professor Faculty, Criminal Justice Program Assoc. Dean for Faculty
in Residence UCLA School of Law & Strategic Initiatives
(beginning August 1, 2020) Stetson University
Loyola University Chicago Alex Wang College of Law
School of Law Professor of Law
UCLA School of Law Jordan Blair Woods
Catherine Sweetser Associate Professor of Law
Director, Human Rights Daniel Warshawsky University of Arkansas School
Litigation Clinic Professor of Law of Law, Fayetteville
UCLA School of Law New York Law School
Jonathan Zasloff
Kim Taylor-Thompson Howard M. Wasserman Professor of Law
Professor of Clinical Law Professor of Law UCLA School of Law
New York University School of Law FIU College of Law
Noah D. Zatz
Samuel Taylor Lindsey Webb Professor of Law
Clinical Instructor and Lecturer Associate Professor UCLA School of Law
Boston University School of Law University of Denver Sturm
College of Law Rebecca E. Zietlow
Ruth Teitel Charles W. Fornoff Professor
Ernst C.Stiefel Professor Charles D. Weisselberg of Law and Values
of Comparative Law Yosef Osheawich Professor of Law University of Toledo
New York Law School UC Berkeley, School of Law College of Law

Sherod Thaxton Carwina Weng


Professor of Law Clinical Professor of Law
UCLA School of Law Indiana University Maurer
School of Law
Anthony Thompson
Professor of Clinical Law Kimberly West-Faulcon
New York University James P. Bradley Chair
School of Law in Constitutional Law
Loyola Law School Los Angeles
Matthew Tokson
Professor of Law Brandon Weiss
University of Utah S.J. Quinney Associate Professor of Law
College of Law American University Washington
College of Law
Danielle Tully
Associate Teaching Professor Andrew R. Whitcup
Northeastern University Lecturer in Law
School of Law UCLA School of Law

Inge Van der Cruysse Michael Whitlow


Lecturer in Law Reference Librarian
Indiana University Maurer & Assistant Professor
School of Law University of Denver
College of Law